/ PEACE

16 downloads 12 Views 7MB Size Report
Progress of the World (^Continued)— ...... to the Don, is managing to check further cannot but be surprised ...... for work of a similar kind done by sol- diers of the ...

Smi!



RUARY 7lH 1920 /? y

V\ f )

%

T

/

/uu

t«>i

TELEGRAPH" BUILDINGS, SYDNEY,

nieiitiuriiiiK

Steads Keview when writing

N.S.W.

to advertisers.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

Vi.

Lessen Labour

Save Time

February

A HOUSEWIFE'S

im.

!

!

Increase Comfort able as her husband's.

7.

!

time and precious energy are equally as valuIn his office or shop he surrounds himself

with labour and time-saving devices. Every woman owes and her family to be equally as progressive.

The "Weal"

to herself

it

Cookstove

Fireless

ranks amongst the foremost of time and labour-savers in the home. robs cooking of all its drudging detail work. Roasts, bakes, stews, steams and boils food without any attention from the housewife during the process of cooking. No scorched, burnt, dried-up or over-cooked " IDEAL " Fireless Cook Stove is used. foad when an It

TRY ONE No.

A— ISA

11 in.

long:

in.

high, 16]

in.

IN

YOUR HOME

wide, 16*

one compartment.

No.

in. high, 16i in. wide. 30i 1°"^; two compartments. Price,

£13/5/-.

£7/10/-.



15A— 154 '"•

Price,

r^

.

r,

Equipment. One 8-quart alumin-

,

Equipment: One 8-quart alummumi saucepan. 1 radiator thermometer. 2 heat radiators, 1 pair mdividual pastry and cake shelves, 1 radiator, 1 radiator hook. 1 book of

ium saucepan and

set triplicate pails,

^^^^^^^^ thermometer. 4 heat radiators, 2 radiator racks. 2 pairs individual pastrv and cake shelves, ^ radiator hook, 1 book of direc^

directions.

tio„g

La^Fger

sizes — £15

and £15/15/-

OBTAINABLE AT

The Mutual Store Ltd.

Where Everything

VActtfrest Thank you

for

Opp* Flinders

St.

Station

MELBOURNE mentioning Stead's Beviewi when writing to advertisers.

Stead's Review, 7/2/20. Vll.

CONTENTS OF STEAD'S REVIEW FEBRUARY

For

r,

1980.

Page Progress of the World"

"

Tlie Argument To Trade with Russia Arguments Pro and Con

Let Russia Alone What Will the Russians Do? A Foreign War to Keep Peace at

Home

.

If Germany Goes Bankrupt? Only Help from Allies can Avert a Smash German Government Will Fall The Rotten Apple of Europe

In Siberia The Poles in Grave Danger Recognising the Armenians ,,

Trouble— Trouble

The League

Everywhere

!

.

Germany

.

of Nations

How The

.

.

.

....

Surrender Officers "Hang the Kaiser!" Clemenceau Beaten for President Trouble in India Japan, China and the Powers Politics at

.

.

;

America and the Commissions to

.

.

.

Home

Defend Australia? Strike of Marine Engineers

....

Federal Polities

The

AiYair of the Culcairn Council

.

.

.

WTiy Not Grant an Inquiry?

121 121 122 122 122 123 123 124 124 124 124 125 125 126 126 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 130 131 131 131

Progress of the World (^Continued) New Zealand Notes West Australian Notes History in Caricature What Ought Australia to Do? Do the Dead Return? Swift Lightning Answers the Call

Paqb



132 143 133

138 141

145

Our Asiatic Neighbours Catechism on Current Events Facts

About

152 157

Marne

the Battle of the

The Auction Sale of Germany Top-Heavy Empire

.

161

162

.

Australia's

164

Who

Did Really Begin the War? Notable Books Does My Lady Know That

171

Financial Notes

173

Motor Notes

175

165

168



Acrostic Competition...

176

Esperanto Notes

176

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION (New

(26 Nos.). 13/- (post free). Zealand, 13/6; Abroad, 15/-.)

EDITORIAL 9FFICE

:

Clyde House, Collins Street, Melbourne.

The English Review of Reviews Band Building. Kingsway, London. The American Review of Reviews: 30 Irving Place. New York City. :

Popular Hotels in Central London Near the

Britiah

Museum.

KINGSLEY HOTEL HART

DIAMONDS As an Asset

BLOOMSBURY SQUARE,

ST.,

The

LONDON.

Pure White

Brillianl,

Diamonds

set

in

STEWART

DAWSON

Rings are not only unsurpassed for their charm of beauty and intrinsic

Opposite the Britiah Museum.

worth, but, as they are precious stones of the finest quality, with the supreme value in the price, you

THACKERAY HOTEL GREAT RUSSELL STREET,

become possessed of asset of the best kind.

LONDON. These well-appointed and commodious

PERANCE HOTELS

will,

it

is

believed,

TEM-

Magnificent varieties of fashionable Diamond Ringt await selection. The dia-

meet

the requirements at moderate charges, of those who desire all the conveniences of the larger modern Licensed Hotels. These Hotels have Pattenger Lifts, Bathrooms on erery floor, Lonnges, and spacious Dining, Drawing, Writing, Reading, Billiard and Smoking Rooms.

an

monds

are

platinum and

set

in

pure

I8ct. gold.

Order by Mail. Write for Catalog.

Fireproof Floors, Perfect Sanitation, Telephones.

Night Porters. Attendance and Bath, 7/6 per night per person. Full Tariff and Testimonials on application.

Bedroom, Breakfast,

\\im\ Dawsoj^ *^ & C9 AUSr.

Telegraphic Addresses : "

Klngsley Hotel



BMkcraft, Weatcent, London."

Thank you

Thackeray Hotel



Slewdrf-

MELBOURNE

"Thackeray, Wcitcant, London."

for mentioning Stead's

LIMTO.

Dawsons Corner

Review when writing

to advertisers.

STEAD'S REVIEH'.

vni.

MEN

A New

You should make up your mind

NOW

19S0^

to select

New Year

for the

1920 holds boundless chances for those deciding to qualifty for

POSITION and BIGGER

MONEY

BETTER

!

Town or Country we can teach you — Steam I'^nglneering. Mathematics. .Science. Shire Engineering. Drawing. Illustrating, Construction. Mechanical Drawing. Building Architectural Drawing. Mechanical Engineering. Builders' Drawing. Electrical Engineering. Automobile Engineering. Surveying, Agriculture. Gas and Oil Engines. Chemistry, Metallurgy.

Whether you Bookkeeping, and Modern Business Methods. Accountancy, Auditing. Shorthand, Typewriting. Advertising, Saiesmanship. Journalism, Story-Writing. " Telegraphy and Wireless."

live in

Motor and Dynamo Work.

all Public

CandiJates successfully prepared for

Our ENGINEERING

7,

WOMEN

.A.ND

Career

February

DEPARTMENT

Examinations.

ACTUAL WORKSHOP PRACTICE

for metropolitan students while country students visiting the city are cordially invited to avail themselves of like facilities. ^vheR our ready co-operation and assistance will be at their service.

provides

;

and

,

for eur Big, Free Illustrated Handbook. "Choosing a Career," information regarding the subject in which you are interested. Send TO-DAY!

AT ONCE

Write

full

STOTT'S TECHNICAL COLLEGE (Incorporating Stott's Correspondence College)

100 RusmII

Street,

Melbourne;

117

Pitt Street,

'SELECT Commercial Art FOR BIGGER MONEY If

you are

artistically inclined,

and would

EARN MORE MONEY, you cannot better than enrol for COMMERCIAL

ART.

This fascinating profession opens up a splendid vista of opportunities both for men and women.

We

Street,

Office.)

Write for the Press

(

!

!

like to

do

Sydney; 225 Adelaide

(Address Nearest

Brisbane; Pirie Street, Adelaide.

You

can find congenial and lucrative ema JOURNALIST, STORYWRITER, or MAGAZINE CONTRIBUTOR. There is no end of chances con-

ployment as

fronting bright

teach thoroughly : Fashion Illustrat-

Take

the

men and women

in this field.

step to success by writing " for a free copy of our Book-

first

ing, Designing ; Book, Newspaper, Magazine, and Advertisement Illustrating; Lettering, Cartooning, and all Branches of

us

TO-DAY

let

Bl," and full particulars of our splendid

Commercial Art.

LITERARY COURSES.

Profusely Write, To-day, for Handsome, "

Handbook, ART AND PRACTICE," and fullest particulars— FREE. Illustrated

Stott's

Correspondence College

100 RUSSELL STREET, MELBOURNE. Alts at 117 Pitt Street, Sjiatj

>

Street, Brisbane

;

;

Pirie Street,

Thank you

225 Adelaide Adelaide.

for mentioning titead's

STOTT'S CORRESPONDENCE COLLEGE 100 Russell

Street,

Melbourne.

Also at 117 Pitt Street, Sjiatj Street,

Brisbane

Review when writing

;

;

Pirie Street,

225 Adelaide Adelaide.

to advertisers.

blends Review,

7/i/ZO.

i2I

January 31, 1920. " The Argument." It would be difficult to find a more apposite portrayal of the Anglo-Russian situation than that given by David Low in his cartoon, in The Star, which is reproduced on our cover. The policy of England towards Russia has been marked "by vacillation and uncertainty, and at the

present moment whilst one-half the Cabinet cries forward, the other half cries back.

The

result of this dissention

compromise, the refuge o'f all politheir sure haven in storm and wrack. That England and her Allies drifted into active intervention in Russia That they find it imseems certain.

To Trade with Russia. That there should be a strong demand in England for continued interference

mental reasons

ferred

outcast,

difficult

a

to

stop

decided

the

drift

is

step equally whilst Lloyd George

obvious. Meanwhile, now urges the lifting of

and

the

the blockade resumption of trade relations

with the Russians,

his

friend and lieu-

tenant. Winston Churchill, demands active intervention, and states in speeches and in print that the Bolsheviks ought to

be boycotted and

ostracised.

With

so

•divided a policy, is it surprising that the rumours about a break-up of the Coalition whispered a few weeks ago* are now

Leing shouted from the housetops?

their

efforts

to

Russia

from

Bolshevik Government was utterly horrible, blood-thirsty and un-

the

take

urged the anti-Bol-

Germany, and convinced our people that

ticians,

and

— we

sheviks to oppose the new order, begged them to' continue their fight against Lenin Our hate artists transand Trotsky.

is

mensely





in Russia is easily military interference understandable. There are strong senti-

thinkably wicked. Our gallant troops in Russia were depicted as rescuers of the people, as crusaders whose task it was to rid the fair land of the beasts in

human

form who were ravishing it. Then, suddenly the hate campaign is switched off, the troops are hastily withdrawn and the people are told that trade relations with the blood-stained Bolsheviks are to be im-

Can we wonder demur? They do not realise that the ghastly picture which was drawn for their benefit was largely imaginary. They still see it, through the mediately established. that

the

people

whitewash which Lloyd Ceorge has hastily daubed over it. They sympathise with the antis who have been left to the

122

STEAD'S REVIEW.

mercy of

their relentless foes. It is vtry easy to start and maintain a hate canipaig-n which takes every advantage of the credulity of the people. It is not so easy iii fact, it is almost impossible to convince the people that they have been duped. That this has been the case is evident, for were the Bolsheviks in Russia only half as bad as thev have been painted, no sane statesman could possibly advocate recognising their Government and trading- with them. Yet that is what Lloyd George and other leaders are doing now. Arguments Pro and Con. Opposed to them are other leaders who for various reasons desire to continue the war against the Reds. Spokesman of these is \\'inston Churchill, but





prompter and real director is Lord Curzon, who, however, keeps in the background, leaving the open fighting to his more versatile and energetic colleague. Winston can make an excellent case ooit for continued intervention. He can point to the picture showing so vigorously under the whitewash he can appeal to the sentiment of those who consider that we have abandoned the antis, our good friends, to the wolves he can declare that India is threatened, and that unless the Bolsheviks be curbed, the brightest jewel in the Imperial diadem will be lost. Nor are these all the argu;

;

ments he can use. is using. He can play on the fears of the people by declaring his con\iction that if Lenin is recognised, if trade with Russia is started, then Bolshevism, triumphant in Muscovy, will sweep through Europe, will threaten the very existence of society in Great Bri-

tain.

All

these

are

good arguments, sound arguments, arguments which tell. Against them those who would resume trade relations, would recognise the Bolshevik Government, can only point to the success of the Red armies, and declare that.

Lenin having triumphed, there

is

more hope of securing the peace of Europe by making terms with him than by attempting an opposition for which the Allies have neither the men nor the money. That their previous tactics of invading and blockading Russia, instead of destroying Bolshevism, rallied all Russians to Lenin's aid. That the horrid picture the propagandists drew was based not so much on facts as on imagination,

and

that

February

Lenin

and

his

fellows,

7,

1920.

left

severely alone, will be less likely to send armies across their borders in a conquering campaign than if goaded thereto by further ineflfectual attempts at intervention. Let

Russia Alone.

V\'hich policy will win remains to be but on the the seen, antiwhole, interventionists are to likely carry the day. The people of Great Britain will not tolerate

another war. They are shouting for economy, and would hardly countenance further heavy expenditure for a campaign in Russia. There are signs aplenty that the days of reckless spending indulged in during the war are passed. Ministers will be called severely to account for extravagance even by the tied Parliament, which swept the polls

on a wave of victory.

Lenin promises

to recognise the debts of the Tsar's Go\'-

ernment, so the financiers, whose immense power we are only now beginning to realise, will be in favour of recognition. The bogey of a threatened India will still be as potent as ever, but the people of England will be inclined to insist that India, which alone amongst the States of the Empire, is debt-free, must see to the defence of her own borders. The demand that the Allies should seize and hold the rich oil districts of the Caucasus in the interest of the polyglot population there makes, of course, a strong appeal, for the world needs oik But of all the world Russia needs it more than any other country, and, to come between the Bolshevik Government and the oil wells is to ask for trouble. The





question then, is whether the oil is worth the risk, for Baku could be w^on most easily for Russia by sending the Red armies into Poland and Hungary. It seems to me that the Allies, even if they had the will, have not the strength to overthrow Lenin. By further attempts to do so they will give the Russian every excuse to follow the Napoleonic example,

and carry the war

into the lands of their

foes.

What W'e

Russians Do? be sure that there

will the

may

to-day a strong party spreading Bolshevism by as

in

in Russia favour of

is

conquest, just converts by

Mohammedanism made

the sword.

That party would probably

PROGRES^^ OF THE WORLD.

stead's Review, 7/2/20.

with joy as givOn ing them the excuse they wanted. the other hand there is apparently a still inore powerful party keenly desircus of on the economic and '^ettintr to work Those social reorganisation of Russia. in it would welcome peace arid the resumpticni of trade with the rest of the world, for it would give them the opportunity they have long sought, but which the Allies, by supporting those who were anxious to restore the bad o'ld hail further interxention



123

Lloyd George is shrewd enough no matter what the crimes of

France.

to see that

the Bolshevists, it is now better to friends with them than to fight.

make As I

have constantly pointed out, what happens now depends upon whether Lenin can maintain his authority without having recourse to the time-honoured method so beloved of English kings of keeping peace at home by engaging in war abroad. But, whilst what Russia elects to do is of the most vital moment to the





.

regime, have prevented them having. Undoubtedly recognition and resumption of trade relations are a big risk, but it is a lesser risk than continued intervention, in view of the great successes which have •crowned the efforts of the new Red armies. Lloyd Gearge, in the true political spirit of comproinise, proposed to resume trade relations, but not to recognise Lenin's Government. The propagandists sent round stories of how this re-

world, there are other factors at work in Euro])e which may well force Lenin to send his forces across his frontier even

would immediately benefit sumption Europe. Huge stocks of wheat, of meat, of petroleum and of flax would be at once available though a few weeks ago we were assured that the Russians were starving and that their railway system

tinued fall of the mark, welcome every sign of the demoralisation and despair of the Teutonic peoples. But no thinking person can \ iew the present course of events witho'ut the gravest concern, the deepest apprehension. If Germany goes bankrupt, she will drag many of the Allies with her. If she plunges into revolution the conflagration she kindles will sweep through Europe, possibly leap the Channel, and set England ablaze. This must be obvious enough, is realised and admitted by statesmen in France, Britain and America. Once admit the danger, and one immediately looks for the remedy. This is not to be found in driving the (jermans to desperation, yet apparently that is just what is being done.



bro'ken down hopelessly Further, told that the Russians were desperately wanting British-made goods of

had

!

we were

sorts.

all

The bewildered man-in-the-

must have wondered what on earth we had been fighting tlie Bolsheviks for, anyway. But the happy compromise was street

accepted by the foolish, stubborn Russian Government. It actually refused to permit the resumption of trade unless it were first recognised, and a formal armistice were entered into. A Foreign War to Keep Peace at Home.

not

The

position

at

the

moment

is

that

Cabinet wants peace with France, which Russia, half wants war. has no India to guard, but which has an old friendship for Russia sharpened by the fact that she has lent the Russians immense sums of momey is now plainly against intervention, and would have has even ideas about letting peace Russia have Constantinople if she still

"half the British

— —

;

wants it, is obviously anxious to keep Russia and Germany apart by making friends with the blood-stained Government of Lenin. Without French help, intervention is out of the question, and there seems no hope of assistance from

against his will. If

Germany Goes Bankrupt.

Though we have tion as to it

is

there.

that

what

not difficult There are

Germany

little direct informahappening in Germany, to deduce the position

is

still

those

who

consider

otight to be boycotted

trampled on, and

who

and

rejoice at the con-

The mark has been hammered down until it is worth only a penny when it comes to purchasing the raw materials without which industrial revival in Germany is impossible.

No

attempt appears

to'

be

made by the Allies to supply the Germans with this raw material on easy or to give them credits which would enable them to get what they terms,

need pointed another

at

out

reasonable

by

The

prices.

As

Economist

on

instead of page, helping Germany to conserve her assets, Allies and neutrals are engaged in a mad race to despoil her of all she has, taking advantage of her desperate want and hope-

less financial i^osition.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

124

Only Help from Allies Can Avert a Smash.

No

suj^plies

try

can

tbe

terribly

from outside the counsave by means of

obtained

lie

mark.

ileprecialeil

Lack-

raw

materials, the people cannot barter goods for goods as is done in ordinary trading. It seems to me that one ino[

of two things must hajjpen. Either tlie Allies or America must extend (iermany credit in the form of a great loan for the purchase of suj^plies, or Germany will go smash. During the war the United States came to the rescue of France. Italy and to a lesser extent Great Britain by supplying them with goods for which they did not pay cash, but gave bcids redeemable within a certain number of years on which they undertook to i)ay

The

interest.

cashed

American (jovernment bonds for the American

these

February

1, 19Hy.

"

of Gerpunishing " " many." The more she is punished the more formidable becomes the Bolshevik menace for the whole of Europe. In their own protection, for the safeguarding of Euroi)e. the Allies must, perforce, go to the help of their late enemies.

longer a question

Th3 Rotten Apple of Europe. Supposing they do not. Supposing they continue to refuse to* assist in the re-establishment of (jerman industries bv withholding raw materials and preventiufy

trade, collapse in

Germany

is

certain.

Some

people argue that such collapse would be nothing more than a just retribution for the sins cf the (ierman mili-

They fail to realise that in colGermany would drag the Allies down with her. We may liken the countries of Europe to so many apples, one tarists.

lapsing

firms who supplied the goods. In way France and Italy and England

this

of which, Germanv. goes rotten.

got

what they wanted without having

pay

place that apple somewhere by itself away from the rest, its rotting would not damage the others. But it lies closely packed with the others, cannot be moved, and, rotting, it affects all the rest until the entire lot goes bad. The different nations are now so closely connected^ trade and finance of the enemy countryare so dependent o*n trade and finance of others that if one goes bankrupt or colStill, we have to lapses all are affected. admit that, despite the many warnings that have been uttered, there is no sign of America or Great Britain establishing; the credits the German industries must

to

Gerdepreciated currency. many will have to be treated in the same way if financial ruin is to be avoided, and her industries are to be set going for

a

in

it

again.

German

Government

If this

get worse revolution

is

will

Fall.

not done then matters will

and worse in Germany, and must follow. The Spartacus-

ites failed when they attempted to get control last year, but hunger and misery and despair are their allies, and. unless steps are quickly taken to remedy the present state of affairs, they will succeed next time. The present mild Socialist

Government struggling

in

to

Germany, carry

terms and to keep cannot possibly last

cut

precariously Peace the

its

people quiet. it unless gets The Spartahelp from the Allies. cusites who are Bolsheviks under another name- will surely turn to their Russian brothers for help should need arise. Nor would they turn in vain. heard a great deal about the Bolshevik danger whilst the Peace terms were being drawn up, but it is a far greater one, now tliat the exhaustion of Germany has been accentuated, than it was six months ago. There can be no question that the position of Germany, financially and indusThe trially, is beccming rapidlv worse. worse it gets the greater the danger of revolution and of Bolshevism. It is no





We

it

possible

Were

to*

if they wculd again function, and present everything points to revolution in Germany, the overthrow of the Govand the establishment of ernment, an extremist regime. That would mean

have

at

a close alliance between Russia and Germany, the complete upset of the present domination of the Allies, and the re-

pudiaticn of the Peace Treaty. To prevent such a happening, one would imagine that Entente statesmen would go to almost any lengths in assisting to reestablish

Germany.

financially

and

economically. In Siberia.

Recent events

in

Russia lend strength

to the theory I advanced in our last issue, namely, that the great successes of the

Bolsheviks against Denekin and Koltchak were due not so much to the G'\erwhelming strength of the

Red

armies, as to the

stead's Review, 7/2/iO.

PROGRESS OF THE WORLD. The Ukrainian army

fact that the people in the districts occupied by these two leaders hated them so experiencing their rule, bitterly, after that they rose against them and completed the debacle the Red troops had begun. Koltchak lias,been captured, but

by the

local revolutionaries.

is hardly a grave menace, but the Poles seem likely to give' the Russians the very excuse they need, T have dealt with the Polish situation irf previous issues, and need only repeat that

unless the Poles come to a speedy agreement with the Russian Government, their'

The Bolshevik

armies from Russia have not yet appeared on the scene. The Czecho-Slovak

country will again be overrun. They can expect no active assistance from France, England or America. They ma}^ get weapons, ammuniticn, war material, but no Allied soldiers. They could not pos-

troops in Siberia, round whom was built the entire anti-Bolshevik campaign of Koltchak, appear to have turned against him alsc. having found his control irksome and tyrannical. Some cables assured us definitely that the Japanese were

generals.

Recognising the Armenians. Council, after much dehas decided to recognise the Armenian Republic wdiich has been established with headquarters at Erivan.

The Supreme

liberation,

It is careful to state, recognition will not in

however, that this any way interfere with the decisions to be made later conThe bouncerning Turkish Armenia. daries of the new State are to be settled as soon as possible. The only matter which seems to have escaped the atten-

probablv that Japan intends to take and hold whatever part of Eastern Siberia is worth having, but has no't the slightest

The Poles

in

Denekin,

Grave Danger. after being driven back on

Don, is managing to check further advance by the Red armies. This is due to the fact that he is now in the Cossack country and can count on local assistto the

At the same time it would be altowrong to- assume as is being assumed in some quarters that Denekin " may yet come again," and overthrow the Bolsheviks. The Red armies have halted and await supplies of ammunition ance.

— —

gether

as usual.

Trotsky probably regards the Denekin danger as over, and, in his customary manner, will leave him alone, concentrating his troops on some other Front where her enemies menace Russia

more

seriously.

and

Ukrainian army has suddenly put

The

Letts are said to be winning great victories in the north. The Poles are massing on the frontier, a

in an appearance. The Letts, but 45,000 strong, cannot possibly do much. These victories will continue just as long as they do not incommode the Bolsheviks.

it

most

fii7"Frime"Minister\rTokio"has"announced that a few more soldiers are being sent to safeguard the railway and lines of communication. The truth is

cJefeat.

prevail alone against the Red armies, is now announced, by Brusiloff, the the of late Tsar's successful

sibly led,

pouring troops into Siberia. Others asserted with equal emphasis that all Japanese tro'ops were being w'ithdrawn.

intention of fighting the Allies' battle against the Bolshev"iks or of embarking on another wvir with Russia. The Allied missions are all being withdrawn to Vladivo'stok, and the anti-Bolshevik campaign in Siberia has ended in disaster and

125

tion of the sages at Paris

is the provisio-n of some strong force to protect the new Republic against the Turks who are apparently about to descend again on an ^jj^^^^^ helpless people. The Armenians have been so often killed ofif that one cannot but be surprised to find them always back again in possession of their own country. Either there must be many more Armenians, than we imagined, or the Turks and Kurds did not slay as many millions as reported. The usual contradictory messages reach us concerning the attempted settlement of the Fiume difficulty. According to one version, the Jugo-Slavs have accepted the solution arrived at between the Supreme Council

and the Italians. According to another, they will have none of it, and demand the adoption of the Wilson proposals. It

seems probable, though, that the mathanding Nations

ter will be ultimately settled by Fiume over to the League of

— internationalising

-

it,

that

is

to

say.

apparently prepared to give up her claims to Dalmatia, but w^ill insist

Italy

is

upon retaining the islands which dominate

all

the passible harbours the Jugo-

Slavs could convert into ports.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

126

Trouble— Trouble Everywhere! A vcar and a oecupk- of months after the war ended the Hungarians have been The newshanded the Teaee terms. papers wliioh published them apj^earcd with l)hick borders, and theatres, and other places of entertainment, were shut for three (hiys.

mission

in

Meanwhile the

British reports that food

lUula-l'est

The entirely exhausted. to have swept tlie capital bare, and now the Serbs refuse to allow food already paid far by the supplies

are

Roumanians

Hungarians

aj^pear

to cross their frontier.

It is

hardly to b^ expected that Peace will Comreign much longer in Hungary. munism was tried some time ago, but was sui)prcssed by the Allies, acting through Roumania. li Bela Kun is not dead or a prisoner, he will likely return to power Further north German-Austria again.

have concluded some sort of agreement. We have not been informed of its nature, but if it restores freedom of trade between the two

and Bohemia appear

to-

countries, the desperate case of Austria should be somewhat bettered. In Syria

the French,

who have come

to

protect

people against the Turks, are encountering strong opposition not from the Turks so much as from those they would the.

It seems certain that the French have a small war on their hands in Asia Minor for some time to come. It is a curious fact that whilst the British were in control order reigned, but as soon as they hand over to the French there is It is said that the latter do not trouble. hold the scales between the antagonistic races so justly balanced as do- the former.

protect. will

tirely

by the

Febniar;/

WW.

efforts of President Wilson. .*^enate seems to be as far

The -American

from ratifying the Peace Treaty which embodies the League of Nations. It was high time that the League came into being, for Peace having now been ratified, the varioUs Commissions which have to carry "out the difficult details of \\'ithin the Treaty must be appointed.

as ever

fifteen days of the coming into force of the Treaty, a Commission must be appointed by the League to delimit tHe Saar Basin, and to frontiers of the govern the territory there ceded to France for the next fifteen years. The League has also to decide whether the

Treaty's veto on the union of Austria and Germany is to be upheld. It has to appoint a High Commissioner for the free city of Dantzig, and draw up a constitution therefor. in

many

It

is

also concerned

other matters, some immediately,

later on. Twenty-seven States, signatories of the Treaty, are already members of the League. Thirteen neutrals have been invited to accede to the

others

We

do not know how many Covenant. of these have joined, although presumdo know, ably Persia has done so. however, that there is considerable opposition in Holland to the Dutch Government adopting the League Covenant on the ground that Holland, as the mem-

We

bership now stands, would be completely outvoted on any matter the Allies wanted to put through, the extradition of the Kaiser for instance.

America and the Commissions.

reason, the Englishman seems to get on with the Arabs and Turks and Armenians, whilst the Frenchman

At present the League is nothing more than an organisation for the carrying out of the dictates of the Allied Council in It can never be anything else Paris.

does not.

until the

Whatever the

The League

of

The first meeting of the League occurred on Friday, 16th January. It is to be hoped that this will be a red-letter day for the world. M. Bourgeois was elected chairman, and he is a man well He was France's fitted for the task. First Delegate at both Hague Conferences, and has always been a strong advocate for the peaceful settlement of international disputes. were notable absentees

which was brought

former enemy Powers are adand all the neutrals join. Still, everyone must wish it success. Incomplete as it is, it is yet the best machinery that the combined w'isdom^Df the Allied mitted,

Nations.

The Americans from the Council

into being almost en-

world has been able to devise to render future wars impossible. Few people have much faith in it. Its sponsor is on a sick bed, and his people will not assist in its formation. Still, it is an attempt in the right directioTi. and everyone who has the welfare of the world at heart must wish No fewer than fifty-one interit well. Allied Commissions were created bv the

PROGRESS OF THE WORLD.

Stead's Review, 7/2/20.

P^ce

J'hc

Treaty.

majority were nom-

inated by the Allies soon after the signing at Versailles, and are already at work. strong efifort was made by the Council in Paris to induce the American Government to ap|)oint members to these Commissions, but W'asliington decided that

A

American diplomatic and military

parti-

12?

the Allies to approve the for the tribunal appointed purpose. has deThis the Paris Council The culprits are to be finitely refused. surrendered for trial in France, England and Italy, and, according to Press re])orts, the death penalty will be car-

Germany,

ried out in

most

cases.

Such comments

cipation in carrying out the provisions of the Treaty must wait for the Senate's ratificatioii. As a consequence of the

cases would land the makers into prison for contempt of court. It is quite likely that those who feel

Senate deadlock, the xVmerican Commissioners specifically required by the Peace Treaty for the control of the plebiscites

themselves guilty will disappear altogether, whilst those who consider themselves innocent would no doubt surrender. It would certainly seem that an trial would be best obtained if impartial " " the criminals were judged in a neutral country. may assume that the original list was cut down so drastically because the wild accusations against the " " accused could not be majority of the

East Prussia and Silesia have not been appointed, and American troops are taking no part in the policing of these districts. Great Britain, too, has induced France to supply some of the troops needed in Schleswig and elsewhere, in

come from England.

which were

to

Germany

Surrender Officers.

to

was

set

out

in

Germany was

the

to

"

The

Government.

election cry, Hang the Kaiser!" helped largely to send Lloyd George back to ])Ower, and therefore the first name on the list is the ex-Emperor

W'ilhelm

II.

guiltiness authorities

When

was

the question of

first

mooted,

war

various

obliged by giving long lists of culprits. The method followed was apparently to write down the names of every known German leader, and assert that his deeds demanded not only his trial l)ut his execution. In this way a list containing many thousands of names was prepared, and it appeared as if the tribunal set u]) to- adjudicate on the charges against the men would be kept busy for many years, imless the popular idea were adopted, and they were all executed ofif

hand on the assumption that, being Germans, they must necessarily be guilty !

The law

officers entrusted

with the task

of ])reparing the case against these men have reduced the list to some 800 only. Notable omissions are the ex-Crown Prince in papular imagination the most Ludendorff, desperate ruffian of the lot





Hindenburg and Mackensen.

man war

Government "

criminals

"

civil

We

and proceedings against them would have resulted in their acquitsubstantiated,

Peace Treaty surrender officers and others accused of crimes in carrying on warfare, and. after long delay, the list is at last ready, and has been, or is abotit to be presented to the German It

that

concerning

The Ger-

that the suggests should be held in

tal.

The charges

against those

who

re-

main on the Hst must be very definite, and it is to be hoped that amongst them are the men wdio were really responsible for the atrocious deeds which undoubtedly occurred. "

Hang the Kaiser!" The Kaiser's case is entirely different from that of the others. They are acof specific crimes against indivihe is arraigned for being responsible, as supreme ruler of Germany, for the making of war. the submarine campaign, the deportation of civilians from Belgium and France, and for everything else done by the Germans during the No one has suggested that he struggle. was guilty of any atrocity or of any crime against individual sailors or soldiers. When asked to surrender the ex-Kaiser ctised

dtials,

Dutch Government replied, as Engwould have answered had the French demanded the handing cn^er of Louis Phillip, or had the Tsar asked for the extradition of Prince Peter Kropotkin. Holland, like Great Britain and the

land

Switzerland, has long been a sanctuary which political fugitives have flown for refuge. The mere fact that a mighty combination of Powers demands the surrender of an ex-Emperor makes no difference. Wilhelm II. can claim the same right of sanctuary as the meanest of his former subjects. Despite all that has to

138

been said to (|uitc

REVIEW.

Sr/S.ID'S

sure

(Ik-

Govenuncni view of

was

antici])ated,

own

luigland'.s it

is

would be

a

political fugitives

that she

wc may be

contrary,

the refusal of the

tliat

to

being brought

in

altitude towards

to violate her traditions. As no f.iitciitc Power except Great Britain is at all anxious to make a martyr of the ex-Kaiser

he is likely to remain quietly in Holland, As, however, Lloyd (ieorge is deeply " " committed to him he will no hang doubt be tried /;; absentia and executed

The

election of a

balance of power, more inclined to give ^^^-"^ °^ Nations a fair trial.

^^''

President.

French President

Trouble In India.

is

effected by the Senators and Deputies sitHence, there is plenty of ting together.

opportunity for political intriguing, and the personal likes and dislikes of mem bers have a good deal to do with the votStill, it is a better way than that in ing. force in the United States, for

all

prominent men have an opportunity of being candidates, whereas in America the two who finally contest the election are selected for party reasons rather than for

marked

That being so, it is fortunate these party selections have been, for, whenever a crisis arises the President always seems to have been the right man to meet it. In France, of course, the President has nothing like the power of his fellow in ability.

astonishing

how

America.

As

Minister,

not the

in

England,

it

official

is

the

Prime

head of the

At the recent State, who really rules. election M. Clemenceau was a candidate, but w^as defeated by M. Deschanel, Pre-



the Chamber of Deputies House of Commons, Speaker of the ' The Tiger's " defeat is easily explained, He has plenty of political enemies, and members were obviously frightened that the vigorous old man would attempt to encroach on the prerogatives of the Chamber of Deputies which made and sident

of

unmade Prime

Ministers at

its will.

He

selected M. Millerand as his successor in that ofifice, and seemed determined to continue exercising as President the power he had wielded as head ai the Government. Millerand nov^r takes his place in the French Peace dele" gation, and the Tiger," having come forth at a critical hour to save his coun-

had already

now

Clemenceau. The disappearance of " The " will leave the French delegaTiger tion less determined to restore the old

in sjiirit. for

mo.

best so.

extremely unlikely j^arty to pressure bear to force Holland

Clemenceau Beaten

7,

goes into retirement. It is far Hlad he continued in politics his conibativeness would almost certainly have led to hajjpenings which wo-uld have caused his memory to be held in less esteem than his great services demand, Millerand does not appear to have a sufhcient backing in Parliament to carry on a Ciovernment, and will probably have to make way for M. Briand, who was largely resi)onsible for the defeat of try,

Dutch

and,

rcbruaru

There has been serious fighting on the It seems clear that a British force was ambushed by the tribesmen, for the casualties amongst English officers were heavy, and the losses

Afghan border.

.

included men captured. The remarkable report has come through that some of our aeroplanes were shot down. During the earlier the fighting aeroplanes

doing immense and killing great numbers of the enemy. Their moral effect, we were told, was immense, but evidently the Waziris have not only got used to flying machines, but are able to defend Their latest themselves against them. exploit will, no doubt, involve India in

wrought

damage

great

havoc,

to villages

a costly military expedition, although there seems to be general agreement that the Indian Government is not at

anxious

all

to

will

antagonise

ther.

and

tend

the

make

do it

Indian

which

anything

the

Afghans to

necessary frontier

at

fur-

extheir

expense. There is considerable unrest in various parts of India, especially amongst the

Mohammedans.

The Viceroy

re-

cently received a deputation of Mussul-

mans and Hindus which urged

that, to

secure Islamic friendship and preserve Indian loyalty, the full integrity and sovereignty of Turkey ought to be maintained. Lord Chelmsford was not able to give the deputation much comfort, and after leaving him, it issued a statement

declaring that the Peace terms were unfavourable to the Mohammedan religion,

and placed an undue strain on Moslem loyalty. is

that

The

significance of this incident

Hindus should have joined with

.t

/OufitJ

[London.

star.]

WHY

Westminster Gazette.]

STOP AT LOTTERY BONDS?

[London.

JOHN BULL AS TOUT — THE BOTTOMLEY DESIGN.

(Mr.

Horatio Bottomley favours the Lottery-

Bond loan scheme. ) English, French and American papers. But each is equally appropriate to Australia.

from

WCPe HERE \

BECAUSE

wt SE HEPE BECAUSE WrRE '

MERE

^ l'ass:7iff

IF

Show.]

[London.

ONLY THE PUMP COULD SPEAK!

In our last issue were published some cartoons, favouring the British Government's scheme for raising loans by lot-

/

^

9,

Times.]

.m

^

ft.,

(ft

^

—A

ft Si fl [Louisville, U.S.A.

UBIQUITOUS PERFORMERS.

Daily

E.r press.]

SOMEWHERE IN FRANCE.

[London.

SOMEWHERE IN ENGLAND.

STEAD'S REV J nil

i:\Cy

L 'A si n «.

]

[

Rome.

THE

CARTOON.

Land

the

to

— when

peasants

;

"

We want you you are dead."

i:i

SHIELD— LIBERTY AND REACTION.

TWO

to

7,

[Rome,

L'Asino.']

ANOTHER ITALIAN ANTl-CLERICAI. have plenty of land

February

OF

SIDES

THE

the three-card swindle, and Gould seems to think John Bull loses dignity

tlicr to



high prizes to those investery l)onds tors that drew the kicky numbers. we have two of the most prominent arLow and Sir Francis Gould tists throwing cold water on the scheme. Low suggests that it is only one step fur-

Now





in the character of betting tout.

The Rome L'Asino

frequently pubcartoons showing bitter feeling against the clericals. Two typical illustrations are given. lishes

-•-^M '~?^i

^

^1 (^|!0'^»a^' ^^

Ak.^-'^^^

#

[Louisville. U.S.A.

Times.] "

PROHIBITION IN AMERICA. Reports of my resurrection greatly —

gerated."

John Barleycorn.

[New York.

Herald.]

exag-

Common People listen."

" :

I

suppose

I

can go

in

and

steads Review.

13T

HISTORY IN CARICATURE

7/2/20.

7771

[London.

Star.^

HOUSING SHORTAGE AND HIGH LIFE. [London.

London Opinion.]

seems that one of the greatest difficulties in the Old World, as in Australia,

INCREDIBLE

It

is

homes for

to find

the people.

London Opinion.] Mother " I wonder who :

Pele-Mele.]

[London. didn't fold

:

"

But the ceiling is rather low." But my dear sir, thia is a bedroom.^ You bed. quite all right once you get into "

Adam."

[London. The World.] HON. Percy Hybrowe: "Yes, the pater preserves pheasants.

GIRL

FROM

strange.

My

Iqq"

Chicago

" :

.

Now,

that's

[Paris.

HOUSE SHORTAGE IN FRANCE.

up his

clothes before going to bed?" "

BoT

!

,

real

poppa's in the canning business

Jiliahtu^

,

re

[London.

j/^^^' IVe got this new job. Maria, we've i;.«„^ ,,,? ir.r.pnrnnrp'! You've gotter gotter keep up appearances. wneu e ^o^.^l^^ett^ei, wash young Erb s hce ev ry mornm it needs it or not. ..

*^

3

Stead's Review, 7/2/SO.

38

What Ought

Do ?—IV

Australia to

.

GET POPULATION. Six years ago. saon aficr

came to " Aus-

I

this country, I wrote an article on tralia's Cireatest Need People."



ing

it

to-day there

is

nothing

i

Readwould

it save that I would insist still strongly that the paramount need of this country is population. In 1!)14 it was difficult to get immigrants the sup-

alter in

more



ply was steadily dropping oft'. To-day it should he easy to get them if the right



methods are adopted.

We

talk a great deal ahout the need for an efficient plan of defence, and contemplate spending anything from £(5.000,000 to £10.000,000 annually on maintaining a large military organisation and a powerful navy. The "best possible defence of Australia is more population, and half the sum we propose to spend on making soldiers and building warships, devoted to increasing the number of the people in the country, would make Australia more secure than

large armies and a mighty fleet. There are two ways of peopling the country by way of the cradle and by way of the immigration office. The natural increase of the Australian nation has been checked because of the war, but was too low even in pre-war years. Better care of babies has, to some extent, compensated for this, but if we were to rely upon natural increase only, it would be



some

forty years before our population doubled. That there is calculated limitaThe tion of families is obvious enough. solitary child is everywhere in evidence.

There

is

a

good deal

to

be said

in

favour of taxing very heavily those who have no children, and of lightening that taxation rapidly as the number of children in the family increases. There is a proposal in France which makes lack of children a ground for divorce, and, although there are obvious objections and

shows how seriway, ously statesmen in Europe are regarding the drop in the birth rate. It is noticeable, by the way, that the English wives brought back by our soldiers, against

difficulties in the

it

whom

such stupid outcry was raised, apbe doing their duty towards the country a good deal more faithfully than most of the newly married Australian', wives. However, I am not at the moment concerned about the filling of cradles what I am anxious to discuss is how our immigration offices can be filled. l)ear to

;

Before the war, the Federal Government spent £(5,000,000 a year on defence, and grudgingly doled out £40,000 to advertise Australia with the object of attracting people to the Commonwealth the best defence of all. The various States between them spent £o, i-)uts the need of population as the most pressing of all in .AusIt tralia, and urges boy immigration. have that should though, they suggests, inion's

some agricultural training given them in England before they come out, but that is hardly desirable, as the boys would have to unlearn a good deal here, and they might as well start from the beginning in their new home. In addition to the boys, there are a number of small farmers in England who ought to be induced to come to

large this

They have made money during

country.

part quite

for the most the war, and

the that realise days golden through which they have lived are never They are anxious likely to recur again.

up farming in lands where greater oft"er, and are looking about and making enquiries with a view to migration. These are the sort of settlers we want. They not only pay their own to take

prospects

way they bring money Too often in the past ;

done

have

this

lost

it

into the country.

those all,

who have

and

special

ought to be made to prevent newcomers wasting their substance in fruitless efiforts to adapt themselves in unsuitable situations. We do not yet know efforts

what

volume

the

Great Britain

is

of

likely

migration to

be.

from do

We

know, however,, that emigration ceased altogether during the war, and that before it the emigrants numbered 300,000 Had there been no war, no annually. fewer than 1,800.000 people would have left the United Kingdom during the last six years. This is a far larger number Of than were killed during the \var. cooirse, the biggest migration will be from Germany, Austria and Hungary, but it

looks as will

if

plenty of English emigrants

be available.

It is iVustralia's

duty

to secure as many of them as she possibly can.

m

Stead's Review, 7/2/20.

j^^j

DO THE DEAD RETURN ?— My article on spiritualism, under the above heading, has brought me a large number of letters. On the whole they express stro'ng disapproval of any attempt to establish communication with those who have passed over, on the ground that such communication is absolutely forbidden in the Bible. A goodly number of the writers appear to imagine that the quotations I* gave from Sir Conan Doyle were my own beliefs, not his, whilst others strongly object to that a continued existence

my

statement

believed in by all religious sects. Some go so far as to assure me that the Bible nowhere -peaks of a man continuing his existcnce after death, whilst very many send is

many quotations from Holy Writ which they declare clearly establish the fact that when a man dies he stays dead nic

until the resurrection.

must confess

that I have been consurprised to find so large a number taking every statement and phrase in the Bible as literally true, They appear to regard it as a' dictionary rather than as a text book. Although I know my Bible well, I would not venture to start a controversy as to whether life after death is admitted, or is not admitted, therein. I*- is possible to quote any number of t_xts on both sides, which, alone appear to be convincing, I prefer to confine myself to a consideration of the evidence spiritualists can proI

siderably

duce to prove that communication with the dead has taken place. I cannot, howresist referring to two so-called "proofs," which have been sent me, that the dead do not return. "The solution to the whole question," says one correspondent, "is contained in the following quotation, from the 20th chapter of Revela" tion The rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were fin-

ever,

:



ished."

Throughout Christendom, in 1000 A.D. there was general expectation that the end of the world would come, as the thousand years were up. We have lived close on another thousand

years since then, and the earth is still spinning steadily on its axis, geologically I merely mention scarcely any older. this verse amongst the many that have been quoted to me, to show that those who believe in the literal truth of every-

II.

thing which appears in the Bible, take up an untenable position. That is not to suggest at all that the Bible is not a Holy Book, merely to point out that it cannot be taken absolutely literally, must be taken metaphorically. Another writer asserts that the truth of the Bible is proved by the great pyramid in Egypt, " God's stone witijess," because Isaiah " In that day shall there be an wrote, altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. And it shall be for a sign, and for a witness unto the Lord of Hosts in the land of Egypt." The great pyramid, of course, was built eighty centuries before Isaiah was born, "

Another correspondent writes, The fundamental proposition underlying the idea, i.e., that the dead are alive, is utterly preposterous, and has nothing whatever to justify it. It makes one wonder why anyone is condemned as a lunatic, when people who entertain such ideas are allowed at liberty, for surely nothing madder or more irrational could ever be conceived by a mind diseased." As Sir Conan Doyle deals with this very cannot do better than quote point, I him. He says: "The situation may be summed up in a simple alternative. The one supposition is that there has been an outbreak of lunacy extending over two generations of mankind, and two a lunacy which assails great continents men or women, who are otherwise emiThe alternative supposinently sane. tion is that in recent years there has come to us from divine sources a new revelation, which constitutes by far the greatest religious event since the death of Christ, a revelation which alters the whole aspect of death and the fate of man. Between these two suppositions there is no solid position. Theories of fraud or of delusion will not meet the It is absolute lunacy, or it is evidence. a revolution which gives us as by-products an utter fearlessness of death, and an immense consolation when those who are dear to us pass behind the veil."



Others

me

who have communicated with

that the whole thing is imagination, and that the so-caMed proofs The person are demonstrably frauds. who takes up this attitude, and he who assert

MS

iSIf*"

STEAD'S REVIEW.

rt-yarcis the spiritualist as a lunatic, pure and simple, show, of course, that they

know

iiothinjj^

ihe\-

took

would

ahout the

the

trouble

sul)ject,

to

and,

if

investigate,

si)eedily alter their views.

The

man who imi)licitly a man dies, he goes til

believes that, when out of existence unthe resurrection takes place, when the



world ends some millions of centuries hence must necessarily hold that the apparent communications from beyond are the work of spin'ts, determined for



some reason, or

other, to deceive us, or that the trained scientists, who vouch for the accuracy of these

manifestations, are utterly deceived. The man who holds that the Rible absolutely forbids all attempts to get into touch with those who have passed over, will naturally let It is the spiritualism severely alone. man who does not find that prohibition in the Rible. who does not feel justified ill airily dismissing the conclusions of scientists and men of high standing as bosh and rubbish, who is deeply interested in the whole question. Such Several people are naturally troubled. tTave asked me why. if the dead are able to

communicate, they resort to such silly it. Why do they rap

ways of doing tables and the

like. Why. w^hen they undertake to levitate articles from other countries, do they usually bring extra-

ordinary, useless things, instead of, say, a daily paper from a country far across the sea? It would seem, according to those who have investigated the subject, that the power of spirits anxious to communicate are very limited. When wireless

telegraphy

first

was attempted, the

messages wliich were received were verv imperfect, though every now and again a clear communication got through. We did not. honvever. condemn the whole idea merely because the messages were indistinct and at times quite unintel-

A correct message proved that was someone actually communicating at the other end. a fact which later failure to get word through did not dis-

ligible.

there

credit.

to deal in a later number with the chief points raised by my correspondents, but on the general question of spiritualism, I cannot do better than again quote from Sir Conan Doyle, w-ho'. although not so convincing a researcher as many other investigators, has I

hope

some of

Februnrii

r.

/.«(

summarised satisfactorily the conclusion to which they have come. He says: "



The

conclusion, then, of my Ion search after truth, is that, in spite of occasional fraud, which spiritualists del)lore, and, in spite of wild imaginingsj which they discourage, there remains a great solid core in this movement which is

nearer to positive proof than any other religious development with which I am acquainted. As I have shown, it would apj)ear to be a r.ediscovery rather than an al)solutely new thing, but the result in this material age is the same. The days are surely passing when the mature and considered opinions of such men as Crookes. Wallace. Flammarion, Chas. Richet, Lombroso. Barrett, Lodge, Generals Dravson and Turner, Sergeant Ballantyne, \\'. T. Stead, Judge Edmunds, xA.dmiral Usborne Moore, the late Archdeacon \\'ilberforce. and such a cloud of other witnesses, can be dismissed with the empty All rot.' or

infinitely

'

'

'

drivel foniiulae. Nauseating " As Mr. Arthur Hill has well said, we have reached a point where further proof is superfluous, and where the weight of

disproof lies upon those wdio deny. The very people who clamour for proofs have as a rule never taken the trouble to ex-

amine the copious proofs which already exist. Each seems to think that the whole subject should begin de novo because he has asked for information. The method of our opponents is to fasten upon the latest man wdio has stated the



case at the present instant it happens to be Sir Oliver Lodge and then to deal with him as if he had come forward wnth



some new^ opinions which rested entirely upon his owai assertion, with no reference to the corroboration of so

many independent workers before him. This is not an honest method of criticism, for, in every case, the agreement of witnesses is the very root of conviction. One feels that the stage of investigation is passed, and that of religious construction is overdue. "

have These phenomena passed through the stage of being a parlour game they are now emerging from that of a debatable scientific novelty; and they are, or should be, taking shape as the foundation of a definite system of religious thought, in some ways confirma;

torv of ancient systems, in some ways enThe evidence upon which tirely new.

DO THE DEAD RETURN.

'Stead's Review, 1/2/W.

system rests is so enormous that it would take a very considerable library to contain it, and the witnesses are not shadowy people living in the dim past and inaccessable to our cross-examination, but are our own contemporaries, men of character and intellect whom all must this

1

respect. " It

new

J.

7 those

,

^

t.

must be repeated that while the may seem destructive to

revelation

who

hold Christian dogmas with

extreme rigidity, it has quite the opposite effect upon the mind, which, like so many modern minds, had come to look upon the whole Christian scheme as a huge delusion. It is shown clearly that the old revelation has so many resemblances, defaced by time and materialism, but still denoting the same general scheme, that undoubtedly both have come

1

circles

above

circles



approach-

ing nearer to His presence all of these conceptions appear once more, and are confirmed by many witnesses. It is only the claims ccf infallibility and of monopoly, the bigotry and pedantry of theologians, and the man-made rituals which take the life out of the God-given thoughts it is only this which has defaced the truth."



Mr. Gerald Massey, poet and thinker, had some eloquent things to say about Spiritualism years ago. He wrote " Spiritualism has been for me, in com:



mon

with many others, such a hfting of the mental horizon and letting-in of the heavens such formation of faith into facts, that I can only compare life with-



ideas of life after death, of higher and

out it to sailing on board ship with hatches battened down and being kept a prisoner, living by the light of a candle, and then suddenly, on some splendid

lower spirits, of comparative happiness depending vipon oiir own conduct, of chastening by pain, of guardian spirits, of high teachers, of an infinite central

starry night, allo^ved to go on deck for the first time to see the stupendous mechanism of the heavens all aglow with the glory of God."

from the same source. '

power, of

143

The accepted

WEST AUSTRALIAN NOTES. The W.A. Government has just purchased the South-\\'est Timber T^'^'wers'

without

Society's mills and concessions for. approximately. £84,000. The deal looks a

little

the price includes some i4?,000 worth of stocks, mainly timber ready for sale. The balance of £31,000 represents the \alue of the mill, 36,000 acres of pemiit jarrah country, and another 16,000 acres of freehold land, which also contains first-class jarrah forests. As the mill alone would cost about £40,000 to-day. the Government can make out a fairly good case for infringing the State Trading Concerns' Act. which expressly interdicts the starting of new State enterprises withoiu the authorisation of Parliament. If criticised in Parliament, the Government will probably plead that the transaction is only an extension of the timber-business in which the State is already heavily engaged. And the violation of the injunction against spending large sums of money withcn.it Parliamentary sanction will be explained away on the grounds of urgency or expediency.

good

one,

as

For four days W.A. has had to go its accustomed daily morning The IVest Australian essayed a paper. trial

of strength

with

its

stereo-

who promptly

held the paper up. typers After a few days' sulking on both sides, private arbitration was agreed upon, and

A ponderous committee and to deliberate gravely whether there is enough work at The West Australian for one temporary hand to be made into a permanent one. That is all the row was about. W.A. has most of its strikes and public work resumed.

is

to

sit

or private upsa:s during

summer months. Yet we we are well off, and ought

its

sweltering are told that to thank our

for living in this most prosperous of all Australian States. ()n figures, there may be truth in this in stars

and cheapest

;

practice,

bread at all.

it

is

hard

to believe.

Our

daily

now "kI. a loaf, and butter is not Which shows that even bread and is getting more and more an

is

butter elusive commodity, in spite of our tious, higher earnings.

ficti-

It

took them less than a dozen seconds to pick up C5W rt ...t;nLnings scent, and to comprehend the business ahead of them."

atead'a Review, 7/t/tO.

145

Answers the

Swift Lightning A New

Call.

Story of Wild-Life Adventure in the Frozen North.

By James Oliver Curwood. of

nature's forces and than flood mightier hoUowers of valleys, storm, leveiiers of mountains, sculptors that have chiselled the features of conare tinents Wuche Miskwame, the Their appointed task is done. glaciers. In the eons that have passed, they have crept over the face of the earth, slow, implacable, irresistible as the swing of the spheres in their orbits, fashioning an abiding place for the feet of men. They have digged their lakes and their rivers;



all

MIGHTIEST



have pounded and crushed and the earth's strata; they have directed forever the flow of waters splendidly they have played their part they

mixed



as the last great working force of God in His magnificent achievement of CreaAnd now, their work done tion. sisikoot-up-inao they are dying. On the edge of the polar sea, its mission restricted now to contributing millions of tons of icebergs to the ocean each summer, lay Ussisooi the Ice Chisel a great, flat, slowly moving mountain of ice, giving up grudgingly its last precious secrets to the ocean twice in three years the monster carcasses of











mastodons. The sea-face of Ussisooi was broken and cracked, and filled with great caverns and deep fissures in summer storms, the tides roared in it with a ;

voice of thunder, and crags and mountains of ice broke off with terrific ex-

of wolves, stood Swift the throwback until this nigiit a leader among the white wolves, and the greatest of them all. And close beside him, her beautiful golden body shimmering in the moon and star-glow, stood Firetly, the collie who had wandered away from a ship frozen in the ice miles away. For a matter of hours, the miracle had been working in Swift Lightning's blood at last the soul of Skagen, the great Dane of twenty years ago, had entered into him, and his blood knew now only the thrill and the joy of matehood. Firefly, realising little of

generations



what was passing in his savage soul, whimpered to him softly. Swift Lightning answered with a caressing touch of his muzzle in the silken yellow hair that was thick upon her neck. over the

Strai'^ht

overhead

hung

that

silvery

mother-of-pearl heart of the skv reflection of the vast ice-fields.

—^the

The tem-

perature had risen, and it was not colder than twenty degrees below zero. In the centre of the plateau, the soul af the dog reborn in him after twenty

lived in

it,



side

plateau shimmered in the glow of the winter moon and stars. The aurora had faded out.

known

only this world. fought in it, grown to magnificent strength in it, but always there had been with him those haunting visions of another life, which he had never known, and which he could not understand his heritage from Skagen, the white man's dog of twenty years

level as a table.

glacial

off

of

top

Lightning had

He had

wliite

To-night this

Then he looked again

the Ussisooi, dying glacier. Seaward lay the endless fields of ice. Landward were the great barrens, sweeping back to the rolling and broken tundras that formed the breast of the earth. Since the day he was born, almost three years ago, Swift

and floated away to sea. But back of this ragged and fighting sea-edge, and at its top, Ussisooi, was

plosions,



i^igiitning,

ago.

And



it was a white man's dog a woman's dog that stood at his



on the top of Ussisooi to-night. alert, with the beauty of blood and breed in every line of her graceSlim,

ful body, Fireflv was the livine and breathing embodiment of the dreams and strange yearnings that had made Swift Lip^htninsf unlike all his brethren of the white-wolf packs. Her memories

Onlv yesterdav, it vivid. she had felt the caress of a woman's soft white hands, thousands of were

still

seemed,

STEAD'S REVIEW.

U6 south

miles

—a

woman

in

whose face

grief and yet pride, sorrow and yet love on that day when the master had taken her away to the big tliere

was





Then they had come north she ship. and the master north into an empty and frozen world; and the master had changed her name to Firefly, because that was his pet name for the woman. And now, a few miles up the coast, was the big cairn of rocks under which her master lay dead, and the woman the mistress she had worshipped was thousands of miles away, hoping and dreaming and praying and did not know.









Of

the

Firefly thought only as desire. She was

woman,

one thinks of a great

calling

waiting,

living,

—somewhere

off

there! Firefly shivered as she stood with her shoulder against Swift Lightning's. In the soft whimpering of her voice was



The gentle questing and uncertainty. throat-sounds she made for him tensed Swift Lightning's muscles to the hardness of steel. This was his world. He He knew that to live understood it. All his life he had meant to fight. fought

—and

And

he wanted to —now! The de-

killed.

fight something again sire boiled in his blood.

He was

fired

by the heroic inspirations of a young gallant escorting a timid and pretty girl through a rough crowd. In the overwhelming exuberance of these first hours of his honeymoon, he wanted to show his environment, himself oflF. And, in " " show oiT was to the one best way to something, or kill something. Less than two hours ago he had had an encounter with Wapusk, the great polar bear. But he was not satisfied with his defensive fight against Wapusk. So he pranced a few yards away from Firelick

head

and

his

crest

fly,

his

like

a brush, his step springy and chal-

stifl

erect,

lenging.

"Take a

look "

at

me,

Firefly,"

he

I'm not afraid of anyseemed to say. I thing on earth not even of Wapusk. can lick any wolf that ever walked. I can run farther and faster than any other wolf in the world. If you say so, I'll go back and lick Wapusk himself !" And Firefly .looked. She was fascinated by this savage and magnificent beast who paraded before her. She ran to him, and yipped approvingly, and stared



with him

off into nothingness.

February

The blood

swelled

Swift

in

7,

l9to.

Light-

ning's veins until he was almost ready to pop. couldn't something turn He ran back to the up, he wondered. crack up which they had crawled to the top of Ussisooi and snarled. Right then he would have welcomed the appearance of Wapusk himself. But Wapusk, at that very moment, was having a time of his own. Even as Swift Lightning and Firefly stood at the edge of the fissure,

Why

they heard

from the

a

ing of dogs, of Wapusk.

—ofthe sound howl-

pandemonium

far end of Ussisooi

human

yells,

the roaring

For a moment or two.

Swift Lightning listened. Then he flattened his ears and set off at a trot toward the sounds, whining for Firefly to follow him. They had covered two or three hundred yards when the surface of the Ice Chisel began to slope toward the sea. Down this slope Swift Light-

ning

came fall

went more cautiously, until he to the sharp edge of a precipitous of fifty or sixty feet. Firefly

crowded against him, and they looked down. Out of the starlit and moon-filled cup of the glacier below them rose a hideous turmoil of battle. Distinctly they could the great white form see the fighters of Wapusk, a dozen dogs, and the swiftly moving shadows of Eskimo hunters. Instinctively, forgetting his yearning for an opportunity to display his own prowess. Swift Lightning crouched flat on his belly. Firefly stood up, clearly outlined against the rim of the glacier-top, paralysed by what she There were three men. saw. They



were shrieking and yelling and darting in and out among the attacking malesteel points of their long arrows. like silver flashing Wapusk. with the wall of the ice-mountain behind him, was putting up a tre-

miuts,

the

spears

mendous

One

fight.

of the hunters leaped in

With^

flashed.

roar,

;

a spear

Wapusk swung

toward the enemy, who had made the thrust, and in that off-guard moment, a second figure leaped in, and a still deadlier stroke caught him back of his giant shoulder. Still

himself

the old bear rose up, and flung among the dogs. He had ceased

to roar. throat.

A

Choking

sounds

killer all his life, a

filled

his

wanderer

s:-!:' for his

STEAD'S REVIEW.

148

sudden and undignified descent. His pride and his dignity were upset, but his spirits returned as he rose more steadily to his feet, with the big white rabbit bewould return with tween his jaws. it to Firefly. He would let her understand that it was for that he had made his spectacular descent down Ussisooi.

He



He

trotted to the edge of the icy slope there, suddenly, he stopped. Again his plans went to smash. He heard " sounds a terrified Yip, yip, yip !" and he knew that Firefly was coming aown to The hare dropped from his jaws. ^^ He stood motionless as the ice itself He could hear her before he could see her—

and





mm

her frightened yipping the pummelling and scraping of her body, a frenzied howl as she went over the first of the ice-falls. Then he saw her. She was descending like a huge yellow tenpin ball and when she reached the bottom— and whizzed past him— Swift Lightning grabbed up the hare and trotted toward her. Firefly, gaining her feet, was gomg round and round in a groggy circle.

Swift Lightning pranced just outside that circle. *

See here, Firefly," he seemed to say This rabbit is what I came down for.

:

"

I got

it

for you."

February

7, ISiO.

She looked away from back at him. Swift Lightning wriggled his body. Firefly deigned to wag her beautiful tail just a trifle, Then, all at once, she ran to him, and thrust her muzzle against his neck, With a whine of joy, Swift Lightning dropped his offering at her feet. And then, forgetting what had happened, throat softened.

him

—then

they

feasted together on the hare,

flesh

of

Wapoos, the

jj

^^^vongh these wonderful

first

hours

of their matehood there was no method to the wanderings of Swift Lightning ^^^ rxvt^y. It was not until she began to grow tired that a definite objective

formed itself in Firefly's mind. She had followed Swift Lightning deep into the barrens, even as far as the edge of the tad lands. The great plains thrilled her, and, whenever she paused to gaze ^head of her and listen, it was not the g^^ she faced, but always the south—the direction of the forests, of the sun, of warmth and light and home. But exhaustion turned her the other way, roused in her the homing instinct that recalled her to the immediate proximity of the cairn of stones and the ship. No sooner had she headed toward them than Swift Lightning sensed what

Firefly steadied herself, fixing her eyes on him, he danced up to her. The next half-minute was the busiest halfminute of all his life. Without waiting to view the matter from any other

was impending. He knew that the cairn and the ship were vitally associated with the existence, and the presence of FireSwift-workfly, and he resented them. ing instinct warned him that he might

angle but her present one. Firefly lighted into him with all the fearlessness of her In those thirty seconds, Swift sex. Lightning received the very strong impression that he was being massacred, Yet he was not hurt much. Some of his hair was pulled out, but Firefly's up-

lose Firefly if she returned to the ship, Firefly, on the other hand, regarded the situation from an entirely different

As

braiding was, in fact, ninety-nine per cent, vocal, and only one per cent, bite; so that, when the thing was over. Swift Lightning still was of the impression that he had received a healthy drubbing, Not yet did not feel the hurt of it. once had he struck back. In his amazement and helplessness, he had not even dropped his rabbit. These facts, at the end of the thirty seconds, were taken She stood back stock of by Firefly. and looked at him. Swift Lightning, with the big hare in his mouth, faced The growl in Firefly's her patiently.

There were things on the she hated, and she hated them more than ever now that her master was gone. Especially the wild malemint dogs. But for many months the Food and ship had been her home. warmth were there, a comfortable bed. long hours in which to sleep. And she knew no reason why Swift Lightning should not return to these things with her. She had no intention of leaving him behind, and she had her own peculiarly feminine methods of persuasion, At times, when Swift Lightning held back, she whimpered and whined and view-point. ship which

coaxed him at

others,

until

he proceeded again;

when her

budge him. she

set

cajolery

failed to

off deliberately

by

SWIFT LIGHTNING.

ad'a Review, 7/e/U.



as if to give him up for good and, in a panic of apprehension, Swift rself

ghtning would very soon overtake her. In this way they came at last to the irn of rocks, over which was a leaden lb, on which were written the words :

\

CRED TO THE MeMQRY OF JOHN BRAINE OF THE Smithsonian Institution Died January 4, 1915 " Thus saith the Lord of Hosts Consider your ways." Haggai, Chap, i, 5, 7. And here, in one of the many wallows ready made by her body. Firefly lay ;

'

y.

and

he, too, listened.

For

minutes she lay watchful and inThen she rose from her wallow nt. sea. Swift id trotted toward the ightning followed her to the ice, and After that, a little at lere he stopped.

He was time, Firefly urged him on. the old Swift Lightning now. There as no longer the proud and defiant oise of his head; the springiness was )ne from his step, the nerve from his 3dy, Firefly was going back to her ime the ship. And he knew it. He he heard men's l>uld smell the ship the odour of dogs came to him. jices a last effort, he tried to tell Firefly [1 j"at this was the dead-line beyond which (ot ,

!



(

;

;

could not go. And still Firefly did understand. She entreated him. 'hree times she trotted on ahead of im, and three times she returned to 'here he lay like a stone-carved thing \ the snow, his nose straight out beveen his fore paws. Then a fourth me she left him, and this time she did

'i

ot

^

He

returned to the cairn and lay

in the

wallow

last

down

warmed by

Firefly's yet in Fire-

He was tired company he had not felt exhaustion.

golden body.

;

For many hours he had travelled without rest before he came upon the ship and her trail, and for many hours after that he had travelled with her. For more than a day and a night his splendid muscles had laboured without sleep. Slowly the somnolent lethargy of sheer He fought tiredness overcame him. He did not want to sleep. against it. His mental desire was to remain awake and watchful, that he might not miss Firefly should she return over the ice. A dozen times he stirred himself before he fell at last into uneasy slumber. It was a sleep filled with restless and swiftly changing dreams. He slept for several hours. When he awoke, a heavy gloom had settled over the white earth and sea. The stars were hidden. The aurora was dead. Round the crest of the cairn moaned a bit of wind a sobbing, heart-choking breath of wind as though the soul of the woman had come to weep over its dead. Swift Lightning circled in the direction of the ship. Out on the open ice, the wind, sweeping low over its fields, " bit at him fiercely. It was a snow" wind, driving thick volleys of rolling

\

I

pair.

It Swift Lightning lay beside her. to him that she was listening if she was expecting sound from out

emed

the cairn,

!



fly's

I'.any !

passing of his years, says that God was right in not giving to the beasts the power of reason, for with reason they would have exterminated men from the face of the earth and it was that reason which Swift Lightning lacked now. To-morrow, the next day, or the day after that held no meaning for him except as they existed in the present hour. And the present was black with the blackness and the hopelessness of des-

twn.

'

1

149

ot return.

And ntil

Swift Lightning waited

his motionless

body was

—waited

stiff

with

le cold, and the last ^as gone. Slowly he

spark of his hope turned shoreward. Lgain it was his old world that lay bout him. The beauty and the thrill f

the night were gone.

Once more

it

gray and empty chaos of gloom, illimitable space, filled with a Never had this laddening loneliness. )neliness pressed upon him as in this our like a physical weight, like a thing rushing out all hope and desire from is soul. The Cree, wise in the tragic

/as a

vast,







shotlike drift into his eyes and nostrils, In shutting out both vision and scent.

such a wind, with its playful piling-up of ridges and dunes, it was impossible to trail, useless to hunt. Yet, to Swift Lightning, on this night, Instinct told

him

it

that he

was a friend. was safe, no

how

close he went to the ship. brute instinct to sense and feel danger only so far as it can be heard by the ears, scented through the nose, or seen with the eyes.

matter

For

it

is

Slowly, stopping every few steps to and listen, he made his way round

sniff

STEAD'S REVIEW.

150

Ihc ship, and on the opposite side came to the icc-biidc^e that sloped up from the surface of the sea to the deck of the vessel. Up and down this bridtje travelled all feet of man and beast that be-

longed to Uie whaler up its hard-beaten surface were dragged the flesh and skins of slain bears and seals down it went the hunter and the trader over it they And no matter how fiercely returned. ;

;

;

wind brooms of the night swept it, they could not take away all its scents. These scents Swift Lightning drank in, a little at a time. And in his brute soul, fighting between the mastery of the wolf and the dog, there worked slowly a strange and wonderful magic of transHe wanted to go up! He mutation. the

wanted to go where Firefly had gone. He wanted to climb to the top of that

man-made

trail.

And then, in this hour when he might have gone on a little farther, the wind fell dead with a sleepy sigh, the clouds drifted away overhead, and unmasked rode the full moon, flooding the sea with was like the Over and about him, Swift Lightning saw what " so suddenly that it blaze of a gigantic flare. light

snowthe frolicsome trickery of the " wind had concealed for a space rolling ^the great dark hull, the v^eird, whitefrozen masts and spars, the ghostly shrouds, and, in that same instant, so near that astonishment seized upon them both, a thing that was life. The thing was a man. He stood not



two good leaps away, looking down on him from the top of the bridge, his face white in the moonlight, his eyes staring. It was Bronson, caretaker of the dogs aboard ship Bronson, nicknamed the " white Eskimo," because of his forty years he had spent twenty in the arctic. In that flash of an instant, he recognised in Swift Lightning, in spite of his And it was the colour, the true w^olf. first wolf that was not white he had ever seen on the ice of the polar sea. In him, by reason of birthright as well as of long experience, was the instinct of the scientist, as well as that of the He slipped back swiftly, but hunter. Then he without startling movement. ran to the kennels of snow and ice on the far side of the ship, where the dogs



were chained. Swift Lightning, even as he drifted out upon the ice, heard the faint clink

Pebruary

7, 10

Scent and sound wei very clear to him now. He smelled bot

of frosty steel.

He heard the move dogs. ment of dogs, and, with that movemen the clin!:-clink-clink of the chains. Bt he did not run. He was not afraid o wolves or of dogs, and in him ther flared up a sudden fire of hatred for th beasts that were making the chain " In him were bred deeply the clink. t< " have and to hold laws of the packits passions of matehood, of rivalry, o terrific fighting for sex-possessorship and in the smell of the pack he felt th( reason for Firefly's desertion of him His great loneliness and his yearning o1

t

men and

f t in

a few minutes before were submerged ii the fury of animositv that raged througl him. Sullenly he trotted away from the ship for a couple of hundred years. There were eight of Bronson's " bear" teasers that came down the ice-bridge eight lithe-bodied, long-legged, deep jowled Airedales that had been taught to hold silence, and to hang bv the cars



without yelping. It took them less than] a dozen seconds to pick up Swift Light-' ning's scent,

and

to

comprehend the

ness ahead of them. At the edge of a Sw^ift Lightning lay

busi-

snow-hummock,

crouched

flat

on

his

Less than twenty feet separated him from the onrushing pack when he shot out with the swiftness of an arrow, striking at the leading dog as he would have struck at a caribou. With the force of a hundred-and-forty-pound rock, he landed against the shoulder of the

belly.

eighty pound Airedale, and in that sam»e instant his jaws closed, and Bronson's best fighter gave scarcely a gasp as his neck snapped in the first mad fury of

A

Swift Lightning's vengeance. quarminute more and he was the

ter of a

centre of a furious, snarling, slashing m.ass of dog. Instead of fighting him as

Eskimo dogs or other wolves would have fought, the seven Airedales piled on to him as they would have pyramided themselves over a cat. Sheer force of weight

and number bore him down, and because of this weight and number because of seven crowding bodies seeking blindly to annihilate him Swift Lightning himself fought at an enormous advantage. His jaws closed on fore legs that snapped like sticks; his long teeth slashed upward and sideways into the he rolled and bellies of his enemies





;

,

'

1

iccuVs

Review,

SWIFT LIGHTNING.

tjtjtb.

and with every roll and twist found flesh and blood for his fangs. The sound of battle carried to the ship. Bronson, armed with a seal-spear, was pmning toward the fight. A cabin winOther dogs ,low flared with light. howled, and a score of malemiuts, sleeping heavily in their snow-wallows a few minutes before, uncurled themselves, .wisted,

,16

\ .'

stood up, and then combat.

raced to join the

That his own personal aflfair had become a matter of more or less exciting import to the entire ship did not occur Swift Lightning. He had f of gotten both men and ship. He was fighting

,to

blindly and furiously, and always at the (bottom of the pile of dogs. Hot bodies smothered him. He felt the rake and [slash of other teeth. They slit his flanks, / ripped at his sides, and twice they sank deep into his neck. Over the backs of the fighters rose a thin, vapourish exhalation of hot bodies like a mist. second of Bronson's dogs was out of the All of the others were fight for good. marked or crippled, and Swift Lightning \r had a chest-hold on a third when the .

.

,'



1

A

'

j

.,

\ '

'.

I,

.'

.

I

j

^

,

I

,

malemiut sledge-dogs began streaming joyously into the melee. Now, the normal malemiut loves to fight, just as a healthy small boy loves to play. He will fight his brother or his best friend. So, when the sledgedogs piled into Swift Lightning's fight, the character of the whole performance was changed. They had no way of knowing that a legitimate quarry was at the bottom of the heap. The first malemint sank his teeth into the neck of an Airedale a second leaped in, and then a third and inside of thirty seconds every dog was fighting every other dog, Amid the irrespective of sex or breed. pandemonium of sound. Swift Lightning heard indistinctly the voice of a ;

;

man. It was Bronson, yelling lustily, and swinging his spear. Other figures were running from the ship, and when Swift Lightning rolled at last to the edge of the fight, half a dozen Eskimo whips were cutting like live wires into the mass of bodies. The tip of one of these whips caught him on the end of his nose as he darted out. second uncoiled itself over his back, and wrapped itself round his body as he dodged between two figures, and ran into the

A

151

For some time he heard the wild voices of the men, and the lashing of their whips. But when he came to the cairn and squatted in his wallow, facing the sea, there was no longer the tumult of battle, but a deep silence. night.

In

that

silence

Swift

Lightning

and waited. He was neither whipped nor afraid of the odds he had fought, yet, in him there was no longer the desire to wreak vengeance on the creatures of the ship. His dream was broken. The hope that had lured him to it was gone. Two or three times he circled round the cairn, smelling of the old wallows and the foolsat

Then he faced the south. Many times he had faced that south, and as prints.

many he had mysterious

just failed to answer the came to him out of it.

call that

But to-night there was none of the

in-

of the wild wolf-pack to hold him back. Skagen, the great Dane, rode alone in his veins, and, through the darkness of his grief and loneliness, he saw again the strange visions of a sun, and of another world. And slowly he trotted toward them. Twice in the first two or three hundred yards ^e paused and looked back. Then he faced the tundra stincts

and went on

steadily.

When

he stopped again, it was where Firefly had turned from their wanderings in the direction of the ship. It/was half chance and half his yearning for her that brought him to the sheltered hollow where the storm had not quite

covered her foot-prints. as he smelled of them.

and

He whimpered And he turned

listened, and his heart throbbed with a last hope the hope of the beast that does no reason. Yet he had passed beyond the temptation to go back. Stronger than all other things, the south

was



calling

him now.

He

climbed up over the breast of the and stood silent once more before he went on. As he looked, a living thing came to the edge of the farther rim of the cup and stood, for a moment, profiled against the white mist And Swift Lightning did of the sky. not move, but stood like a thing turned suddenly into rigid ice, while the creaslope,

ture that was on his trail went down into the hollow, and then came up to-

ward him.

For he knew

that

it

v/as

STEAD'S REVIEW.

152

or a wolf, or one of the from the ship but Firefly, his mate. The moon and the stars shone on her as she came. They Ht up the questioning:; ca]c:crncss in her eyes, and ti^ave to her slim, beautiful body a shimmering Yet, when she stood at poldcn c:lo\v. Swift Lightning's side, her silken muzzle against his shaggy shoulder, she was not excited or apologetic, but just warmly not a

fox,



fig^hting do|js

February

1,

u

and quiveringly glad. Perhaps if had talked, she might have told W that she had had a long sleep, and t the fight on the ice had wakened h and that she was ready now to go wh ever he wanted to go. And there \\\ a queer sound in Swift Lightnin throat and, after a straight south.



And

Firefly,

he turned

little,

no

longer

A 4

soul

hesitatir

trotted at his side.

OUR ASIATIC NEIGHBOURS. VIII.

—Conclusion

:

For a Better Understanding.

By John A.

We Westerners can hardly hope to understand the Asiatics until we have learned to understand one another better. Many of our difficulties with them arise from the wrong relationships of our own social

and

industrial

life.

When we

study the evils of exploitation in Asia and the tropics, we find that they are due in large measure to our faulty currency systems, absurd land laws, wrong principles of inheritance, and especially to the strife between the employing class

and the employed.

It

would be quite

pertinent to discuss everything from profiteering to industrial democracy and

from education

to divorce laws in relaAsiatic problems. But at this time I shall confine myself to our more direct relationships with the Asiatics. In this connection the drift toward war with Japan demands earnest and urgent

tion

to

But no simple political meathought. sure can bring real and permanent friendship with that people. So we may well look first to such agencies as really tend to bring understanding in place of suspicion.

THE CHRISTIAN MISSIONS. no hesitation in giving the Christian missions a high place among I do so such agencies of friendship. with a full appreciation of their failings I have been disgusted to see missionaries trying to thrust their petty dogmas upon the Chinese as the very essentials of life; I have seen among some that spirit which the Indian poet Tagore haS described as I

have

;

Brailsford. simply a phase of our Western obsessioj for conquest I have been impressed witi their separation from the masses of tW people. Frugal and self-denying as thei life really is, it is like the luxury of Dive, in the eyes of a Chinese Lazarus. I hav seen and heard the most bitter denuncia tions of missions and missionaries. ButI having lived among them in town an country, I have become convinced thafj they are, almost without exception, doing noble work and helping effectively td break down barriers of race hatred. Thei) Chinese merchants of Hankow recentlj-fi gave a voluntary donation of four thou-j sand dollars to a mission school for blind; ;

boys. To those who desire racial friend-/ ship those four thousand dollars will be

more convincing than four thousand con verts.

In 1913

I

visited

a

district

%

I, in

China that had been exceedingly hostile foreigners only four or five years In before the Tayeh mining district. those intervening years a mission hosWhen 1 went pital had been at work. there I found the Chinese for seventeen miles around Tayeh not only friendly, I but eager to show every kindness. could multiply instances, but perhaps shall do better to quote the opinion of Dr. Charles W. Eliot, who toured China and Japan recently on behalf of the Carto



negie Peace Foundation

:



No

fair-minded observer can look at their (the missions') work, as now conducted, without feeling the highest respect for the men and women who do it on the spot, and for the Christian good-will in the Occident which

*

ad'a

Rwiew,

pports

OUR ASIATIC NEIGHBOURS.

7/2/».

The Protectant

it.

;fore the people

missionaries keep

good examples of the Chris-

they show to all the Chinese within their influence, young •id old, rich and poor, fine types of Christian anhood and womanhood and they perfectly ustrate in practical ways the Christian doc\ ',ine of universal brotherhood, of a love which 'anscends the family and embraces humanity, a rule the missionaries, both men and .s 'omen, learn to speak some Chinese dialect, nd become intimately acquainted with Chinese lanners and customs, and with the workings Other foreigners resif the Chinese mind. ent in China are often profoundly ignorant The missionaries are i everything Chinese. They teach Chinese enerally well-informed. hildren good Occidental literature, both reliSince the European and 'ious and secular. American mission boards have provided some f their missions with medical missionaries, been enihe missions thus strengthened have bled to answer in the most effective way the uestion of a certain lawyer to Jesus, "Who ii my neighbour?" They have not passed by /';in the other side like the priest and the Levite, / -tut have showed mercy to the injured and the ... It is apparently impossible to .) .iiseased. :Tiake Orientals take an interest in the dogmas '^hich have had such great importance in the of Christianity in Europe; but they (^ihistory are quite capable of inferring the value of from the practical beneficence of 'jXhristianity It is Christians in the family and in society. the missionaries who have kept before the Chinese the good works of Christianity. Without them, the Chinese would have been .left to infer the moral value of Christianity V.from the outrageous conduct of the Christian

an family

life;

who come

;ople

;

'

.

.

.

.

,

I

\'.

(



'

/Governments towards China during the past ''hundred and fifty years, from the brutalities .of Christian soldiers and sailors in time of war, from the alcoholism of the white races s it is seen in Chinese ports, and from the commercialised vices which the white races •

farmer or even the artisan. occupation has few noble traditions to live up to. So it is not surprising to find among the Japanese less honourable conduct in commerce than in other walks of life nor is it surprising to find that a suspicion of Japanese commercial practice has become widespread among Western peoples. The Japanese Government and large firms have been trying to win a better reputation but, of course, during the war years those in" " clined to sell goods below sample have " been making hay while the sun shines." So the Japanese have yet to win that high regard in which the Chinese are held on account of the probity of their big commercial and financial hooises. What do the Asiatics think of us as I believe that the honesty of traders? soldier, the

A

despised

;

;

the

practise in China. Against all these influences adverse to Christianity on the Chinese mind t'the missionaries have had to contend; and it is a miracle that they have won so large a j measure of success. •

'

r

)

1

J

be noted that Dr. Eliot speaks Protestant missions. My knowledge is confined mainly to

It will

only

own

of

the

A

Catholics

(

/

'

notable

feature among the that they live even mare frugally than the Protestants^ as a rule, and with fewer opportunities for relaxa-

[these.

is

tion.

COMMERCE. Commercial intercourse has, I believe, helped considerably toward a better understanding between the Chinese and Western peoples. With the Japanese the case is different. Trading has been despised in Japan from time immemorial ;

in the social classification the

merchant, however wealthy, was placed below the

British

is

held

in

high

regard

But Britons have yet to live down the opium wars and and the proud other inhuman doings throughout the East.

;

aloofness of the British residents in the East is certainly an occasion of offence. Most young Britons going to China to in commerce despise the thought of learning Chinese. In this regard they place themselves at a disadvantage in competition with Germans a disadvantage that will increase with time. Commercial methods could be improved. But in general this intercourse helps.

engage



EXCHANGE OF STUDENTS. from West and East who

.

;

153

Students

come

into direct contact with the other race help to dispel many misunderstandThe writings of Lafcadio Hearn ings. have helped to give many of us a real affection for the Japanese character. So, who pass students toe, the Asiatic through Western universities and then return to the East carry with them a

knowledge that helps

their people to ap-

One sees this preciate our civilisation. influence at its best in China. India does not afford so good a test, despite the fact that far greater numbers of Indians have Political prograduated in the West. blems are so pressing in India that schalars who would in other circumstances be bringing the knowledge of Britain and Europe home to their own are largely preoccupied with people They lead agitation for independence. the movement, in fact. In China, on the

Felnuarv

STEAD'S REVIEW.

154

1,

^

8tP^'

:

I

Other hand, one meets with many graduates whose appreciation of their University training in the United States or other Western countries i^, not damped to any great extent by political grievWhen America agreed to return ances. to China a great part of the Boxer indemnity, asking the Chinese Government ta use the fund for the education of selected Chinese students at American Universities, she made a most profitable investment in inter-racial good-will. The British Government has lately been asked by an officer of the Royal Colonial Institute to take a similar course. And it is that prominent Australians have set to work to arrange an exchange of students between this country and the Far East.

pleasing to

know

MEETING FACE TO FACE. It

has been suggested to

me

that and the

differences between Japan tralasian Dominions might

many Aus-

be cleared away if representatives of the Governments could meet at a round-table conThe value of such discussions ference. IS so obvious that it seems almost superIt is so easy to fluous to mention it. work ourselves into a passion against But even Mr. people who are absent. Hughes, when he met Baron Makino face to face at Paris, moderated his blatant alarmism. His own account of the talk shows that, and I feel sure that," if a verbatim report of the interview had

been taken,

Hughes

far

have shown Mr. it would more a gentleman than he

has admitted himself to be.

Probably the greater part of the suspicion and ill-feeling existing between Japan and Australia since the formation of the Commonwealth could have been swept off the board if the matter of immigration had been candidly discussed.

The idea that the Japanese bitterly resent our exclusionism is largely false. The Japanese Government repeatedly offered to meet Australia's wishes by agreement, but

Australian statesmen sent in reply nothing but curt acknowledgments. If that opportunity had beeri taken, the admission of Japanese would have been the

on exactly the same

basis as at present;

the exclusion of labourers would have effective. At the same time the bitter offence of the hard-drawn colour line and the dishonesty of the so-

been fully as

education test would have be« avoided. The Japanese offered us wh WO we wanted with the hand of friendship?

called

crain

[

to

seize

our politicians preferred thing and to snub Japan. It is a pity did not meet Japan's representatives

ior

tl

tht

',

fa( ^;i

to face.

Let us hope that candid discussion wi be sought regarding the differences th

I i

31

are now raising their heads. There is technical difficulty in the way: Australia foreign affairs are arranged for her fro London. But surely the British Gover

sill

Fi

re

ment would welcome

direct interchang to be hoped, too, that an

of views. It is such conferences will be carried on Secret diplomat; the light erf day. No doub nourishes popular suspicion. there is some resentment in Australia against the present arrangement for ad ii!

mitting

and

G

Japanese merchants, studenti because the dealings havt!

travellers,

been kept so much in the dark. If th«; arrangement is bad, the sooner it is ex': posed the -better. If it is good, why not

make

it

known?

While Governmental conferences aro desirable, is there not even more to bd hoped for from meetings of commercia men, professional men and labour repre'^ sentatives of the two races? With com ,

mon

already at hand, these wooild gatherings provide rich soil for In the seeds of inter-racial friendship. a previous article, I have made special mention of the community of interests between the workers in East and West. But I have pointed out that there ii^ interests

special difficulty in arranging workers* conferences because of the lack of a language mutually understood. The only hope for making such conferences fruitful seems to lie in the general acquisition of some easily learned universal language such as Esperanto.

ESPERANTO.

The

teaching of Esperanto in the schools should go far toward developing understanding between the races. The Esperanto Notes in stead's have shown how easily the language is learned by children, and how it is appreciated by If educationists as a mental exercise. it were generally taught here, so as to enable our children to correspond with Esperantists in the East there are plenty in Japan much knowledge of the





!'

(

Steada Review.

.

two

i

.:

7/i/tO.

QUR ASIATIC NEIGHBOURS.

civilisations would be mutually gained, and would form a sound basis for good-will.

^

Now,

THE INDENTURE SYSTEM. to come to the more immediate

needs We have a definite flagrant abuse at our doors in the indenture system, The evils of this system have been well " shown in Rev. John Burton's book, The Fiji of To-day," and in the Rev. C. F. Andrews' report on indenture Fiji, recently reviewed in this magazme. The abuses are inseparable from the system, Where labour is unfree, no amount of Government mspection can prevent a bad overseer from behaving after the Manner " Uncle Tom's Cabin." In of those m :

I

.

i

,

m

new territories recently brought, wholly or partly, under Australia's rule

the

— New

Guinea and

Nauru— mdenture

is

not hypocrisy for our politicians to pretend to champion a " " White Australia while supporting this semi-slavery? recognised.

;

'

,

1 •

j

;



:

is

Is

it

THE IMMIGRATION LAWS. The exclusion of Asiatic immigrants to many the beginning and the end of " "

White Australia I have policy. asked the readers of these articles to consider whether the concentration on exclusionism and the militarism that goes with it do not tend to blind us to more vital issues-. It is certainly a mistake to regard our exclusion policy as a likely cause of war in the near future. To the

the Japanese people in general it is a matter of but small concern. Nevertheless, it is likely ia lead to more serious misunderstanding in the future, and I think we might well try to modify our iav;s so as to meet valid objections. Certainly the Australian plan of drawing the coldur line by applying an impossible education test to Asiatics is dishonest as well as offensive. Straight exclusion woTild be more decent. But I am convinced that some intercourse between the races is inevitable, and that we could (make that intercourse more friendly and more profitable (in the highest sense) by coming to know, each of us, one or two congenial spirits of the alien race. Many of us who have lived among the Asiatics

know a few at least whom we should be glad to welcome as comrades in business or pleaslire, in school or market, in church

o'-

home

life.

Far from spoiling

155

our social or industrial life, they would be a positive help. Could we find a means of admittmg such while excluding thosc whose ignorance would make them an easy prey to exploiters and ready weapons to be used against all organised efforts to win improved conditions of

employment?

I

believe that this result

might be gained by the imposition of a real education test, including English, up to, say,

third-grade standard.

The

ability

speak the language of the country would be the best of safeguards against exploitation and tlie tendency to form a

to

The small numbers that would gain admission under such a test would be no more than could be readily absorbed into the industries. They would not have acquired this knowledge of EngHsh without learning a good deal of Western modes of life and the problems of Does the Labour Western society. servile caste.

still fear that they might be used break strikes? Then let him ask himSelf whether there have ever been better unionists than the Japanese on the sugar ^^Ids of Hawaii, or the Chinese, who ^^ve actually been admitted to white "^^n's unions in New Zealand.

leader to

Sexual irregularities among Asiatics living in Western lands are often held up as a peculiar menace. Now. I believe that no unbiased observer of Chinese life will dispute that there is less indiscriminate vice in that country than in Western lands. The irregularities that have created many scandals are due wholly, I believe, to the fact that immigrants are

separated from family life. Even when white men are deprived of opportunities of home life, ill consequences ensue, But the life of the family counts for more In stu'dying the vice and to an Asiatic. crime prevalent among the Indian indentured labourers in Fiji, the Rev. C. F. Andrews came to the conclusion that it

was mainly due

to the violent

removal

Indians from their family circles, with all manner of traditions and bonds of affection to keep them pure in thought, word and deed. He advocated that they should be encouraged to have their families with them. Certainly if of

these

we

are to have Asiatics among us, and wish them to lead uncorrupted lives, we should not hinder them, as we do, from Ave bringing their wives and families ;

should give them every encouragement

and

February

STEAD'S REI'IEIV.

156

If

then

the

most

likely

war with Japan could be

help.

THE ONE GRAVE DANGER. However, a.s I have said, it is not our exclusion policy that gives rise to the danger of war already looming before us. It is the conflict between Japanese and Western financial interests in the I have advocated that the Far East. Governments of the West should leave the financi«:rs tj fight their own battles. It might be that, if diplomatic support were taken away, the Governments of China and Persia, for instance, would repudiate their old debts and seek out new

7,

1920.

occasion of so easily re-

moved, and with no ill consequences, why is it not done? The trouble is that

we

all like to be flattered with appeals to our chivalry. It is said of the Arab that he is so kind-hearted that he hates to see It any life taken unless by himself. matters not that our Western nations have been guilty of most cruel outrages not to mention Persia, against China Egypt and the rest. If we see her sufof Japan, and fering injury at the hands " Come and save someone cries to us, poor China," wc do not look to see who raises the cry. We do not consider whe-





money-lenders. But they would soon be They would brought to their senses. then find it impossible to deal with any but those who charged exorbitant rates of interest, and used every means of swindling the borrowers. Decent finan-

we are rescuing the fly from the spider in order to hand it to the cat. stamp on the spider. Not only so, but we are ready to throw a whole world a racial into the most bitter of wars

com-

prejudice incline us to lend a willing ear to any outcry against Japanese aggres-

ciers,

bv withholding

credit, wotild

pel such Governments to mend their ways, and the peoples of these countries would be encouraged to put men of better character in control of aflfairs. Diplomatic interference in China, for

instance, secures the Western investor, whether he lends to honest or dishonest administrators, whether for good purIn its actual working it poses or bad. has been found to do serious injury to China, just as to Turkey, Egypt and

Persia. But, of course, the cry is raised that the interference of the Western dip-

designed to save China from a great part of Unfortunately, Japan. China has already been lost to Japan. It Some part has could have been saved. not by diplomatic actually been saved interference, but by Japan's necessity of keeping her credit good with Western The rest could have been financiers. saved and China could still be saved for the future if Western eflforts were really devoted to her salvation and not to a scramble for the spoils.

lomats

is





If we insisted that our financiers in the East should fight their own battles with the weapons of credit instead of relying upon our armies and navies to back their claims for interest and prin-

ther

We

war

—without



knowing why.

Fear and

Those who have interests to serve might convince even themselves that they were thoroughly sincere in raising the cry " of Yellow peril." Certain it is that they would have no difficulty in rousing the sion.

war-spirit of the W^est, both in the World and around the shores of

Old the

Pacific.

would be cynical to appeal, as J. O. Bland and some other writers do, to the argument that we had better let Japan have her way in Eastern Asia in order It

P.

that her attention may be diverted from our own lands. The popular mind does not respond to such an appeal. But is it not madness to talk of saving China, when the real issue between Japan and :he Western nations is which shall have the gains from the financial exploitation of China? None of us wants to go to

for the financiers' 10 per cent. Could not at least begin an agitation to withdraw armed backing from our finan-

war

we

cial

adventurers?

we should give real help to China. should at the same time remove that appearance of hostility to Japan which provides their militarists with a telling

great difficulties remain, and the my mind, is the progressive corruption of Western society by finanBut cial tribute drawn from the East. the intercourse of the races has begun. East and W'est have met. There is no going back. All we can do is to demand the removal of patent abuses and seek earnestly the way of a better understand-

appeal to popular fear.

ing.

cipal,

We

Still

greatest, to

u

157

Htead'a jeevieiD, 7/2/80. Sf

Catechism on Current Events* Q.— Is

it a fact that over 80,000 Australian " misssoldiers have been listed as

',

'

ing "?



^

,

'

^ f

f

'

;

n

A. No. A statement to this effect has been circulated, but the person responsible for it probably confused the number missing with the large list of those

who

enlisted, but did not actually

The

difference between enand embarkations was about 87,000 due to deaths before embarkation, discharges, desertions and double Details of the numbers of enlistments.

embark.

listments



desertions,

etc.,

Q.~How many ally

A.



in publishea March showed that, out of 339,716 men sent abroad, 58,035 had lost their lives, and the authorities had record of the whereabouts of 264,365. This left 7416

figures

men unaccounted for. Q.— Are there any black army

of

troops among the occupation in Ge*'-

many?



A. The French have had coloured See stead's, June 38, troops there. 1919, page 687.

Q.— What debt



proportion of Britain's national owed to British investors?

is

A. About three- fourths, or £6,000,€00,000 out of the total of £8,000,000,000. The interest to be paid to the Home investors alone will be about £300,000,000 a year a sum almost equal to the entire savings of the nation in



pre-war years. Q. — Can companies

Q.— Are

in Australia, as in Bri-

escape the war-time profits tax by issuing the profits as bonus shares?

of escape is not 'Open in Australia, according to the TreaIn Engsury's decision of the law. land it was by a ruling of the law courts in a test case, that the profits allocated to bonus shares escaped taxation, but no such case has been brought before the courts here.

Q.— Is

easy

way

the revenue from the war-time protax large?

fits

A.

—The

profits

still

subject

to

— No.

The law ceased to operate on However, collections will continue to be made for two years, the actual levying of the tax being two A.

June

1919.

30,

years behind the winning of the profits. The delay has been caused by the intricate task of assessing the war-time profits.

Q.— How many Asiatics are there In German New Guinea? A. The latest figures are for 1914. At that time the number was about 1800, including 1377 Chinese, 336 Japanese, and Most of the a number of Malayans. Japanese were artisans or business men. Of the Chinese 583 were artisans, 186 labourers, 173 business men, 44 mechani-

and many were gardeners and servants. Over lOOO of them lived in and around Rabaul.

cal engineers,

Q.

— What are the leading industries of man New Guinea? A. The production



collections for the year, 1918-19. amounted to £1,306,647; the es-

Ger-



of copra ^the is easily oily flesh of the dried cocoanut Out of 85,475 acres under cultifirst. vation in 1914, 77,746 acres were planted



with cocoanut palms. There were 5600 acres of rubber, but this industry was not progressing. In smaller measure are

grown

Q.— Do

cocoa, coffee, tobacco, cotton, arsisal

hemp and

rice.

the missionary bodies own and culmuch land in New Guinea?

tivate

,

—This

business

the war-time profits tax?

rowroot,

tain,

A.

is



missing?

Allies'

1919-30

for

£3,300,000.

are not available.

of the Australians are actu-

Official

amount

timated

—Yes.

The

Catholic missions are In late German New Guinea they have close on 11,000 One acres, planted with cocoanuts. Catholic society, the Sacred Heart, owns 33,000 acres, of which 4350 are under cultivation; the Holy Ghost Society, with 5350 cultivated; acres, 16,500 others have smaller areas. The Methodist mission, conducted from Australia,

A.

particularly

active.

has 3600 acres, with 550 cultivated. The actual work is done by indentured native labourers.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

158

Q.— Is

New Guinea

the

danger

A.



bird of Paradise in

of extinction?

to protect this species that just prohibited the exportation of the birds It

is

Commonwealth Government has

the

or

the pkiniage, except under Hcence. There has been httle trade in birds of Paradise from Papua, but a very large trade from late German New Guinea. Thus, from the latter territory in the year before the war there were exported

K;.091 birds, of a total value of £54,848. The only export of a higher total value was copVa. The plumage of these birds is the principal export of Dutch New

Guinea. * _> Does not Britain control more Q.



world's States?

A.

than

petroleum

the

of

the

United

—British

financiers control so many foreign oil fields that they may, in a few years, have larger supplies than the United States, despite the fact that in 1917 the latter country produced in her own territory seven-tenths of the world's total output of something over 500,000,000 barrels. British oil financier. Mr. E. M. Edgar, recently estimated that, according to the preserit trend, the United States would require, in ten years' time, to buy 500,000,000 barrels a year from abroad, and mostly from British operators. He said America had

A

wasted her oil resources, and her finanhad not had so great success as Britons in obtaining concessions, even in tropical America. He said the Shell (British) group, wath an estimated capital of £100,000,000, had interests in Mexico. Russia, the East Indies, Roumania, Egypt, Venezuela, Trinidad, India, and many parts of the Far East. ciers

Britain

now

Q.— Could

holds the Persian

field also.

me any particular:, monument erected, to their

you give

about the comrades who died

German

internees

in captivity, iby the in New South

Wales, which was destroyed some

fme

ago?



A. You probably refer to the monument erected by the internees of Trial The monument was twenty feet Bay. high, and ten feet square at the base; it was built of solid Protests granite. were made to the Government against the

monument being permitted

main, and on July

1st,

to

re-

1919, part of

it

was blown away by persons unknown. Two days later the work of demolition

February

7,

IS

was completed, whicli suggests that th authorities were at any rate passive i: the matter. No arrests were made.

Q.— Did

the internees get permission to put up the memorial?

A.

—Of course they had to

reply

the

to, and in his conveyed to the

protests

Government, Mr. Watt pointed out that the whole cost had been defrayed by the internees, and that, when permission wasi given for its erection, instructions were issued that it was not to be of a large ,

or conspicuous nature. He added, " The defence authorities point out that permission was given for the erection of the monument on the ground that a refusal to allow this action might possibly

have been reported to Germany through the neutral consulate representing German interests in Australia, and have resulted in reprisals being instituted by the Germans against our men in their hands. It is desirable that no action should be taken which could possibly give the German Government any excuse for refusing to afford proper facili ties to our own prisoners of war in Germany for looking after their comrades' graves and for placing over such graves a suitable monument." ,

Q.— How

could

the



German Government

have retaliated it surely did not permit British internees to erect monuments?

A.

—That

is what it did do, and it is evidently to this that Mr. Watt referred. Photographs of such monuments have appeared in British and Australiat* It would seem that German papers.

and returned soldiers have not regarded these monuments as insulting to their patriotism, but have actually taken steps to have them properly precivilians

served. It is amusing by the way to note the extraordinary translations given by a Sydney evening paper, of the inscriptions on this Trial Bay monument,

which were copied in counOne try papers throughout Australia. " Arno Friedrich, reads, for instance: translations

Aus. Westaustralien Ger. 22.2.1888 Zu Er Verungluckte Beim Chemnitz. Baden, am 25.6.1917. Und Wurde Von Der See Fortgetrieben," and the " trans"

"A. was given as follows Friedrich of West Australia, Born 22.2.1888 at Chemnitz. He met with misfortune at Baden on the 25.6.17. and was from there driven forth." Which lation

:

Stead'9 Review, 7/2/SO.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

suggests that something happened to him at Baden in Germany in 1917, and that he was expelled from the place Actually of course the inscription tells of his accident whilst bathing, and of his being SAvept out to sea and drowned. Can we

,

i

I

wonder

at

the ignorance

displayed by newspapers concerning European conditions when they make such blunders in a small matter like this?

j ,'

i

n

Q.—ls it a fact who were

that the Austrian internees repatriated from Australia have not yet reached their home-land?



'

A. The Austrians from Australia and New Zealand were shipped off on the Frankfurt in September last. When the vessel reached Suez thev were all disembarked, and herded into a " segregation camp," which appears to have been worse than even Holdsworthy in the early days. After three weeks' stay there, they were put into cattle-trucks, and transported to an " alien internment camp" at Sidi-Bishr, near Alexandria. No advices have yet reached Australia as to what hapjjpned them after that.

Apparently Great Britain found it impossible to send them on to Austria, as the Allies have deprived that country of all its harbours, and have allowed it no access to the sea. It is possible also that amongst the Austrians be

may

many

Dalmatians and Jugo-Slavs, new Allies of ours, whom the British do not care to hind, in case they join the Serbs against the Italians.

Q.— How many men

still

— T'here are eleven. men

interned at

from Aus-

including a famous specialist, a Roman Catholic priest, and several wellknown engineers. In addition, there are tralia,

thirty-nine

men

from

German

New

and Guinea, other islands. The majority of these are planters. Their case IS even harder than that of the others as they were resident in German

were not living in a British country. They were deported, having to leave their plantations, which were of considerable value, and on which they «nust have expended much labour. Apparently they will not have these restored to them, and will have to look for compensation to the German Governterritory,

ment.

a fact that every intaniee was

one shilling a day by the Commonwealth Government during con-

finement? ^'^•— The

men imprisoned in Tasmania appear to have received this payment

from the Tasmanian Government, and It for some time after they reached It was stopped soon, Holdsworthy.

got

however.

No

other internee got the shilAll they received was 5s when they left camp, although, by working, they were able to secure a payment of Is. a working day. Hardly trade ling a day.

union rates

!

Q.— Does

the Hague Convention not provide that one shilling a day had to be paid to all prisoners?

^'^f-The Hague Convention does not touch on civilian prisoners of war, for the internment of civilians was apparently not contemplated when the Convention was drawn It was not until up. Great Britain began imprisoning Ger-

man

civilians

that

were interned. soners

may

in

Germany

civilian pri-

be regarded as being on the

same footing Convention

aliens

Presumably

as military prisoners.

The

provides that these latter shall be treated as regards board, lodging and clothing on the same footing as the troops of the Government which captured them. Work done by them naist be paid for at the rates in force for work of a similar kind done by soldiers of the state in which they are imprisoned. The wages of prisoners must go

towards improving their position, and

are

Holdsworthy?

A-

it

pairt

!

;

,

Q.—ls

159

the balance must be paid them on their release, after deducting the cost of their maintenance. According to this, it would appear that those who worked at

Holdsworthy should have been paid at 6s. per day, and should there-

the rate of fore,

have received a respectable sum

when they were liberated. Q.— Why did the French aviator, abandon

Poulet, his flight to Australia?

^.—At the time he gave up, he had no hope of winning the Commonwealth Government's prize of £10,000. He candidly wanted the money, 'partly for the support of the children of the famous Vedrines. with whom he was to have co-operated in the flight. The original arrangement was that Poulet should not attempt to fly right through to Australia, but should go about half-way, carry-

STEAD'S REVIEW,

160

so that he might to fly for the Hut the death of Vedrines put prize. an end to these plans. Poulet then set out on the flight alone. He was depen-

ing spare parts, assist Vedritics,

etc.,



— Mr.

Jenkins was captured by bandits, and was not released till a ransom was paid. Suspicion was raised that he had himself been in collusion with

A.

captors, seeking by this means to rouse public sentiment in the United States in favour of armed intervention. The Mexican Government instituted a judicial inquiry into the whole affair. In the course of this investigation, Mr. Jenkins was alleged to have given contradictory evidence. He was accused of The United perjury, and arrested. States demanded his release. The Mexi-

his

can Government declared he was being treated simply as any other man accused of the same crime. America sent back a strong note, accusing the Mexican Government of insincerity, and demanding release. Mexico again proUltimately Mr. Jenkins was reon bail. have not heard

Mr. Jenkins' tested.

leased

We

whether the charge against him was lowed up after that. Q.

— Did the

fol-

Mexican Government deny Mr.

Jenkins the right of bail?

A.

Q.— Was an ultimatum sent

who was

dent on voluntary subscriptions. Q. Have you details of the Jenkins incident, which recently brought Mexico and the United States to the brink of war?

—The cablegrams

distinctly implied

that the right of bail had been refused, and that this right was the substance of the United But States' demand. exactly the opposite appears to be the

The Nezv Republic, of December 10th, asserts that both before and after the preliminary hearing, at which Jen" was kins was committed for trial, he free to obtain his liberty on bail, which the judge fixed at the moderate sum of 1000 pesos (£100) but Jenkins volunremained in gaol." ;

Q.

— In

what capacity was Mr. Jenkins working in Mexico? A. The cables described him simply



as a cofnsular officer. speaks of him as

named

Jenkins,

The A^ew

"

who

a

Reptihlic

business

man

incidentally^ dis-

charges consular functions."

to

7,

IPaft.

Mexico over

the Jenkins incident?

A.

— Not

How-

an actual ultimatum.

ever, the situation became so serious that a proposal to break off diplomatic re-

was introduced into the United States Senate by Senator Fall, chairman of the committee investigating Mexican

lations

aflFairs.

Q.

— Is

there any truth in the reports that Americans are themselves stirring up trouble in Mexico?

— Many

American writers have the charge that the big American oil operators in Mexico, and other interested financiers have promoted disturbances, so that American popular A.

made

feeling might be strengthened in favour The quarrel between of intervention. the oil companies and the Mexican Government has dragged on for years. It arises mainly from the action of a w^eak government of past years, which sold a perpetual right to the oil yield of cer-

present Carranza Govit was not legal thus to sign away the yield of future generations, and has sought to assert its report right in a new constitution. received some months ago seemed to indicate that Mexico had yielded this demand, but a later cablegram shows that the matter is still a cause of contention. It is difficult to decide how far to believe the charges that foreign financiers are deliberately stirring up internal strife

tain areas.

The

ernment contends that

A

and provoking

Q.— is to

A.

truth.

tarily

February

atrocities in

Mexico.

not too late now to send relief the starving babies of Europe?

it

— Doubtless

hundreds of thousands

help, but the distress be more intense than ever during the coming two or three months. The transportation of food, fuel and clothing within Europe is being only gradually reorganised the European harRelief vests are not due for months. must come from the outside world, or thousands probably millions more will

are already is

likely

beyond

to

;





perish.

Q.— To whom for



should

donations

the Save-the-Children

be

sent

Fund?

A. To the Hon. Secretary. Save-theChildren Fund. Town Hall'. Melbourne.

mead't Review,

7/2/20.

.161

FACTS ABOUT THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE. Mr. F. Sefton Delmar tells in The Nineteenth Century of his talks with prominent German Generals in Berlin. From them he learned interesting particulars about some of the critical moments of the war. They one and all lamented thart some means had not been found of making a reasonable peace at an earlier

von period of the war, and declared that Ludendorff's pig-headedness had been the chief obstacle in the way. Men like von Kluck, Ho'fmann, von S'eeckt von Mackensen's brilliant Chief of Staff Erzberger, Bernstorff assured him that Ludendorff's capacity as an organiser





his incapacity and conceit as a would-be Soon after succeeding Falstatesman. kenhayn, he felt completely under the

was only equalled by

over-weening

thumb

of

Major

Nikolai, the egregious

>chief of the Intelligence

Department.

sway over Ludendorflf is the more surprising when it is remembered how, during Nikolai's

regime, the German Press, acting at the dictation of Nikolai and of Major

the Falkenhayn

Deutelmoser

—who

was

nothing

more

than

Nikolai's tool in the Military Press Bureau at Berlin had in a great measure minimised and even ignored Ludendorff's part in the military operations. Ludendorff, of course, knew of the intimate relation between Falkenhayn,



Nikolai and Deutelmoser in all publicistic matand it has been credibly reported to rne by one who was in intimate touch with him that as soon as he came into power he at once called Major Nikolai to account for the way in which he had been treated in the Press. ters,

Nikolai, who was aware that moments now and again occur in life when it is safer to the truth, was perfectly frank in his tell " von Falkenhayn As long as General answer " was my chief," he said, I naturally followed :

his behests. Now, however. I follow those of Ludenderff accepted this your Excellency." natural and very German explanation, and, as

went on, relations between him and Nikolai became increasingly cordial, and his faith in Nikolai's judgment complete. So much was this the case that certain circles ascribe to Nikolai's evil influence half the woes of Germany. Ludendorff, in his book, has a naive way of expurgating history, as Mr. Delmar shows by giving the true account of the events which led up to the battle of

time

It appears that von PrittGeneral in command in East Prussia, after being defeated by the surprisingly efficient, well equipped and numerous troops of Rennenkampf at Gumbinnen suddenly foimd Samsonoff with 200,000 soldiers on his flank. Panic-

Tannenburg. witz, the

he ordered retreat Vistula ere it was too late.

stricken,

across the

In long night and day marches the exhausted troops left the Russian lines behind them with the intention of moving by road and railway via Insterburg. Acting under instructions from von Prittwitz, the troops on the Vistula had already made preparations to blow up the bridges over that river as soon as the

Germans were across and

to flood the

At the was taken on the night of Gumbinnen, Hofmann, then von Prittwitz's first General-Staff officer, went to his General and implored both him and his Chief of Staff, von Waldersee, not to follow Such a such counsels of panic and despair. retreat would mean the sacrifice of Konigsberg and the whole of East Prussia and more. Hiofmann acknowledged that it would be folly to continue the fight against Rennenkampf with Samsonoff advancing against the German flank and lines of communication, and he proposed that the German army should feign a retreat on Konigsberg and then suddenly turn south and trust to smashing Samsonoff before that General could receive help from Rennenkampf. It was a desperate plan, but it was a by cutting the dykes.

Elbing

Plain

critical

moment when

this decision

case of desperate diseases requiring desperate Von Prittwitz paced the room remedies. .striking his forehead, a picture of helplessness. He would listen to neither argument nor adHis Chief of Staff, who was almost in vice. the same plight, also shirked taking the tremendous responsibility that Hofmann's proposal involved. In these gloomy circumstances, Hofmann determined to act for himself. He adopted the e.xtraordinary course of denouncing his Chief for incompetence. In a despatch to von Moltke at Headquarters on the night of Gumbinnen, August 20th, he explained the criticalness of the position, and said straight out that both von Prittwitz and his Chief of Staff

was

had

lost their heads,

and asked what he

to do.

Von Moltke acted at once. He appointed Hofmann to the temporary command of von Prittwitz' army, and sent von Hindenburg and Ludendorff to East Prussia. In addition he withdrew troops from the Western Front and railed them across Germany. The irony of the situawas that, whilst the withdrawal of these troops prevented the success of the tion

operations in France, they reached East Prussia after the famous battle af Tan-



ncnberg had been fought and won were not after all required. Hofmann, when he took charge, proceeded to at once put in operation the plan he had urged in vain on von Prittwitz.

He countermanded

the orders for a retreat

and disT>nsed his troops for an eventual combat with Samsonoff, marching by way of Angerburg with only cavalry screens to the Vistula

STEAD'S REVIEW.

162 iicro.ss

tlic

lii.stfrl)ur^

terrihU- risk

lie

Front.

was moved by

In

tukiuK

lliis

his

knowledge The two in-

of Russian military psychoIoRv. credible hypotheses on which lie acted botli turned out to lie justilied. For Rennenkampf in his easy-goinji cocksureness broke the one rule that every war in history has impressed upon strategists and failed to pursue the retreating Germans with any energy, even spending several days in leisurely holidaying at Insterburg. The second miracle was that Samsonoft's and Renmnkampf's armies continued to act independently of each other.

When

LudendorfF and Hindenburg ar-

rived they found that the dispofsition of troops which made possible the battle of Tannenburfj had already been carried out by Hofmann. All that the newcomers had to do was to develop the operation. Yet in Ludendorff's memoirs there is no mention of Hofmann's contribution to in fact, he takes the whole the event ;

credit himself.

Von Kluck

told Mr. Delmar that the plan was not to rush to Paris, but to sweep south-east past the capital with the idea of railing up the Allied

German

armies and dealing France an annihilating blow before England could throw her

whole weight into the fray. German strategy was always to capture armies rather than

cities.

He was

Crown Prince through

at

bitter against the exfor attempting to break

Verdun.

That, he said, was

strategic folly, only to be explained by reason o'f dynastic display and desire for

military glory. By humouring the Prince the General Staff frittered away va-luable

shock troops which were urgently needed by the first army. On top of this it withdrew troops for East Prussia, which directly brought about the German disaster on the Marne. Kluck

laid

special

stress

on the

fact

that

he had thrice protested against an advance across the Marne before he finally obeyed von Moltke's orders. He in vain pointed out to the General Staff the terrible risk of undertaking such a movement without first knowing what reserves the French had in Paris. He was ordered not to attack Paris, but to

February

7, 19if>.

Paris, and naturally dethat he sliould have a reserve army to safeguard his right flank in such a move-

sweep south-east past

manded

ment. Von Moltkc assured him, but on mere conjecture, that the French had no such reserves as he feared at their disposal in the capital, and von Kluck set his troops .in motion. He had five Army Corps, including the Fourth Reserve Army Corps, which he placed on his right flank. The result soon showed the justness of his fears. He laid stress upon the fact that from the start he had considered the troops placed at iiis disposal insufficient for the task allotted io him, and at the first attack of M.anoury's troops on his flank nervously scented danger. It now appears that Major Nikalai had received information that the French had just withdrawn the troops that had hitherto been stationed on the Italian frontier, and that these were known to be on their way to Paris. He apparently neglected to inform von Maltke or imparted the news so ineffectively that it failed to make any impression. Anyhow, the latter assured von Kluck that there was no danger of an outflanking attack from Paris, When Manoury appeared at the head of the Paris army, on his right flank, von Kluck cooild only retire.

His whole anxiety was thenceforth to secure the retreat of his army to the Aisne. Screening his intention as best he could from General French and General d'Esperey's Fifth Army, he pivoted his four Army Corps into line, roughly speaking, with the 4th Reserve Army Corps, which he had left on his right flank, and thus threw his whole force against the On checking their Manoury-Gallieni Front. assault he again immediately pivoted this new the end of his new right wing as Front, using pivoting centre until the troops were all safely entrenched behind the Aisne. Technically and tactically the retreat was a brilliant success. It was carried out under the greatest difficulty, not only owing to the menace from the advancing British and French armies on the exposed left wing, but because the first pivoting movement had to be made across his own lines of communication. Strategically, it was dire defeat for it meant, as the Germans well knew, the failure of all their hopes of a swift smash through the French armies. It meant that the German forces on the West Front vs'ould be pinned to trench warfare and that they would lose the war. ;

THE AUCTION SALE OF GERMANY. The Economist's correspondent in Bergives some amazing particulars of the The rise financial position in Germany.

lin

foreign exchanges is draining thecountry of what remains of her national wealth, and both Germans and Allied observers are convinced that ruin must

of

soon overtake her unless she can conimported goods with a mark at less than an eighth of its gold value, and at the same tjme selling valuable goods abroad* at a third or a fourth of their world price. No remedy has yet been found. On a gold basis trive to stop paying for

&i

.

verything jemiany.

The if

vf

AUCTION SALE OF GERMANY.

Vi/so.

t«atif3 R0vie^x>,

is

extraordinarily

much the same* with gas and coal, and other regular items in living costs. Counting in gold, one pays at most a half of pre-war prices, more often a fourth

il7.

cheap in

disparity Ijctween the

low buying power

mark abroad and its high buying power produces some very remarkable economi-

phenomena, which

Ji

I

I

;

:

;

I

j

since 1914, the fall in German exchange from 20 to about 160 to the i\ would make German living cost considerably less than a quarter of English. This rough calculation is confirmed

German shops, house servants, manufactured goods, food, and even clothing. Naturally, foreigners, attracted by the cheapness of living, are flockby

my

is

or a fifth this at a time when the cost of living has gone up at least 100 per cent, in the rest of the world. ;

can best illustrate by r '.al I giving personal observations gained in Berlin. 3nc learns speedily that everything that apVj pears in the English alarmist Press about Gernan cheapness is true though the conseGerman alarmists are very y'luences drawn by from those drawn by British. The li lifferent of living in Berlin, even if one consumes ;, cost a consideralile proportion of imported goods, is probably less than a fourth of the cost of My rough calculation iS Gerliving abroad. many's price level in marks has risen threefold, possibly fourfold but if cost of living in Engtwo and a-half times has risen land !

It

servants,

the

lere

163

observations of

agents,



ing here in particular, Russian emigres, who escaped to Stockholm or Copenhagen with perhaps enough money to keep them for a year,

and who by coming to Germany find themselves (if prices do not rise any further, which highly unlikely) secure for four or five And all over Northern Europe, indiyears. viduals and firms hare discovered that the German exchange has lost all relations with the German price level, and are flocking here is

Although reckoned in marks, prices of sorts of manufactured articles have gone up immensely, reckoned in pounds all

sterling they are lower even than before the war. Pencils, for instance, which used to cost ©ne penny, can be bought for a half-penny. pint of good German ink has increased in price to a mark,

A

but at present exchange costs only about a penny, and so on. Food here is extraordinarily cheap so cheap that were it also plentiful which it is not



;



and were export prohibitions withdrawn, Germany could sell flour to America, eggs to Denmark, and meat to Australia, and make big profits. Eggs cost 1.90 marks each; in Copenhagen they cost 45 ore, which is nearly twice as much. For 70 pfennigs, which is well under a penny, one can buy enough fairly good bread to feed an average-sized family two days. Fresh meat is very hard to obtain, but what is obtained

is

about a

fourth of

Scandinavian

The best Mosel and Rhine wines sell prices. at between 9d. and 4/6 a bottle. Of course,

to buy up everything they can, so that The Vossische Zeitung's description, "The Auction Sale of Germany^' (Deutschlands Ausverkauf)

the prices of the more necessary food products are rigorously controlled, and during the last few months they have been kept down by But even the S chleichhanState subsidising. del prices and one can buy anything one likes in Schleichhandel are lower than English

is literally true.

prices.

Theoretically,

of

course,

foreign ex-

change and home price level ought to move up and down together at the same rate. But the fall c^ the German mark has been so rapid that it has been impos-

home

prices to adjust themselves accordingly. Only imported goods, therefore, are dear.

sible for

There are many important items of living

— for

The

is, of course, ruinous to ought to be corrected by a sharp rise in German exchange, but, as Germany cannot export largely, the cor-

thereby

instance, bousing, servants, tra-

ently on



;

;

;

It

rection takes the form of a steady and rapid price rise which is the worst possible solution for the Germans who are salaries,

taxes,



position

Germany.

in the cost

which, obviously, postages could not possibly be raised as rapidly as the exchanges went up. The Government refuses to take the mark's present depreciation as permanent, and State financial measures are therefore based on a very different kind of mark. State railway fares were lately put up 50 per cent. but, despite this, a first-class ticket from Warnemuende to Berlin costs only 70 marks, which is less than 9/- and though postage fees have also gone up about 50 per cent., one pays for the carrying of one's letters about threesixteenths of what one paid before the war the Berlin tram unit price is now 20 pfennigs instead of 10, so that for a trip for which one formerly paid Id. one now pays Id. An English friend of mine whose ^at tenancy was kept alive during the whole war, and who in 1914 paid in rent 2000 marks, which was £100, "m now paying a rent of 2700 marks, which is velling,



obliged to raise wages and and thus keep the mark permanits

present depreciated basis.

Naturally, the flock of" foreign speculators desire to assist at Germany's Auction " is great. Art works are disappearing. Sale The Wilhelmstrasse, Lutzowstrasse, and Kleiststrasse old picture and old furniture dealers are beset by Scandinavian antiques dealers, who find things despite the fact that German dealers have raised their prices several hundred per cent. so cheap that they can afford to buy with their eyes closed. The situation presents one of the strangest anomalies in economic history, and is a curious reversal of conditions immediately after the Russian revolution, when the rouble kept at about a third or a fourth of its gold parity, while home prices went up six-tenfold, so that Russia, counting in gold, was much dearer than before Even to-day the rouble sells on the war. foreign exchanges at least 20 times its value.

who

— —

February

STEAD'S REVIEW.

Ifi4

jnfiniil

its

liy

Imyiiij;

powtr

in

Russia.

mark, they would apparently be able

Tin

explanation is tliat the Russians, owinjj; to frontier conditions and to co-operation from ncinliliourinK countries which dread Bolshevik propai^anda, have inanaRed to kee|) down the flood of their currency in foreiK"

primary

wliereas the German mark in inexhaustihle streams.

countries,

7, iOti

J

write their war indebtedness down to tenth of its real figure. Supposing th amount of the loan to be, say, 150,000, 000,000 marks, if the mark recovered itold value, it would cast £7,500,000,000 t. redeem if it remains at the present de prcciation it could be redeemed foi

still

pours ahroad

;

Germans

are forced ta readjust their finances on the present basis of the If the

£750,000,000

!

AUSTRALIA'S TOP-HEAVY EMPIRE. "

had any interests in the Pacific would go down on my knees every evening and pray to be preserved from Australian control." If

before and

1

Islands.

from a

I

Thus Dr. R. W. Hornabrook.

;

tories practically undeveloped, and to talk a white-man policy in a coloured man's country. Australia has entered the world of international politics, and cannot be

permitted to continue in her dog-in-thepolicy, and endanger the peace of the world. The future peace of the world lies with England. Do not let Australia break it by short-sighted and egotistical policv with regard to the

manger

.

.

.

Pacific."

This quotation is from a letter sent to Mr. Lloyd George last October. It would be easy to criticise the writer's view of Australia spoiling the delightfully loving relations between Britain and The strong agitation in Japan Japan.

war

German

to

change

alliance

was

based on resentment, not against Aus policy, but against Britain's refusal to assist Japanese exploitation of China. But let that pass. The doctor is surely justified in condemning the insulttralia's

His

manuscript, which has been sent us for review, is a mingling of lectures, articles and letters to public men, all bearing on Australia's policy in the Pacific. Dr. Hornabrook has opinions, the most interesting of which is that Australia should give up the control of her island possessions in the tropics, with the exception of New Guinea. He argues that Australian control is bad for the islands and worse for Australia. In fact, he maintains that it is absolutely impossible for this little country to carry the huge responsibilities she has taken on herself. The load will hamper Australia, and the load itself will remain a useless burden, The doctor warns Ausundeveloped. tralia, also, that if she hangs on to the load without making any use of it, she will come into conflict with Japan and that, in such conflict, Japan will have the " Na country has any right on her side. right whatever to hold up these terri-

the

during

British to a

ing manner in which Australia has drawn the colour line, and in pointing out that this must embitter our relations with the Eastern people more and more as the

He advocates restrictions years go by. on immigration, even into the tropical territories of Australia, but such restrictions as would be applied to al! alike^ without distinction of race. ' For the sake of peace and r the sake of the islands. Dr. Hornabrook says, it is far better in every way that Australia should hand over the control to the Mother Country. neither the tact, ability, to handle the position. men are not fitted for

"

We

have

nor

money

Our

public

especially our Prime and present Minister, strings will be pulled as each party gets into powder in the House, and the islands will suiter." Australia's slow progress in populating the continent, and her utter failure to .

.

it,

.

develop the Northern Territory provide with strong arguments against any extension of her control over tropical this writer

lands.

strong:

—The

financial

argument

is

also

Our

financial difficulties are enormous. It only necessary to look into a few ef them to see that. Already our war pensions total i5,250,000 per annum, and they are almost certain to be at least £6,000.000 per annum' before long. To this we have to add our invalid and old age pensions of almost £4,000,000 per annum; in fact, with our war debts, Australia will have to provide, for some time at least, £21,000,000 a year in interest, in reis

patriation and in pensions, and this is all in addition to the ordinary Federal expenditure, and with a population of only 5,000,000.

I,

TOP-HEAVY EMPIRE.

Btead'a Review, t/i/W.

165

f

State debts have to be added to The total the Commonwealth.

The

.

those

cri

interest

annum.

is about £30,000,000 per Dr. Hornabrook says:

burden



When huge debt Australia is carrying tbnwy really dawns upon the people, there will be a great outcry for economy. And how If will the Pacific Islands fare through it all? the islands are to go ahead, and in any way to hold their own against the remarkable progress of Japan in the Marshalls and Carolines during the past four years, money will require t6 be spent freely in increased shipping facilities, opening up the islands by new roads, productive and administrative works, and the first the

.

WHO Now

that the

DID war

is

Already the

over,

and

it

is

no

stories circulated

by

both sides concerning breaches of international law and atrocious doings have been largely discounted, an illustration of this being the reduction of the number of Germans accused of crimes from the During original 4000 to less than 800 the war it was necessary to fan the patriotism and enthusiasm of the people !

by

all

manner

of appeals and the

men

in

charge of the hate propaganda speedily found that nothing stirred up greater patriotism than accounts of atrocities, firing on hospitals, torturing prisoners and the like, consequently they made the most of these things. That they indulged in exaggeration they have themselves confessed, but most folk still believe im-

they were told, and it will many years before the feeling aroused by the hate campaign subsides. One of the foundations on which all plicitly all that

take

anti-enemy propaganda was based was Germany began the war. The Germans on the other hand also appealed to their people on the ground that Germany had been attacked, and was forced to The Entente Governdefend herself.

that

were unanimous in declaring that they were wholly innocent in the matter, and they not only based their war policy on this assumption, but have imposed such onerous Peace terms on Germany on the ground that she was solely to blame for the war. My own view as to ftients

.

.

.

In a passionate outburst, Dr. Horna-

brook likens Australia to an octopus, stretching out her tentacles all over the Pacific, and retarding, not assisting, the development of the islands. He pleads earnestly for a transference of their control to

Great Britain.

REALLY BEGIN THE WAR?

longer necessary to carry on special propaganda work amongst the peoples who took part in the struggle, many folk are beginning to insist on knowing the real truth.

newspapers and people of Australia. The ordinary politician or resident of Australia does not care a rap really about the welHe knows pracfare of the Pacific Islands. The islands tically nothing about them. are there for his benefit; he is not there to benefit the islands. to call out will be the

the

responsibility

far the

war was

set

wrote in 1914, and I have all along insisted that whilst Germany may have welcomed the war she was not alone to blame for the beginning out in a pamphlet

I

of the struggle. The situation in Europe in 1914 was such that the moment Russia moved a World War was inevitable. Germany was so fearful of Russia, France

was so tied to Russia, and England was so tied to France that Russian mobilisation gave the push which toppled down the European house of cards and transformed armed peace into active war. That view has, of course, been regarded as utterly wrcng, pro-German even, and was looked on as horribly unpatriotic whilst the struggle was raging.

Now

we are again at Peace more enquiry is being made into the origin of the war, and many carefully reasoned articles are appearing on the It would never have done, of subject. course, to have admitted that the entire responsibility did not rest with the counthat

careful

we were fighting as long as the ultimate issue was in doubt, but we must have the real truth if we would have perThe mere word of a manent peace. Government should never be accepted

try

when it declared itself innocent of a war. " Studies of ContemIn the preface to his porary Wars," which appeared in 1869, Paul Leroy Beaulieu wrote :



When the causes of these great contemporary events are studied with care, one is compelled to form an altogether different opinion to that which received universal acceptance.

.

.

.

From

these investigations

all

one positive fact emerges not a single one of these wars was necessary; there is not one of :

STEAD'S REVIEIV.

1G6

February

7, 13t0.

i-.-i

them which might not have been honourably avoided to the advantage of

all

parlies con-

cerned.

Dare we assume that the war of 1914 was an exception in tliis rep;ard? Durstruji^t^le the censorship made it imi)Ossible for the truth to appear. Governments which controlled the censors saw tb it that all the wrongs were ascribed to one party. Any attempt to suggest that, in a war which involved so many

ing the

States of such varying character and constitutions, all the faults did not lie entirely on one side only was rigorcmsly suppressed. This was especially the case where the censorship was in France, actually even more drastic than in Russia during the first* couple of years of the war. That being so, particular interest attaches to the studies by M. Georges Demartial, which are at present appear-

ing in Foreign Affairs.

When the war broke out the question of the responsibility for the catastrophe appealed to this distinguished civil servant with irresistible force as involving the world's future. He founded a society for the Critical and Documentary Research of the war, and with the acute and penetrating insight of a trained French mind examined all the evidence He writes as a patriotic available. Frenchman, and bases his conclusions He evidence. wholly on documentary " " that renot proven declares that it is sponsibility for the war belongs only to one side, and proceeds to critically examine the statements of the Entente Governments. They declared that they could not have avoided going to war, and that Germany could have avoided doing so.

Russia could not avoid going to war. She into it by the general mobilisation of Austria, declared SazonofT, Russia's Foreign

was forced

August 2nd, 1914. in Vienna states that the Austrian general mobilisation was only ordered on July 31st i.e., after the Russian. Moreover, as the result of the SukomMinister, in his circular of

But even our Ambassador



linofT

trial,

the

first

Russian

Revolutionary

fain to admit that the decision not to rest content with a partial mobilisation, but to proceed to a general That mobilisation, was taken on July 29th. decision was not at all surprising because, when the Franco-Russian alliance was being negotiated, the Russian Chief of Staff told the French negotiator that: " ' In the event of war against Austria it is absolutely impossible for Russia to carry out a

Government was ,



she must partial mobilisation out a general mobilisation." :

and

will carry

France could not avoid going to war. So the President of the French Republic in his message of August 4th, 1914: " Germany he said sought to surprise us treacherously in tlie very midst of diplomatic stated







conversations."

Compare that statement with the facts. As early as the evening of July 31st, the UnderSecretary of State for Foreign Affairs told a deputation of Socialist Deputies: "All is over." On August 1st the French general mobilisation took place. On August 2nd Le " The irreparable has taken Journal said place. " It is war." On the same day Le Temps said It is war; how heartily we shall wage :

:

it

!"

On August

that the

3rd Le Matin expressed anger

German Ambassador still^emained

in

Paris and ordered him to clear out. It zvas only on the night of that day August 3rd that Germany declared war on France. England could not avoid war, said Mr. AsShe quith in the Commons on August 6th. was fighting, he declared, solely to fulfil her Treaty obligations to Belgium. Now the British Government had successively declined the German proposals to respect France (which implied respecting Belgium) if England would guarantee French neutrality; and to respect Belgium, even in the event of war with France, if England would remain neutral. // England's only object was to protect Belgian neutrality all that England had to do was to declare herself neutral, adding that she would





go to war with any Power which attempted to pass through Belgium. That is how England acted in 1870. Germany could not avoid going to war. She was forced into it by the Russian general " mobilisation which meant war." Thus the German Government, and the refrain of the German White Book. lying pretence, it is said. For did not the Tsar telegraph to the Kaiser on August 1st: "Mobilisation does not mean war." And did not the French Government plaster the walls with the declaration " " Mobilisation is not war ? This, I admit, is an arguable point. But turn to the negotia-

A

:

tions which culminated in tfie Franco-Russiaa Alliance. According to Article II. of the military convention, both Powers undertook to mobilise immediately if one of the Powers of the Triple Alliance mobilised, and General " BoisdeflFre said to the Tsar Mobilisation is " the declaration of war." That is quite as I understand it," the Tsar replied. No doubt on the point existed in the minds of the well:

Colonel Repington wrote

informed.

in

The

Times of July 30th, 1914: It will be a miracle if the whole of Europe does not catch fire

when

the Russian general mobilisation

is

an-

nounced."

We

may

thus

conclude

that

the

Entente

Governments entered the war for reasons other than those stated by them, whereas makir% all reserves in regard to its responsibility on



—we may conclude that the German Government entered the war for the rea-

other counts

has stated, but which the Entente I to be the real reason. have given this instance because it permits of the briefest exposition. But a study of the

son which

it

Governments deny

]

M

ad's Review, 7/e/t9.

WHO BEGAN THE WAR?

cuments of the origins of the war furnished hundred other instances quite as decisive, oving that the thesis of the Entente Govern;nts must not be accepted blindly. The ques'n

is

not resolved.

How, asks M. D/knartial, is it that this ^esis of GermaiV/'s sole responsibility ,)r the war has been maintained by so

I '

any newspapers, so many eminent men, the mass of public opinion, and by cer-

?

>'

'^lin

Germans themselves?

t

The Press?

It is sufficient to reproduce the i^ncluding words of the report on the Yellow look on the Franco-Russian Alliance by De;

puty "

Margaine:



the Press slavishly obeyed the suggestions made to it that nothing should be reealed as to the true conditions of Russia, it •5 because the Press, which ought to be the Iirgan of the popular will, the pride and the oftiness of the nation, has become a mere If

ommercial undertaking employing men who bey, instead of interpreting freely and boldly iht thoughts of the French people." / There is nothing to add. Eminent men? battalions of eminent men have made [Yes, themselves protagonists of the official thesis. vThat is a matter between them and their consciences. But they will permit me to point out that they have had a clear field For the censorship made it impossible to expose their errors of fact, or to criticise their conclusions. Jnder the censorship it might have been stated without fear of contradiction that the earth lad ceased to revolve. Before their truth is jstablished to be the truth, let them wait the test of that freedom of debate of which they professed to be the champions. The public? But how could the public form an opinion on the subject matter apart from the official thesis, seeing that the official thesis was all that the public was permitted to read? The public had other things to do than to wade through the five or six hundred telegrams in the diplomatic books. How could the public realise that it was merely listening to one particular tune? Take the following as an example. On July 27th Germany rejected the English proposal to submit the Austro-Serbian conflict to a conference of ambassadors. Now, instead of examining the reasons for this refusal and the circumstances under which it was given, it is perpetually recalled as furnishing complete proof that the war was a premeditated design on the part of the German Government,

J

!

i

which had determined upon war agairist all and sundry. And yet from July 28th onwards the German Government admittedly insisted by successive telegrams that Austria should come to an understanding with Russia, and should accept mediation between herself and Serbia; going, indeed, so far as to threaten it would leave Austria in the lurch if the Austrian Government would not give way, actually adopting an extraordinary innovation in publishing one of these urgent telegraphic Frenchmessages in an English newspaper men have been told nothing of all this. They are persuaded, not only that Germany prevented Austria from yielding, but that she declared war on Russia to prevent Austria from

that

1

yielding.

,,^jjij«

167

The

truth being, of course, that Austria did but that Russia at that very moment issued her general mobilisation order. yield,

In his pitiless analysis of documents and public utterances, M. Demartial shows that whilst Sir Edward Grey de" clared that the French were involved in the dispute

because af their obligations of honout under a definite alliance with Russia and held that France was already entangled, in the war through the Russian alliance before the German declaration of war which only took place on the evening of that day (August 3rd), the " French Premier, in what he called the truthful account of events," told a very different tale.

He made no more reference to the obligations of the Russian alliance than if that alliance had been concluded in the moon. For France's entry into the war he assigned one sole reason: "The sudden, odious, unheard-of " "

angression of Germany which forced upon France, unjustly provoked, a war which she did not will." Thjs explanation sufficed to prevent any opposition to the war in France. But, apart from anything else, it was opposed to common sense. To contend that Germany attacked France in order to force France into a war which France did not desire, is to suppose that Germany was smitten with inexplicable folly. Having the option of tackling Russia alone, and by an easy victory over her to acquire hegemony over Europe, Germany had attacked France for the express purpose of giving herself the luxury of a war on two fronts, and even on three, because the intervention of France involved the intervention of England, as Sir Edward Grey had told the German Ambassador on July 29th (British White Book, 89). Could anything be more absurd ? It was Sir Edward Grey who had stated the facts, not the French Governmentpbut no one in France appeared to

have

grasped

martial

:



it.

Says

M.

M.

De-

we accept the Grey verdict, then, of action the German Government is, on the contrary, only too easy to understand. Satisfied that France would enter the war by the side of Russia, the German GovernIf,

the

ment attempted

knew

to be

its

to carry out what everyone strategic policy in the event of

a simultaneous war against France and Russia: crush the former, and then turn upon the second with its whole force. The German declaration of war against France was not, therefore, the cause of France's entry into the war: chronologically and logically it was the consequence of it. If Germany had remained on the defensive, it would have been the French Government which would have had to declare war upon Germany, because, as Sir E. Grey once admitted in the House, the French Government could not long have remained a spectator in a Germano-Russian war.

stead's Review, T/i/sao

168

^feiHxicvA

^

=3i;J.>!^

NOTABLE BOOKS. t

'•

Mini"i «

.-^•~

r-

I

\

f

—^"'-ti

l«TMi«m»Mm..«.Yii..m»^«.Hp.^yy,y,i^pji^. BaOBBBH RBOgBBBOKlBa

THE MOON AND

SIXPENCE.* !,

Charles Strickland, an apparently normal, middle-aged stockbroker, suddenly deserts his wife and children, goes to Paris to study painting in a garret, steals another man's wife, drives her to suicide, drifts penniless about Marseilles docks, sails off to Tahiti, and when leprosy ends his days there, he is painting great pic-

lowship and mediocrity into a barba The one thing interesti isolation? above all, we are not allowed to se through what fiery inner struggle d Strickland break loose to follow his ar bitioii, and what intimate chemistry soul caused his sudden lapse into tl

tures, salitary but for a native

terises

"

wife." Such might be the meanly tragic milestones of almost any life humanly compounded of weakness, doubt, desire and But Strickland besides being a ability. great painter, has no doubts, is super-



unbound by any



naturally strong-willed, custom, love or prejudice a man quite For alone, and really not human at all. forty odd years a humdrum member of society, all at once he cuts every thread Bethat binds him to his fellow-men. ginning with his hard dingy life of study in Paris, lonely as a mangy tom-cat, he seems to spend most of the time we are with him proving in coarse, cold, brutal words that he cares nothing for what in all the world may think anyone else " " of him You blasted fool." , woman. I my wife. She is an excellent " You have a wish she was in Hell." .'. Go to H^ll despicable character What do I care ? I hate him." To behaviooir on the face of it quite, Mr. Maugham is clever unnatural, to a certain sharp, sunless lend enough reality, the reality of a photograph, a :

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

stenographic report. He frames Charles Strickland he does not re-touch or exDid he even explain him to plain him. himself? How was he so incurious of Strickland through years of quiet stockbroking? If his hero really interested him, as a character, why was he so blind ;

what must have been a most fascinating drama of personality, the long push

to

of will through walls of habit, herd-fel*"The Moon and Sixpence," by W. SomerNew York: Doran Co. set Maugham.

(

behaviour

freakish

his

that

genius?

alone chara

After

all,

M

chiefly interested in this b haviour, and in his emphasis of it neglec to prove the fact of genius, so destroyin

Maugham

is

our belief in the only thing that give value and meaning to the behaviour. The solidest proof of the greatness o Strickland's paintings seems to be thei " ultimate cost Most of them have foun their way into museums, and the rest ar the treasured possessions of wealth amateurs." In looking straight at th es pictures themselves we are much les " convinced of their value. seemec lec! They to me ugly, but suggested v/ithout dis lis closing a secret of momentous signi-

I

:

I

I

They were strangely tantalising They gave me an emotion that I couU not analyse. ... I saw a tormented spiri ficance.

Or of £ striving for self-expression." " there was also a spirituality troubling and new, which led the im agination along unsuspected ways, anc

nude

:

.

.

.

suggested dim empty spaces, the

eternal

stars

where

lit

the

only b) al

soul,

naked, adventured fearful to the discovery of new mysteries.'' While Strickland was dying in Tahiti, the French doctor, Coutras, who went to see him, found the walls of his room '' from floor to ceiling covered with a strange and elaborate composition. It was indescribably wonderful and mysterious. It filled him with an emotion he could not understand or analyse. He felt the awe and the delight which a man might feel who watched the beginning of the world. It was the work of a man who knew things which it is unholy for men to .

.

.

!

'

!

g,

'eltruarv

STEAD'S REVIEW.

7. 1910.

EVERY

Drop

A Plain

of

u

Hcarnc's

IX.

\

Fact!

Bronchitis Cure'' means

Destruction to

Chest Troubles (Coughs, Colds,

Croup,

etc.)

W. G. Hearnc & Co Lid, GEELONG, VICTORIA. New South Walw Branch Office: I

Bond Street SYDNEY.

I. 7/2/tO.

Seas, fat and forty, with her past, her his cold, sharp, uneasy, dingy present

There was something primeval and terrible. It brought to his mind vague recollections of black magic, And It was beautiful and obscene." the too, readers, may though perhaps " emotion that they feel something of an cannot analyse," the pictures themselves really remain unseen. know.



there

Moon and

divided scrutiny almost surrounds and cuts her off from the rest of the story, It is not alone curiosity that guides him that curiosity, neither omnivorous nor lively, but intense and intermittent, which suggests effort rather than appetite. His seems more to be the cold glow of interest that warms the cheek of the apple



"

The possibilities of " Sixpence are vast, and raise a The that is later confirmed.

The unexploited

in

suspicion wealth of Strickland's mind at work is untouched, the precious ore in his early obscure years is not crushed into literaAt times he really fascinates his ture.

is

ment

nefar for a while, a sharp cast over the page. The mystery approaches, the sonl is almost revealed, But Mr. Maugham, tempted by a real

For, though Mr. Maugham's- models are at all times animate, and often human, he has drawn them with a skill so uniformly, coldly zealous as to betray

problem, or frightened by its difficulty, quickly sends him off to Marseilles or Tahiti to have his outline blurred, his in-

his real purposes beyond and his most genuine interest,

sistence

weakened, paled inta a

interesting figure.

ham

And

then,

momentarily on some

Mr. Maug*

lesser figure,

and

impart to it a. swiftly fading warmth of pressure or scrutiny rather than emotion, Now, he is so intensely aware of Mrs. Strickland that it looks as if the boak were going on to be about her. Now, a few keen disagreeable pages about her We almost go with the pathetic son. buffoon, Stroeve, back to Holland. Mar-

— —

for a chapter dirty docks, seedy charity, hungry sailors, boarding house brawls done tersely, We follow clearly, faintly second-hand. seilles reigns

bread

lines,

Doctor Abraham is

is

y

\

-

yet the skill of an artist who has just finished learning to draw very well, and enjoys doing so for a while. before attempting colour and composition,- there is also a suggestion that colo is alien to it is

him.

The sky

lifts

very pleasantly

moments, but over most of the book

it

;

himself, flowing fancies, liquid ideas, only to liave them restrained and frozen in the ice of cold intelligent words.

R.L.

* a Railwayman Checkmated the Czar.

This small grey pamphlet pretends to be only the literal account of what happened to a man who sat in an office during the first days of the Russian RevoluIt is badly translated and so fragmentary that one has to piece the bits gether, but few more voluminous works ve' brought so close that week in Lomonosoff was in Tsararch, 1917. oye Selo on February 28th, just home 3m the Rou manian front. The tele-

tion.

'"^nto^hT^

at

hangs rather greyly many of the characters have pinched faces, sullen souls that no burst of love, lust or hatred fans into A talent, one mig^ht say, ill real flame. served by temperament, as of one who squeezed, with difficulty enough, out of

Tiare, daughter of the South

How

I

Egypt; the voyage

interesting, the readjustment difficult,

There

r

to

above them, which is to And, while

write, to exercise this skill. we may be puzzled at its use, this skill cannot be denied. But with the hint that

distant,

turns calmly to fasten his lold eye

.

;

hangs brutally

I

He

deadnessof the dead

His cynical solitary presence

shadow

l

pictures, the beautiful, laborfish's eye. His temperacraftsman, not lover.

still life

ious

is attracted by strangely sour people, who really repel him his description pickles them with grace and zeal,

creator.

i

169

the Russian Revolution," by

orge V, LoraonosoflF.

phone system ing.

to

He knew

Petrograd was not workthat trouble

was

rising,

but nothing more, until that night a telegram came, ordering him to the Petrograd Ministry of Ways of Communication, signed Boublikoff, member of the Duma. What was he to do ? Was it revoltition? He felt sure that the troops from the Front would crush it in a few days. If he obeyed the call his next move would be into the fortress of Peter and Paul. " he thought, "a reservist of the But,"_ bo revolution must not shirk his duties.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

170 he

asked for his valise, saying, pack an outfit for prison." But it wasn't prison. It was the

"

and

office

ai all Russia's railroad administration, " " the very of the Proeyes and ears visional

Government.

Here LomonosofT,

together with two or three others, was entrusted with keeping the lines open for the revolution and closed for its enemies. They did it. They had little food and less sleep and their hearts sank with the vacillations of the Duma, but with trains and telegraphs and telephones they checkmated the old order. Somehow one sits there at night with Lomonosofif and hears the fate of the revolution jingling He calls up Moscow, CHI the wires. Kharkoff, Caucasia, Siberia. All is well, the railroad men stick to their posts, they are faithful to the Duma. What, they ask, is to be done with the Tsar's train? The Duma orders it to be keld at a certain station, until a special train with Duma delegates can reach it. The Tsar's train disregards orders and goes ahead

on

its last

to join the

imperial way, on to Pskov, on

army. Lomonosoff

sees.

Very

well, block the junction with freight trains. So the Tsar has to wait for the

Duma. Into every office conversation breaks "

the operator's call to Lomonosoff, Uriy Vladimirovitch, the Vindovskaya is calling," and to every frantic question from the railroad comes a quick decision. In-

February

7, 1990^

fingers play against the Tsar, snatching trains from their orbits. Here is General Ivanoff, chief of the Georgian cavaliers, a body of Tsarist troops, demanding to be let through to the capital. Take up the switches between his station and Petrograd. There is still another route he can use. Have a freight train Now IvanofT jump the track there. threatens to shoot the employees unless he gets a locomotive. Give him a locomotive, but run the water out of both The General is soon stranded tenders. " versts from nowhere, and, strange to the fails to send a say," Vindovskaya visible

relief train.

But Lomonosoff has played for time ta good purpose. The train of the Duma delegates has reached the imperial train^ the Tsar has abdicated, the nev/s is flashed to Lomonosoff, and when Ivanoff" " By again thunders on the telephone, order of the Tsar," he is blandly asked,.

"WharTsar?" r,ailroad men saved the revolution. Ivanoff reached Petrograd, the Tsar would not have abdicated. It is with an unquestionable thrill that one reads the end of the Commissar's proclamation to " Let those I have the lines of all Russia. not mentioned forgive my forgetfulness. Let the great work they have performed

The

Had

give

them

should

all

satisfaction.

bear the

name

— Inform on the lines."

THE SAFETY PEN Setf-Filling, 17/-

we

Proudly

of railroad men. S.T.

NEVER LEAKS. Valv«l«a», 12/6.

HILDYARD STEEL WHEEL WAGONS Are now

fitted

BEARINGS.

with

PATENT TWIN ROLLER

3 korses do

the

work

'

of 5.

More Durable than Ordinary Axles, and GuaMuitecd Wasona (or Wheat, Wbol. and All Qasses of Work Traction Wagona a Specialty. Wide Tyre*. Send for Catalog Now. '

^2^-^-itr-^CT^-^!^

HILDYARD WAGON WORKS,

Kensinrtoi. MeJb,

'

February

STEAD'S REVIEW.

7, 1919.

XI.

^MIliBi'

Practical

economy use (PREPARED)

Paint

house

with Berger's "B-P" Paint Prepared) and it will not only LOOK better but will keep in good repair longer. Berger's Paint is guaranteed to cover, wear, and look better than any other paint. "

your

B-P."

is manufactured at the most paint works in Australia, according to the formula of the famous British House of Berger, founded at

modern

Homerton, London,

in

1760.

ASK YOUR PAINTER TO USE BERGER'S "B-P."

"immi

YOU

VAPOUR

want a BENZINE

IN-

CANDESCENT HURRICANE LANTERN that WILL NOT BLOW OUT or give you trouble. RAIN. STORM and INSECT The

PROOF !

"MATCH-LITE"

Laatern (2 Mantles).

300-CandIe Power.

55/- each.

The

"BEST"

deaf?

Lantern

(1 mantle).

300-Candle Power. Nickel-Plated Finish. 65/- each.

Postage

No deposit, no obligation, no exOver 330,000 delighted users, pense. the Prime Minister, Mr. including

Interstate,

2/8 each extra. for

Catalogue on

"Best" Hollow Wire Sysfor Lighting the Home,

tem

Public Buildings, etc

,

with

Benzine Vapour Gas.

BRANDT BROS.

LTD.

who has been using the Hughes, Acousticon " for over five years! " Acousticon " will safely and Convince surely enable you to hear. yourself at our expense, and DON'T **

The

STAY DEAF. I omenn On L.aniSOn V,0.

^^^ Collins St

,

Melbonrae

l05DakingHoiue.Syi.eT

N.Z. John R. Procter, 209 High St., Christchurch. W.A. H. C. Little and Co., 851 Hay St., Perth. :

Lamp

Manufacturers,

236 PITT STREET Thank you

by-

ACOUSTICON T,e'°THy

Soutk Wale«,

1/6 each extra.

Write

it

posting you an easy-to-wear



New

You can HEAR, and we prove

:

SYDNEY for mentioning Stead's

Review when writing

to advertisers.

STEAD'S REVIEW.

xn.

Safest in the

Fehruary

Summer Time

During Summer the danger of impure milk infantile disorders is very great. thousands of babies are attacked year Every by Summer Diarrhoea in a terribly large number of cases with fatal results.

causing



You Need Not Take This Awful Risk

Why give baby milk of uncertain origin when' yon can obtain " Lactogen," the NaturalMilk food? It is nourishing, easily digested, and absolutely Free from Harmful Germs, Your baby will thrive on

THE BACCHUS MARSH Concentrated Milk Co. Pty. Ltd.

597

RE

CoUins Melbourne.

Little

P

Street,

UBLIC

A WEEKLY JOURNAL Published

Which

in the

United States

thought and American people.

reflects the best

ideals of the

Those anxious to keep themselves informed of sane American opinion " New ought to diligently read the Republic.

"

1, ISiO.

The NATURAL-MILK Food

stead's Review, 7/2/29.

171

mum

DOErS

In summer, when your meat has lost its fresh taste, for a delightful change try this: Slice and lay in thick butter-

m

i

1

k

fifteen roll

minutes,



in

drop in hot fat, and fry a golden brown. It is flour,

with

stuffed

Sun-

nuts,

raysed raisins and

breadcrumbs are delicious, and quite

new

to

many

housewives.

Hamburg

steak

greatly improved by shaping into each cake a few chopped raisins? is

When

filling little cake tins with batter, leave one tin empty and fill that with

water; this will prevent the cakes from

browning too quickly.

To make plum plums, 2 oranges, 1

conserve, take 3 lb.

Sunraysed

lbs.

raisins,

Wash plums, remove sugar. and cut in three or four pieces Cut oranges in pieces, remove seeds, and put through food chopper, using peel as well as pulp and juice. Wash raisins, seed, and chop, or use

3

lbs.

stones, each.

Mix all the ingredistand one-half hour, simmer gently one-half hour, stirring frequently; let stand one hour, and boil fifteen minutes, stirring constantly. Pour into sterilised glasses, cool, cover with melted One-half parrafin, and with tin cover. pound chopped walnuts may be added if desired, just before removing from It may the fire. This fills ten glasses. be used with meats or with toast, or as a sandwich filling. seedless ents,

raisins.

let

To make

raisin bread take 3 cups flour, teaspoon salt, 4 teaspoons baking powder, 2 tablespoons Sugar, 1 cup Sunraysed raisins, 1 egg, 1^ cups milk, 2

1

fat, poair into a

greased loaf pan and bake

forty-five minutes. housekeeper finds

A

it convenient to " founput up pint" jars of what she calls tain fruits that is, small cubes of pine-



apple, peach, pear, in a heavy syrup?

and so

One

forth, packed excellent com-

whale cherries, whole red and the juice of red curwhich can most easily be used in

bination

delicious.

Tomatoes

tablespoons melted fat. Sift the dry ingredients together and add the raisins. Beat the tgg, add it to the milk and stir into the dry ingredients. Add the melted

is

raspberries rants,

home-made

drinks.

Sponge and layer cakes

will keep well laid in parafiin paper in an air-tight box?* Grocers will sell a large tin box, 18

if

a'nd 18 by 18 inches, in which biscuits are usually kept. By using these in a cool place— putting half an apple in the tin cakes keep as long as we will let them. good-sized whisk-broom, and a shoebrush should hang outside the back door? It should be a rule for every member of the family who comes in from the yard or garden, or from a, dusty walk to use these brushes before entering the house. In this way a lot of dirt is left outside that otherwise would be tracked into the kitchen and dining-room.



A

Gold bracelets, as we have been so accustomed to seeing them, are no longer worn in the day time at least, not by those who wish to be considered smart? The correct thing now is to wear watered



ribbon wristlets, abooit half an inch I saw two being worn recently. wide. One had the initial letter of the wearer's name, in small diamonds, fastened on the ribbon just at the middle of the wrist, and the other had the sweetest and tiniest little watch imaginable attached to it it could not have been more than half an inch square, and lay flat on the ribbon. Many people who are not subject to sunburn are oftentimes victims of the silk

;

much more

An

disagreeable

application, night

summer

rash.

and morning, of a

combination' of elderflower water, glycerine and borax will help greatly.

STEAD'S REVIEW

172 In using pcTwder

is

it

best to have a

cream between

it

Use

skin.

No

should be

that whatever powder you use is a good way to test it Here pure. Pour some ordinary vinegar on it. If the powder turns black it contains bismuth, lead or mercury, and should not be used. Bath salts obtained from a reliable

as orris root, sunflower seed,

Ordinary bran can be used, sewn up in a small bag. It is dropped into the bath and swished about until it has done its work and made the water Another delightfully soft to the skin. idea to which the French woman is said to be very partial

the use of alcohol

is

Street and Collins Street, Melbourne

Undm'

Vicm- Regal &t5

Telephone 1153S,

STAFFERS

P. H.

TaUor, Habit Maker,

Costumier CLYDE HOUSE, 182 Collbs Melbourne

Street,

EVERY BLEMISH REMOVED IN

A FEW DAYS every reader paper how

I will tell

of this

YOUR COMPLEXION

in the bath,

MAKE- OR MARS YOUR APPEARANCE

tonic to the skin.

of

though this, of course, is a -more costly method. It is perfumed with lavender or violet, and acts as a splendid

CO.

280 Bourke 111

The bath as a luxury and a beautifier has endless attractions to the woman who has the time to devote a little extra attention to the matter. There is the bran bath, which is the simplest of all and the Most chemists sell little least expensive. sacks of bran mixed with various perviolet.

&

PHARMACEUTICAL CHEBUSTS

an extravagance ? They help to beautify the skin and keep it healthy, and the best plan is to get your chemist to tell you exactly how much to use for each bath.

or

FRANCIS

H.

:

fumes such

-4/4i

Post Free

Be sure

•chemist and used with discretion, are not

2/9i

i/Si-

used as a powder base on the skin overnight.

is

X9U.

Perfumed with Virgin Otto FOR SENSITIVE SKINS

creaiin left

7,

COLD CREAM

and the skin? a vanishing^ or dry cream on a thick, oily skin before applying the powder, and a very light cleansing cream on a dry If the cream reappears through skin. the powder, that should be the test to tell you it is not the right cream for your film of

Februarjf

You have ne your

Makes

er in

all

used or heard

life

anythint?

like

muddy

it.

com-

red spots, pimples, blackheads, and freckles, eruptions vanish almo t like m» lexions,

gic.

Vitedatiii CURES. Livtr,

Kidney

and

Bladder

tr«ublt«, Hydatids, indigestisn, Nervt and SlN SWi-TT MARDEN'S great self-help magazine.

Become an Accountant

Siiiglj c ipiea, 2/-.

!

Subscription, 20/-.

Austral -iian Acrent: P. O'Bryen Hoare.

229 Collins

Street, M«lboarne.

If you are wise you will be content with nothing less tlian the Diploma of ACCOUNTANCY, which confers a definite, professional status in the Business World.

You would meet our

in

with no

concise, instruction

painstaking

;

difficulties

simply-stated.

clear,

and

we have

NO FAILURES. sectirns,

culars

I

li;

I'

I)/

travel the

r.) ii

!u'

I

ROAD TO SUCCESS,

EQUITY TRUSTEES, EXECUTORS & AGENCY Reserve

£200.000.

Liabilitv,

Board of

ask

booK-.

Co. Ltd.

Guarantee Fond. £10,000.*

Directors — Hon.

Donald

Mackiimon,

M.I/.A., Chairman; Captain S. M. Bruce, M.O., M.P. J. .J. Falconer. Esq.; Stewart McArthinr, Sir Edward F. Mitchell. K.C. Esq., K.C. No. 85 QL'EEN STREET. MELBOURNE. Registered Office ;

:

including

Practice, may be taken separately; but our advice is to join up TO-DAY for the big-money-winning, privilege-bringing Profession of ACCOUNTANCY.

Ask

you wa f

This

Bookkeeping, Commercial Law, and Modern Business All

If

for Booklet Al, and full parti-

—FREE.

Company

Parliament

to

empowered by

is

perform

JOEfi

businesa.

0. T,

all

special Act of classes of traetee

POX Majiager. MAETIN. AMistant Manager.

THE

COLONIAL MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY LIMITED. Marine, Gnarantee, Customs Bonds, Personal Accident and Sickness, Plate Glass Breakage

Fire,

STOn'S CORRESPONDENCE COLLEGE, 100

Also St.,

(including

RUSSELL STREET, MELBOURNE.

at 117 Pitt St.,

Sydney 225 Adelaide

Brisbane; Pirie

INSURANCE

Commotion), Motor and Liability

Civil

Live

Stock,

Bnrglary, Car, ^ployers' Workers' Compensation. Principal Office

:

60 Market

Street,

MeIb«arMb

;

St.,

Branches in

Adelaide.

all

the States.

W. TUCKER. General Maium«r>

Thank you

for mentioning Stead's

Review

when writing

to a