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15-0. Bateman Snell. Management. Competing in the. Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5th. Edition in the. New Era ...

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Bateman

Snell

Management Competing in the New Era

5th Edition Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Part Four Chapter 15 - Communication Chapter Outline Interpersonal Communication Improving Communication Skills Organizational Communication

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Learning Objectives After studying Chapter 15, you will know: the important advantages of two-way communication communication problems to avoid when and how to use the various communication channels ways to become a better “sender” and “receiver of information how to improve downward, upward, and horizontal communications how to work with the company grapevine the advantages and characteristics of the boundaryless organization Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Introduction Discussion discourse in which each person attempts to win a debate by having her/his view accepted by the group

Dialogue members explore complex issues from many viewpoints in order to come to a common, deeper understanding every organization should have both discussion and dialogue

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication Communication the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols sender - initiates the process by conveying information has a meaning s/he wishes to communicate encodes the meaning into symbols transmits the message through some channel

receiver - person for whom the message is intended decodes the messages attempts to interpret the sender’s meaning may provide feedback by encoding a message in response

noise- interference in the system that blocks understanding Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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A Model Of The Communication Process Person A Sender 1. Intended meaning 2. Encoding 10. Intended meaning 9. Decoding (receiver) One-way communication

Person B Receiver

3. Communication 4. Decoding channel

5. Perceived meaning Sender 8. Communication 6. Intended meaning channel 7. Encoding Two-way communication if B sends feedback to A Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) One-way communication process in which information flows in only one direction no feedback from the receiver

faster and easier for sender

Two-way communication process in which information flows in two directions receiver provides feedback

basis for constructive exchanges more difficult and time consuming more accurate Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Communication pitfalls errors can occur in all stages of the communication process perceptual and filtering processes create misinterpretation perception - process of receiving and interpreting information filtering - process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information cannot assume the other person means what you think s/he means or understands the intended meanings e.g., problems arise because men and women differ in communication style

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Mixed signals and misperception people do not attend to everything going on around them people inadvertently send mixed signals can avoid these problems by taking the time to: ensure that the receiver attends to the message consider the receiver’s frame of reference and convey the message from that perceptual viewpoint take concrete steps to minimize perceptual errors and improper signals send consistent messages

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Oral channel advantages - questions can be asked and answered feedback is immediate and direct receiver can sense the sender’s sincerity more persuasive

disadvantages can lead to spontaneous, ill-considered statements there is no permanent record of the communication

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Written channel advantages - message can be revised provides a permanent record message stays the same when sent to several receivers receiver has more time to analyze the message

disadvantages - sender has no control over where, when, or if the message is read sender does not receive immediate feedback receiver may not understand parts of the message message must be longer to answer anticipated questions

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Electronic media computers ‘talk’ with others electronically teleconferencing - groups of people in different locations interact audioconferencing - using telephone lines videoconferencing - see one another on television monitors

advantages - sharing of more information speed and efficiency in delivering routine messages inexpensive

disadvantages - difficulty in solving complex problems e-mail most appropriate for routine messages unsuitable for confidential information Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Virtual office a mobile office in which people can work anywhere, as long as they have the tools to communicate with customers and colleagues many benefits in the short run questions remain about long-term effect on productivity and morale Managing the electronic load - sheer volume of communication can be overwhelming reliance on teams promotes increased communication must separate important messages from the routine discourage people from sending too many e-mail messages Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Communication networks volume of communication received depends on position in the decision-making structure independent, decentralized decision makers have the lowest communication needs centralized decision makers need and are exposed to greater volumes of communication some decentralized decision makers are so interconnected that they require even more information than centralized ones interorganizational collaborations complicate communication networks even further Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Three Communication Networks

Independent, decentralized decision makers (cowboys)

Centralized decision makers (commanders)

Connected, decentralized decision makers (cyber-cowboys)

= places where actions are taken and information is generated = centralized decision maker Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Complexity In Technology Collaboration And Networks Internal network

Single partner collaboration

Internal network and multiple external collaborators

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Interpersonal Communication (cont.) Media richness degree to which a communication channel conveys information the richest media: are more personal than technological provide quick feedback allow lots of descriptive language send different types of cues

Efficiency and effectiveness rely on multiple channels when necessary people must know how to use each channel properly Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Improving Communication Skills Improving sender skills Presentation and persuasion skills redundancy - state your viewpoint in a variety of ways powerful messages are simple and informative

Writing skills - require clear, logical thinking strive for clarity, organization, readability, and brevity first draft rarely is as good as it could be be critical of your own writing

Language - word choice can enhance or interfere with communications consider the receiver’s background and adjust your language learn something about foreign language for overseas business Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Nonverbal skills signals other than those that are spoken or written can support or undermine the stated message nonverbal cues may make a greater impact than other signals can send a positive message with nonverbal signals by: using time wisely arranging the office to foster open communication body language facial expression and tone of voice

Nonverbal signals in different countries need to correctly interpret the nonverbal signals of others Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Improving receiver skills Listening - good listening is difficult and not nearly as common as needed reflection - process by which a person states what s/he believes the other person is saying listening begins with personal contact good listening leads to development of trust

Reading - reading mistakes are common and costly read memos as soon as possible note important points for later referral read materials outside of your immediate concerns Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Ten Keys To Effective Listening 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Find an area of interest Judge content, not delivery Hold your fire Listen for ideas Be flexible Resist distraction Exercise your mind Keep your mind open Capitalize on thought speed Work at listening Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Improving Communication Skills (cont.) Improving receiver skills (cont.) Observing effective communicators able to observe and interpret nonverbal signals personally visiting plants and other locations to get a first-hand view of operations must accurately interpret what is observed

Effective supervision communicate more information prefer asking and persuading to telling and demanding are sensitive to people’s feelings and needs are willing, empathic listeners Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication Downward communication information that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization’s hierarchy problems: information overload lack of openness - withhold information even if sharing is important filtering - some information is left out message can be distorted by adding personal interpretation the fewer the number of authority levels through which communication must pass, the less information will be lost or distorted Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Information Loss In Downward Communication 100% Board 63% Vice presidents 56% General managers 40% Plant managers 30% Supervisors 20% Workers Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Downward communication (cont.) Coaching - important form of downward communication dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve her/his full potential on the job used to deal with performance problems or to help person change behavior coaches for executives sometimes hired from outside the firm often incumbent on managers to coach themselves

Downward communication in difficult times communication important during mergers and acquisitions full communication helps employees deal with anxiety signals care and concern for employees Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Downward communication (cont.) Open-book management practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management’s eyes only practice is controversial done properly, complete communications system makes sense to people on the shop floor just as it does to the top executives potentially impacts motivation and care for business results

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Upward communication information that flows from lower to higher levels in the organization hierarchy important for several reasons managers learn what’s going on employees gain from the opportunity to communicate upward facilitates downward communication

problems similar to those for downward communication Managing upward communication managers should facilitate upward communication managers must motivate people to provide valid information upward communication can use informal channels Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Horizontal communication information sharing among people on the same hierarchical level has several important functions Managing horizontal communication direct contact among managers integrative roles, task forces, and project teams management information systems create a culture of openness, honesty, trust, and mutual obligation

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Formal and informal communication formal communication - official, organization-sanctioned episodes of information transmission informal communication - more unofficial grapevine - the social network of informal communications helps people to interpret the organization conveys information that the formal system leaves unsaid

Managing informal communication managers need to work with the grapevine talk to the key people prevent rumors from starting neutralize rumors once they have started Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Organizational Communication (cont.) Boundarylessness boundaryless organization - organization in which there are no barriers to information flow ideas and information move to where they are most needed concept promoted and implemented by General Electric

Copyright © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.