1 Supplementary Materials - MDPI

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56 (52%). 29 (63%). Age (years) (median, IQR). 31 (25-40). 31 (27-41). 31 (23-40) ... 5 (5%). 12 (11%). 6 (6%). 3 (3%). 14 (30%). 4 (9%). 5 (11%). 2 (4%). 3 (7%) ... 6 (13%). 4 (9%). 1 (2%). 1 (2%). 5-ASA therapy (n, %). 70 (45%). 35 (32%).

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Supplementary Materials Supplementary Table 1: Baseline clinical and nutritional characteristics of IBD Cohort

Patients (n) Ethnicity

Caucasian Asian Black

Male (n, %) Age (years) (median, IQR) Smoking Current Ex-smoker Never smoked Alcohol use (>20g ethanol/day) Age at IBD diagnosis (median, IQR) Montreal criteria

IBD disease duration (months)

Mean ± SD Median, IQR

Overall 154 145 (94%) 6 (4%) 3 (2%) 85 (55%) 31 (25-40) 32 (21%) 39 (25%) 83 (54%) 6 (4%) 22 (17-29) A1 31 (20%) A2 116 (75%) A3 7 (5%) 113 ± 88 92 (54-148)

IBD phenotype Montreal criteria Extra-intestinal manifestations

Overall PSC Arthropathy Skin lesion Other

40 (26%) 9 (6%) 17 (11%) 8 (5%) 6 (4%)

Crohn’s disease 108 (70%) 105 (97%) 2 (2%) 1 (1%) 56 (52%) 31 (27-41) 29 (27%) 29 (27%) 50 (46%) 4 (3%) 21 (17-27) A1 20 (19%) A2 82 (76%) A3 6 (5%) 122.2 ± 90 101 (59-150) L1 33 (31%) B1 50 (46%) L2 36 (33%) B2 40 (37%) L3 39 (36%) B3 18 (14%) 26 (24%) 5 (5%) 12 (11%) 6 (6%) 3 (3%)

Ulcerative colitis 46 (30%) 40 (87%) 4 (9%) 2 (4%) 29 (63%) 31 (23-40) 2 (4%) 10 (22%) 33 (72%) 2 (1%) 24 (17-30) A1 11 (24%) A2 34 (74%) A3 1 (2%) 92 ± 79 72 (42- 119) E1 2 (4%) E2 13 (28%) E3 31 (67%) 14 (30%) 4 (9%) 5 (11%) 2 (4%) 3 (7%)

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IBD-related surgery

IBD Clinical disease activity score C-reactive protein (mg/L) Faecal calprotectin (μg/g)

Mean ± SD Median, IQR Mean ± SD Median, IQR Mean ± SD Median, IQR

Composite disease activity assessment§ (n, active disease (%)) Corticosteroids^ Current (n, %) Median, IQR Use ≥12 months (n, %) Biologic therapy (n, %) Overall Infliximab Adalimumab Vedolizumab 5-ASA therapy (n, %) Immunomodulator (n, %) Overall Azathioprine Mercaptopurine Methotrexate Thiopurine/allopurinol International Physical Activity Questionnaire¶ Continuous Mean ± SD Median, IQR

- Overall 1 (2%) Colectomy 1 (2%)

8.42 ± 20 1.95 (0.5- 8.4) 233.6 ± 269 135 (20-273) 78 (51%)

- Overall 44 (41%) - Ileal/small bowel resection 30 (28%) - Ileocolonic resection 10 (9%) - Colectomy 4 (4%) - Multiple prior surgeries 11 (10%) CDAI 95 ± 98 68 (26-138) 10 ± 23 2.3 (0.5-11) 240 ± 294 86 (20-430) 47 (44%)

45 (29%) 6 (1-24) 64 (42%) 61 (40%) 40 (26%) 19 (12%) 2 (1%) 70 (45%) 86 (56%) 60 (39%) 6 (4%) 3 (2%) 17 (11%)

31 (29%) 6 (0.6-24) 47 (44%) 55 (51%) 36 (33%) 18 (17%) 1 (1%) 35 (32%) 65 (60%) 45 (42%) 5 (5%) 2 (2%) 13 (9%)

14 (30%) 6 (2.7-18) 17 (37%) 6 (13%) 4 (9%) 1 (2%) 1 (2%) 35 (76%) 21 (46%) 15 (33%) 1 (2%) 1 (2%) 4 (9%)

4310 ± 5895 2160 (693- 5664)

4408 ± 6259 1671 (816- 5163)

4997 ± 5194 3144 (1451- 7461)

Partial Mayo 1.8 ± 2.6 0 (0-4) 3.6 ± 6 1.0 (0.3- 2.9) 201 ± 288 57 (20-220) 19 (41%)

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Categorical

Low Medium High Albumin (g/dL) Mean ±SD Median, IQR Haemoglobin (g/L) Mean ±SD Median, IQR Ferritin (ng/ml) Mean ±SD Median, IQR Iron deficient Calcium (mmol/L) Mean ±SD Median, IQR Vitamin D nmol/ml Mean ±SD Median, IQR Vitamin D deficient# n, (%) Vitamin D replacement n (%) Quality of life (Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire) Mean ± SD Median, IQR

64 (42%) 38 (25%) 32 (21%) 40 ± 5 40 (37-43) 140 ± 15 141 (131-150) 87 ± 82 63 (34-106) 17 (11%) 2.36 ± 0.11 2.36 (2.29- 2.43) 67 ± 40 63 (43-84) 61 (40%) 59 (38%)

49 (45%) 24 (22%) 22 (20%) 39 ± 4 40 (36-43) 140 ± 16 140 (129-150) 83 ± 88 56 (30-100) 13 (12%) 2.36 ± 0.11 2.36 (2.29- 2.42) 64 ± 28 63 (42-84) 44 (41%) 43 (40%)

15 (33%) 14 (30%) 10 (22%) 40 ± 11 41 (38-44) 139 ± 24 143 (133- 150) 94 ± 69 85 (35- 136) 4 (9%) 2.36 ± 0.10 2.37 (2.29-2.43) 75 ± 57 63 (51-84) 17 (37%) 16 (36%)

50 ± 12 52 (43-59)

49 ± 13 52 (41- 60)

51 ± 11 53 (46-59)

Table legend: Data presented as mean ±standard deviation (SD), median (interquartile range (IQR)), counts and percentage. CDAI, Crohn’s Disease Activity Index; §Composite disease activity assessment using clinical indices (CDAI or Partial Mayo) and biomarker of inflammation (faecal calprotectin and C-reactive protein). ^Cumulative months equivalent to prednisolone ≥10mg daily. ¶International Physical Activity Questionnaire (Short). #Low Vitamin D level classified as 80cm for women and >94cm for men.

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Supplementary Table 3: Clinical associations with serial visceral adipose tissue (VHI)^ measurements over 24 months Variable Time

Repeated measures over 24m

Univariable Est. (95% CI) 0.07 [0.02, 0.13]