150 Academic Words for Pre-TOEFL prep - ESL Mania

9 downloads 30 Views 7MB Size Report
that many students tire themselves out by starting with high-level, intense TOEFL ® books right away. With 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep, you ...

150

ACADEMIC KEYWORDS

FOR PRE-TOEFL PREP ®

ad o l n w o D

o i d u A FREE e ag s s a p y for ever ne! onli

Learn academic English vocabulary fast, and have fun doing it!

Global English Express TOEFL Vocabulary Series #1 ®

TOEFL is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS). This book is not sponsored or endorsed by ETS.

Kristina J. Hasanova

© 2012 Global English Express Permissions: You are permitted and encouraged to reproduce and distribute this free material, provided that you do not alter the content in any way and do not charge a fee beyond the cost of reproduction. For web posting, you are required to provide a link to www.globalenglishexpress.com. Please include the following statement on any distributed copy: ©2012 Global English Express. Website: www.globalenglishexpress.com Image Credits: The images contained in this book are in the public domain and have been obtained from Wikimedia Commons and The Open Clip Art Library. Great care has been taken to ensure that all images are copyright-free and useable. If you would like to report a concern regarding the images used in this book, please contact us at www.globalenglishexpress.com.

This sample version includes 10 lessons. To view the entire free eBook, visit us at www.globalenglishexpress.com.

150 FOR PRE-TOEFL PREP ACADEMIC KEYWORDS ®

Learn academic English vocabulary fast, and have fun doing it!

Kristina J. Hasanova 3

For Students Studying for the TOEFL® can be a scary experience, can’t it? Some students are ready to take the test and don’t need much extra practice. However, for other students, just looking at some of the thick TOEFL® study books can make you feel nervous! That’s why Global English Express developed the TOEFL® vocabulary series. We know that getting a good score on this test is important to you, and we know it takes a lot of work to get there. We also think that many students tire themselves out by starting with high-level, intense TOEFL® books right away. With 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep, you can begin to build your academic vocabulary in a fun, stress-free way. Then, when you get to the more difficult study books, you’ll be able to understand the lessons easily! Make sure you download the free audio that goes with this book at www.globalenglishexpress.com. Listen to the audio over and over to remember the words really well. Research has shown that listening repeatedly to audio is an excellent way to learn and remember English. You can listen while riding the bus, walking to work, or sitting at the park. Now, that sounds much easier than memorizing word lists, doesn’t it?

For Teachers When many students begin studying for the TOEFL®, they jump right into intense, academic study guides and try to memorize large amounts of words. While this works for students who already have high academic vocabularies, other students become quickly discouraged. Not only are they trying to memorize huge amounts of new information, many are also trying to discern how Western methods of education work. In addition, they are suddenly learning about new subjects and concepts that they may have never studied before. The combination can be overwhelming, and many students give up quickly. At Global English Express, we think more students could succeed in higher education study if given the proper tools. In the 150 Academic Keywords book, our goal is to begin building a large base of academic words in students’ minds using a fun, easy format. The passages and accompanying audio are interesting, relevant topics to the pre-TOEFL® student, and they are written in very simple academic English. The passages start with inspiring stories of famous Americans who have worked hard and overcome obstacles. Then the passages discuss topics students are currently thinking about, such as choosing a career and a university. The passages then offer helpful tips for essential life-skills and finish off by exploring some modern, growing careers. You’ll notice that all the student materials for 150 Academic Keywords are available totally free. We believe that quality education should accessible to everyone, and we’re pleased to make useful resources available for free at www.globalenglishexpress.com. Finally, don’t forget that the 150 Academic Keywords book is just a bridge to bring students from basic conversational fluency into greater understanding of academic language. When a student has built a sufficient base of academic words, it’s time to begin more intensive study using a resource such as The Official Guide to the TOEFL® by the Educational Testing Service. Thanks for using 150 Academic Keywords, and don’t forget to connect with us to tell us how we can improve to meet your stduents needs better. Visit us at www.globalenglishexpress.com to give us feedback on this tool. We’d love to know how you are using these materials to promote quality education for every person, in every place!

Acknowlegements This book and its acompanying audio are a very simple, informal learning tool for ESL learners. However, the body of educational research undergirding this simple resource is extensive. In particular, I am grateful for the insight provided by methods such as Greg Thomson’s Growing Participator Approach, the Read Naturally strategy for reading fluency, and A.J. Hoge’s 7 Rules of Excellent English Speaking. Most of the academic keywords taught in these passages (152 out of 154 words) are taken from the Academic Word List, compiled by Averil Coxhead, Victoria University of Wellington. The Academic Word List is comprised of the most-used academic words used in universities and therefore represents a foundational vocabulary for students preparing for the TOEFL®. I’m also grateful for the patience of my first TOEFL® preparation students: Parya, Zahid, Navid, and Gulnar. Thank you for helping me learn how to prepare people for this important test using the best methods possible. And finally, thank you to my wonderful husband Vusal, whose sharp insight and skillful understanding of educational methods has directed every step of this project.

About Global English Express Global English Express is a professional English editing and instructional service run by Kristina Hasanova, who has over five years in editing experience and four years in ESL teaching experience. Kristina holds a bachelor of arts in English Writing and spent three years in the educational publishing industry. She received linguistics and literacy specialist training through SIL International at the University of North Dakota and has participated in numerous ESL trainings and workshops. She has taught ESL in the United States and in Azerbaijan.

w w w. g l o b a l e n g l i s h e x p r e s s . c o m

5

How to Use This Book This book is a supplement to the 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep audio series. We encourage you to focus mainly on listening to and comprehending the audio clips. Repeated listening is a great way to build comprehension. To remind you to use the audio clips, instructions are included at the bottom of each page. For the best results, follow these instructions carefully. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review.

ESL teachers may wish to use the following ideas for teaching with 150 Academic Words: • Use the book for a conversation club. Ask students to listen to the audio several times before coming to the club. At the club, discuss the topic. Ask students to write a response to the topic before the next club. • Form a pre-TOEFL® study group for students interested in taking the test. Use this book to build students’ vocabularies, then begin teaching from more intensive TOEFL® instructional books. • Use this book to tutor students in one-on-one pre-TOEFL® preparation. Assign listening passages as homework, and discuss the keywords and passages in your study times together. • Use the book to fill extra time in regular, upper-level ESL classes. Make copies of a passage for students to read if they finish an exam early. Require students to listen to the audio several times before the next class session. During the next class, ask students questions to test whether they have retained the keywords.

6

Lesson 1: An Unlikely President region | available | despite | perspective | constantly | legislation | eliminate

Do you live in a place where it is difficult get a good education? Have you ever wished you had the money to travel somewhere else and study? Abraham Lincoln is an amazing example of a man who started out in a poor family in a small town and rose to become the president of the United States. When Lincoln was a little boy, his father lost all of the family’s property. Their family had once been prosperous, but now they had Source: Wikimedia Commons very little. When Lincoln was just 9 nine years old, his mother died. Lincoln’s life was difficult, and he had to spend lots of time in hard manual labor to help his family. Because his family lived in a remote region of the United States, teachers were not always available to teach in the local school. By the time he was 21, Lincoln had only attended less than two years of formal school. However, despite these challenges, Lincoln kept a wise perspective. He saw that he could educate himself. Even though teachers were difficult to find, he didn’t stop learning. He read constantly. Everywhere he went, he kept a book with him. When he couldn’t find a new book to read, he would read the same books over and over. Once, he even walked 20 miles (which is 32 kilometers) just to borrow one book! Later, Lincoln became interested in law. He observed lawyers and learned from them. Then, he began a career in legislation and served as a lawmaker in the state of Illinois. Finally, Lincoln became the 16th president of the United States. During his time in office, Lincoln led his country during the American Civil War and worked hard to eliminate slavery. In 1862, he approved the bill that ended slavery in the United States. Through diligent study and hard work, a poor, uneducated boy grew up to become one of the most remembered presidents of the United States of America.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 7

Lesson 2: Try It Again target | persistence | creative | conducting | subsequently | modify | contrary

Reaching a goal can sometimes be discouraging. You see where your target, but then you look at all the steps you need to take before you get there. However, looking at the example of people who have gone before you should encourage you to be courageous! Often people who achieve their goals have failed many, many times in the process. Thomas Edison is a great example of this kind of persistence. When he failed, he didn’t stop trying. Source: Wikimedia Commons When Edison was young, he had a hard time focusing in school. His teacher didn’t think very highly of him, and his mother actually pulled him out of school to study at home. At home, Edison read many books and loved to learn. He had a creative mind and was always thinking of interesting things to do. He was constantly conducting experiments. Once, he started a fire in a train where he had set up a chemical experiment. Subsequently, he lost his job.

Edison worked on hundreds of inventions. Some failed, but others became very famous. Edison worked for a very long time to modify the light bulb. However, he didn’t give up. On the contrary, he said, “If I find 10,000 ways something won't work, I haven't failed. I am not discouraged, because every wrong attempt discarded is another step forward.” Now, he is known around the globe as the man who brought electric light to the world.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review.

8

Lesson 3: Mrs. President range | intelligent | couple | correspondence | revolution | advocate | gender

One of the most well-known presidents in American history is John Adams, the second president of the United States. John Adams was famous for his skill as a lawyer, his role as a Founding Father of the United States, and his diplomatic service in Europe for his new country. However, fewer people know about the most significant person in John Adams’ life: Abigail Adams. John Adams valued his wife’s advice deeply. Though Abigail had not received a formal education, she had studied a wide range of subjects at home. She had read books on topics such as philosophy, theology, and history, and she had a very intelligent mind. John frequently sought her Source: Wikimedia Commons counsel and opinions on matters related to politics and government. In fact, the press began to call Abigail “Mrs. President” because they thought that she influenced many of John’s decisions. John and Abigail wrote many letters to each other throughout their married life. In them, the couple often called each other, “my dearest friend.” Thankfully, their correspondence was retained and can be read today. The letters provide accurate descriptions of the American Revolution from eyewitnesses who watched the ongoing war happen. Abigail was also an advocate for women. She once wrote to her husband to remember women in his legislation. She urged him to make laws that were fair to the female gender.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review.

9

Lesson 4: Fighting Discrimination racism | discrimination | ignored | alter | revenue | tense | vision

In the early 20th century, racism was all over the United States. People from minority races faced discrimination constantly. Black people were forced to ride at the back of the bus, drink water from separate places, and attend different schools than white-skinned people. Even worse, many black people were denied employment by many companies and couldn’t live in certain areas. Some people ignored the situation. Others wanted to see change happen. One man worked very hard to alter the treatment of black people in the United States. Martin Luther King, Jr. spent years organizing non-violent protests against discrimination. In 1955, King assisted in leading a boycott in which black people refused to Source: Wikimedia Commons ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama. This created problems for the bus lines, because they received much of their revenue from black people. The tense boycott situation drew national attention to the problem of discrimination and eventually resulted in new legislation. Later, King led 250,000 people in marching to Washington D.C. to again promote Civ il Rights. There he gave a famous speech in which he shared his vision of the United States as a country where people would not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. In 1968, King was tragically killed. But before his death, he had made significant progress in the fight against discrimination. He was arrested more than twenty times for his work, he was personally attacked several times, and his home was even bombed once. Still, King persevered and stood for the cause he believed in.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review.

10

Lesson 5: How to Choose a Career pursue | factors | research | consult | accompany | declining | purchase

Maybe you’ve always wanted to be a doctor. Or perhaps you’ve always been interested in languages, but you’re just not sure what career to pursue. When choosing a career, there are many factors to consider. Thankfully, there are many resources available on the Internet today to help you make a wise decision. It’s also important to know yourself well. When you were young, what Source: Open Clip Art Library kinds of things did you naturally like to do? Did you like to build things with your hands? Did you sit inside reading all day? Now that you are older, what do you do in your spare time? Do like playing video games or enjoying nature outside? Make a list of the skills you have and the things you enjoy doing. Then search the Internet for careers in those areas and make another list of potential careers. Do any interest you? Identify five or six interesting careers. Next, research the education needed for those careers. What kind of educational background do you need for the jobs you are interested in? Do you need a good understanding of math or an ability to write well? Look honestly at whether the requirements for the job fit your natural abilities and your interests. Consult someone who works in the field you are interested in, and ask them questions about their career. Ask if you can accompany them to work for a day and get a real idea of what their job is like. Finally, research the career outlook of your possible options on the Internet. Many websites provide information about whether a particular career is growing or declining. For example, travel agents are becoming less popular as more people just go to the Internet to purchase travel tickets. You don’t want to spend time and energy studying, only to find out that your chosen profession no longer exists! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 11

Lesson 6: How to Choose a University select | institutions | specific | estimate | located | promote | equip

After you’ve chosen the career you want to pursue, your next task is to select where you will get your education. Picking a good college or university can be a difficult task, but there are many resources available to help you on the Internet. Here are a few tips to help you as you decide where to begin your education.

Source: Open Clip Art Library

1. Choose the type of education you will receive. Some institutions emphasize hands-on learning and teaching specific, practical skills, like mechanics or radiology. Liberal arts universities offer a broad education that covers a range of different topics. Choose a school whose program fits exactly what you want to study. 2. Find out how much the institution costs. View the school’s website and contact an admissions counselor to determine how much it will cost to complete a degree. Be sure to add student fees, the cost of books, and housing into your price estimate. 3. Check the admissions requirements. Does the school require a GED® or TOEFL® score? Do you need to translate your high school transcripts and send them? Make a list of all the requirements. 4. Learn about the environment. Where is the school located? Is the school in a big city or a small town? Is the climate hot or cold? Does the institution have a reputation for being a good place to study, or do many people spend lots of time drinking and partying instead of studying? 5. Finally, talk with someone who attended the school. Schools always promote a great image in their advertising materials, but it’s important to get a reality check by finding out the facts from someone who actually completed their education there. Choosing where to get an education is a very important decision. Research well to find an institution that will equip you with the skills you need to accomplish your goals! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 12

Lesson 7: The Community College Advantage alternative | technical | obtain | transfer | equivalent | crucial | eventually

When many international students think about studying in America, often their first thoughts are of big universities. But did you know that America offers another excellent alternative for international students? American community and technical colleges are a great way for international students to get a quality education. Community or technical colleges are smaller institutions that usually offer training in specific skills. For example, a community college may offer courses in nursing, aviation mechanics, business, or information technology.

Source: Open Clip Art Library

Often community colleges cost significantly less money than larger colleges or universities. You may be able to obtain some degrees in only two years. Many community colleges also offer a liberal arts program. You can complete two years of general classes and then transfer the credits for those courses to a larger university to finish the last two years of your bachelor’s degree. Many universities consider some community college credits to be equivalent to their own general course credits. Transferring credits in this way can save you lots of money. However, it’s crucial to do your research when selecting any school. Make sure the community college you’re interested in has a good reputation, and talk with students who have graduated from it. Also, if you want to eventually transfer your credits to a different university, make sure that the university will accept your credits from the community college.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 13

Lesson 8: How to Fund Your Education dramatically | acquiring | maintain | attain | sum | finances | seek

The costs of education in the United States are rising dramatically. As you consider your options for schooling, you might be feeling discouraged about how you will pay for good training. Acquiring money for a good education can be difficult, but it doesn’t need to be impossible. Here are some ideas to help you get started.

Source: Open Clip Art Library

1. Get good grades in high school. Are you still studying in high school? Work very hard to maintain the best grades possible. This will increase your chances of getting scholarships later on. 2. Utilize free educational resources. Today, there are many opportunities to study for free using online tools. Several United States universities and other organizations offer free, non-credit lessons online in everything from English to math and physics. There are many websites that can teach you how to use computers well. You might find that you can attain all the skills you need to get a good job without ever leaving your country! 3. Consider a community college. As we talked about in a previous lesson, attending or starting in a community or technical college—instead of a large university—can save you a large sum of money. 4. Make a budget. Do you carefully calculate all the money you earn and spend? Make a simple chart to help you keep track of your finances. Identify places where you can spend less. For example, eat out at restaurants less, stop spending money on cigarettes or alcohol, or buy fewer expensive clothing items. 5. Be willing to work hard. Do you know how to fix computers? Can you repair bikes or cars? Do you like caring for children? Can you cut hair well? Let your friends and relatives know that you are working to earn money for your education, and tell them what services you can offer. 6. Seek scholarship options. Visit the United States embassy in your country to learn about local scholarship resources. Do you play an instrument well or excel in a sport? Look for organizations who might give special scholarships to specific students. The Internet also has many resources for looking for scholarships, but be careful. There are many scams that can fool you. Always ask a native English speaker friend to check out scholarship options you have found. It will be easier for them to identify whether or not the scholarship is real.

Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 14

Lesson 9: Cross-Cultural Communication communicate | styles | cultural | indicate | approach | contract | assume

People from Eastern and Western backgrounds often communicate quite differently. Of course, not all Easterners are exactly alike, nor are all Westerners. However, there are a few generalizations we can make regarding Western communication styles and Eastern communication styles. These are helpful to know when communicating with someone Source: Open Clip Art Library who is from a different cultural background than you. Every person is different, but perhaps knowing about some possible differences will help you to understand a friend or colleague better. Here are two areas that are sometimes different. Eye Contact In many Eastern cultures, direct eye contact can be considered quite rude. Staring someone in the eye directly while talking can appear very aggressive or disrespectful. The listener may feel very uncomfortable. However, in many Western cultures, ongoing eye contact while talking is considered to be friendly and polite. If you look away or down at the floor while speaking to another person, they might think that you are not interested in the conversation. They may even think that you are not very trustworthy, because eye contact in Western cultures can also indicate that you are speaking honestly and truthfully. Getting to the Point Imagine a business meeting between someone from a Western culture and someone from an Eastern culture. Both people want to make a good business deal. However, they will probably approach the meeting very differently. In many Eastern cultures, building a relationship is essential and respectful in forming a contract between two business people. The Easterner may want to sit down, have something to eat or drink together, and slowly begin to talk about the business contract. However, the Westerner may want to get directly to the “point” and start talking about details of the agreement right away. Westerners feel very strongly about respecting other people’s time, and so they may try to speed the conversation along quickly. By doing so, the Westerner actually feels they are being respectful to the other person, who they assume is very busy and has many other important things to do in their day. Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 15

Lesson 10: Thinking About Thinking fundamental | primary | method | evaluate | convince | motive | transform

Have you ever stopped to think about how you think? How do you process ideas in your head? How do you decide what to believe and what not to believe? How do you analyze the information you hear? This process is often called “critical thinking.” Critical thinking is a process of hearing information, considering the information, and deciding what to do with the information.

Source: Open Clip Art Library

Critical thinking is an important, fundamental skill for students. When you study, do you just memorize words or passages? Do you try to remember enormous amounts of information so that you can pass a test? You may think that memorizing a lot of information is the primary way to succeed on a test. However, there is a much better—and much easier!—way to learn and do well on tests. What is this fast and fun method of learning? The answer is critical thinking. When you study, don’t try to memorize facts and information. Instead, evaluate what you are studying, and try to understand it deeply. Ask yourself these two questions: 1. What is the writer or speaker trying to say? Every good communicator has a reason for communicating something. What is this person trying to get across to you? 2. Why is the author or speaker trying to say this? What is the communicator’s purpose in writing or speaking about this information? Are they trying to describe a process? Are they trying to convince you to believe something? Do they want you to take some action based on what you’ve heard? No one communicates without a motive. Figuring out the communicator’s purpose will help you to understand the information much better. When you try to understand the content and purpose of the material study, you will transform your learning experience. Instead of feeling bored and tired, you will be interested in and excited about what you are studying! Remember the keywords! • Download the audio for this passage at www.globalenglishexpress.com. • Listen to the passage more than 10 times. • Listen carefully to how the keywords are used in context. • Listen to the passage again after one or two days to review. 16

Download the rest of this book at www.globalenglishexpress.com This sample book includes 10 lessons from 150 Academic Keywords for Pre-TOEFL® Prep. To download the rest of the free lessons, please visit our website.

Stay connected to get the latest resources from Global English Express Visit our website for more free English learning resources.

Connect with us on Facebook! Tell us how this book has helped you.

Connect with us on Pinterest to get free English tips and quotes. Connect with us on Twitter to get the latest updates on free resources.

17

ad o l n w o D

o i d u A FREE e ag s s a p y for ever ne! onli

Global English Express TOEFL Vocabulary Series #1 ®

TOEFL is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Services (ETS). This book is not sponsored or endorsed by ETS.