25 Ways to Improve Learning

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes

25 Ways to Improve Learning A collection of research briefs on quality education from the IIEP Learning Portal

Edited by Catherine A. Honeyman with contributions from Que Anh Dang, Anna Persson, Matthew Thomas, and Matthew Waugh

© International Institute for Educational Planning, 2016

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Executive Summary Following the recent negotiations on the Sustainable Development Goals, leaders around the world have committed to ensuring quality primary and secondary education for their populations. As Presidents, Prime Ministers, and royalty turn to their Ministries of Education to accomplish this goal, planners may justifiably wonder how to prioritize their time and funding in order to achieve “relevant and effective learning” for all. There have been many studies of the factors that contribute to educational quality, and many models have been developed to illustrate their interrelationships. A great deal of research shows that teacher quality is the most important factor affecting students’ learning outcomes. However, both teacher quality and student learning are connected to many other issues: teacher education and motivation; learner characteristics and available support structures; curriculum and materials; school characteristics and leadership; and the management of the education system as a whole. Education is complex, but planners need clarity. Here, we summarize the research to give you 25 ways to improve learning in just one sentence each. For more details, take a look at the research briefs presented in this document, and the resources on the IIEP Learning Portal.

25 Ways to Improve Learning Learners & Support Structures 1. Ensure that all students—at all ages—arrive at school ready to learn by attending to the basic pre-requisites for learning: protecting children’s physical and socio-emotional health, and ensuring that they have enough time to rest, study, and play. 2. Implement a mix of centre- and home-based early childhood education programming that focuses on the holistic development of the child while supporting parenting skills. 3. Support school professionals to teach to the diverse cognitive abilities of all students. 4. Involve parents in promoting, encouraging, and enriching their child’s learning. 5. Coordinate with other social services in order to help resolve the socio-economic inequities that contribute to lower learning outcomes for disadvantaged children.

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Teachers & Pedagogy 6. Recruit enough strong teacher candidates into the profession and deploy them equitably throughout the education system. 7. Motivate teachers by improving their status and conditions. 8. Prepare future teachers for the realities of their teaching contexts through strong coursework in pedagogical content knowledge and field experiences. 9. Empower teachers to use effective and appropriate pedagogy, using a range of approaches to meet the needs of different content areas, different children, and different contexts. 10. Support in-service teachers through context-relevant, on-going, and collaborative opportunities for continuous professional development. Curriculum & Materials 11. Teach children in their mother tongue language for at least 6 years before they switch fully to a different language of instruction. 12. Develop relevant and effective curriculum and standards, and ensure their dissemination and implementation. 13. Procure relevant and effective textbooks and teachers’ guides, and ensure that students and teachers have regular access to them. 14. Use cost-effective supplementary materials to enrich teaching in every subject, to engage students in multi-dimensional learning, and to build students’ abilities to apply their knowledge. 15. Develop the digital literacy of teachers and students through appropriate and cost-effective use of information and communications technology (ICT). Schools & Classrooms 16. Prepare and support school leaders who have a vision for improving quality and learning outcomes, and who are also effective at ongoing management tasks. 17. Design the physical school space to be accessible, safe, hygienic, reasonably comfortable, and cognitively stimulating. 18. Institute school-wide policies that reinforce positive school relationships through open dialogue and violence prevention, that ensure a reasonable student workload, and that promote students’ sense that what they are learning is meaningful. 19. Ensure students have enough time to learn in school by adhering to planned schedules, improving teacher attendance and motivation, and building skills for effective classroom management and quality instruction. 20. Ensure student achievement is assessed throughout the year, that diverse methods of instruction and assessment methods are utilised, and that assessment practises meet quality standards of fairness, validity, and reliability.

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Education System Management 21. Ground education sector analysis and strategic planning in reliable research and data to identify priority issues and means for improving learning outcomes. 22. Allow decentralized decision-making to determine the most important local priorities for learning, while ensuring that capacity-building and other resources are distributed fairly. 23. Ensure school inspections give accurate reports and explicit feedback to inform the school’s improvement plan. 24. Design large-scale and summative assessments that are valid, reliable, and equitable, and use the resulting data to improve learning through systemic change. 25. Dedicate sufficient resources to education and design school funding formulae to link resource deployment with key inputs and processes that can improve learning outcomes. Does your education system meet all of these recommendations? Read on to learn more about specific issues you can address to improve the quality of the education offered to children and youth in your context.

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Table of Contents Executive Summary............................................................................................................................. 3 The theory behind the Improve Learning model ................................................................................ 9

Learners & Support Structures ................................................................................................... 13 Basic pre-requisites for learning ....................................................................................................... 15 Early childhood education ................................................................................................................ 19 Diverse learning abilities and challenges .......................................................................................... 23 Parental and community involvement in learning ........................................................................... 27 Social inequities ................................................................................................................................ 31

Teachers & Pedagogy ................................................................................................................. 35 Recruiting and deploying effective teachers .................................................................................... 37 Teacher motivation and incentives................................................................................................... 41 Pre-service teacher preparation ....................................................................................................... 45 Effective and appropriate pedagogy................................................................................................. 49 Supporting in-service teachers ......................................................................................................... 53

Curriculum & Materials .............................................................................................................. 57 Language of instruction .................................................................................................................... 59 Curriculum and expected learning outcomes ................................................................................... 63 Textbooks and teachers’ guides........................................................................................................ 67 Supplementary learning and teaching materials .............................................................................. 71 Information and communications technology (ICT) in education .................................................... 75

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Schools & Classrooms ................................................................................................................ 81 School leadership and management ................................................................................................ 83 The physical school environment ..................................................................................................... 87 The psycho-social school environment............................................................................................. 89 Instructional time and classroom management ............................................................................... 93 Formative assessment ...................................................................................................................... 97

Education System Management ................................................................................................. 99 Education sector analysis and strategic planning ........................................................................... 101 Decentralisation of education management .................................................................................. 105 Systems for accountability, supervision, and control ..................................................................... 109 Large-scale and summative assessments ....................................................................................... 113 Financing education and addressing corruption ............................................................................ 117

Epilogue .................................................................................................................................. 121 What works best to improve learning outcomes? ......................................................................... 121

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The theory behind the Improve Learning model A review of eleven models of quality education Catherine A. Honeyman

Gain insight into the theory and research behind the 25 issues featured in the IIEP Learning Portal’s Improve Learning model.

The IIEP Learning Portal’s “Improve Learning” model focuses attention on five major components of the education system: learners and support structures, teachers and pedagogy, curriculum and materials, schools and classrooms, and education system management. Within each of these components, we present research briefs on five major issues—giving education planners a basic overview of a total of 25 areas they may need to address in order to improve learning outcomes and attain high-quality education systems. The Improve Learning model conceives of these 25 areas as highly interconnected and mutually reinforcing, and the briefs often link to one another to illustrate this. Why did we choose to emphasize these 25 areas? In developing the Improve Learning model, the IIEP Learning Portal reviewed ten models of quality education that have been influential in shaping research and practice over the past 15 years. We also reviewed nine meta-analyses of impact evaluations on efforts to improve learning outcomes, and produced our own decision tree summarizing their conclusions. A full list of references is provided at the end of this article. Each of these eleven models emphasizes a different set of factors to address in the effort to achieve quality education for all students (see Figure 1). Some are organized in the traditional categories of context, input, process and output. Others emphasize the nested and interconnected nature of interventions, and the feedback loops that bind them together. Many have extended narrative explanations to discuss the detailed decisions that must be made when working on a particular issue, and the contextual factors to take into account when deciding what to address, when, and how. The Improve Learning model aims to address as comprehensively as possible all of the major factors identified by these different sources. Our objective is to provide an introduction to the many issues that may prove to be relevant to education planners working in diverse education systems and contexts around the world. This comprehensive overview, we hope, will in turn serve as a portal to the wealth of other detailed studies, policies, and initiatives that have been undertaken in each area. Which areas matter most? Given that the Improve Learning model attempts to cover such a comprehensive array of issues, it is fair to ask which of these matters most. In the face of financial and human resource constraints, it is simply not possible to address every issue at once—where should you focus your attentions first?

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Fundamentally, the answer to this question depends on understanding your own context and diagnosing its needs. The question of “what works best?” probably cannot be answered in a universal and uniform way—reviews of the existing evidence have produced contradictory conclusions, and specific implementation details and contextual factors have an enormous influence on the effects of a given initiative. The earliest model considered for this review, from the Improving Educational Quality Project, states: "The only certainty… is that educational reform is extremely complex, differing Figure 1: Linking the Improve Learning model to other influential studies on education quality

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radically among societies, within nations, and over time" (p. 23). The UNESCO GEQAF and World Bank SABER models respond to this reality by presenting a set of analytical tools with guiding questions that can help education planners diagnose the major needs of their systems. Some of the models reviewed as background for the Improve Learning model, however, do stand out for their evidence-based efforts to focus attention on certain key factors. The PISA series of reports Strong performers and successful reformers in education uses assessment data and background questionnaires to identify key factors of high-performing education systems. The Hewlett Foundation model Learning to improve learning analyses the outcomes of thirteen of its own programs to argue for a focus on just a few aspects of classroom instruction, teacher training and supervision, and community engagement. Our own decision tree illustrates how different specific interventions may be useful, depending on the major obstacles currently faced in an education system (Portal, 2016). And the McKinsey report How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better offers a very useful summary of the different clusters of interventions that have been successfully employed for improvement by education systems at each stage of learning achievement, allowing them to move from poor to fair, fair to good, good to great, and great to excellent (see Figure 2). Figure 2: McKinsey, 2010. How the world's most improved school systems keep getting better

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Supporting teachers in offering more effective instruction is a common element in all of these models. But it is not the only factor to address. Without an understanding of how to support learners’ basic cognitive, socio-emotional, and physical needs; without appropriate curriculum and learning materials; without a well-organized and stimulating school and classroom environment; and without effective overall system management—efforts to improve education quality and learning outcomes will not succeed. We invite you to learn more about each of these areas to reach your own conclusions about what to focus on and how. References: 1.

Portal 2016: Honeyman, C.A. 2016. What works best to improve learning outcomes? A research brief and decision-making tool. The IIEP Learning Portal blog. 2. Hewlett 2014: William & Flora Hewlett Foundation. 2014. Learning to improve learning: Lessons from early primary interventions and evaluations in India and Sub-Saharan Africa. http://www.hewlett.org/wpcontent/uploads/2016/08/2014-0214_Learning%20to%20Improve%20Learning%20Synthesis%20for%20Publishing_Edited_0.pdf 3. PISA 2011-2014: Strong performers and successful reformers in Education: Lessons from PISA for Korea; Lessons from PISA for Mexico. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/strong-performers-and-successfulreformers-in-education_2220363x 4. GEQAF 2012: UNESCO-IBE. 2012. General Education System Quality Analysis/Diagnosis Framework (GEQAF). http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/node/9696/ 5. SABER 2012: World Bank. 2012. The Systems Approach for Better Education Results. http://saber.worldbank.org/index.cfm?indx=8 6. McKinsey 2010: Mourshed, M.; Chijioke, C.; Barber, M. 2010. How the world’s most improved school systems keep getting better. McKinsey & Company. http://mckinseyonsociety.com/how-the-worlds-mostimproved-school-systems-keep-getting-better/ 7. EdQual 2010: Tikly, L. 2010. Towards a framework for understanding the quality of education: EdQual Working Paper No. 27. EdQual Research Programme Consortium. https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08b1a40f0b652dd000ad2/edqualwp27.pdf 8. GMR 2005: UNESCO. 2005. Education for All: The quality imperative. EFA Global Monitoring Report Summary. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001373/137334e.pdf 9. UNESCO 2004: Pigozzi, M.J. 2004. The 10 dimensions of quality in Education. UNESCO-IBE training tools for curriculum development. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COPs/Pages_documents/Resource_Packs/TTCD/sitem ap/resources/1_1_2_P_ENG.pdf 10. UNICEF 2000: Colby, J. 2000. Defining Quality in Education. UNESCO Working Paper. https://www.unicef.org/education/files/QualityEducation.PDF 11. IEQ 1999: IEQ. 1999. Educational Quality Framework. Improving Educational Quality (IEQ) Project undertaken by American Institutes for Research for USAID. http://www.ieq.org/pdf/EducQualFramework.pdf

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Learners & Support Structures

Basic pre-requisites for learning Early childhood education Diverse learning abilities and challenges Parental and community involvement in learning Social inequities

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Basic pre-requisites for learning Matthew Waugh

Ensure that all students—at all ages—arrive at school ready to learn by attending to the basic pre-requisites for learning: protecting children’s physical and socioemotional health, and ensuring that they have enough time to rest, study, and play.

To be ready to learn at all ages, students need healthy physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development, including opportunities for play and rest. All of these aspects can be improved through access to a comprehensive school-based health programme, and by effectively assessing and monitoring students’ physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional well-being. Issues and Discussion Healthy physical development: Healthy physical development is essential for learning, including good overall health, adequate nutrition, and age-appropriate gross and fine motor skills such as the ability to hold a writing tool.(5)(12) Nutritional deficiencies of mothers during pregnancy and in the diet of infants and young children affects present and future physical health of the child including vision, hearing, and brain development.(1)(14) Primary and secondary students who are malnourished or have inadequate access to nutritious food at school can experience poorer health, increased absences, compromised ability to learn from classroom instruction, and difficulties being involved in physical activities.(1)(8) Cost-effective strategies to improve the physical health and readiness to learn among children include school health programmes (see below) and educating caregivers about good nutrition, hygiene, and vaccination awareness, even for older child populations, through outreach and mobile campaigns.(4) Socio-emotional development: Socio-emotional development is critical for students at all ages and includes emotional expression and understanding, self-regulation, and the ability to positively interact with peers and adults.(5)(12) Children should have adequate rest and the right to play, which has the benefits of promoting socio-emotional development, enhancing positive life skills and identity development as well as building upon already acquired communication, negotiation, and leadership skills.(3)(12)(13) Play is not only a psychological and social necessity throughout children’s lives, it can also be a tool for schools and communities to break down cultural, socio-economic, and gender divides.(3)(13) Insufficient rest and too much physical labour negatively affects memory and retention, deprives children from needed social interactions, and can take away from the homework and studying time that is necessary for students to be prepared to learn.(6)(9)(12) Free education, economic and food incentives, and interventions that reduce time for child labour can improve school enrolment, as well as time for play and rest.(3)(6) School programmes: A variety of school-based programmes can improve learning by increasing access to healthy nutritious food, promoting appropriate health and hygiene practices, directly providing health services, and assessing schools’ readiness to coordinate with various child-related

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sectors.(4)(8)(14) Students can also be provided access to dental, vision, hearing, and physical health services (school vaccines, treatment for parasitic infections). At a minimum, school sites must have adequate sanitation facilities and access to safe drinking water.(10)(14) Benefits of school-based health programmes in primary and secondary schools include improved health, decrease in absences due to illness, improved classroom attendance and educational outcomes, and a decrease in behavioural issues that resulted in suspension or expulsion.(8) Short- and long-term improvements in student learning can be achieved when planners promote and ensure school health programmes that have a health education curriculum.(10)(14)

Inclusiveness and Equity Readiness to learn for disadvantaged children: Disadvantaged students are likely to be living in poverty, to be faced with food or housing insecurity, and to have been exposed to violence or trauma, which can negatively affect their readiness to learn and lead to poorer socio-emotional development.(2)(6)(7)(8)(14) Interventions to improve learning readiness for children who are disadvantaged include mentoring and counselling activities, improved eating habits, activities involving parent-child interactions, and promotion of positive relationships.(2)(3)(6)(7)(8)(14) Providing disadvantaged children opportunities to co-operate and interact through peer and intergenerational play within a warm and welcoming school environment, can be useful in building self-esteem, and improving school adjustment and socio-emotional health, and can lead to better learning outcomes and readiness to learn for the long-term.(2)(3)(6)(7)(8)(14) Physical and cognitive disabilities: A range of physical and cognitive disabilities can affect students’ readiness to learn in traditional schools. Early diagnosis, appropriate treatment when possible, and special adaptations to pedagogy and the learning environment can help to ensure that all children have an opportunity to learn and develop.(15) For more information, see the article on diverse learning abilities and challenges. References 1.

Benton, D. 2010. The influence of dietary status on the cognitive performance of children. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 54(4), 457-470. 2. Hahn, R. A., Knopf, J., Wilson, S. J., Truman, B. I., Milstein, B., Johnson, R. L.,…and Hunt, P. C. 2015. Programs to increase high school completion: A community guide systematic health equity review. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 48(5), 599-608. 3. Hirschland, D. 2009. Addressing social, emotional, and behavioural challenges through play. Zero to Three, 30, 12-17. 4. Johri, M., Pérez, M. C., Arsenault, C., Sharma, J., Sharma, J. K., Pai, N. P.,…and Sylvestre, M. P. 2015. Strategies to increase the demand for childhood vaccination in low- and middle income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 93(5), 339-346. 5. Kids Count. 2005. Getting Ready: Findings from the National School Readiness Indicators Initiative - A 17 State Partnership. Kids Count Rhode Island: Providence. 6. McCoy, D. C., Connors, M. C., Morris, P. A., Yoshikawa, H., and Friedman-Krauss, A. H. 2015. Neighborhood economic disadvantage and children's cognitive and social emotional development: Exploring Head Start classroom quality as a mediating mechanism. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 32, 150-159. 7. Merritt, D. H., and Klein, S. 2015. Do early care and education services improve language development for maltreated children? Evidence from a national child welfare sample. Child Abuse & Neglect 39, 185-196. 8. Muthuswamy, E. 2006. Feeding our future: The First and Second Year Evaluation. Toronto District School Board. 9. Orazem, P. F., and Gunarsson, V. 2003. Child Labour, School Attendance and Academic Performance: A Review. International Labour Office/International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour: Geneva. 10. UNESCO. 2013. Monitoring and evaluation guidance for School Health Programs. UNESCO, Paris.

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 11. UNICEF. 2012. School Readiness: A Conceptual Framework. United Nations Children’s Fund, New York: UNICEF. 12. UNICEF. 2012. School Readiness and Transitions: A Companion to the Child Friendly Schools Manual. UNICEF. 13. UNICEF. 2004. Sport Recreation and Play. http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/5571_SPORT_EN.pdf 14. WFP and UNICEF. 2005. The Essential Package: Twelve Interventions to Improve the Health and Nutrition of School-Age Children. WFP and UNICEF: Rome. 15. Wong, B., Graham, L., Hoskyn, M., and Berman, J. (2008). The ABCs of Learning Disabilities (Second Edition). Elsevier Academic Press: Burlington, MA.

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Early childhood education Matthew Waugh

Implement a mix of centre- and home-based early childhood education programming that focuses on the holistic development of the child while supporting parenting skills.

Early childhood education (ECE) is an investment in the immediate health and well-being of young children and in their subsequent learning and development. In making programming decisions, planners should be conscious of the long-term outcomes of ECE programmes, of widely-encouraged ECE practices, and of the different options of centre-based and community-based ECE programmes. It is also important to be aware of the need for resource-mobilization to fund ECE services, and the planning involved in coordinating, advocating, and monitoring ECE services. Issues and Discussion Long-term outcomes of ECE programmes: Interventions for infants and very young children, including during pregnancy, provide the foundation for early childhood development during the formative years of brain development and can significantly improve children’s short-term cognitive, behavioural, socio-emotional, physical, and motor development.(1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) Children aged 0-3 years who are enrolled in ECE programmes have demonstrated cognitive, language, and social-emotional improvements in development while parenting skills and parent well-being also improved.(10) Positive effects are even greater if children receive a mixed-approach of home visits and centre-based instruction and if families are enrolled in ECE programmes that provide parenting support during pregnancy.(10) Widely-encouraged ECE practices: Widely encouraged approaches to ECE programming focus on child and parent relationships, have gender-neutral curriculums, and incorporate stimulating activities that focus on literacy and providing parents with home instructional strategies.(1, 3, 4, 5, 9) Programmes that have greater outcomes for children and families tend to be longer in duration, greater intensity to build up children’s skills for primary school, and provide a mixed-approach including home-based and centre-based services.(1, 3, 4, 5, 9) Planners should develop training strategies that promote a continuum of practitioner development, beginning with pre-service and continuing with ongoing in-service training that is maintained throughout the careers of ECE professionals.(3) Centre-based ECE programmes: Quality centre-based ECE programmes—including pre-schools and day-care facilities that follow an educational curriculum—promote parental engagement, use programme activities to connect to the home environment, and help develop children’s habits, attitudes, and commitment to learning. These characteristics prepare children to better receive teacher instruction in primary school.(1, 10) Formal day care initiatives like Catco Kids in Pakistan, promote basic pre-requisite needs of health, nutrition, good eyesight, social and emotional health, and self-esteem before the child enters formal school.(1, 9) Centre-based ECE programmes are generally more costly than community-based programmes due to costs associated with resourcing a physical space and providing ECE staff.(9) However, the benefits of ECE experience for children, including in the long-term lower rates of incarceration and welfare assistance, have been shown to far outweigh the costs.(1, 5, 7, 9, 10)

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Community and home-based ECE programmes: Community-based ECE programmes may take several forms. The international Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) programme, for example, provides home visits and curriculum for parents and children to engage in together which can address the social and emotional needs of at-risk children during their early years.(1, 10) Although home visits can generally be more costly and time consuming for programme deliverers, this type of ECE relieves financial burden on the lives of low-income families who are unable to afford to send their children to centre-based facilities. Building the capacity of parents and other volunteers to act as facilitators can decrease the costs associated with this model.(9) Pratham Balwadi in India is an example of a different community-based model, which reduces costs by using existing community spaces such as temples, the teacher’s home, or the home of one of the children, to offer quality ECE services. Effective community-based ECE, just like centre-based ECE, can lead to greater gains in cognitive and language development and higher lifetime income among low-income children compared to children without ECE experience.(1, 2, 5, 7, 10) Resources mobilization to fund ECE services: Economic analyses of ECE investment have shown significantly greater positive long-term effects on the productivity and returns in later adulthood above and beyond other educational investments.(10) However, the immediate costs can seem daunting. Comprehensive cost assessments have estimated that an average of US$11 billion annually from internal and external funding sources is needed for low-income countries to provide for all necessary educational resources from ECE to secondary schooling.(10) Spending per student in lowincome countries should increase, on average, more than three times what is currently spent, with prioritization towards ECE.(4, 10) This financial need requires greater pooling of resources through coordinated cross-sector committees represented by education, health, family welfare, and other ECE-related services.(3) Requiring parents to make contributions to ECE services may be feasible for higher-income groups, but can shut out the disadvantaged children who most need ECE programming. Planners should therefore develop other funding strategies to build a coalition of donors comprised of community, local, national, NGOs, and private funding sources.(3, 10) Action plans for coordinating, advocating, and monitoring ECE services: Because of the multi-sectoral nature of ECE interventions, high-level cross-sector committees require action plans that ensure ECE policies are carried out effectively and procedures are in place for coordination between agencies.(3, 10) Action plans should embed communication strategies that utilise media and public relations groups to effectively promote and advocate on behalf of child development and education nationally.(3) High quality monitoring and evaluation activities can be carried out through evaluation departments and universities.(3)

Inclusiveness and Equity Early detection of disabilities: Quality ECE is useful in promoting healthy development and providing early detection of disabilities in children, which can support educational professionals to deliver necessary and appropriate interventions. Inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream education has been challenging for many school systems around the world.(9) Earlier inclusion of children with disabilities to learn and play alongside their peers in mainstream ECE programmes promotes transitions into primary school, reduces stigma and isolation for the child and their parents, and has positive socio-emotional and academic benefits for students of all abilities.(9) ECE for families of ethnic and racial minority background: Families of ethnic and/or racial minority should receive culturally-relevant ECE programming that is delivered in the local language, with resources coming from within the community, and from a model that integrates local identities and

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knowledge.(3, 8) To improve the access of minority parents to existing ECE and parental support and programmes, initiatives should be culturally-sensitive to parents’ child-rearing beliefs and practices.(3, 4, 8, 9)

References 1.

Anderson, L. M., Shinn, C., Fullilove, M. T., Scrimshaw, S. C., Fielding, J. E., Normand, J., and Carande-Kulis, V. G. 2003. The effectiveness of early childhood development programs: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 24(3), 32-46. 2. Blankenau, W., and Youderian, X. 2015. Early childhood education expenditures and the intergenerational persistence of income. Review of Economic Dynamics 18(2), 334-349. 3. Garcia, M., Pence, A., Evans, J. L. 2008. Africa's Future, Africa's Challenge: Early Childhood Care and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. 4. Naudeau, S., Kataoka, N., Valerio, A., Neuman, M. J., and Elder, L. K. 2011. Investing in Young Children: An Early Childhood Development Guide for Policy Dialogue and Project Preparation. World Bank Publications, Washington D.C. 5. Schweinhart, L. J., Montie, J., Xiang, Z., Barnett, W. S., Belfield, C. R., and Nores, M. 2005. The High/Scope Perry Pre-school Study Through Age 40. High/Scope® Educational Research Foundation. 6. Sripada, K. 2012. Neuroscience in the capital: Linking brain research and federal early childhood programs and policies. Early Education and Development 23(1), 120-130. 7. Temple, J. A., and Reynolds, A. J. 2007. Benefits and costs of investments in preschool education: Evidence from the child-parent centers and related programs. Economics of Education Review, 26, 126-144. 8. UNESCO. 2012. Indigenous early childhood care and education (IECCE) curriculum framework for Africa: A focus on contexts and contents. UNESCO/International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa: Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 9. UNESCO. 2007. EFA global monitoring report: Strong foundations, early childhood care and education. UNESCO: Paris, France. 10. Vogel, C. A., Yange, X., Moiduddin, E. M., Kisker, E. E., and Carlson, B. L. 2010. Early Head Start Children in Grade 5: Long-Term Follow-Up of the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Study Sample. OPRE Report # 2011-8, Washington, DC: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation, Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

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Diverse learning abilities and challenges Matthew Waugh

Support school professionals to teach to the diverse cognitive abilities of all students.

It is important for educators and education planners at all levels to understand students’ diverse cognitive abilities and challenges. Teachers need to be competent in addressing particular types of learning challenges while encouraging the growth of high ability learners. It is also important to consider the learning impacts of mainstreaming and grouping students based on abilities, and the implications that theories of learning have for assessment. Issues and Discussion Multiple intelligences, learning styles, or range of abilities: Although there is limited evidence to theories of multiple intelligences or learning styles, there is a range of cognitive abilities that can result in students excelling in one or more content areas relative to others.(8, 11) This includes learner’s strengths to use words and language, logic and reasoning, spatial relationships, sounds and rhythms, body movements and coordination, naturalistic observation, and inter and intra-personal skills.(8, 12) Narrowly matching teaching instruction with students’ preferred learning style may not lead to improved academic outcomes, but students benefit when schools and teachers understand and prepare for diverse capacities to learn the curriculum, as well as differences in motivation to learn one content area compared to another.(9, 13) Understanding and addressing learning challenges: Learning challenges involve any impairments in physical, cognitive, language, and behavioural development that affect one’s ability to learn.(1, 2, 8, 9, 13) Particular challenges include intellectual disabilities, learning disabilities, visual impairments, speech and hearing disorders, Cerebral Palsy, autistic spectrum disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and epilepsy among others.(1, 2, 8, 9, 11, 13) The umbrella term “intellectual disability” implies generalized difficulties with understanding, reasoning, and other features of general intelligence. However, many other learning challenges may actually mask an otherwise average or even aboveaverage mental capacity. Educators and family members who are unaware of the specific issues involved in different learning challenges, may mistakenly assume that children and youth who are affected by them are unable to learn—yet this is not the case. Educational planners can include these learners by adopting a universal design for learning with resources, services, and features of the physical school environment that are usable by all students, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design.(1, 12) Teachers can also teach students specific strategies for working around their learning disabilities, and can address the needs of students with behavioural challenges through the use of meta-cognitive strategies and self-regulation activities.(5) High ability and twice-exceptional students: High ability learners, also known as gifted students, demonstrate superior performance or talents in any number of intelligences, whereas students who are twice-exceptional demonstrate giftedness in one or more areas addition to a diagnosed learning

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challenge.(3, 4) In cases of twice-exceptionality, sometimes only the learning challenge is noted, or neither the talents nor disabilities are identified because they mask each other. It is therefore important that students with learning challenges as well as high abilities be encouraged through strength-based approaches that centre around student’s creativity, problem-solving skills, and analytic abilities.(3, 4) Growth for gifted students can be encouraged when the curriculum is individualized and flexible to those subjects students excel in, and when the environment allows for self-direction, collaboration and group discussions, problem solving, self-evaluation, and inquirybased activities.(3, 4) Mainstreaming versus ability grouping: Educators must address the question of whether learners with particular abilities or challenges should be mainstreamed along with all other students, or whether they should be grouped apart in order to provide specialized learning opportunities. Students with learning challenges who are taught in the mainstream classroom alongside same-aged peers without learning challenges do better academically and socially than those students who spend most of their instructional hours in separate or specialized classrooms.(1) Teachers can improve their approaches to teaching students with low abilities and learning challenges through professional development training, actively involving student’s families, focusing on student’s strengths no matter the ability level, and making curriculum adaptations when necessary.(1) On the other hand, accelerated learning opportunities have many academic benefits for gifted and twice-exceptional students. Such opportunities may include being placed in advanced courses, being mentored by content experts to extend on the student’s knowledge, having access to out-of-school programs that support growth in their gifted areas, and through ability grouping and grade skipping.(3, 4) Peer ability grouping has significant academic benefits for gifted students; however, there is a potential for negative social or emotional impacts, especially for twice-exceptional students.(3) Schools should not restrict the ability for students to accelerate their learning, but students’ social and emotional development should be assessed if they are to be grouped with older students.(3) Implications for assessment: While there is diversity in student learning capabilities, there remains inadequate empirical support for assessments of multiple intelligences and learning styles.(8, 12) Rather than individualizing instruction and assessment for every single child which may be impractical and costly for many schools, teachers should instead focus on diversified teaching and assessment practices shown to be effective for students with diverse learning abilities while providing individualized attention when necessary.(8) Effective strategies include formative assessment methods, direct instruction, feedback on performance, embedded instruction, cooperative learning, and developing an educational framework that reflects an inclusive school pedagogy.(1, 8)

Inclusiveness and Equity Learning disability as a hidden disability: The total population of children with learning disabilities is unknown largely due to the hidden nature of the disability.(13) Because more severe disabilities tend to take priority and children with learning disabilities are not often part of the identification system, their difficulties may go unacknowledged. Educational planners can emphasize the need for government and school policies that include students with learning challenges and disabilities as a target group for academic intervention and support.(13) Government policies can improve the understanding and visibility of learning disabilities through explicit targeting initiatives to identify, assess, and provide academic intervention and support to populations with learning disabilities while offering pre-service teachers specialized training in this issue as part of the certification process.(13)

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Assistive technology for low-income schools: Educational planners should develop school guidelines for technology in schools that outline the acquisition, integration, maintenance, and expansion of lowcost technologies in schools for students with an array of learning abilities.(1, 5, 13) Low-cost assistive technology can be integrated into the school environment, including providing carbon copies of notes for students with writing difficulties, color overlays for students with reading and/or visual-perception challenges, and communication boards or keychains with simple response messages for students with speech/language challenges. (1, 5, 13) Utensil grips and slant boards not only benefit students with writing challenges but are also beneficial for all students. (1, 5, 13) References 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12. 13.

Alquraini, T., and Gut, D. 2012. Critical components of successful inclusion of students with severe disabilities: Literature review. International Journal of Special Education, 27, 42-59. Boyle, C. A., Boulet, S., Schieve, L., Cohen, R. A., Blumberg, S.J., Yeargin-Allsopp M., Visser, S., and Kogan, M.D. 2011. Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997-2008. Pediatrics, 27, 1034-1042. Colangelo, N., Assouline, S., Lohman, D., and Marron, M. A. 2010. Proceedings of the 2008 Wallace Symposium Poster Session on Academic Acceleration. Iowa City, IA: The University of Iowa. Foley-Nicpon, M., Allmon, A., Sieck, B., and Stinson, R. D. 2011. Empirical investigation of twiceexceptionality: Where have we been and where are we going? Gifted Child Quarterly, 55, 3-17. National Forum on Education Statistics. 2002. Technology in Schools. Suggestions, Tools and Guidelines for Assessing Technology in Elementary and Secondary Education. U.S. Department of Education National Center for Education Statistics: Washington, D.C. Knight, K. H., Porcellato, L., and Tume, L. 2014. Out-of-school lives of physically disabled children and young people in the United Kingdom: A qualitative literature review. Journal of Child Health Care 18(3), 275-285. Neihart, M. 2007. The socioaffective impact of acceleration and ability grouping: Recommendations for best practice. Gifted Child Quarterly, 51(4), 330-341. Paschler, H., McDaniel, M., Rohrer, D., and Bjork, R. 2010. Learning styles: Concepts and evidence. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 9, 105-119. Peters, S. 2007. “Education for all?”: A historical analysis of international inclusive education policy and individuals with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 18, 98-108. Robinson, A., and Stein, M. K. (2013). Evidence-based practice model and response to intervention for students with gifts and talents. In M. R. Coleman & S. K. Johnsen (Eds.), Implementing RtI with gifted students: Service models, trends and issues (pp. 229–252). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press. Shakespeare, T., and Officer, A. 2011. World Report on Disability. World Health Organization. Tirri, K., and Nokelainen, P. 2011. Measuring Multiple Intelligences and Moral Sensitivities in Education. Sense Publishers: Rotterdam. UNESCO. 2009. Towards Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities: A Guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO.

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Parental and community involvement in learning Matthew Waugh

Involve parents in promoting, encouraging, and enriching their child’s learning.

Parental support includes direct effects on learning before and during formal education, as well as monitoring and facilitating factors that are indirectly linked, such as nutrition, behaviours, health, and hygiene. Several factors are important for understanding these types of parental support including: support needed pre- and post-birth for healthy infant development, support needed during children’s early years and prior to entering formal schooling, support needed during primary and secondary school years, school strategies for involving parents in their child’s education, and costs associated with parent education programmes. Issues and Discussion Parental support for children 0 to 2: Parent support to learning during the infant and toddler years takes place mostly in the home and includes interacting with and attending to the needs of infants, continuous expressions of affection, and engaging in two-way talk by listening and responding positively to encourage vocabulary expansion and develop language skills.(9) Programmes that improve parents’ confidence and capacity to enrich their children’s early life experiences can have positive effects on children’s cognitive, socio-emotional, and linguistic development.(1, 2, 9) Many effective interventions are feasible even in poorly-resourced communities, such as Kangaroo Mother Care which is designed to enhance pre-mature infant care through skin-to-skin contact,(3) and public information campaigns on parenting that use accessible media such as radio. Parental support for children 3-5: Parent support to learning during the pre-schools years requires maintaining the activities above, but now with a supplement on developing school-readiness, such as by exposing children to emergent literacy and numeracy.(1, 3, 9) Similar to the activities offered through Pupa, a Brasilian teacher training programme for low-income parents of children under the age of 6, parents should stimulate an interest in learning through storytelling, role-playing, and music.(2, 3, 9) Children benefit when parents help them participate in community activities that have educational value including attending a cultural event; visiting libraries and museums; encouraging observation and learning from everyday settings; and learning through play.(2, 3, 9) Parental support for children 6 -11: Parent support to learning during the primary school years includes the above activities while supporting children’s transition to school.(1, 3, 4) The parental support needed during the primary school years is characterized by greater direct support to their child’s education including assistance with their homework and volunteering in classrooms and with school functions.(1, 3, 4) Many parents feel they are able to assist their child with school-related work during the primary years. However, some parents—especially those with lower education levels themselves—may need help understanding the importance of their support and learning how to assist their children; programmes like Literacy Boost offered to out-of-school children in Malawi can promote family involvement in early literacy activities.(1, 3)

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Parental support for children 12-18: Parent support to learning during the secondary school years can have positive educational outcomes when parents encourage, supervise, and motivate their child within a stable home environment.(1, 3, 4) Parental support becomes more indirect as their child takes greater responsibility over their learning, and many parents feel less capable of assisting with their child’s homework as the curriculum becomes more advanced.(1, 3, 4) By providing workshops and training to parents, such as initiatives like the Community Education Support Project, parental support and efficacy to participate in their child’s education can improve.(3) Delivering parenting programmes to parents of young children: Reaching parents to facilitate and share skills and knowledge about parenting and support to learning can include one-to-one programming, parent groups, and the use of media.(2) Programmes provided should be delivered either through intensive one-to-one home visits and parenting groups sustained over a period of a year or through less-intensive but regularly scheduled interventions that span two to three years.(1, 2, 9) The use of media can be an important tool for reaching low-income, rural, or isolated families.(2) Parent programmes like Programa de Padres y Hijos in Chile, that are designed to promote the psychosocial development of children 0 to 6 in low-income communities can result in positive longterm outcomes.(1, 2) Programa de Padres y Hijos combines weekly worker-facilitated parent meetings that coincide with a radio broadcast that uses radio dramas and activities to stimulate conversations and develop parent activities that can stimulate child-parent interactions during the week.(1, 2) Whether conducted in conjunction with formal early childhood education programmes or apart, programming should focus on child-parent interactions and promote whole-child development— including parenting skills and knowledge to ensure proper child nutrition, health, and hygiene.(1, 2, 9) Communicating to improve parental involvement in schooling: Communication between teachers and parents can be facilitated through home/school link programmes. Such programmes may be implemented by special school staff who are responsible for connecting families with schools, building relationships, encouraging school attendance, and linking the curriculum in the home with school instruction.(1, 9) Policies can help to ensure regular communication when descriptions of parents’ responsibilities are developed with and articulated to parents, and when networks between parents are established.(3, 7, 9) Teachers plan lessons that involve parents in the assignment, in addition to applying other tips and resources to improve parental involvement.(1) School staff can arrange to meet families at their home or in the community, or use technology to maintain contact including email, phone calls, school portals and district websites, teacher blogs, phone apps, sending letters home with students, and administering school surveys to determine how parents wish to communicate.(3, 6) Multi-sector coordination and costs of comprehensive parent programmes: Education planners may need to work through multi-stakeholder teams to improve parental involvement, since parent programmes and services are often spread across several sectors including education, health, and family welfare.(2) Costs for delivering parenting education varies globally and depends on the programme model, duration, and type of skills and training being offered.(2) Centre-based programmes and one-to-one models within home visiting programmes are more costly due to staff training, salaries, and turnover so such programmes may need to transition towards more sustainable models, including the use of parent and other volunteers to extend programme reach.(2)

Inclusiveness and Equity Parents of ethnic and/or linguistic minority: Parents who are of ethnic and/or linguistic minority may be viewed by teachers and schools as having less ability and effectiveness to contribute to their child’s

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education.(5) Lack of diversity in parental involvement programs or policies and leadership can also lead to a limited presence of parents of ethnic and racial minority in schools.(5) These barriers can be addressed through targeted interventions that: provide specific information regarding how parents can be more involved, are designed to develop healthy parent-school relationships, use interpreters when necessary, build mutual trust, and integrate parental support into the curriculum.(3, 5, 7) References 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

8. 9.

Desforges, C., and Abouchaar, A. 2003. The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievements and adjustment: A literature review. Research Report, 443, London: Department for Education and Skills. Nottingham: UK. Evans, J. L. Parenting programmes: An important ECD intervention strategy. Education for All Global Monitoring Report, 2007. UNESCO. Goodall, J., and Vorhaus, J. 2011. Review of best practice in parental engagement. Research Report, 156. Department for Education and Skills. Nottingham: UK. Hill, N. E., and Tyson, D. F. 2009. Parental involvement in middle school: A meta-analytic assessment of the strategies that promote achievement. Developmental Psychology, 45(3), 740-763. Kim, Y. (2009). Minority parental involvement and school barriers: Moving the focus away from deficiencies of parents. Educational Research Review, 4, 80-102. McConnell, B. M., and Kubina Jr., R. M. 2014. Connecting with families to improve students' school attendance: A review of the literature. Preventing School Failure: Alternative Education for Children and Youth, 58(4), 249-256. Mendez, J. L. 2010. How can parents get involved in preschool? Barriers and engagement in education by ethnic minority parents of children attending head start. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology 16(1), 26-36. Mingat, A. and A. Seurat. 2011a. “Développement des enfants de 0 à 6 ans et pratiques parentales à Madagascar”. UNICEF. New York. Redding, S. 2000. Parents and Learning. International Academy of Education and the International Bureau of Education. Geneva, Switzerland.

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Social inequities Matthew Waugh

Coordinate with other social services in order to help resolve the socio-economic inequities that contribute to lower learning outcomes for disadvantaged children.

Social inequities are rooted in the economic and social conditions in which children learn and grow, and early life experiences have particularly important and long-lasting effects on children’s development and educational outcomes. The first 1,000 days, from conception to age two, have been found to be of particular significance, requiring an emotionally nurturing environment, where children are protected from exposure to physical and psychological harm, and where they receive cognitive stimulation. It is important for educational planners to understand how social inequities influence learning outcomes, and pursue effective programmes through multi-stakeholder collaborations to address inequities. Issues and Discussion Social inequities influence learning outcomes: Social inequities play a formative role in children’s cognitive and socio-emotional development.(6)(8)(11) Compared to children from higher-income neighbourhoods, children who are poor and live in low-resourced communities experience greater vulnerabilities and exclusion from society, have heightened exposure to violence and toxic stress, are attending schools that receive less funding, are more likely to be malnourished, have absent parents and are at-risk for other factors that lead to poor outcomes.(6)(8)(11)(12) Social inequities are cumulative, whereby advantage can accumulate while disadvantage is often compounded by further disadvantage and thereby widening the inequities between children of advantage and disadvantage over time.(3)(8)(11) Inequities can be addressed and learning outcomes improved when governments ensure that the most disadvantaged children and their families have access to quality health- and educationrelated services in the formative years of development.(6)(8)(11) Addressing inequities that begin before birth: Prenatal development and postnatal care is critical for children’s long-term development and can be an important intervention in addressing social inequities.(4)(13) Adequate antenatal, labour and delivery, and post-delivery services such as nursefamily partnership programmes should be offered to parents to improve home quality for children to grow and develop in safe environments.(4)(13) Having access to health care centres, and to home visits by health care workers who can provide screening and assessment services, can reduce complications, contribute to healthy child development, and address social inequities.(4)(13) Multi-stakeholder collaboration to address inequities: Socio-economic inequities affect learning in a broad way, and can only be sustainably addressed through interventions in multiple sectors and areas of policy. Planners thus need to coordinate multi-stakeholder partnerships to develop and deliver targeted programmes that address the full range of issues affecting disadvantaged children and families.(3)(4) Some examples of relevant stakeholders include health and social services agencies, infrastructure and environmental planners, educational institutions, religious and cultural groups, and families and children themselves. Multi-stakeholder partnerships are effective when stakeholders assess children’s needs and develop community indicators.(3)(4) Each stakeholder needs to buy-in and

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own project phases with a clear focus on impacts and sustainability with regulations and accountability measures in place.(3)(4) The multi-stakeholder team should also adopt a monitoring and evaluation system using valid and reliable tools to measure inequities (agreed upon indicators) so that changes in disparities can be measured over time.(3)(4) Effective programmes in addressing inequities: Highly effective programmes that are specifically designed for disadvantaged children and families and are also integrated within family support, health, nutrition, and education systems have led to improvements in children’s nutrition and physical development, as well as receptive language skills, motor and cognitive development.(4)(5)(12)(13) Effective strategies for addressing social inequities include reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions, high quality early childhood care and development programmes, cash transfer and food for education programmes, supplemental programs that enhance parental support to education, and broader interventions to improve family livelihoods and other such factors.(4)(5)(13) Some “big push” interventions have resulted in sustainable transitions to self-employment and greater standards of living for significantly disadvantaged populations.(1) Cash transfer programmes can include conditions that parents ensure their children attend school and regularly schedule their child for health visits.(5)(13) However, programmes like cash transfers can vary in success due to contextual barriers such as ineffective disbursement and use of funds, poor school infrastructure, and class-size issues.(12) Planners should ensure that mechanisms for accountability and transparency are built into schoolbased management systems to better use and disburse funds.(12) Programme spending to address social inequities: Increased spending to combat social inequities that focus on early childhood rather than later in the child’s life course can lead to significant future financial returns, improved economic and labour productivity, and a reduction in health care costs due to improved mental and physical development.(4)(8)(13) To address inequities, an assessment of current and future allocation of funding for educational programmes should be made to determine whether there is a higher concentration of resources for one age cohort (early childhood) over another (middle childhood) and to ensure that spending is addressing needs where it is needed most.(2)(12) Both current and future benefits should be included in calculations of the cost-effectiveness of programmes such as early childhood education.(4)(12) Higher funding tends to lead to greater benefits but spending should be sustainable to the extent that programmes lead to a re-shaping of the living conditions and improved outcomes of disadvantaged children and their families regardless of their ability to pay for services.(2)(4)(8)(11)(12)

Inclusiveness and Equity Gender and other cross-cutting inequities: Disadvantaged groups are not always defined by cultural, economic, or geographical boundaries. For example, girls may be disadvantaged in ways that cut across regional divides and socio-economic class. Investing in education for girls empowers and gives girls the confidence to take charge of their lives and make decisions about their future, their careers, marriage, and child bearing.(11) Education for girls also creates economic growth, reduces the possibility of conflict and improves the lives of future generations.(11) (12)(13) When considering the impact of social inequities on learning outcomes, planners need to investigate what other crosscutting social issues—including gender, but also different forms of disability, and other contextdependent factors—may need to be addressed.

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References 1. 2.

3. 4.

5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

Abhijit, B., Duflo, E., Goldberg, N., Karlan, D., Osei, R., Parienté, W.,…and Udry, C. 2015. A multi-faceted program causes lasting progress for the very poor: Evidence from six countries. Science 348 (6236). Britto, P. R., Yoshikawa, H., Van Ravens, J., Ponguta, L. A., Oh, S. S., Dimaya, R. and Seder, R. C. 2013. Understanding Governance of Early Childhood Development and Education Systems and Services in LowIncome Countries. Innocenti Working Paper No.2013-07, UNICEF Office of Research: Florence. Draxler, A. 2008. New partnerships for EFA: building on experience. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO/World Economic Forum. Engle, P. L., Black, M. M., Behrman, J.R., Cabral de Mello, M., Gertler, P. J., Kapiriri, L.,… and Young, M. E. 2007. Strategies to avoid the loss of developmental potential in more than 200 million children in the developing world. Lancet, 369(9557), 229-242. Fernald, L. C., Gertler, P. J., and Neufeld, L. M. 2008. Role of cash in conditional cash transfer programmes for child health, growth, and development: An analysis of Mexico’s Oportunidades. Lancet, 371(9615), 828-837. Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Glewwe, P., Richter, L., and Strupp, B. 2007. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet, 369(9555), 60-70. Grayson, H. 2013. Rapid review of parental engagement and narrowing the gap in attainment for disadvantaged children. Slough and Oxford: NFER and Oxford University Press. Hertzman, C, Siddiqi, A., Hertzman, E., Irwin, L. G., Vaghri, Z., Houweling, T. A., … and Marmot, M. 2010. Bucking inequality gradient through early child development. British Medical Journal, 340, 468. Lee, F. L. M., Yeung, A. S., Tracey, D., and Barker, K. 2015. Inclusion of children with special needs in early childhood education: What teacher characteristics matter. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education 35(2), 79-88. Peters, S. 2007. “Education for all?” A historical analysis of international inclusive education policy and individuals with disabilities. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 18, 98-108. Shonkoff, J. P., Garner, A. S., Siegel, B. S., Dobbins, M. I., Earls, M. F., McGuinn, L., ... and Wood, D. L. 2012. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232-e246. UNICEF. 2015. The Investment case for education and equity. UNICEF: New York. UNICEF. 2008. Maternal and Newborn Health. United Nations Children’s Fund: New York.

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Teachers & Pedagogy

Recruiting and deploying effective teachers Teacher motivation and incentives Pre-service teacher preparation Effective and appropriate pedagogy Supporting in-service teachers

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Recruiting and deploying effective teachers Matthew A.M. Thomas

Recruit enough strong teacher candidates into the profession and deploy them equitably throughout the education system.

Education systems need effective teachers at all levels in order to ensure students learn as much as possible. It is important to recruit an adequate number of highly effective teachers into the profession and strategically deploy them throughout the country. Issues and Discussion: Predicting the Number of Teachers Needed: Knowing how many teachers are needed in a system is crucial to advancing its success. Predicting the number of teachers is based on estimated demand for schooling, considering the school-age population, gross enrolment rate, and average pupil-teacher ratio.(10) It is then necessary to estimate the number of new teachers needed as a result of additional positions and teacher attrition, including both private and public schools.(10, 15) A rough estimation for a system with six years of primary school is 3,400 to 4,700 teachers per million of total population.(10) However, projections for secondary school are less consistent because they depend on the specialisations of teachers and specific requirements of the education system.(10) Barriers to Recruiting Teachers: Demand for education has created a teacher shortage in many countries, and some policies place additional barriers to recruiting enough teachers. For example, high costs to be trained as a teacher and low teacher salaries can discourage strong candidates.(11) Moreover, overly strict qualification for applicants can reduce teacher supply. A third issue concerns the low status of teaching as a profession and the limited degree of autonomy teachers possess.(12) The shortage of teachers is also closely related to teacher attrition. These and other factors vary considerably by national and local contexts. Attracting Effective Teachers: Teacher quality is one of the most important factors related to student performance, but there is debate about predicting which teachers will be skilled and effective. Teaching credentials and qualifications alone have not been correlated with teacher quality.(6) Some research suggests that teachers with higher cognitive abilities and scores produce higher learning outcomes among students.(9) Other factors include teachers’ content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge, or ability to teach a specific subject. Improving teaching conditions (e.g., higher salaries, more planning time, lower pupil/teacher ratio) can also help recruit and retain quality teachers.(2) Also see the article on teacher motivation and status. Alternative Routes to Teaching: A wide variety of alternative programmes exist in many countries for attracting teacher candidates, but have yielded mixed results.(13) Paraprofessional contract teachers, who may have minimal training, are common in many countries as a means to fill a teacher shortage, but this approach has received mixed results and is not a viable long-term option.(3, 10) In general contract teachers are most effective when they receive support and careful monitoring, in addition to their initial training.(11) It may also be beneficial to create alternative routes for untrained teachers to become trained and fully qualified.(13) As secondary education continues to grow around the world,

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there will likely be high demand for secondary teachers, especially in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects. Therefore, alternative approaches may be useful in attracting STEM teachers who have industry experience outside of teaching.(10) However, these teachers may be particularly difficult to retain for more than a few years. Teacher Deployment Systems: Teachers in all countries must be hired and placed or deployed in schools. Teacher deployment processes vary widely across contexts because some systems make deployment decisions centrally, others regionally, and others by school.(11) However, all systems benefit from careful tracking and planning of teacher deployment. In many developing countries, the teacher deployment system is weak and teachers are reluctant to teach in rural locations because they face more challenges than in urban contexts.(15) Policies may therefore mandate or encourage (through such means as additional salary, free housing, and free transport) teachers to teach in undesirable locations. Both approaches have been successful in some contexts but not in others.(11) Regardless of the system, it is important to have experienced and strong teachers evenly distributed across all schools to ensure all students have good teachers. Because beginning teachers often lack teaching skills and also struggle most in isolated locations, more experienced teachers may do better in these locations if they can be convinced to stay.(7) Approaches to Equitable Teacher Deployment: A number of approaches can be used to ensure equitable teacher deployment. Pre-service programs can ensure trainee teachers are adequately prepared to teach in under-resourced and isolated posts through special modules about teaching in these locations.(14) Posting teachers to schools in their home region may increase their success and ultimate likelihood to stay in that school because they know the local culture and, in some cases, the language; though this is not always effective.(17) System management strategies that improve working conditions in rural locations may encourage teachers to accept and remain in undesirable posts. For example, using mobile phones for payment systems rather than requiring teachers to come to urban centres to collect salaries can reduce the challenges of rural locations.(3) Finally, the best approaches to teacher deployment are systematic. A comprehensive and consistent approach has the most potential to improve teacher deployment.(15)

Inclusiveness and Equity Disadvantaged schools: Schools with disadvantaged student populations are most in need of highlyskilled teachers; yet they are also often the least desirable teaching posts. Efforts to improve the motivation and status of teachers may be particularly important in these contexts. Gender: In many contexts it is necessary to consider gender in the recruitment and deployment of teachers.(1) For both cultural and safety reasons female teachers may be unwilling to accept rural teaching posts or may desire to transfer as quickly as possible.(14, 16) The lack of female teachers in rural schools has the potential to influence both the enrolment and academic achievement of girls in those schools.(11, 16) Teachers with Disabilities: Many countries now have policies about inclusive education. Yet, there is little consideration for empowering teachers with disabilities, who can serve as powerful role models for their students. References 1.

Adedeji, S., & Olaniyan, O. 2011. Improving the conditions of teachers and teaching in rural schools across African countries. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, UNESCO.

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Bennell, P., & Akyeampong, K. 2007. Teacher motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (No. 71). London: DfID. Bramwell, D., Anderson, S., & Mundy, K. 2014. Teachers and teacher development: A rapid review of the literature. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Dai, C., Sindelar, P. T., Denslow, D., Dewey, J., & Rosenberg, M. S. (2007). Economic analysis and the design of alternative-route teacher education programs. Journal of Teacher Education, 58(5), 422-439. Fyfe, A. 2007. The use of contract teachers in developing countries: Trends and impacts. Geneva: International Labour Organization. Hanushek, E. The economic value of higher teacher quality. Working Paper No. 56. Stanford: National Centre for the Analysis of of Longitudinal Data in Educational Research. Hedges, J. 2002. ‘The importance of posting and interaction with the education bureaucracy in becoming a teacher in Ghana’. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(3), 353-366. Kang, N., & Hong, M. 2008. ‘Achieving excellence in teacher workforce and equity in learning opportunities in South Korea’. Educational Researcher, 37(4). Meroni, E., Vera-Toscano, E., Costa, P. 2015. ‘Can low skill teachers make good students? Empirical evidence from PIAAC and PISA’. Journal of Policy Modeling, 37, 308-323. Mulkeen, A. 2010. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington: World Bank Publications. Mulkeen, A., Chapman, D., DeJaeghere, J., & Leu, E. 2007. Recruiting, retaining, and retraining secondary school teachers and principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No. 99. Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA), Africa Region Human Development Department.W Washington DC: World Bank. OECD. 2005. Teachers Matter: Attracting, Developing, and Retaining Effective Teachers. Paris: OECD. OECD. 2011. Building a high-quality teaching profession: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD. Thomas, M.A.M., Thomas, C., & Lefebvre, E. 2014. ‘Dissecting the teacher monolith: Experiences of beginning basic school teachers in Zambia’. International Journal of Educational Development, 38, 37-46. UNESCO. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TISSA) Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO. 2014. Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Education for all global monitoring report 2013/4. Paris: UNESCO. UNCESO. 2015. Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and challenges. Paris: UNESCO.

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Teacher motivation and incentives Matthew A.M. Thomas

Motivate teachers by improving their status and conditions.

Improving the motivation and status of teachers generally improves teaching. Research suggests that students learn more in classrooms with highly dedicated and motivated teachers.(13) Raising the motivation and status of teachers as well as retaining high-quality teachers is therefore vital to improving education. Issues and Discussion: In many educations systems student learning suffers due to difficulties attracting high-quality teachers, limited motivation for teachers to perform their jobs well, and teacher attrition.(13) Though well intentioned, some educational policies and programmes actually undermine teacher motivation.(7) Education planners should therefore carefully consider the impact of their decisions on teachers and their motivations to teach. Motivation and its effects Exemplary teachers are highly motivated to teach all of their students as well as possible. However, a variety of intrinsic factors (such as loving the teaching process, enjoying children) and extrinsic factors (such as salary, further education) influence teachers’ motivation levels. Low teacher motivation can affect the quality of candidates entering the profession. It can also contribute to a reduced focus on the teaching and learning process as evidenced by minimal time spent preparing lessons or supporting struggling learners.(1) Moreover, teachers with low motivation may repeatedly arrive late or not at all.(1) In fact, absenteeism can be as high as 25% in some countries and has a significant negative impact on student learning.(1)(2)(5) Attrition is also often a consequence of low motivation and is most severe in contexts where the living or teaching conditions are challenging, such as rural schools.(1) In fact, attrition rates vary between 5-30% in sub-Saharan Africa.(6) However, in some countries teachers may have low motivation but remain in the profession due to a lack of other jobs.(1) A wide range of variables, including the five areas outlined below, influences both teacher motivation and problems of attrition. Status of Teaching In some countries teaching is considered a last option for graduates who need work or do not perform well on national exams.(1)(14) In contrast, teaching is a prestigious profession in several high-performing nations, such as South Korea, Taiwan, and Finland due at least in part to the high standards for entrance into teaching.(7)(12) The initial desires of teachers to join the teaching profession influence their future job satisfaction and desires to remain in teaching.(7) It is therefore helpful to increase the status of the teaching profession and the perceived value of teachers by investing in improving the conditions and realities of the profession, as suggested below.

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Professional Conditions of Teaching The professional conditions of teaching also influence teacher motivation and attrition. Heavy workloads and large class sizes can significantly demoralize teachers.(1) Teaching is also becoming more challenging due to increased demands to teach complex skills, heightened control by administrators, and decreased time to plan and collaborate with colleagues.(7) However, a supportive professional work environment as well as positive relationships within the community can reduce these pressures and improve teachers’ motivation and effectiveness.(1)(6)(7) Personal Conditions of Teaching Personal discomfort may make teachers want to leave their teaching post or even the profession. Inadequate housing options as well as the cost and travel time for transportation can contribute to low motivation and increased attrition.(1) Moreover, teachers who are posted to schools away from their families may desire to transfer or leave teaching completely.(10) Some teacher posts also involve more hardship than others, such as those in remote locations, in conflict zones, or in high-poverty communities. Teachers may need additional incentives to remain in posts where such personal conditions are less enticing. Attractive housing, running water, and consistent electricity are some of the most cost-effective approaches to motivate teachers in rural areas.(1) Teaching Salary The salary for teachers influences the overall prestige and attractiveness of the profession and teachers often say that increased pay would improve their morale.(1) In addition, there may be differences in salary between teachers of different levels—such as trained teachers and non-trained teachers—which can be a source of dissatisfaction, especially for the least trained and lowest paid teachers who may feel inferior. In many countries some teachers do not earn enough to live above the poverty line.(13) These low salaries influence the motivation of teachers, who often turn to private tutoring or other part-time work to supplement their income, which can negatively affect classroom instruction.(13) Moreover, late or inconsistent pay reduces teacher morale.(6) Reforms that link teacher salary with student performance are controversial and inconsistent across contexts, due largely to how teachers are evaluated and paid (e.g., by individual, grade, or school).(9) Yet, ideally teacher advancement and salaries would be connected to overall teacher quality. Additional Incentives Additional incentives for teachers may also be beneficial. For example, teachers may be motivated by opportunities for additional professional development or access to low-interest loans.(1, 6) Career advancement through attaining higher education qualifications can also make teaching more attractive.(1) However, providing study leave options for teachers can be challenging because some teachers may not return to teaching after their period of leave.(4)

Inclusiveness and Equity Gender equity in teachers’ conditions of employment Female teachers serve as important role models for students in schools, especially in rural areas, but often face additional challenges and have higher attrition.(6) Providing safe and adequate housing is extremely important for female teachers as well as considering marital/family obligations.(1, 10) Equal pay for male and female teachers is also important as well as the presence of female administrations and educational leaders.(6)

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Paraprofessional teachers and professional equity Many systems use paraprofessional teachers and pay them less. While this may be necessary to fill massive teacher shortages, it can be a cause of frustration for both trained and paraprofessional teachers.(1) Sometimes these are teachers recruited from rural areas or minority language groups to meet other important educational goals like rural access to schooling and mother tongue instruction. These might initially have lower salaries because they have lower qualifications, but strong teachers should have opportunities to receive equitable pay and upgrade their qualifications.(11) References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Bennell, P., & Akyeampong, K. 2007. Teacher motivation in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia (No. 71). London: DfID. Das, J., Dercon, S., Habyarimana, J., & Krishnan, P. 2007. ‘Teacher shocks and student learning evidence from Zambia’. Journal of Human resources, 42(4), 820-862. Dolton, P., Marcenaro-Gutierrez, O., Pota, V., Boxser, M. and Pajpani, A. 2013. Global Teacher Status Index. London, Varkey GEMS Foundation. Hedges, J. 2002. ‘The importance of posting and interaction with the education bureaucracy in becoming a teacher in Ghana’. International Journal of Educational Development, 22(3), 353-366. Mulkeen, A. 2010. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington: World Bank Publications. Mulkeen, A., Chapman, D., DeJaeghere, J., & Leu, E. 2007. Recruiting, retaining, and retraining secondary school teachers and principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No. 99. Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA), Africa Region Human Development Department. Washington: World Bank. Richardson, P. W., & Watt, H. M. 2010. Current and future directions in teacher motivation research. The decade ahead: Applications and contexts of motivation and achievement, 16, 139-173. Ryan, R., & Deci, E. 2000. ‘Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions.’ Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54-67. SABER. 2012. What matters most in teacher policies? A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. Washington: World Bank. Thomas, M.A.M., Thomas, C., & Lefebvre, E. 2014. ‘Dissecting the teacher monolith: Experiences of beginning basic school teachers in Zambia.’ International Journal of Educational Development, 38, 37-46. UNESCO. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Teacher Training Initiative for Sub-Saharan Africa (TISSA) Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris: UNESCO. UNESCO. 2014. Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Education for all global monitoring report 2013/4. Paris: UNESCO. UNCESO. 2015. Education for All 2000-2015: Achievements and challenges. Paris: UNESCO. Vavrus, F., & Bartlett, L. 2013. Teaching in tension: International pedagogies, national policies, and teachers’ practices in Tanzania. Rotterdam: Sense.

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Pre-service teacher preparation Matthew A.M. Thomas

Prepare future teachers for the realities of their teaching contexts through strong coursework in pedagogical content knowledge and field experiences.

Pre-service teacher preparation programmes, also called initial teacher training or initial teacher education, vary greatly across countries. The structure, coursework, and field experiences of preservice programmes are important to consider when designing or reforming teacher training because they all contribute to the level of preparation. High-quality teachers need high-quality training, but many countries may need to consider cost-effectiveness in deciding on the specific combination of pre-service and in-service training experiences needed in order to deploy enough teachers for growing education systems. Issues and Discussion: Pre-service training programme structures: Pre-service programmes may be conducted as part of a secondary school diploma course, on higher education campuses, in other schools through school partnership programmes, or through online and other forms of distance education. It is necessary to consider the local context and national needs in determining which types of programmes are most appropriate.(4) For example, Pakistan used distance training via radio, television, and correspondence beginning in the 1970s to achieve a rapid increase in the number of trained primary school teachers (see the Allama Iqbal Open University); whereas the Accelerated Learning Program in Brazil trains new teachers by requiring them to follow a highly structured curriculum that they implement directly in primary schools.(12) In addition to these context-dependent variations in structure, the length of preservice training and the qualifications necessary to join the teaching profession may vary both within and across countries. In some countries the required qualifications are higher for secondary teachers than for primary teachers, while in other countries they are the same. The required qualifications might include: certificate, diploma, degree, or master’s degree.(4) However, an analysis of PISA results suggests that a bachelor’s degree is the minimum qualification for achieving the highest student performance.(17) The quality of pre-service preparation is more dependent on the programme’s structure and support than on the duration.(5) However, graduates of short duration programs (e.g., 2-10 weeks) will likely need substantially more in-service support than graduates of long duration programs (e.g., 2-5 years).(9) Coursework: Teachers’ knowledge of the subject(s) they teach is often correlated with their students’ achievement scores. Recent evidence from South Africa, for example, suggests students’ scores increase considerably when taught by teachers with higher knowledge of the subject.(19) It is therefore vital for pre-service teachers to develop deep knowledge of their content area. Courses about pedagogy are also vital. These courses are most effective when teacher educators demonstrate and implement varied pedagogical approaches in the courses, rather than merely lecture about pedagogy, which is common in many countries.(6, 11) Other important topics to be covered in pre-service teacher preparation include: classroom management, learning issues and special needs, assessment practices, and the use of technology in education. It is also vital for teachers to develop academic content-

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related fluency in the language of instruction.(7, 14) Singapore’s National Institute of Education goes beyond these considerations by emphasizing that the development of teachers’ knowledge and skills needs to wrap around a “central pillar” of three core ensembles of teacher values, focused respectively on the relationship with the learner, on teacher identity, and on service to the profession and community. Pedagogical content knowledge: Research about the balance of content and pedagogy coursework in teacher education is inconclusive.(17) Yet, the best pre-service programmes emphasize pedagogical content knowledge, which focuses on the question of “how to organize and present the content in a way that makes it accessible for increasingly diverse groups of learners.”(18)(4, p.5) Programmes build pedagogical content knowledge by giving detailed consideration to the question of how to teach a specific subject at a specific level—such as how to teach reading and language arts in early primary school or how to teach algebra and geometry in lower secondary school—in addition to reinforcing basic content knowledge and general pedagogical skills.(13, 19) Field Experiences: Field experiences such as internships and periods of teaching practice require preservice teachers to observe and practice teaching in actual classrooms. The quality of field experiences varies greatly and depends on their structure, duration, sequence, and supervision by teacher educators. The duration of field experience in different programs varies from as little as nine weeks to as many as nine months or more.(16, 19) Some programmes have only one field experience while other have multiple. Research suggests that more experience in classrooms is better, although if only a short field experience is feasible, it may be supplemented by giving more support and guidance to new teachers. In some of the best programmes pre-service teachers spend earlier experiences primarily observing expert teachers and the remainder practicing how to teach. In addition, cohort models may provide the best support for pre-service teachers during teaching practice conducted in rural areas.(10) If field experiences only occur after or at the end of training, there are minimal opportunities for guidance and feedback about the teacher’s practice.(19) It is therefore important for field experiences to occur early and throughout the pre-service training in an integrated manner that compliments other courses.(11) Teacher Educators/Trainers: In some countries, teacher educators/trainers have little or no previous experience working as a teacher or supervising teachers. In addition, they often receive no induction or professional development programmes to ensure the quality of their instruction in the pre-service. These realities influence the quality of the courses in pre-service programmes, but strong support networks and training programmes for teacher educators/trainers themselves can significantly improve the overall quality of pre-service teacher training.(8)

Inclusiveness and Equity Teaching in large, multi-level, and under-resourced classes: Teachers are more likely to feel confident and prepared to teach in large and under-resourced classes if they have training modules or courses on effective teaching methods for such contexts, such as using small groups and student pairs to enhance learning.(1, 3) In addition, some rural areas have multi-level classrooms due to low population density. Pre-service teachers who may teach in these schools should have training on how to adapt lesson plans for students of different ability levels, including how to develop materials for independent study that engage learners.(1)

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Teaching students with disabilities: Pre-service teacher preparation programmes in many countries lack a strong focus on how to diagnose and accommodate learning disabilities. Those that do address these issues, however, achieve better results nationally.(15, 19) Teaching with gender equity: In order to increase academic performance among girls, prevent genderbased violence, and implement a gender-sensitive curricula, modules or courses on gender-sensitive pedagogy are also crucial.(2) References: 1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

Barrett, A., Ali, S., Clegg, J., Hinostroza, J. E., Lowe, J., Nikel, J., Novelli, M., Oduro, G., Pillay, M. Tikly, L., & Yu, G. 2007. Initiatives to improve the quality of teaching and learning: A review of recent literature. Report for. The Global Monitoring Report 2008. Paris: UNESCO. Bramwell, D., Anderson, S., & Mundy, K. 2014. Teachers and teacher development: A rapid review of the literature. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Buckler, A. 2010. ‘Reconsidering the evidence base, considering the rural: Aiming for a better understanding of the education and training needs of Sub-Saharan African teachers. International Journal of Educational Development, 31, 244-250. Cooper, J., & Alvarado, A. 2006. Preparation, recruitment, and retention of teachers. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. Craig, H., Kraft, R., & du Plessis, J. 1998. Teacher development – Making an impact. Washington: USAID. Hardman, F., Abd-Kadir, J., & Tibuhinda, A. (2012). Reforming teacher education in Tanzania. International journal of educational development, 32(6), 826-834. Lewin, K. 2004. The pre-service training of teachers – does it meet its objectives and how can it be improved? Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2005. Paris: UNESCO. Lewin, K., & Stuart, J. 2003. Researching teacher education: Perspectives on practice, performance and policy. Multi-Site Teacher Education Research Project (MUSTER) – Synthesis report. Sussex: DFID. Moon, B., & Wolfenden, F. (2012). Teacher education in Sub-Saharan Africa: issues and challenges around teacher resources and practices. Teacher Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Closer Perspectives, 101-110. Mukeredzi, T. G. (2014). Re-envisioning teaching practice: Student teacher learning in a cohort model of practicum in a rural South African context. International Journal of Educational Development, 39, 100-109. Mulkeen, A., Chapman, D., DeJaeghere, J., & Leu, E. 2007. Recruiting, retaining, and retraining secondary school teachers and principals in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank Working Paper No. 99. Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA), Africa Region Human Development Department. Washington: World Bank. Navarro, J.C. and Verdisco, A. 2000. Teacher Training in Latin America: Innovations and Trends. Washington: Inter-American Development Bank. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2011. Building a high-quality teaching profession: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD. Ouane, A, & Glanz, C., 2010. Why and how Africa should invest in African languages and multilingual education – An evidence- and practice-based policy advocacy brief. Hamburg: UNESCO. Pinnock, H., & Nicholls, H. 2012. Global teacher training and inclusion survey
Report for UNICEF Rights, Education and Protection Project (REAP). New York: UNICEF. Ronfeldt, M., & Reininger, M. 2012. ‘More or better student teaching?’ Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(8), 1091-1106. SABER. 2012. What matters most in teacher policies? A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. Washington: World Bank. Shulman, L. 1986. ‘Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching.’
Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14. UNESCO. 2013. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO.

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Effective and appropriate pedagogy Matthew A.M. Thomas

Empower teachers to use effective and appropriate pedagogy, using a range of approaches to meet the needs of different content areas, different children, and different contexts.

Learning is dependent on the pedagogical approaches teachers use in the classroom. A variety of pedagogical approaches are common in schools, but some strategies are more effective and appropriate than others. The effectiveness of pedagogy often depends on the particular subject matter to be taught, on understanding the diverse needs of different learners, and on adapting to the on-the-ground conditions in the classroom and the surrounding context. In general, the best teachers believe in the capacity of their students to learn, and carefully utilize a range of pedagogical approaches to ensure this learning occurs. Issues and Discussion: Pedagogy and its Forms: Pedagogy refers to the “interactions between teachers, students, and the learning environment and the learning tasks.”(6, p. 35) This broad term includes how teachers and students relate together as well as the instructional approaches implemented in the classroom. Pedagogical approaches are often placed on a spectrum from teacher-centred to learner-centred pedagogy; though these two approaches may seem contradictory, they can often complement each other in the realisation of educational goals—for example, a teacher-centred approach may be useful to introduce a new theme, while a learner-centred approach may be necessary to allow students to explore these ideas and develop a deeper understanding. Teacher-Centred Pedagogy: Teacher-centred pedagogy positions the teacher at the centre of the learning process and typically relies on methods such as whole-class lecture, rote memorization, and chorus answers (i.e., call-and-response). This approach is often criticized, especially when students complete only lower-order tasks and are afraid of the teacher.(14) However, whole-class teaching can be effective when teachers frequently ask students to explain and elaborate key ideas, rather than merely lecture.(8) Learner-Centred Pedagogy: This pedagogical approach has many associated terms (e.g., constructivist, student-centred, participatory, active), but generally draws on learning theories suggesting learners should play an active role in the learning process. Students therefore use prior knowledge and new experiences to create knowledge. The teacher facilitates this process, but also creates and structures the conditions for learning. Considerable research and advocacy has promoted learner-centred pedagogy in recent years for economic, cognitive, and political reasons.(13) Some research suggests this approach can be very effective but it is also difficult to measure consistently.(14) It is often challenging for teachers to shift from teacher-centred pedagogy to learner-centred pedagogy, and so considerable support may be needed if this is an important goal for a given education system.(10) Learning-Centred Pedagogy: “Learning-centred pedagogy” is a relatively new term that acknowledges both learner-centred and teacher-centred pedagogy can be effective, but teachers must consider the

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local context, including the number of students in the class, the physical environment [link], the availability of teaching and learning materials, etc.(7) It suggests that teachers should be flexible and carefully adapt their pedagogical approaches based upon the school environment.(11) Effective and Appropriate Pedagogical Approaches: Effective pedagogy can lead to academic achievement, social and emotional development, acquisition of technical skills, and a general ability to contribute to society.(2) Among these varied learning outcomes, academic achievement is the easiest to measure, but the others are also important to consider when trying to reform and monitor ongoing changes to pedagogical practice.(1,3) Pedagogical effectiveness often depends on ensuring that the approach is appropriate for specific school and national contexts. For example, certain learner-centred techniques that are effective in classrooms with fewer students may be difficult to accomplish in crowded or under-resourced classrooms (see below). Yet, some strategies have been shown to be more effective than others in a broadly-applicable way. These include the following: 1) strong grasp of pedagogical approaches specific to the subject matter and age of the learners (also called pedagogical content knowledge); 2) appropriate use of whole-class, small group, and pair work; 3) meaningful incorporation of teaching and learning materials in addition to the textbook; 4) frequent opportunities for students to answer and expand upon responses to questions; 5) helpful use of local terms and languages; 6) varied lesson activities; and (7) a positive attitude towards students and belief in their capacity to learn.(14) Pedagogy and the Education System: National examinations, curriculum standards, and other education system policies influence teacher pedagogy. For example, national exams that primarily test discrete factual knowledge, rather than comprehension or analysis, discourage teachers from using pedagogy that develops higher-order critical thinking skills.(12) For this reason, if education planners wish to change pedagogical practice, it is not sufficient to simply issue new pedagogical guidelines— they will also have to explore ways to align other policies and practices throughout the system. Inclusiveness and Equity Teacher expectations of disadvantaged students: When teachers have a positive attitude towards their students, they are more socially responsive and attentive, they more often tailor their instruction to particular student needs, and they are more successful at drawing on students’ experiences to make lessons meaningful and contextually relevant.(14) Conversely, students from disadvantaged social groups, such as females, minorities, or the disabled often suffer from teacher prejudices, which translate into low expectations of these students’ capacities. Teachers who have low expectations of their students make less of an effort to help them learn, in addition to discouraging them in other subtle ways, with the final result that these students often achieve lower academic performance.(4,5) Adapting pedagogy to mixed-level, large, and under-resourced classrooms. What constitutes effective pedagogy is often context-dependent; therefore teachers need to receive specific preparation in how to make contextual adaptations to their teaching approaches through both pre-service and in-service training. In mixed-level classrooms, teachers need to have a deep understanding of students’ different ability levels in order to alter their instruction and activities to meet the needs of each student.(14) Group work can also be helpful for students of different ability levels.(8) When teaching in large classes it is vital to maintain classroom routines. Many excellent teachers set up routines for group-work, peer review, distributing papers, etc., to help reduce chaos and increase instructional time.(7) There are also specific techniques for effective use of questions and encouraging discussions in large classrooms. In under-resourced classrooms, teachers need to be especially creative about how to use locally-

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available materials, and how to connect lessons to observations of the social and natural environment. These approaches can, in fact, strengthen teaching even in well-resourced classrooms since teaching and learning materials are most beneficial when they are relevant to students’ lives.(14) References Cited: 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Conn, K. (2014). Identifying Effective Education Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A meta-analysis of rigorous impact evaluations (Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University). Craig, H., Kraft, R., & du Plessis, J. 1998. Teacher development – Making an impact. Washington: USAID. Kremer, M., Holla, A. 2009. ‘Improving education in the developing world: What we have learned from randomized evaluations’. Annual Review of Economics, 1, 513-542. Lane, K. L., Carter, E. W., Common, C., and Jordan, A. (2012), Teacher Expectations for Student Performance: Lessons Learned and Implications for Research and Practice, in Bryan G. Cook, Melody Tankersley, Timothy J. Landrum (ed.) Classroom Behavior, Contexts, and Interventions (Advances in Learning and Behavioral Disabilities, Volume 25) Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 95-129. McKown, C., & Weinstein, R. S. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 235–261. Murphy, P. 2008. ‘Defining pedagogy’. In K. Hall, P. Murphy & J. Soler (Eds.), Pedagogy and practice: culture and identities (pp. 28-39). London: SAGE publications. O’Sullivan, M., 2004. ‘The reconceptualisation of learner-centred approaches: a Namibian case study’. International Journal of Educational Development, 24, 585-602. O’Sullivan, M. 2006. Teaching large classes: The international evidence and a discussion of some good practice in Ugandan primary schools. International Journal of Educational Development, 26(1), 24-37.

9. Ormrod, J.E. 2014. Educational psychology – Developing learners. Pearson: Boston. 10. UNESCO. 2014. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. 11. Vavrus, F. 2009. ‘The cultural politics of constructivist pedagogies: Teacher education reform in the United Republic of Tanzania’. International Journal of Educational Development, 29(3), 303311. 12. Vavrus, F., & Bartlett, L. 2013. ‘Testing and teaching.’ In F. Vavrus & L. Bartlett (Eds.), Teaching in tension: International pedagogies, national policies, and teachers’ practices in Tanzania (93-114). Rotterdam: Sense. 13. Vavrus, F., Thomas, M.A.M., & Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centered pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis Adaba, Ethiopia: International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, UNESCO. 14. Westbrook, J., Durrani, N., Brown, R., Orr, D., Pryor, J., Boddy, J., & Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. Department for International Development. 15. Zohar, A., & Dori, Y. 2003. ‘Higher order thinking skills and low-achieving students: Are they mutually exclusive?’ The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 12(2),145-181.

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Supporting in-service teachers Matthew A.M. Thomas

Support in-service teachers through context-relevant, on-going, and collaborative opportunities for continuous professional development.

All teachers need regular opportunities to grow as professionals and improve their work. In-service support programmes that are based on teachers’ needs and enable them to learn more about teaching can have a large impact on student learning. Research suggests that such programmes may be most effective when they are: linked to teacher appraisal and teachers’ needs, on-going, participatory, school-based, and collaborative. Issues and Discussion: Types of In-Service Support: In general, teachers who have had some in-service support teach better than those who have not, but programmes are offered in a variety of delivery modes by different institutions in different country contexts.(15) Support for in-service teachers is often referred to as continuous professional development, offering teachers opportunities to develop both their content knowledge and their pedagogical and other skills. Governments, non-governmental organizations, private companies, or schools themselves may offer school-based continuous professional development programmes. Many of these institutions may also offer online or distance programmes based at institutions other than schools. Workshops, meetings, and other short courses are probably the most common modalities for offering professional development opportunities, though not necessarily the most effective.(3) Other types of support to in-service teachers include mentoring programmes and professional learning communities. Components of Effective In-Service Support Programmes: Becoming an effective teacher is a long process that requires developing the knowledge, skills, and dispositions to raise student achievement.(17) Several general characteristics—being based on teachers’ needs, on-going, participatory, school-based, and collaborative—ensure programmes are more effective, though each programme should be designed with the local context and needs in mind.(17)(9) 1. Based on Teachers’ Needs: Support programmes that are disconnected from teachers’ realities are much less effective and also discourage motivation among teachers.(2)(3)(11) For this reason, effective programmes are based on an evaluation of teachers’ needs, such as those identified through teacher appraisal systems, or through teachers’ own reflections on the opportunities they need for professional development.(7) 2. On-going Support: The term continuous professional development (CPD) is commonly used because it suggests that support should be on-going. Single workshops or seminars are less effective than programmes with on-going support.(2)(8)(15)(17) For example, on-going teacher coaching and mentoring by principals/head teachers, expert teachers, or instructional coaches can help teachers learn specific teaching techniques and are more effective than single workshops or one-time meetings. Coaching and mentoring are most effective when coaches observe

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teachers, model helpful instructional methods, and then provide feedback to teachers as they practice them.(2) 3. Participatory Approach: Many programmes are taught through more traditional pedagogical forms, such as lectures, but programmes are more effective when teachers participate actively by practicing new methods and techniques.(17) Moreover, teachers are more likely to implement new and better teaching practices if the programmes involve them in learning how to use them.(2)(11) Programmes that merely provide teaching materials have not been particularly effective.(11) 4. School-Based Support: Programmes that occur in schools are most effective because they focus on the teaching and learning process in the particular context of the school, though they need to be monitored and supported to ensure quality.(3)(17) This is also important because effective programmes focus on the specific needs of teachers, including subject knowledge, approaches to classroom management, etc.(4) For example, lesson study programmes where teachers design, teach, and critique lessons in groups are effective in part because they occur in specific school contexts and focus on the necessary areas for improvement in that school.(11) Mentoring programmes have similar advantages because the mentors are able to provide specific feedback related to the local school context.(11) 5. Collaborative Support: The most effective programmes include opportunities for teachers to collaborate with one another as well as with administrators and community members.(17) Opportunities to share experiences, resources, and lesson plans can help teachers solve problems in their own classrooms.(13)(19) One common collaborative approach is to form professional learning communities (PLCs) within a school. Teachers meet together as a PLC to discuss educational readings, solve a problem with instructional practice, or share classroom management strategies within a safe and non-evaluative community.(2) Research suggests strong PLCs can improve school culture, student learning, the use of learner-centred pedagogy.(8) Bringing subject area teachers together from different schools can also encourage collaboration among teachers who may be the only teacher of that subject in their school.(16) Inclusiveness and Equity Supporting Beginning Teachers: All teachers benefit from support, but it is especially important for beginning teachers, who are less effective than those with 5 or more years of experience.(6) Many beginning teachers also face additional challenges due to positions in rural schools and therefore need considerable guidance to improve their instruction.(13) Induction programmes that help beginning teachers adjust to the school may take many forms, including observing expert teachers, reflecting on their own teaching, participating in discussions with other teachers, teaching a lighter workload, or meeting with an experienced mentor teacher to gain additional insights.(5)(17) These programmes can help teachers stay at the school longer and teach more effectively, but the number of hours spent meeting with a mentor matters.(11) Similar approaches can also be effective with undertrained or underperforming teachers.(11) References: 1. 2.

Anderson, E., & Shannon, A. 1988. ‘Toward a conceptualization of mentoring. Journal of Teacher Education, 39, 38-42. Archibald, S., Coggshall, J., Croft, A., & Goe, L. 2011. High-quality professional development for all teachers: Effectively allocating resources. Research and Policy Brief. National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

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9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

17. 18. 19.

Burns, M. and Lawrie, J. (Eds.). 2015. Where it’s needed most: Quality Professional Development for All Teachers. New York, NY: Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies. Craig, H., Kraft, R., & du Plessis, J. 1998. Teacher development – Making an impact. Washington. du Plessis, J., & Muzaffar, I. 2010. Professional learning communities in the teachers’ college: A resource for teacher educators. Washington: USAID. Hanushek, E. 2010. The economic value of higher teacher quality. Working Paper No. 56. Stanford: National Centre for the Analysis of of Longitudinal Data in Educational Research. Mayer, D., & Lloyd, M. 2011. Professional learning: An introduction to the research literature. Melbourne: Australian Institute for Teaching and School Leadership (AITSL). OECD. 2010. Teachers’ professional development: Europe in international comparison. An analysis of teachers’ professional development based on the OECD’s Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS). Luxembourg: European Union. OECD. 2014. New insights from TALIS 2013: Teaching and Learning in Primary and Upper Secondary Education. OECD Publishing. Ono, Y., & Ferreira, J. 2010. ‘A case study of continuing teacher professional development through lesson study in South Africa’. South African Journal of Education, 30(1), 59-74. SABER. 2013. What matters most in teacher policies? A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. Washington: World Bank. Thomas, C., & Thomas, M.A.M. 2012. ‘Zambian teachers’ perceptions of expert teaching: Resourcefulness, punctuality, and sobriety’. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 25(5), 583-600. Thomas, M.A.M., Thomas, C., & Lefebvre, E. 2014. ‘Dissecting the teacher monolith: Experiences of beginning basic school teachers in Zambia’. International Journal of Educational Development, 38, 37-46. Teement, A., Wink, J., Tyra, S. 2011. ‘Effects of coaching on teacher use of sociocultural instructional practices.’ Teaching and Teacher Education, 27, 683-693. UNESCO. 2014. Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Education for all global monitoring report 2013/4. Paris: UNESCO. Vavrus, F., Thomas, M.A.M., & Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centered pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa, UNESCO. Villegas-Reimers, E. 2003. Teacher professional development: A review of the literature. Paris: UNESCO. Wallace, S. 2015. A dictionary of education. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Westbrook, J., Durrani, N., Brown, R., Orr, D., Pryor, J., Boddy, J., & Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. Department for International Development.

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Curriculum & Materials

Language of instruction Curriculum and expected learning outcomes Textbooks and teachers’ guides Supplementary learning and teaching materials Information and communications technology (ICT) in education

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Language of instruction Catherine A. Honeyman

Teach children in their mother tongue language for at least 6 years before they switch fully to a different language of instruction.

What language(s) should children use in school? There is significant research evidence that children learn best when the first language of instruction and examinations is their mother tongue (L1). (5)(7)(8)(17)(19)(20) The rewards of schooling in local languages outweigh the costs, with gains in education quality and inclusion leading to savings from reduced school repetition and drop-outs.(2)(5)(12)(19)(20) When vocabulary and literacy skills are built in the mother tongue, along with building oral fluency in the second language, students can more easily master learning in the second language (L2). (8)(20)(22) Education planners must confront a number of practical issues in this regard: language choice in multilingual contexts; the optimal length of mother tongue instruction; codifying unwritten or nonstandardised languages; and preparing mother tongue curricular materials and teachers. Issues and discussion: Choosing the language of instruction in multilingual contexts: As many children as possible should benefit from mother tongue instruction, even in contexts of significant linguistic diversity. (11) Decentralised educational planning and budgeting can help regions develop their own local-language materials and teaching force.(5) For communities where multiple language groups reside within a single school area, older students or adults from the community can lead some learning activities in their mother tongue.(12) Children should be allowed to use their own language to help them understand new concepts and skills in school. (2)(11)(19) Whenever every child cannot be taught in their own mother tongue, policy-makers should prioritise the most marginalised.(2)(11) Communities should also be given information about the implications of different language of instruction choices, and be involved in decision-making.(7)(12)(19) How long to use the mother tongue: A wide range of mother tongue instruction policies are being implemented around the world. Some education systems aim for rapid transition away from L1 to L2 as the sole language of instruction, which reduces the time available for learning subject content, and often leads to the loss of theL1.(5)(9)(21) Others seek to maintain and enrich functioning in the L1 for a number of years, even while gradually transitioning to the L2.(5)(9)(21) In fully bilingual models, students continue to use both L1 and L2 as languages of instruction for a range of academic subjects throughout primary and secondary schooling.(1)(4)(9)(23) Research evidence indicates students’ achievement is greately enhanced when they are taught in their L1, preferably for at least the first 6 years of primary school before the L2 becomes the main language of instruction.(1)(5)(19)(20)(21)(23) If the transition from L1 to L2 is too rapid, the risk is that students will not attain full mastery of either language.(5)(19) Working with unwritten or non-standardized languages: In some cases, language planning is necessary in order to create or modify a language’s writing system, standardise spelling and usage, and, if necessary, expand the lexicon to include any missing vocabulary.(7)(12) In Papua New Guinea, for example, where there are over 800 local languages, the Department of Education helped organise Alphabet Design Workshops with linguists and mother tongue speakers in different local communities.(13)

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Preparing mother tongue and bilingual curricular materials: Curricular materials need to be culturally contextualised with appropriate and adequate materials written in mother tongue languages.(6)(7)(12)(15)(17)(18)(20) Local communities can collaborate with government agencies and linguists to create mother tongue curricula and reading materials.(1)(5)(20) Basing materials on standardised templates produced in the national or official language can be rapid and cost-effective, since it uses centralised technical expertise in curriculum development, illustrations, formatting, and other elements.(15) Training teachers to offer mother tongue and bilingual instruction: Local languages have been historically marginalised in many education systems, often resulting in a shortage of qualified teachers able to teach in the L1.(1)(5)(19)(21) In order to recruit and retain teachers who speak students’ mother tongue and have positive attitudes towards mother tongue instruction, it may be helpful to work with community organisations.(7)(12)(14)(15)(16)(19)(21) When a second language of instruction is planned, teachers also need special training in how to plan and accomplish bilingual or transitional instruction.(4)(7)(10)(12)(14)(16)(17)(20)(21) In the short term, paraprofessional teachers may be recruited from local communities; their initial training can focus on using their own language for early literacy instruction.(7)(15)(20) Inclusiveness and Equity Minority and marginalised populations: Children studying in an unfamiliar language face a double burden: not only must they learn new academic concepts and skills, but they must do so using words they do not understand. (7)(11)(20) There is strong evidence that use of the mother tongue in the initial years of schooling helps reach socially and educationally marginalised populations, improving their enrolment, attendance, and achievement. (11)(20)(23) Gender: Several studies show that offering instruction in the mother tongue positively impacts girls’ enrolment and passing rates, primarily because girls are less exposed than boys to languages outside the home and so face a tougher barrier when the mother tongue is not used in school.(3)(5) References: 1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

Ball, J. 2010. Enhancing learning of children from diverse language backgrounds: Mother tongue-based bilingual or multilingual education in early childhood and early primary school years. Victoria, Canada: Early Childhood Development Intercultural Partnerships, University of Victoria. Bamgbose, A. 2004. Language of instruction policy and practice in Africa. Dakar, Senegal: Regional Office for Education in Africa, UNESCO. Benson, C. 2005. Girls educational equity in mother-tongue. Bankok: UNESCO. Benson, C. 2004. ‘Do we expect too much of bilingual teachers? Bilingual teaching in developing countries’. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. 7(2-3). Benson, C. 2005. ‘The importance of mother tongue-based schooling for educational quality’. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2005: The Quality Imperative. Paris: UNESCO. Brock-Utne, B. 2007. ‘Language of instruction and student performance: New insights from research in Tanzania and South Africa.’ International Review of Education, 53(5-6). Bühmann, D, and Trudell, B. 2008. Mother Tongue Matters: Local Language as a Key to Effective Learning. Paris: UNESCO. Cárdenas-Hagan, E., Carlson, C.D., and Pollard-Durodola, S.D. 2007. ‘The cross-linguistic transfer of early literacy skills: The role of initial L1 and L2 skills and language of instruction.’ Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3).

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10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

18.

19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Chumbow, B. 2013. ‘Mother tongue-based multilingual education: Empirical foundations, implementation strategies and recommendations for new nations.’ Multilingual education in Africa: Lessons from the Juba language-in-education conference. London: British Council. Cummins, J. 1991. ‘Interdependence of first- and second-language proficiency in bilingual children’. Language Processing in Bilingual Children. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cummins, J. 2007. ‘Rethinking monolingual instructional strategies in multilingual classrooms.’ Canadian Journal of Applied Linguistics/Revue canadienne de linguistique appliquee. 10(2). Dutcher, N. 2004. Expanding Educational Opportunity in Linguistically Diverse Societies. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Easton, C. and Wroge, D. Manual for Alphabet Design through Community Interaction for Papua New Guinea Elementary Teacher Trainers. Papua New Guinea: SIL - Ukarumpa Ghimire, L. 2012. ‘Mother tongue instruction in multilingual schools of Nepal.’ Nepalese Linguistics. 27. Global Campaign for Education. 2013. Mother-tongue Education: Policy Lessons for Quality and Inclusion. Johanessburg, South Africa: Global Campaign for Education. Jones, J. M. 2012. ‘The effect of language attitudes on Kenyan stakeholder involvement in mother tongue policy implementation.’ Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development. 33(3). Nyaga, S., and Anthonissen, C. 2012. 'Teaching in lingusitically diverse classrooms: Difficulties in the implementation of the language-in-education policy in multilingual Kenyan primary schol classrooms.' Compare. 42(6). Okebukola, P. A., Owolabi, O., and Okebukola, F. O. 2013. ‘Mother tongue as default language of instruction in lower primary science classes: Tension between policy prescription and practice in Nigeria.’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 50(1). Pinnock, H. 2009a. Language and Education: The Missing Link. London: Save the Children UK. Pinnock, H. 2009b. Steps Towards Learning: A Guide to Overcoming Language Barriers in Children's Education. London: Save the Children UK. Rivera, L. 2002. 'A review of the literacture on bilingual education.' Gastón Institute Publications. 149. Slavin, R. E., and Cheung, A. 2005. ‘A synthesis of research on language of reading instruction for English language learners.’ Review of Educational Research, 75(2). Stroud, C. 2002. ‘Towards a policy for bilingual education in developing countries.’ New Education Division Documents. Stockholm: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency.

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Curriculum and expected learning outcomes Anna Persson

Develop relevant and effective curriculum and standards, and ensure their dissemination and implementation

The curriculum framework, including the expected learning outcomes, communicates what teachers and learners should know and do. Curriculum is a description of what, why, how, and how well students should learn in a systematic and intentional way.(14) Expected learning outcomes define the totality of information, knowledge, understanding, attitudes, values, skills, competencies, or behaviours a learner should master upon the successful completion of the curriculum.(14) To improve education quality special efforts are needed to align the intended curriculum (the official guidance), the implemented curriculum (what teachers and learners actually do), and the attained curriculum (what students actually learn).(14) An extensive collection of resources on improving the quality and relevance of the curriculum, as well as its linkage to teaching, learning, and assessment processes, is available through the International Bureau of Education (IBE-UNESCO). Issues and Discussion: Curriculum organization: Curriculum frameworks reflect the political and social agreements of education and aim to guide regulation, implementation, and evaluation of curricula.(1) They can be organized by competencies, disciplinary subjects, learning areas, and interdisciplinary or crosscurricular topics.(1) They also define the appropriate learning objectives, or expected learning outcomes, for successive levels of learning. Competency-based curriculum focuses on learners demonstrating mastery of certain interconnected knowledge, skills, and attitudes. In addition to subject-specific competencies, curriculum frameworks may address cross-cutting competencies such as communication, collaboration, critical thinking, and creativity, and principles such as personalization, inclusive systems, sustainable development, and social justice.(1) Curriculum development: The development of curricula and expected learning outcomes is a dynamic cyclical process requiring reassessment and adaptation over time.(5)(11)(23) Because it involves deciding what knowledge is legitimate and important, it can be a highly political process.(26) In some countries, curriculum is defined primarily at the national level, while in other education systems curriculum is more a matter for local and even classroom-based decision-making, often guided by a framework of learning standards.(9)(23)(26) In today’s context of global education goals and international assessments, questions of universality versus contextualization are becoming increasingly important.(3)(5)(7) While some learning goals may be universally appropriate, there are also specific national, local, and minority concerns that the curriculum needs to take into account. At all levels of curriculum development, relevance is improved when teachers are involved—as long as they are given chances to develop their curricular literacy, and are provided the required resources, time, and incentives for extensive deliberation.(17) New curricula can be tested and refined through feasibility studies and by piloting in select schools.(13) Ensuring effectiveness and relevance: Effective curriculum is based on backwards planning, which starts from the identification of desired learning results and how these can be measured, and then

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determines the learning experiences that can lead to these outcomes.(24) There has long been a debate about the relative merits of traditional didactic approaches, versus constructivist or student-centred approaches to curriculum. However, research on learning shows that this is a false dichotomy: for curriculum to be effective, it needs to include a balanced and integrated use of teacher-led guided learning, student-led action learning, and whole context-dependent experiential learning.(18) To be relevant, the curriculum also needs to connect to learners’ daily lives, interests, and motivations, and allow for differentiation of learning experiences to meet different students’ needs.(1)(21)(24) In addition to stating what should be learned, the curriculum therefore needs to give teachers guidance on how to structure teaching and learning activities and how to assess learning achievement.(22) Dissemination: Specific plans must be laid for the dissemination of new curricula and expected learning outcomes, in order to make educators aware of their existence and of the needed changes in teaching practices. Alignment of textbooks and other pedagogical materials is also a special concern, and the distribution and adoption of any new or revised materials should be addressed as part of the curriculum planning process. Curriculum dissemination plans should also take into account the development of curricular literacy at the level of districts, schools, and individual teachers.(4) Implementation: The implementation of the curriculum framework is a complex process which occurs over time and through many mechanisms.(10) Some policy levers to facilitate implementation include: teacher training, providing incentives for school districts, providing external facilitators to assist in implementation, encouraging demonstrations, and sharing ideas, information, and expertise between educators.(17) Education planners may need to decide on the relative importance of fidelity—precise application of the curriculum in its original form—versus allowing teachers to make adaptations that meet their learners’ needs.(17) Planners can monitor implementation to understand how to support the process, by asking four essential questions: what are teachers doing?, what are students doing?, how are materials being used?, and what kind of data should be collected to answer these questions? Potential methods for data collection can include direct observation, checklists, self-reports, and student portfolios.(17) Teacher professional development: In order for changes in curriculum and expected learning outcomes to be carried into practice, ongoing teacher development must be central to curriculum policy. Teachers’ commitment to change can vary from committed to resistant, due to differences in teachers’ curricular literacy, competence, and confidence, as well as whether the curriculum development process included teacher perspectives.(16)(17) Pre-service teacher training systems will often need to be revised to reflect new curriculum frameworks. In addition, interactive professional development is necessary to build understanding of learning outcomes, curriculum, and teaching practices while allowing multiple cycles for assimilation of knowledge, practice, and reflection on experience.(16)(20) Teachers also need to learn how to use learning outcomes and curriculum frameworks to develop formative assessments that can provide evidence of student understanding and skills and allow teachers to interpret evidence and change classroom practices, closing the gap between desired and actual understandings.(2)(12)(25) Inclusiveness and Equity Participation of indigenous and minority populations in creating curriculum: Contemporary forms of education are strongly based on a Western model of schooling that spread along with missionary activity and colonialism, in many cases irrevocably altering or replacing indigenous forms of education and socialization. With this legacy in mind, it is important to give indigenous and minority populations

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new opportunities to decide what knowledge and abilities are to be valued and included in the official curriculum.(19) Gender: Learning outcomes, curricula, assessments, and teaching practices should be either gender neutral or gender inclusive and non-discriminatory.(8) Language Minority Students: Providing a quality education to all students means taking special considerations for learners whose mother-tongue is not the language of instruction. Curricula should support teachers in understanding and implementing appropriate practices for these students. See the article on language of instruction.(6) References: 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

16. 17. 18. 19.

Amadio, M. Opertti, R., and Tedesco, J. C. 2015. The curriculum in debates and in educational reforms to 2030: For a curriculum agenda of the twenty-first century. Geneva: UNESCO IBE. Black, P. 2001. ‘Formative assessment and curriculum consequences.’ Curriculum and Assessment. Westport, Connecticut: Ablex Publishing. Chapman, D.W., Weidman, J., Cohen, M. and Mercer, M. 2005. ‘The search for quality: A five country study of national strategies to improve educational quality in Central Asia.’ International Journal of Educational Development. 25. Chrispeels, J.H. 1997. ‘Educational policy implementation in a shifting political climate: The California experience.’ American Educational Research Journal. 34(3). DeBoer, G. 2011. ‘The globalization of science education.’ Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 48(8). Echevarria, J., Short, D. and Powers K. 2006. ‘School reform and standards-based education: A model for English-Language Learners.’ The Journal of Educational Research. 99(4). Ertl, H. 2006. ‘Educational standards and the changing discourse on education: The reception and consequences of the PISA study in Germany.’ Oxford Review of Education. 32(5). Essuman, M. A., Osei-Poku, P. 2015. ‘Evaluation of Selected Textbooks from Ghanaian Primary Schools.’ International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 4(6). Ferrer, G. (2006). Estándares de currículo: algunas tendencias internacionales e implicancias para su implementación en América Latina. Lima: PREAL-GTEE. Fullan, M.G. 1982. The Meaning of Educational Change. New York: Teachers College Press. Gysling Caselli, J. (2007): Currículum nacional: desafíos múltiples. Revista Pensamiento Educativo, Vol. 40, Nº 1 (pp. 335-350). Hunt, E. and Pellegrino, J.W. 2002. ‘Issues, examples, and challenges in formative assessment’. New Directions for Teaching and Learning. 89. IBE. ‘Processes of curriculum implementation.’ Training Tools for Curriculum Development. UNESCO IBE. Available at: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COPs/Pages_documents/Resource_Packs/TTCD/sitem ap/Module_7/Module_7_1-concept.html IBE. 2013. IBE Glossary of Curriculum Terminology. Geneva: UNCESCO IBE. IBE. 'Training Tools for Curriculum Development'. UNESCO IBE. Available at: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/COPs/Pages_documents/Resource_Packs/TTCD/TTCD home.html Maccini, P. and Gagnon, J.C. 2002. ‘Perception and application of NCTM standards by special and general education teachers.’ Exceptional Children. 68(3). Marsh, C.J. and Willis, G. 2007. Curriculum: Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. OECD, 2012. The nature of learning. Using research to inspire practice. How can the learning science inform the design of the 21st learning environments? Paris: OECD. OEI (2015). Miradas sobre la educación en Iberoamérica: Educación de los pueblos y comunidades indígenas (originarios) y afrodescendientes. Madrid: Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (OEI).

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 20. Penuel, W. R., Fishman, B. J., Yamaguchi, R. and Gallagher, L. P. 2007. ‘What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation.’ American Educational Research Journal. 44(4). 21. Renzulli, J.S., Gentry, M. and Reis, S.M. 2004. ‘A time and place for authentic learning.’ Educational Leadership. 62(1). 22. Shavelson, R.J. et al. 2008. ‘On the impact of curriculum-embedded formative assessment on learning: A collaboration between curriculum and assessment developers.’ Applied Measurement in Education. 21. 23. Tapo, M.F. 2004. National Standards/Local Implementation: Case Studies of Differing Perceptions of National Education Standards in Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Dissertation: Queensland University of Technology. 24. Tomlinson, C.A. and McTighe, J. 2006. Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design. Danvers, Massachusetts: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 25. Wiliam, D. 2001. ‘An overview of the relationship between assessment and the curriculum.’ Curriculum and Assessment. Westport, Connecticut: Ablex Publishing. 26. Wixson, K.K., Dutro, E. and Athan, R.G. 2003. ‘The challenge of developing content standards.’ Review of Research in Education. Washington, D.C.: American Educational Research Association.

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Textbooks and teachers’ guides Anna Persson

Procure relevant and effective textbooks and teachers’ guides, and ensure that students and teachers have regular access to them.

Textbooks are critical inputs impacting student learning. Textbooks are more likely to improve student learning when they are based on a curriculum, when they employ a language that is easily understood and at an appropriate level for students and teachers, and when teachers adapt their pedagogy to achieve effective use. Issues that education planners must consider include: development and distribution of textbooks and teachers’ guides, public and private textbook development and procurement systems, and student access and use of textbooks. Issues and Discussion: Textbooks and learning outcomes: Over 50 years of research have shown that the availability of textbooks produces gains in student learning.(10)(13)(19)(22)(25) Textbooks contribute to a text-rich environment, increasing knowledge sharing among students.(8)(14)(22) Textbooks improve learning for the poorest students by increasing motivation, performance and opportunity to learn.(22) Textbooks are responsible for changes in educational practices such as assigning homework and increasing classroom reading time.(22) Textbooks not only save teachers’ planning time, but they also provide better learning experiences for students—including increasing active teaching and student-centred learning.(8)(9)(22) Parents report that teachers become better planners, while students are able to do assignments more easily, read on their own, and explore new knowledge.(22)(25) Textbooks also help parents support their children’s learning at home. It is important to establish policies on the effective usage of textbooks, along with well-designed student and teacher support systems.(22) Teachers’ Guides (TGs): Teachers’ guides should support teachers in changing their practises in order to align with curricular reforms.(18) Teachers’ guides may be linked to the use of particular textbooks, or they may be stand-alone resources for particular content areas or pedagogical issues. Effective teachers’ guides support teachers and student learning through the following essential components:(4)(18) 1) explicitly communicating conceptual goals with direct links to proposed activities(6); 2) providing knowledge and support to help understand and implement teaching plans(18)(23); 3) reinforcing pedagogical content knowledge(6)(18)(23); 4) offering practices and understandings of relevant pedagogical activities(18)(23); 5) presenting alternatives and freedom of choice(18); and 6) engaging teachers in ongoing reflection.(23) Quality Textbooks: Quality textbooks are a product of the curriculum development process and are aligned with high quality pedagogy.(21)(25) High quality textbooks are: grounded in learning theory and subject specific content theory to support highly effective pedagogic practices, clearly focused on key concepts and knowledge, and consistent with learning theory in progression and layout. They also offer varied application of concepts and principles, facilitate active and equitable participation of all learners, and guide learners to reflect on what they are learning.(21) Quality textbooks also facilitate learning of measureable outcomes, and include multiple perspectives and differentiation in the paths

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to learning a given content. They are designed for age-appropriate conceptual levels, and take into account different linguistic environments, as well as the background and needs of learners. They must also be affordable, durable, and accessible.(25) Development of textbooks: In order for educators to focus on appropriate learning goals, curricular frameworks are essential to textbook development and procurement.(1)(21) In practice, however, textbooks may only partially reflect curricular frameworks, potentially due to the isolated world of textbook authors and editors, a lack of specificity in curricular frameworks, the high expense of revisions, and a tendency for textbook developers to rely on past practices and existing materials.(1) Additionally, development can be stunted for multiple reasons, including separation of textbook developers from classroom practices, general resistance to change, time constraints, and lack of resources.(1)(25) Textbook procurement systems: Textbook procurement options include state published monopolies, private sector monopolies, and limited and unlimited approved lists of textbooks.(26) In general, it has been found that publishing monopolies tend to result in poor textbook quality—in terms of both physical specifications and the learning content—inertia in terms of changes to textbooks, and distribution issues.(15) Attempts to resolve these issues have led to public-private-partnerships, which require several specific steps.(26) First, national policies need to establish dialogue with all stakeholders.(26) Procurement baseline studies establish the national state of textbooks and recommend how to reach textbook policy goals.(20) Second, governments develop educational standards, while an independent authority evaluates textbook compliance with standards and criteria.(26) This process needs to be transparent and fair, with equal opportunities for all publishers.(15) Once the procurement process is complete, lists of the approved textbooks allow schools to meet students’ specific needs.(23) Distribution of Textbooks: Textbooks only improve learning if students use them; therefore, textbooks must arrive on time in all schools, be issued to students, be effectively managed by schools, and be conserved through policies establishing the conditions of use.(22) Publishers are increasingly responsible for distribution of textbooks, under the public-private partnerships described previously.(26) Regardless of the distribution system, any misuse or misallocation of resources results in fewer materials reaching their destination.(26) With regular supervision, inspections, and auditing (see a sample internal audit), corruption decreases.(26) The late release of funding can also contribute to the untimely delivery of materials.(26) Textbook access and storage: Recommended textbook-to-student ratios range from 1:1 to 1:3.(25) However, it is commonly reported that textbooks are not used in classroom learning in developing countries.(2)(16)(22)(24) Factors impeding textbook-to-student ratios include the cost of textbooks and book loss over time.(26) To minimize loss and maximize proper use of textbooks, school and classroom storage facilities must be secure, weatherproof, and clean – free from infestations of vermin, insects, and fungus.(22)(26) Simple materials management systems and guides to effective materials use need to be in place in schools and classrooms.(22) Regular auditing ensures all materials are being maintained and replaced as needed.(22)(26) However, care should be taken to ensure that teachers and schools are not penalized for normal wear and tear, so that schools are not afraid to allow student use of textbooks.

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Inclusiveness and Equity Textbooks and teachers’ guides need to “encompass the diverse needs of all learners in a wide range of cultural contexts, economic conditions and educational settings.”(25, p.3) Children with disabilities – Textbooks can accommodate the special needs of students through large font and Braille editions, as well as adapted versions at simpler levels of reading difficulty. ‘Low-achieving’ students - Textbooks are cost-effective in raising test scores for those considered academically strong.(6)(11)(22) However, for ‘low-achieving’ students, mother-tongue literacy skills must be developed and textbooks provided in their mother-tongue. When these conditions are met, students who have been designated ‘low-achieving’ students’ may even outperform their academically strong counterparts.(11)(26) Gender: Textbooks should equally portray males and females in ways to avoid negative gender stereotypes. Illustrations or text references favouring males leads to gender bias, promoting stereotypes within the culture and affecting the interest and aspiration of female learners.(7)(12) References: 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

Benavot, A. 2011. ‘Improving the provision of quality education: Perspectives from textbook research.’ Journal of International Cooperation in Education. 14(2). Buchan, A. 2013. “Preparation Report for Textbook Component of World Bank-Funded Cameroon Equity and Quality Improvement Project (CEQUIL).” Windsor, United Kingdom: International Education Partners for World Bank/CEQUIL. Burrill, G., Lappan, G., and Gonulates, F. 2015. ‘Curriculum and the role of research.’ Proceedings of the 7th International Congress on Mathematical Education, 247–263. Davis, E. A., & Krajcik, J. S. 2005. ‘Designing educative curriculum materials to promote teacher learning.’ Educational researcher, 34(3). DFID. 2003. The Multi-Site Teacher Education Research Project. London: DFID. Drake, C., & Sherin, M. G. 2006. ‘Practicing change: Curriculum adaptation and teacher narrative in the context of mathematics education reform.’ Curriculum Inquiry, 36(2). Toronto: The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education of the University of Toronto. Essuman, M. A.; Osei-Poku, P. 2015. ‘Evaluation of Selected Textbooks from Ghanaian Primary Schools.’ International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 4(6). Frolich, M., and K. Michaelowa. 2005. Peer Effects and Textbooks in Primary Education: Evidence from Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa. Bonn, Germany: Institute for the Study of Labor. Gibbs, N. November 20, 2014. The Publishers Association and the British Educational Suppliers Association conference, London. https://www.gov.uk/government/speeches/nick-gibb-speaks-to-educationpublishers-about-quality-textbooks. Glewwe, P., E. Hanushek, S. Humpage, and R. Ravina. 2011. “School Resources and Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature from 1990 to 2010.” NBER Working Paper 17554, National Bureau for Economic Research, Cambridge MA. http://www.nber.org/papers/w17554. Glewwe, P., Kremer, M., and Moulin, S. 2009. ‘Many children left behind? Textbooks and test scores in Kenya” American Economics Journal: Applied Economics. 1(1). Halabi, S., Smith, W., Collins, J., Baker, D. & Bedford, J. 2013. ‘A documentary analysis of HIV/AIDS education interventions in Ghana.’ Health Education Journal. 72(4). Heyneman, S., and J. Farrell. 1978. Textbooks and Achievement: What We Know. A World Bank Study. Washington. DC: World Bank. Hoxby, C. 2000. Peer Effects in the Classroom: Learning from Gender and Race Variation. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.;

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 15. International Publishers Association. 2015. Educational textbook procurement in developing countries : How to get the best textbooks and create a national book culture. Geneva: International Publishers Association 16. Jones, B., and N. Sayer. 2013. Annual Review of DFID Textbook Project in South Sudan. Juba: DFID. 17. Kuecken, M., and M. Valfort. 2013. When Do Textbooks Matter for Achievement? Evidence from African Primary Schools. Paris: Paris School of Economics. 18. Lin, S. F., Chang, W. H., & Cheng, Y. J. 2011. ‘The perceived usefulness of teachers’ guides for science teachers.’ International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(6). 19. McEwan, P. 2013. Improving Learning in Primary Schools of Developing Countries: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Experiments. Cambridge MA: Center for Education Innovations. http://academics.wellesley.edu/Economics/mcewan/PDF/meta.pdf.; 20. Millennium Challenge Account Namibia. 2010. Report Namibia Textbook Procurement Baseline Study. Homburg, Germany: GOPA Consultants. 21. Oates, T. 2014. Why Textbooks Count: A policy paper. Cambridge: Cambridge Assessment, University of Cambridge. 22. Read, T. 2015. Where have all the textbooks gone?: Toward sustainable provision of teaching and learning materials in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, D.C.: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The World Bank Group. 23. Remillard, J. T., and Bryans, M. 2004. ‘Teachers’ orientations toward mathematics curriculum materials: Implications for teacher learning.’ Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. 24. Sabarwal, S., D. Evans, and A. Marshak. 2012. “Textbook Provision and Student Outcomes— the Devil in the Details.” World Bank, Washington, DC. 25. UNESCO. 2005. UNESCO comprehensive strategy for textbooks and learning materials. Section q/ Education/or Peace and Human Rights Division/or the Promotion of Quality Education, UNESCO. 26. United Kingdom’s Department for International Development. 2011. Learning and teaching materials: Policy and practice for provision. London: Department for International Development.

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Supplementary learning and teaching materials Anna Persson

Use cost-effective supplementary materials to enrich teaching in every subject, to engage students in multi-dimensional learning, and to build students’ abilities to apply their knowledge.

Learning and teaching materials (LTMs) are concrete, tangible vehicles for supporting student learning. High quality LTMs are based on standards and curricular frameworks that connect disciplines with big ideas, themes, and concepts, and are the product of careful field testing and refinement. Issues policy and education planners must consider when deciding on LTMs are: the linkage with learning outcomes, selection, content area and grade level appropriateness, access and storage, and prioritization of LTMs in resource constrained environments. Education planners also need to ensure that relevant professional development for teachers is in place, and that supervisors support teachers’ integration of new practices. Issues and Discussion: LTMs and learning outcomes: LTMs impact how teachers teach and how students learn, improving student outcomes at all levels and across disciplines by increasing student engagement and providing learners several ways to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.(6)(7)(11)(14)(15)(19)(24)(25)(27) For LTMs to impact learners, teachers must engage in transformative professional development to understand proper use and where LTMs fit within the curriculum and learning process.(3)(5)(14) For the purposes of this article, LTMs exclude textbooks and teachers’ guides (please see the separate article on Textbooks and teachers’ guides). Selection and minimum lists: The educational value of LTMs is dependent on their direct relation to an inclusive curriculum, motivating students and teachers to incorporate LTMs into the learning process, and ensuring multiple perspectives are represented.(24) Minimum lists of the LTMs needed by students and teachers to achieve desired learning outcomes should be determined for each subject and grade level.(21) These “minimum learning material profiles” can include, for example, reference books, games, work cards, activity books, teachers’ didactic aids (flash cards, vocabulary cards, etc), maps, wall charts posters, poster card, marker pens, and paper.(21) Literacy: Supplementary LTMs are critical for literacy outcomes: learning to read, developing reading as a habit, reading to learn and access information, and reading for pleasure and enrichment.(21) Literacy LTMs include relevant and interesting books, levelled readers, newspapers, informational pamphlets, and other materials printed in mother-tongue and instructional languages reflecting local customs and concerns. It is recommended that classroom libraries have at least four books per student.(21) LTMs impact what students read, how they read and how well they read and learn, therefore, students must be provided a range of reading materials in order to differentiate and meet all students at their reading level.(27) What students read also impacts how they think, therefore, students need texts that are thematically rich, grounded in conceptual knowledge, and support a

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variety of learning goals for a range of learners.(21)(26)(27) High interest texts at the appropriate readability level engage struggling readers who are willing to work through difficulties.(4) Mathematics: Mathematics manipulatives and mathematics tools promote mathematic skill and conceptual development.(22) Manipulatives have the most impact on learning, as they engage higher level mathematical thinking and allow connections to be made from concrete representations to abstract concepts.(22)(23) Effective mathematics manipulatives include base ten blocks, counters, Unifix cubes, geoshapes, square tiles, and Cuisenaire rods.(17)(22) Science(s): Science materials should be divided by grade or course and include safety equipment, nonconsumable materials and equipment, consumable materials, kits, miscellaneous materials, and technology (see an example list for different ages and subjects).(2) Science kits are thematicallyorganized sets of materials, allowing students to learn science by doing science themselves.(9) Science kits should contain: investigation guides, teacher resources, equipment for investigations (consumable and non-consumable), a classroom set of student resources books, and multimedia.(10) It is important to ensure that kits meet the science standards and are research-based and field-tested with appropriate assessments.(9) Social Studies: Effective Social Studies LTMs include audio/video recorders, projectors, pictures, globes, primary sources, maps, and charts.(1) Teachers may need special professional training in the use of these materials as some research shows that social science teachers continue to depend on textbooks and chalkboards for instruction even when more diverse materials are available.(19)(20) Access and storage: To ensure longevity, LTMs need to be stored and managed.(24) Materials used daily should remain in classrooms; others can be divided into classroom kits to rotate/share between classrooms, and less frequently-used or bulky items can be kept in storage rooms.(24) Prioritizing for limited-resources contexts: Education planners in resource-constrained contexts must evaluate the cost of all necessary learning and teaching materials, not only textbooks and teachers’ guides, and ensure that schools have what they need for effective learning in each subject.(21)(23) Overall cost reducing strategies some countries have adopted include: selecting fewer curriculum subjects in order to better equip those that are chosen, strategies to extend book life, book and LTM sharing, reduced use of four colours in printing, and the use of materials loan or rental systems.(21) Inclusiveness and Equity Children with disabilities: Materials should be accommodating to special needs of students through large font or Braille editions and usage of multiple reading levels. Culturally and linguistically diverse learners: Active learning that engages diverse cognitive strengths can help to ensure that an unfamiliar language of instruction is less of a barrier for learning. Cultural content is essential for students outside the mainstream culture to see their heritage reflected in their reading and learning materials.(12)(27) Gender: LTMs should equally portray males and females in ways to avoid negative gender stereotypes. Illustrations or text references favouring males leads to gender bias, promoting stereotypes within the culture and affecting the interest and aspiration of female learners.(8)(13)

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References: 1. 2.

Aduwa-Ogiegbaen S. O. and Imogie, A. I. 2005. Instructional communication and technology in higher education Ibadan. Stirling Hordon publishers (Nigeria) Ltd. Arkansas Science Teachers Association Board. 2003. Adequate Arkansas science classrooms, labs, and equipment to meet standards. Arkansas Science Teachers Association Board.

3. Barrett, A., Ali, S., Clegg, J., Hinostroza, J.E., Lowe, J., Nikel, J., Novelli, M., Oduro, G., Pillay, M., Tikly,L., and Yu, G. 2007. Initiatives to improve the quality of teaching and learning: A review of recent literature. Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2008. 4.

Biancarosa, C., and Snow, C.E. 2006. Reading Next - A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy: A report to Carnegie Corportation of New York. Washington, D.C.: Alliance for Excellent Education.

5. Carson Powel, J., and Anderson, R,. 2002. ‘Changing teachers’ practice: curriculum materials and science education reform in the USA.’ Studies in Science Education. 37. 6. 7.

Darling-Hammond, L. 2010. The flat world and education: How America's commitment to equity will determine our future. Teachers College Press. Edutopia. 2015. Multiple Intelligences: What Does the Research Say?. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/multiple-intelligences-research.

8. Essuman, M. A., and Osei-Poku, P. 2015. ‘Evaluation of Selected Textbooks from Ghanaian Primary Schools.’ International Journal of Innovative Research and Development. 4(6). 9. 10. 11. 12.

FOSS. 2015. FOSS Features. Retrieved from: http://www.fossweb.com/program-features FOSS. 2015. FOSS Program. Retrieved from: http://www.fossweb.com/foss-program Gardner, H. 1991. The Unschooled Mind. New York, NY: Harper-Collins. Glewwe, P., Kremer, M., and Moulin, S. 2014. ‘Many Children Left Behind ? Textbooks and Test Scores in Kenya.’ American Economic Journal: Applied Economics. 1(1).

13. Halabi, S., Smith, W., Collins, J., Baker, D. and Bedford, J. 2013. ‘A documentary analysis of HIV/AIDS education interventions in Ghana.’ Health Education Journal. 72(4). 14. Hattie, J. 2011. Visible Learning for Teachers: Maximizing Impact on Learning. New York, NY: Routledge.

15. Hoffman, J., and Schallert, D. 2003. The texts in elementary classrooms. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 16. IBE. 2013. IBE Glossary of Curriculum Terminology. Geneva: UNESCO IBE.

17. Jones, A. 2010. Secondary school mathematics teachers’ views of manipulatives and their use in the classroom. University of Ottawa, CA. 18. Nwalado, E. N. 2007. ‘Teacher factor in the implementation of Social Studies programmes in Delta State secondary schools.’ Unpublished M.Ed thesis. Abraka: Delta State University. 19. Ogbondah, L. 2008. ‘An appraisal of instructional materials used to educate Migrant Fishermen’s children in Rivers State, Nigeria.’ International Journal of Scientific Research in Education. 1(1). 20. Okobia, E. O. 2011. ‘Availability and teachers’ use of instructional materials and resources in the implementation of social studies in junior secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria.’ Review of European Studies. 3(2).

21. Read, T. 2015. Where Have All the Textbooks Gone? : Toward Sustainable Provision of Teaching and Learning Materials in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington, DC: World Bank. 22. Swan, P., and Marshall, L. 2010. ‘Revisiting Mathematics Manipulative Materials.’ Australian Primary Mathematics Classroom, 15(2), 13–19. 23. Swan, P., Marshall, L., and White, G. 2007. Mathematics Manipulatives: A panacea or Pandora’s box?’ In Proceedings of the International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education. 24. The State of South Australia, D. of E. and C. S. (2004). Choosing and using teaching and learning materials: Guidelines for preschools and schools. Hindmarch, SA. 25. United Kingdom’s Department for International Development. 2011. Learning and teaching materials: Policy and practice for provision. London: Department for International Development. 26. UNESCO. 2014. Textbooks and Learning Resources : A Global Framework for Policy Development. Paris, France.

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27. Yokota, J., and Teale, W.H. 2011. ‘Materials in the school reading curriculum.’ Rebuilding reading instruction for 21st century literacy. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.

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Information and communications technology (ICT) in education Anna Persson

Develop the digital literacy of teachers and students through appropriate and cost-effective use of information and communications technology (ICT).

Schools use a diverse set of ICT tools to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information.(6) In some contexts, ICT has also become integral to the teaching-learning interaction, through such approaches as replacing chalkboards with interactive digital whiteboards, using students’ own smartphones or other devices for learning during class time, and the “flipped classroom” model where students watch lectures at home on the computer and use classroom time for more interactive exercises. When teachers are digitally literate and trained to use ICT, these approaches can lead to higher order thinking skills, provide creative and individualized options for students to express their understandings, and leave students better prepared to deal with ongoing technological change in society and the workplace.(18) ICT issues planners must consider include: considering the total cost-benefit equation, supplying and maintaining the requisite infrastructure, and ensuring investments are matched with teacher support and other policies aimed at effective ICT use.(16) Issues and Discussion: Digital culture and digital literacy: Computer technologies and other aspects of digital culture have changed the ways people live, work, play, and learn, impacting the construction and distribution of knowledge and power around the world.(14) Graduates who are less familiar with digital culture are increasingly at a disadvantage in the national and global economy. Digital literacy—the skills of searching for, discerning, and producing information, as well as the critical use of new media for full participation in society—has thus become an important consideration for curriculum frameworks.(8) In many countries, digital literacy is being built through the incorporation of information and communication technology (ICT) into schools. Some common educational applications of ICT include:  One laptop per child: Less expensive laptops have been designed for use in school on a 1:1 basis with features like lower power consumption, a low cost operating system, and special reprogramming and mesh network functions.(42) Despite efforts to reduce costs, however, providing one laptop per child may be too costly for some developing countries.(41) 

Tablets: Tablets are small personal computers with a touch screen, allowing input without a keyboard or mouse. Inexpensive learning software (“apps”) can be downloaded onto tablets, making them a versatile tool for learning.(7)(25) The most effective apps develop higher order thinking skills and provide creative and individualized options for students to express their understandings.(18)



Interactive White Boards or Smart Boards: Interactive white boards allow projected computer images to be displayed, manipulated, dragged, clicked, or copied.(3) Simultaneously, handwritten

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notes can be taken on the board and saved for later use. Interactive white boards are associated with whole-class instruction rather than student-centred activities.(38) Student engagement is generally higher when ICT is available for student use throughout the classroom.(4) 

E-readers: E-readers are electronic devices that can hold hundreds of books in digital form, and they are increasingly utilized in the delivery of reading material.(19) Students—both skilled readers and reluctant readers—have had positive responses to the use of e-readers for independent reading.(22) Features of e-readers that can contribute to positive use include their portability and long battery life, response to text, and the ability to define unknown words.(22) Additionally, many classic book titles are available for free in e-book form.



Flipped Classrooms: The flipped classroom model, involving lecture and practice at home via computer-guided instruction and interactive learning activities in class, can allow for an expanded curriculum. There is little investigation on the student learning outcomes of flipped classrooms.(5) Student perceptions about flipped classrooms are mixed, but generally positive, as they prefer the cooperative learning activities in class over lecture.(5)(35)

ICT and Teacher Professional Development: Teachers need specific professional development opportunities in order to increase their ability to use ICT for formative learning assessments, individualized instruction, accessing online resources, and for fostering student interaction and collaboration.(15) Such training in ICT should positively impact teachers’ general attitudes towards ICT in the classroom, but it should also provide specific guidance on ICT teaching and learning within each discipline. Without this support, teachers tend to use ICT for skill-based applications, limiting student academic thinking.(32) To support teachers as they change their teaching, it is also essential for education managers, supervisors, teacher educators, and decision makers to be trained in ICT use.(11) Ensuring benefits of ICT investments: To ensure the investments made in ICT benefit students, additional conditions must be met. School policies need to provide schools with the minimum acceptable infrastructure for ICT, including stable and affordable internet connectivity and security measures such as filters and site blockers. Teacher policies need to target basic ICT literacy skills, ICT use in pedagogical settings, and discipline-specific uses.(21) Successful implementation of ICT requires integration of ICT in the curriculum. Finally, digital content needs to be developed in local languages and reflect local culture.(40) Ongoing technical, human, and organizational supports on all of these issues are needed to ensure access and effective use of ICT.(21) Resource Constrained Contexts: The total cost of ICT ownership is considerable: training of teachers and administrators, connectivity, technical support, and software, amongst others.(42) When bringing ICT into classrooms, policies should use an incremental pathway, establishing infrastructure and bringing in sustainable and easily upgradable ICT.(16) Schools in some countries have begun allowing students to bring their own mobile technology (such as laptop, tablet, or smartphone) into class rather than providing such tools to all students—an approach called Bring Your Own Device.(1)(27)(34) However, not all families can afford devices or service plans for their children.(30) Schools must ensure all students have equitable access to ICT devices for learning. Inclusiveness and Equity Digital Divide: The digital divide refers to disparities of digital media and internet access both within and across countries, as well as the gap between people with and without the digital literacy and skills to utilize media and internet.(23)(26)(31) The digital divide both creates and reinforces socio-economic learningportal.iiep.unesco.org

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inequalities of the world’s poorest people. Policies need to intentionally bridge this divide to bring media, internet, and digital literacy to all students, not just those who are easiest to reach. Minority language groups: Students whose mother tongue is different from the official language of instruction are less likely to have computers and internet connections at home than students from the majority. There is also less material available to them online in their own language, putting them at a disadvantage in comparison to their majority peers who gather information, prepare talks and papers, and communicate more using ICT.(39) Yet ICT tools can also help improve the skills of minority language students—especially in learning the official language of instruction—through features such as automatic speech recognition, the availability of authentic audio-visual materials, and chat functions.(2)(17) Students with different styles of learning: ICT can provide diverse options for taking in and processing information, making sense of ideas, and expressing learning. Over 87% of students learn best through visual and tactile modalities, and ICT can help these students ‘experience’ the information instead of just reading and hearing it.(20)(37) Mobile devices can also offer programmes (“apps”) that provide extra support to students with special needs, with features such as simplified screens and instructions, consistent placement of menus and control features, graphics combined with text, audio feedback, ability to set pace and level of difficulty, appropriate and unambiguous feedback, and easy error correction.(24)(29) References: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Alberta Education. 2012. Bring your own device: A guide for schools. Retrieved from http://education.alberta.ca/admin/technology/research.aspx Alsied, S.M. and Pathan, M.M. 2015. ‘The use of computer technology in EFL classroom: Advantages and implications. International Journal of English Language and Translation Studies. 1(1). BBC. N.D. ‘What is an interactive whiteboard?’ Retrieved from http://www.bbcactive.com/BBCActiveIdeasandResources/Whatisaninteractivewhiteboard.aspx Beilefeldt, T. 2012. ‘Guidance for technology decisions from classroom observation.’ Journal of Research on Technology in Education. 44(3). Bishop, J.L. and Verleger, M.A. 2013. ‘The flipped classroom: A survey of the research.’ Presented at the 120th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition. Atlanta, Georgia. Blurton, C. 2000. New Directions of ICT-Use in Education. United National Education Science and Culture Organization (UNESCO). Bryant, B.R., Ok, M., Kang, E.Y., Kim, M.K., Lang, R., Bryant, D.P. and Pfannestiel, K. 2015. ‘Performance of fourth-grade students with learning disabilities on multiplication facts comparing teacher-mediated and technology-mediated interventions: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Behavioral Education. 24. Buckingham, D. 2005. Educación en medios. Alfabetización, aprendizaje y cultura contemporánea, Barcelona, Paidós. Buckingham, D., Sefton-Green, J., and Scanlon, M. 2001. 'Selling the Digital Dream: Marketing Education Technologies to Teachers and Parents.' ICT, Pedagogy, and the Curriculum: Subject to Change. London: Routledge. "Burk, R. 2001. 'E-book devices and the marketplace: In search of customers.' Library Hi Tech 19(4)." Chapman, D., and Mählck, L. (Eds). 2004. Adapting technology for school improvement: a global perspective. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning. Cheung, A.C.K and Slavin, R.E. 2012. ‘How features of educational technology applications affect student reading outcomes: A meta-analysis.’ Educational Research Review. 7. Cheung, A.C.K and Slavin, R.E. 2013. ‘The effectiveness of educational technology applications for enhancing mathematics achievement in K-12 classrooms: A meta-analysis.’ Educational Research Review. 9.

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 15. Deuze, M. 2006. 'Participation Remediation Bricolage- Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture.' The Information Society. 22. 16. Dunleavy, M., Dextert, S. and Heinecke, W.F. 2007. ‘What added vale does a 1:1 student to laptop ratio bring to technology-supported teaching and learning?’ Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 23. 17. Enyedy, N. 2014. Personalized Instruction: New Interest, Old Rhetoric, Limited Results, and the Need for a New Direction for Computer-Mediated Learning. Boulder, CO: National Education Policy Center. 18. Golonka, E.M., Bowles, A.R., Frank, V.M., Richardson, D.L. and Freynik, S. 2014. ‘Technologies for foreign language learning: A review of technology types and their effectiveness.’ Computer Assisted Language Learning. 27(1). 19. Goodwin, K. 2012. Use of Tablet Technology in the Classroom. Strathfield, New South Wales: NSW Curriculum and Learning Innovation Centre. 20. Jung, J., Chan-Olmsted, S., Park, B., and Kim, Y. 2011. 'Factors affecting e-book reader awareness, interest, and intention to use.' New Media & Society. 14(2) 21. Kenney, L. 2011. ‘Elementary education, there’s an app for that. Communication technology in the elementary school classroom.’ The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications. 2(1). 22. Kopcha, T.J. 2012. ‘Teachers’ perceptions of the barriers to technology integration and practices with technology under situated professional development.’ Computers and Education. 59. 23. Miranda, T., Williams-Rossi, D., Johnson, K., and McKenzie, N. 2011. "Reluctant readers in middle school: Successful engagement with text using the e-reader.' International journal of applied science and technology. 1(6). 24. Moyo, L. 2009. 'The digital divide: scarcity, inequality and conflict.' Digital Cultures. New York: Open University Press. 25. Newton, D.A. and Dell, A.G. 2011. ‘Mobile devices and students with disabilities: What do best practices tell us?’ Journal of Special Education Technology. 26(3). 26. Nirvi, S. (2011). ‘Special education pupils find learning tool in iPad applications.’ Education Week. 30. 27. Norris, P. 2001. Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide. Cambridge, USA: Cambridge University Press. 28. Project Tomorrow. 2012. Learning in the 21st century: Mobile devices + social media = personalized learning. Washington, D.C.: Blackboard K-12. 29. Riasati, M.J., Allahyar, N. and Tan, K.E. 2012. ‘Technology in language education: Benefits and barriers.’ Journal of Education and Practice. 3(5). 30. Rodriquez, C.D., Strnadova, I. and Cumming, T. 2013. ‘Using iPads with students with disabilities: Lessons learned from students, teachers, and parents.’ Intervention in School and Clinic. 49(4). 31. Sangani, K. 2013. 'BYOD to the classroom.' Engineering & Technology. 3(8). 32. Servon, L. 2002. Redefining the Digital Divide: Technology, Community and Public Policy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers. 33. Smeets, E. 2005. ‘Does ICT contribute to powerful learning environments in primary education?’ Computers and Education. 44. 34. Smith, G.E. and Thorne, S. 2007. Differentiating Instruction with Technology in K-5 Classrooms. Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education. 35. Song, Y. 2014. '"Bring your own device (BYOD" for seamless science inquiry in a primary school.' Computers & Education. 74. 36. Strayer, J.F. 2012. ‘How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation, innovation and task orientation.’ Learning Environment Research. 15. 37. Tamim, R.M., Bernard, R.M., Borokhovski, E., Abrami, P.C. and Schmid, R.F. 2011. ‘What forty years of research says about the impact of technology on learning: A second-order meta-analysis and validation study. Review of Educational Research. 81(1). 38. Tileston, D.W. 2003. What Every Teacher Should Know about Media and Technology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. 39. Turel, Y.K. and Johnson, T.E. 2012. ‘Teachers’ belief and use of interactive whiteboards for teaching and learning.’ Educational Technology and Society. 15(1). 40. Volman, M., van Eck, E., Heemskerk, I. and Kuiper, E. 2005. ‘New technologies, new differences. Gender and ethnic differences in pupils’ use of ICT in primary and secondary education.’ Computers and Education. 45.

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 41. Voogt, J., Knezek, G., Cox, M., Knezek, D. and ten Brummelhuis, A. 2013. ‘Under which conditions does ICT have a positive effect on teaching and learning? A call to action.’ Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. 29(1). 42. Warschauer, M. and Ames, M. 2010. ‘Can one laptop per child save the world’s poor?’ Journal of International Affairs. 64(1). 43. Zuker, A.A. and Light, D. 2009. ‘Laptop programs for students.’ Science. 323(5910).

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Schools & Classrooms

School leadership and management The physical school environment The psycho-social school environment Instructional time and classroom management Formative assessment

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School leadership and management Matthew Waugh

Prepare and support school leaders who have a vision for improving quality and learning outcomes, and who are also effective at ongoing management tasks.

Schools need leaders with a vision for improving the school’s learning environment within a wellfunctioning school-based management (SBM) system. SBM involves setting school directions concerning students, teacher development, and allocation of material and financial resources. Effective SBM impacts motivation, commitment, and student and teacher success by: facilitating school leadership that is both appropriate to the unique context and needs of the school community, developing and implementing school improvement plans, establishing fair and effective teacher appraisal systems, structuring classrooms and schools according to school needs, building partnerships with the community, and ensuring that frameworks exist to support the functions of other school departments and personnel. Issues and Discussion School managers’ preparation and leadership: School managers can positively contribute to school effectiveness when they are prepared and able to use extensive leadership knowledge to solve complex school-based problems, and to build trust through working relationships with school staff, parents, students, and the community.(3, 8) Managers can have different and overlapping management styles including instructional, transformational, and distributed leadership, with each style having an influence on student outcomes and how teachers respond to leadership.(3, 8) However, it is important that school managers lead in a way that is appropriate to the school culture and context, that they be given opportunities for management support training, and that their performance be appraised by school inspectors, municipalities, or other boards that provide oversight on school management quality.(3, 8) School managers who model strong instructional leadership focus on planning, evaluation, coordination, and improvement of teaching in order to achieve positive student learning outcomes.(8) School managers need to assess student and teacher performance and lead in a way that is culturally and pedagogically responsive to student’ and teacher’ strengths and needs.(8) School improvement plans: Effective school managers design a school improvement process to guide their work.(2, 8) School improvement plans (also called school development plans) can provide such a process because they are strategic and based on a scanning of the school environment and the conditions that are faced.(1, 2) School improvement plans should prioritise goals and objectives, identify strategic actions to achieve school goals, and include a set of methods for monitoring, implementing, and evaluating the strategies.(1, 2, 8) In particular, they may outline strategies for improving student performance in targeted subject areas, recommend particular types of assessments for teachers to measure student performance over time, and indicate when and for how long strategies should be implemented.(1,8) The development of school plans is a collaborative process between school professionals and councils, parents, and other community stakeholders, and the results should be made accessible (in hard copy or online) to the public as a form of accountability.(1, 2, 3)

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Teacher appraisal: Another function accomplished by school managers is regular teacher appraisal.(8) A teacher appraisal framework makes evaluation fair by clearly defining roles, responsibilities and procedures, and includes multiple forms of measurement such as teacher portfolios, classroom observations, and surveys and/or administrator and peer assessments.(8) School professionals should have a clear rationale for choosing assessment measures, and should be cautious about using forms of teacher appraisal that can place too much value on student’s standardized test scores.(3) Other management functions: Other aspects of schools require a clear management framework including maintaining school libraries and storerooms, addressing school health and safety issues, and managing school-based funding and accounting.(5, 6) The management of school funding has a particular relationship to learning outcomes, since high performing schools tend to focus resources on the areas of greatest learning needs, including individual attention for students to learn core subjects and extra support to improve teachers’ effectiveness.(5, 6) School-community partnerships: SBM is effective when a school-based committee or department has been formed for the purpose of assessing school and community needs, engaging the community, building partnerships, managing resources, and providing incentives and training to build partnership capacity.(3, 4, 8, 9) School clusters: Rural or low-resourced schools may be grouped into school clusters in order to pull resources together for the purpose of improving the quality of teaching and learning. The management of a school cluster includes similar roles and responsibilities as in individual schools, however, additional leadership through a committee or a more experienced lead administrator will be needed at the cluster level to manage and oversee curriculum delivery and evaluation across school sites.(2, 4, 8, 9) The decision to form a cluster should be based on an assessment of school needs and shared goals across school sites for developing the cluster.(2, 4, 9) Forming a cluster can include mapping activities to identify schools that are self-sufficient and may not require inclusion, determining accessibility issues and the spatial distribution of schools in the network to identify a centralized location for a teacher resource centre.(2, 4) Trained staff for managing teacher resource centre activities including providing support, training, and resources to teachers is also important for effective management of a school cluster.(2, 4, 9) Inclusiveness and Equity Disadvantaged Students: School managers play a key role in promoting educational equity for disadvantaged students.(7) Some SBM policies that benefit disadvantaged students include prioritising school-community partnerships, improving teacher retention by identifying and eliminating barriers for teacher attrition, and school capacity building through leadership preparation programmes and quality mentoring, professional networks, and infrastructure.(7) References 1. 2. 3. 4.

Fernandez, K. E. 2011. Evaluating school improvement plans and their effect on academic performance. Educational Policy, 25(2), 338-367. Giordano, E. A. 2008. School clusters and resource teacher centres. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. Harmon, H. L., and Schafft, K. 2009. Rural School leadership for collaborative community development. The Rural Educator, 30(3), 4-9. Kilpatrick, S., Johns, S., Mulford, B., Falk, I., and Prescott, L. 2002. More than an education: Leadership for rural school-community partnerships. Canberra, Australia: Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation.

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Miles, K., and Frank, S. 2008. The Strategic School. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Marquart, L. 2011. IFLA Publications: Global Perspectives on School Libraries: Projects and Practices. Berlin, DEU: Walter de Gruyter. OECD. 2012. Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools. OECD Publishing. Robinson, V. M. J. 2010. From instructional leadership to leadership capabilities: Empirical findings and methodological challenges. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 9, 1-26. World Bank. 2000. Community Partnerships in Education: Dimensions, Variations and Implications. World Education Forum.

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The physical school environment Catherine A. Honeyman

Design the physical school space to be accessible, safe, hygienic, reasonably comfortable, and cognitively stimulating.

Well-designed schools can positively affect learning by focusing on issues such as: location, building materials, size of classrooms, furniture, lighting, temperature, ventilation, noise level, sanitation, and the inclusion of auxiliary facilities. Beyond the basic school infrastructure, the built environment can also powerfully support learning by emphasizing literacy-rich displays and elements that reinforce the use of scientific and mathematical skills. Issues and Discussion Location: Schools should be located no further than 3 kilometres from students’ homes, and closer for younger children, in order to increase access and attendance. Locations should be chosen with safety and health considerations in mind. An enclosure or other appropriate boundary helps to protect children and keep them within the school area.(3, 5, 6) Building Materials: Locally-available and environmentally-friendly materials should be used to the extent possible without compromising the school’s structural strength and durability. Extra caution needs to be taken in areas prone to natural disasters.(5, 6) Classroom Size and Design: Classrooms should be planned for a minimum of 1.2m2 per student, and a maximum of 40-45 students per room. Slightly larger classrooms of 1.4m2 per student allow for more flexible use of the learning space. Classrooms should be easy to exit in case of emergency.(2, 4) Appropriate furniture: Classroom furniture should be provided in adequate numbers, with a plan for regularly replacing broken items. Furniture should be of the correct dimensions for the age of the students, and mobile pieces are preferable, as they allow for more flexible learning strategies. Classrooms should also include a provision for storing students’ belongings, and should include ample chalkboard and other display space.(5) Adequate lighting: Classrooms need to be well-lit in order for students to read, write, and follow what their teacher is saying. Window size should at a minimum correspond to 20% of the classroom floor area, with auxiliary electric lights whenever possible. In order to maximize reflective lighting within the classroom, light colours should be used for ceiling, walls, and furniture.(5) Shelter, Temperature, and Ventilation: Roofing materials should be durable and regularly repaired to provide sun protection and to prevent leaking and caving in. A temperature of 20-23°C is preferable for optimal learning. Raised ceilings, deep overhangs, and ventilation grills can reduce classroom temperatures in hot climates. Measures to increase wall and window insulation can improve heat retention in cold climates. Extra ventilation is needed wherever there are emissions from chemicals and heating fuels.(1, 4, 6)

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Noise Level: Noise distraction can interfere significantly with learning. Schools should not be located near railways, high-traffic areas, or noisy industries. There should also be sufficient space or good quality walls between classrooms to avoid noise contamination; classrooms themselves should not be overcrowded. Bare concrete or brick walls reflect sound, while paper or cloth displays can help to absorb it.(1, 2, 5) Hygiene, Sanitation, and Health: Students need access to potable water at school. Hygienic hand washing facilities, whether sinks or a simple “tippy tap”, should be provided near toilets and eating areas, along with a cleaning agent such as soap or wood ash. There should be approximately 5 latrines or toilets per 3 classrooms. Covers for the toilets/pits and appropriate ventilation, along with regular maintenance and cleaning, help to reduce odours and the spread of disease. Any food on the premises should be carefully stored, and schools should be equipped with at least a basic first aid kit for health emergencies.(3, 5, 6) Additional Facilities: Offices and storerooms are also considered necessary school facilities. Other facilities of benefit to students’ learning include libraries, IT centres, and laboratories. Amenities such as sports facilities, outdoor shelters, school gardens, kitchen, canteen, health clinic, dormitories, and teacher housing can also improve student attendance and reduce teacher absenteeism—however, the benefits of these facilities must be weighed against their costs.(3) Literacy- and Learning-Rich Displays: The physical school environment should also be designed with learning opportunities in mind. Wooden rails in classrooms can provide space for tacking up literacyrich displays. An innovative architectural initiative, BaLA (Building as Learning Aid) proposes 150 lowcost design ideas for incorporating key learning areas into the built environment, from window grills that promote pre-writing skills, to door tracks that teach the concept of radian degrees.(5) Inclusiveness and Equity Gender: The key gender considerations associated with the physical school environment are linked to sanitary facilities and safety. Girls particularly benefit from having water available for washing and an accessible store of sanitary supplies. Girls and boys should have separate toilets for privacy, preferably located close to classrooms to allow teachers to monitor students’ safety. Classrooms should also have windows that allow external monitoring of classroom activities, in order to reduce the risk of abuse.(5) Accessibility: School construction planning should take into account the needs of students with physical disabilities by including ramps, handrails, wide doorways, larger toilets, and other such measures.(5) References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Earthman, G.I. 2002. School Facility Conditions and Student Academic Achievement. Los Angeles: UCLA Institute for Democracy, Education, & Access. Neilson, C. A., and Zimmerman, S. D. 2014. The effect of school construction on test scores, school enrollment, and home prices. Journal of Public Economics, 120, 18-31. Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction Strategies for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington, DC: The World Bank. UNESCO Institute of Statistics. 2012. A Place to Learn: Lessons from Research on Learning Environments. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. UNICEF. 2009. Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. WHO. Accessed 2015. The Physical School Environment: An Essential Component of a Health-Promoting School. The World Health Organization.

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The psycho-social school environment Matthew Waugh

Institute school-wide policies that reinforce positive school relationships through open dialogue and violence prevention, that ensure a reasonable student workload, and that promote students’ sense that what they are learning is meaningful.

Quality teaching and learning are supported when school professionals plan, develop, institute, monitor, and assess the characteristics of a positive psycho-social school environment. These components include: positive student and teacher relationships, violence prevention in schools, disciplinary interventions that promote student socio-emotional development, maintaining reasonable workloads, and helping students see the value and purpose of learning beyond the classroom context and grades. Issues and Discussion Student and teacher relationships: Positive student and teacher relationships can impact student’s motivation, academic achievement, attendance, and improve teacher retention.(2, 3, 8, 11, 12) Positive student and teacher relationships are associated with successful adjustment to primary school and teacher’s empathy and warmth is associated with positive outcomes for secondary students.(3, 11) Positive school relationships can be developed when teachers and administrators work together to develop and design school objectives and policies and when there is a democratic approach to teaching and managing classroom behaviours.(2, 9) Relationships can be mediated through social and emotional activities while ongoing monitoring and evaluation of school climate can be captured through evidence-based measures.(1, 2, 3, 12) Violence prevention in schools: All children have the right to be protected from harm and from cruel or humiliating punishments.(2) Governments, communities, families, and schools should communicate these rights in a way young people will understand, to empower students so they may contribute to making schools and communities safer.(1) Reducing violence is supported through socio-emotional activities including classroom discussions on violence and harmful behaviours (such as bullying) that take place both in person and online, and on the roles students have in reducing violence.(1, 3) Teaching effective communication and problem-solving skills, building a sense of school community through relationships, and promoting socio-emotional learning all contribute to violence prevention efforts and to establishing a positive psycho-social learning environment.(1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 12) Discipline that promotes socio-emotional development: Emphasising the well-being and happiness of students who feel they are cared for can lead to healthier school climates, greater academic success, and lower mental health issues.(1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 12) Proactive disciplinary systems improve and develop student’s socio-emotional and behaviour skills and should be promoted over less effective forms of discipline that can be reactive and punitive, including zero tolerance policies.(1, 9) Restorative practices, for example, allows students to repair relationships for any harm they may have caused to their peers or teachers.(2) Both the offender and the person harmed take part in reconciliatory activities to repair relationships including peer mediation, restitution, and peer conferences.(9) Restorative policies

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improve academic performance, lower student absenteeism, drop-outs, and increase graduation rates.(9) Reasonable school workloads: School workloads are reasonable when they reflects students’ current capabilities and developmental levels and takes into account the time students need to complete assignments.(5) School leaders should monitor assigned workloads, as excessive expectations on students and teachers can negatively affect stress and perseverance levels and school and home relationships.(5, 8) Students benefit when school and homework is connected to educational goals, promotes long-term academic skills including study habits, and does not significantly deter students from participating in other extra-curricular activities.(5, 8) The purpose, amount, frequency, and responsibilities of the school, teacher, and parents for students completing their school and homework should be part of a school and homework policy.(5, 8) Time management training for students to complete assignments at home and for teachers in preparing for and teaching in small and large class sizes can improve workload conditions and impact student performance.(5, 8) Learning with a purpose beyond grades: Students can develop a more positive orientation to school and greater motivation to learn when their studies are connected to broader purposes beyond just earning a grade. Opportunities for learning that extend beyond the classroom both expand teachers’ access to resources and connect students’ learning with real-world contexts and concerns.(8, 10) Service learning is an approach that helps students apply what they are learning to real community needs.(2, 10) These opportunities support school-community partnerships, build students’ socio-emotional development, raise the voice of students through civic engagement, and demonstrate to students that what they are learning is both meaningful and useful.(10) Inclusiveness and Equity Discrimination of youth of ethnic and/or racial minority background: The psycho-social development and academic outcomes of students of ethnic and/or racial minority background around the world are influenced by historical and systematic discrimination in society and school. Issues include segregation and institutionalised racism, disproportionate punitive punishment, and low community, teacher, and peer expectations of students of ethnic and/or racial minorities.(6, 7, 8) School professionals should collaborate with diverse communities to reduce stereotypes or biases that contribute to lower expectations and unfair punishments while monitoring the climate in classrooms to ensure treatment and discipline of all students are equitable.(6, 7, 9) Policies combating discrimination at the school level should augment community and national policies and should be developed in collaboration with advocates and members of racial and/or ethnic minority communities.(2, 6, 9) Discrimination of youth in the sexual minority: Youth who are of sexual minority face heightened discrimination, are bullied more than their heterosexual-majority peers, and are at increased risk for negative socio-emotional health outcomes.(4) School policies that reinforce the safety of students of sexual minority help reduce their risk for depression and drug use.(4) National laws and school policies should protect the safety and contribute to a warm and welcoming climate in schools and References 1. 2.

Bradshaw, C. P. 2015. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention. American Psychologist, 70(4), 322-332. Cohen, J., McCabe, E. M., Michelli, N. M., and Pickeral, T. 2009. School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111, 180-213.

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Durlak, J. A., Weissberg, R. P., Dymnicki, A. B., Taylor, R. D., and Schellinger, K. B. 2011. The impact of enhancing students’ social and emotional learning: A meta-analysis of school-based universal interventions. Child Development, 82(1), 405-432. 4. Fedewa, A. L., and Ahn, S. 2011. The effects of bullying and peer victimization on sexual-minority and heterosexual youths: A quantitative meta-analysis of the literature. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 7(4), 398-418. 5. Guskey, T. R., and Jung, L. A. 2009. Grading and reporting in a standards-based environment: Implications for students with special needs. Theory into Practice, 48(53), 53-62. 6. Luciak, M. 2004. Minority status and schooling-John U. Ogbu’s theory and the schooling of ethnic minorities in Europe. Intercultural Education, 15(4), 359-368. 7. McKown, C., and Weinstein, R. S. 2008. Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46(3), 235-261. 8. OECD. 2012. Grade Expectations: How Marks and Education Policies Shape Students’ Ambitions. PISA, OECD Publishing. 9. Payne, A. A., and Welch, K. 2015. Restorative justice in schools: The influence of race on restorative discipline. Youth and Society, 47(4), 539-564. 10. Robinson, A. S., McBride, A. M., Chung, S., and Williams, A. 2014. Motivating students through classroombased service learning: Toward adoption and impact. Center for Social Development, Washington University. 11. Roorda, D. L., Koomen, H. M. Y., Spilt, J. L., and Oort, F. J. 2011. The influence of affective teacher-student relationships on student’s school engagement and achievement: A meta-analytic approach. Review of Educational Research, 81(4), 493-529. 12. Waters, L. 2011. A review of school-based positive psychology interventions. The Australian Educational and Developmental Psychologist, 28(2), 75-90.

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Instructional time and classroom management Matthew Waugh

Ensure students have enough time to learn in school by adhering to planned schedules, improving teacher attendance and motivation, and building skills for effective classroom management and quality instruction.

Schools need an adequate number of days and hours for instruction and well-trained teachers to deliver quality lessons, so that student engagement and learning is maximised. Factors that impact instructional time include: school schedules, teacher issues, classroom management and time-ontask, pre-service and in-service training and support, and the establishment of a school-wide disciplinary system. Issues and Discussion Supply and demand of instructional time: Schools should dedicate an adequate amount of time to teaching and learning—between 850 to 1,000 instructional hours spread across 180 to 220 days per school year at the primary level, and usually more for the secondary level.(1) In some contexts, the actual instructional time supplied does not keep pace with the demand from parents and communities due to delays in starting instruction, unplanned school closures, difficulties caused by poor school infrastructure, teacher and student absences, limited classroom management skills, excessive time given to testing and examinations, school strikes, and teacher retention issues.(1, 2, 3, 4) Scheduling and attendance: The supply of instruction time can be improved by adhering to planned school start and end dates and other scheduling, and by ensuring accessibility to the school for both teachers and students to arrive on time.(1, 2, 4) School leaders can increase instructional time by observing teachers during instruction, developing and consistently enforcing teacher and student attendance policies, having regularly scheduled visits from inspectors, and improving school commitment through an incentives system.(1, 4, 7) The provision of in-service training, mentorship opportunities, and monitoring teacher satisfaction can also help to reduce teacher absenteeism and improve teacher motivation. Classroom management and time-on-task: Classroom management skills are evidence-based prevention and intervention strategies used by teachers to construct an environment that supports and facilitates student learning, while enhancing the quality of instructional time and student timeon-task.(2, 8) Classroom management competencies associated with positive teaching and learning outcomes include: 1) maximising structure through teacher-directed activities and minimising physical classroom distractions, 2) posting, teaching, monitoring, and reinforcing expectations, and providing supervision and feedback, 3) directly engaging students and giving them opportunities to respond, and 4) using strategies that reinforce positive behaviours and redirect problem behaviours.(3, 4, 5, 8) Pre-service training for improved instructional time: Instructional time and quality of delivery can be improved when teachers receive pre-service training that is inquiry- and research-based and focused on content-area knowledge, pedagogical skills, and delivering content to students in diverse and meaningful ways.(2, 6) Loss of instructional time can be caused by low self-efficacy to teach and use

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classroom management skills so it is important that competencies for effective classroom management be taught during pre-service training.(3) Successful pre-service training equips teachers to be effective in their use of instructional time, behaviour management skills, strategies to promote appropriate behaviours, and maximising classroom structure.(3) These skills are evidenced when there is a flow to teacher instruction, when multiple sources of student’s learning are tapped into (including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic), and when students are provided opportunities to contemplate, encode, and respond during lessons.(5) Click to read more about pre-service training and effective pedagogy. In-service training and support for improved instructional time: Teacher skills and competencies that improve use of instructional time and classroom management should be reinforced through in-service training and a supportive school environment.(6) Teachers need a sense of collegial support as well as autonomy, flexibility, and ability to be creative when delivering lessons according to student needs.(6) Teachers are also more effective in using instructional time when they are committed to improving their competencies through continuing professional development opportunities.(1, 2, 4, 6) Click to read more about supporting in-service teachers. School-wide disciplinary systems for improving classroom management: Loss of instructional time and issues with teacher retention can be caused by student discipline issues and lack of parent or school management support in disciplining problem behaviours.(1, 4, 8) Parent support and student behaviours improve when school-wide disciplinary systems are co-developed with school councils, student groups, families, and community members.(5, 7) Effective disciplinary systems prevent, monitor, and address problem behaviours which are clearly articulated in a student and parent handbook.(5, 7) Disciplinary codes often outline rules for classroom attendance, permissible clothing, disciplinary options for students with and without exceptionalities, and the restrictions on weapons and drugs.(5,, 7) Disciplinary systems should outline student’s responsibilities for engaging in appropriate behaviours and a process for students and parents to address disciplinary actions taken by schools.(7, 8) Effective disciplinary systems enlist strategies to promote student behaviour development, growth, and dignity rather than resorting to punitive forms of punishment.(5, 7, 8) Click to read more about the psycho-social school environment. Inclusiveness and Equity Students in low-income communities: Teacher burnout and turnover occurs most often in lowperforming public schools located in low-income and high minority-represented communities.(4) Teacher training programs can improve instructional time in low-income communities by directly addressing the special challenges of teaching in these schools and giving teachers practical and effective strategies.(4) Teachers living with HIV: The stigmatization, discrimination, absenteeism, and early retirement of teachers living with HIV impact instructional time loss in many countries with a high prevalence of the disease.(1) It is important that health and education sectors work together to ensure that schoolbased prevention and treatment efforts are provided along with adopted school policies to cultivate a school culture of acceptance and non-discriminatory attitudes, to plan for workplace safety, to develop strategies for reducing time lost due to teachers’ poor health, and to provide counselling and education for teachers and students.(1) References 1.

Abadzi, H. 2007. Absenteeism and beyond: Instructional time loss and consequences. The World Bank, Independent Evaluation Group.

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3.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

Benavot, A., and Gad, L. 2004. Actual instructional time in African primary schools: Factors that reduce school quality in developing countries. Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 24(3), 291310. Ficarra, L., and Quinn, K. 2014. Teachers’ facility with evidence-based classroom management practices: An investigation of teachers’ preparation programmes and in-service conditions. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 16(2), 71-87. Johnson, S. M., Berg, J. H., and Donaldson, M. L. (2005). Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Boston: Harvard Graduate School of Education, Project on the Next Generation of Teachers. Mayer, J. E. 2007. Creating a safe and welcoming school. Paris: UNESCO International Bureau of Education. Musset, P. 2010. Initial teacher education and continuing training policies in a comparative perspective: Current practices in OECD countries and a literature review on potential effects. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 48, OECD Publishing. UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Wubbels, T. 2011. An international perspective on classroom management: What should prospective teachers learn? Teaching Education (Special Issue: Classroom Management in Teacher Education), 22(2), 113-131.

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Formative assessment Matthew Waugh

Ensure student achievement is assessed throughout the year, that diverse methods of instruction and assessment methods are utilised, and that assessment practises meet quality standards of fairness, validity, and reliability.

Formative assessment can improve student outcomes if part of a fair, valid, and reliable process of gathering, interpreting, and using information generated from methods used throughout the student learning process. Formative assessment methods include a combination of the following: student observations, class assignments, projects and presentations, performances, peer reviews, conversations and interviews with students, learning logs, and quizzes and tests. The formative assessment process is effective when part of a school-wide assessment system that ensures teachers are using multiple assessment paths, assessment plans, and high quality assessment standards. Teachers’ assessment practices should also be supported by an evidenced-based school-wide assessment policy. Issues and Discussion The use of multiple assessment paths: Learning can be checked throughout the year through the use of multiple assessment paths—multiple methodologies and approaches that can extend the evaluation to different student skills and capabilities, and consequently, to a more comprehensive understanding of the learning process of the students.(1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6) Summative assessment is widely used to measure student performance (click here to read more about summative assessment)..(3, 4, 6, 5) However, summative assessments can be insufficient in measuring a student’s actual level of performance if not coupled with other forms of assessment, since performance on examinations can be impacted by unrelated factors such as student emotional state and tiredness, or other conditions in the environment.(1, 6) Formative assessment, or assessment for learning, reduces the systematic impact of these factors by assessing students over the course of the school year.(1, 4) Improving teaching methods through assessment plans: An assessment plan outlines the teacher’s strategy to use various assessment methods in conjunction with each lesson, in order to keep track of the learning outcomes of classroom activities.(5) Assessment plans allow teachers to identify learning needs of students, adapt lesson materials and resources, and differentiate instruction to broaden learning opportunities.(1, 5, 6) Students should be engaged through the assessment process with teachers providing timely feedback to student performance that is tied to learning-based outcomes.(4, 5) Feedback should also consist of specific suggestions for students to improve on their current performance levels.(1, 4, 6) Teachers also need decision-making power in their classrooms to adapt and integrate formative assessment methods that are based on the unique set of students they teach. (1, 4, 5)

Standards for quality formative assessment: To be effective, assessment should be valid, reliable, and fair.(3, 4, 5, 6) Without ensuring assessment quality, decision-making regarding student learning can be poor and affect learning outcomes.(3, 5, 6) To ensure validity, teachers need to evaluate whether selected methods for gathering data appropriately assesses student learning on targeted learning

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outcomes.(3, 4, 5, 6) Reliable and consistent results can be enhanced by employing multiple assessment methods including rating scales, rubrics, and having multiple teachers review student work.(4, 5, 6) Fair assessments take into account student ability and learning preferences, are free from teacher bias, and are connected to learning outcomes clearly articulated to students.(4, 5) Quality assessments also use reference points, including student performance in relation to themselves (self-referenced), to their peers (norm-referenced), and to school-based standards (criterion-referenced).(1, 4, 5, 6) School-wide assessment policies: The quality of teachers’ assessment abilities should be supported through a flexible school-wide assessment system with mechanisms in place to allow in-service training, observations from administrators and teacher colleagues, and ongoing feedback concerning teachers’ use of formative assessment. (3, 4, 5, 6) Schools need proper policies and funding in place and an assessment system facilitated by school leaders who are engaged with teachers and the community.(5, 6) School assessment systems function best within a research-validated framework of best practises to assessment and when there is a shared vocabulary of what constitutes formative and summative assessments.(3) Schools can build up the capacity of the assessment system through audits of assessment plans which support teacher reflection on the quality of their selected methods and how information is used to support learning over time.(5) Inclusiveness and Equity Students with disabilities: Students with disabilities may require alternative forms of assessment in addition to maintaining quality standards of validity, reliability, and fairness.(5) Students with disabilities are more likely to access the curriculum in inclusive environments when teachers use a universal design approach and are already capable and competent to modify, adapt, or accommodate the needs of students within their assessment plans.(5, 6) Accommodations may include more time to complete assignments, assistive technology to aid in communication, being assessed in a quieter area or in a different room with less distractions, larger text or different coloured paper for readability, oral instruction, or the use of scribes.(5, 6) References 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

6.

Bennett, R.E. 2011. Formative assessment: A critical review. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 18, 5-25. Clarke, M. 2012. What matters most for student assessment systems: A framework paper. Washington DC: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank. Dunn, K. E., and Mulvenon, S. W. 2009. A critical review of research on formative assessment: Limited scientific evidence of the impact of formative assessment in education. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation, 14(7), 1-11. Looney, J. W. 2011. Integrating formative and summative assessment: Progress toward a seamless system? OECD Education Working Papers, No. 58. OECD Publishing. Province of Manitoba. 2006. Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in Mind: Assessment for Learning, Assessment as Learning, Assessment of Learning. Manitoba Education, Citizenship, and Youth, School Programs Division. Wagner, D. A. 2011. Smaller, Quicker, Cheaper: Improving Learning Assessment for Developing Countries. Paris: UNESCO/IIEP Education for All Fast Track.

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Education System Management

Education sector analysis and planning Decentralization of education management Systems for accountability, supervision, and control Large-scale and summative assessments Financing education and addressing corruption

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Education sector analysis and strategic planning Que Anh Dang

Ground education sector analysis and strategic planning in reliable research and data to identify priority issues and means for improving education system quality.

Student learning should be a central priority of goal setting and funding allocation in any education plan. In order to achieve national and international visions of quality and inclusive education, education planning has to move from a traditional to a strategic approach, based on a sound education sector analysis, which provides diagnosis of critical challenges and identifies ways to overcome them. Issues and Discussion Key Characteristics of Strategic Planning: Strategic planning involves a strong focus on goals and the means for achieving them, as well as on adaptability to a changing environment. Strategic planning differs in a number of ways from traditional planning (see Figure 1), making it ideally suited to achieving complex goals such as improving sector-wide learning outcomes. Figure 2: Contrasts between traditional and strategic planning(1, p.18)

Key Questions in a Strategic Planning Process A strong strategic plan applies specific techniques such as causal chain analysis, simulation models, programme budgeting, and the logical framework approach. A strategic plan should answer four key questions which correspond to specific planning activities.(1)

Key Questions 1. Where do we stand today?

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Corresponding Planning Activities Diagnosis: analysing the current situation in the sector and its environment

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2. Where would we like to be in the future?

Policy Formulation: selecting overall goals and strategies

3. How shall we get there?

Plan Preparation: defining precise objectives and balancing objectives and means, considering context-specific realities

4. How shall we know we are moving in the right direction?

Monitoring: measuring progress and adjusting actions

To be successful, strategic planning has to be an iterative process that frequently reviews these questions and the planning activities, and makes timely adjustments. For further discussion of the strategic planning process, see Plan for Learning. Diagnosis: Education Sector Analysis provides knowledge for strategic planning A crucial stage in strategic planning is diagnosis of the current situation, resources and constraints, demands and needs, and the impact of existing educational policies. In the African context, the IIEP Pôle de Dakar has supported many country governments in preparing Country Status Reports using the education sector analysis approach. This approach is based on the economic analysis of education(4) and enables governments to set objectives and targets, specify areas for investment, and make decisions about the (re)allocation of resources, in order to improve performance and costeffectiveness and achieve the medium and long-term goals.(3) There are many possible ways of preparing an education sector diagnosis or analysis; what is essential is that the process is based on increasingly timely, accurate, and comprehensive data in order to allow effective identification of priority areas for improvement and of the most effective means for achieving these goals. Regular Monitoring and Evaluation to improve strategic plans The strength of an education sector diagnosis, and of the resulting strategic plan, is highly dependent on the quality of the data used. Thus, one key element of strategic planning is to envision and implement means for improving the monitoring and evaluation system that collects this fundamental educational data. Monitoring is an ongoing process of systematic and routine collection of data related to specific indicators, chosen for measuring progress in reaching the objectives and targets indicated in the strategic plans.(1)(2) Effective monitoring processes not only help to assess results, but also contribute to understanding the relevance of achievements, their cost-effectiveness, their sustainability, and why certain results have been achieved but not others. All of this information helps to derive lessons for the next planning cycle. Furthermore, monitoring data is often presented in interim progress reports, which provide an early indication of whether expected results will be attained or not. Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of an ongoing or completed policy, programme or project, its design, implementation and results.(2 p.32) Evaluation reports often deal with fundamental policy questions relating to the overall goals and long-term impact, rather than with direct management questions. Evaluation is generally conducted in association with external experts. The National Education Management Information System (EMIS) that collects, organises and analyses data on implementation, is an important tool for monitoring and evaluation. A great need is to invest

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in increasing the capacity of education planners to understand and transform data into useful knowledge.(5) For further discussion of monitoring tools and processes, see Monitor Learning. Inclusiveness and Equity Involve civil society and international organisations Strategic planning cannot be completed solely by the ministry of education and other governmental agencies. The engagement of NGOs, teacher unions, parent groups, faith-based groups, employer associations, donors, and international organisations is important for mobilising knowledge, capacity and resources for effective planning, implementation and management of education policies. References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Carron, G. 2010. Strategic Planning: Concept and Rationale. In the Education Sector Planning Working Paper Series. Paris: UNESCO IIEP. Marriott, N. and Goyder, H. 2009. Manual for Monitoring and Evaluating Education Partnerships. Paris: UNESCO IIEP Sack, R. 2002. Education Sector Analysis (ESA) Presentation at the ADEA Working Group on ESA, at Windhoek, Zambia, 21 November 2002. Samoff, J. 1999. Education sector analysis in Africa: Limited National Control and even less National Ownership, International Journal of Educational Development, 19(4): 249-272 Tolley, H. ; Shulruf, B. 2009. From Data to Knowledge: The Interaction between Data Management Systems in Educational Institutions and the Delivery of Quality Education, Computers & Education, 53(4):1199-1206 UNESCO, World Bank and UNICEF. 2014. Education Sector Analysis: Methodological Guidelines. Volume

1: Sector-wide Analysis with Emphasis on Primary and Secondary Education. 7. 8.

UNESCO. 2011. Tanzania Education Sector Analysis: Beyond Primary Education, the Quest for Balanced and Efficient Policy Choices for Human Development and Economic Growth. Dakar Office. UNESCO Bangkok. undated. Logical Framework and Policy Matrix as Planning Tools.

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Decentralisation of education management Que Anh Dang

Allow decentralized decision-making to determine the most important local priorities for learning, while ensuring that capacity-building and other resources are distributed fairly.

Over the last few decades decentralisation of school management has occurred in most education systems around the globe. If implemented well, decentralisation has the potential to improve education quality and learning outcomes. Careful system design is needed in order to reduce the potential adverse effects of decentralization, such as regional disparities, overlapping/conflicting policies, and elite capture—each of which is discussed further in this article. Issues and Discussion What is Decentralisation? Decentralisation generally refers to the process of transferring decision making power, responsibility, and tasks from higher to lower organisational levels.(5) The motives of shifting authority and management responsibilities to local levels are a) to enhance democracy in decision making, b) to promote the effective and efficient use of resources in education, c) to make public education more responsive to local needs, d) to reduce the central government’s and increase local groups’ financial responsibility for schooling provision, and e) to enable schools and teachers to exercise greater professional autonomy.(14,21) Different Forms of Decentralisation Decentralisation can take different forms. One major distinction is that between functional and territorial decentralisation:(5) Functional decentralisation refers to the distribution of powers between various authorities that operate in parallel (e.g. one ministry responsible for basic education and another ministry responsible for higher education and research, a separate examinations authority or accreditation/inspection authority operating within the ministry of education). Education planning may benefit from effective coordination and synergies among these authorities. Territorial decentralisation refers to the redistribution of authority among the different geographic tiers of government, such as central/federal government, states, regions, provinces, districts, and schools. Territorial decentralisation is further classified in three types:  



Deconcentration is the process through which a central authority establishes and staffs field offices, but retains central control. Delegation implies a transmission of tasks and administrative responsibilities. The delegation of tasks does not mean a shift of power because the local office is only given the role of executing decisions made at central level. The power can be withdrawn. Devolution is the most extreme of this spectrum and implies the transmission of authority and real responsibility from central to local level. This local authority becomes independent and autonomous, and it can act without first asking permission.(6,14)

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Recently, privatisation has also been categorised as another form of decentralisation when devolution causes the government to divest itself of public responsibilities and functions, implying a transfer of powers to private hands and a reduction in state authority over schools.(2)(10)(9)(11) The role of the local education authority Decentralisation changes the relationships between local authorities, schools/teachers, parents, communities, and governments.(9) Local governments and school boards acquire authority and resources in areas like construction and maintenance of buildings, leadership, monitoring of school performance, teacher recruitment, teachers’ professional development, and teachers’ salaries. Other areas, such as curriculum, content, and assessment, may be shared responsibilities depending on the forms of decentralisation in place.(23) Effects of Decentralisation on Learning Outcomes Decentralisation within education requires careful considerations of which elements of the system to decentralise and to what local level.(9) There is still insufficient evidence to draw conclusions about the direct and indirect relationship between decentralisation and learning outcomes, and the decentralisation of resource mobilisation and allocation leads to especially mixed effects.(27) Research suggests that decentralisation of administrative functions to school-based management can result in greater empowerment and collaboration among teachers, a greater school-wide focus on professional development, and a greater sense of accountability.(2)(7)(18) Decentralisation of curriculum development rests on the belief that it will give more room for local variance and relevance, potentially leading to more motivated students and a better culture of learning.(4,14) The major factors determining the effect of any form of decentralisation are whether local educators are equipped with skills, knowledge and attitudes to accomplish the task, and whether upper-level authorities supply the support they need. Adverse Effects in Implementation of Decentralisation Decentralisation can cause overlapping and conflicting decisions to be made at different levels and the phenomenon of elite capture, reducing democratic spaces. In Nepal, there are conflicting teacher recruitment policies entailing different types of service contracts and benefits.(15) In Uganda and South Africa, the decentralised funds are driven by local elite interests and dominated by a small group of better educated and networked individuals who are capable of presenting themselves to the donors, central government and the local population as an effective conduit for handling these funds. Consequently the poor and disadvantaged groups are neglected or excluded.(22,25) To mitigate these adverse effects, a review of decentralisation procedures is needed. In particular, the decentralised system must recover the capacity to hold local governments and schools to account, and it must build the capacity of disadvantaged groups to participate more effectively within the system. Decentralisation and (Re)Centralisation In many cases, movements to decentralise co-exist with movements to maintain or increase central control.(1)(9) This phenomenon is increasingly observed in Latin America, Asia and Europe.(1)(13)(14)(19)(26) In some cases, decentralisation reforms are initiated and designed from the top, while only implementation and accountability are local duties, or procedures for handing over control are complex, and central government officials do not relinquish their power.(9)(14)(15) Other models maintain central power and control over setting central goals and standards for outcomes, such as the national assessment system, the standardised school curriculum framework, and standardised

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funding formula and fiscal legal procedures.(14)(20)(26) Finally, decentralisation is often driven by political ideologies and the agenda of the government in power, and may be limited by cultural orientations in each system that push back towards centralised accountability. (1)(4)(13)(26) Inclusiveness and Equity Regional Disparities The relationship between decentralisation and regional disparities seems strongly affected by the level of wealth of a country, the type of welfare system, the dimension of its existing disparities, and the presence of solid fiscal redistribution systems.(24) Research shows that in the developed world political and fiscal decentralisation does not affect regional disparities whereas fiscal decentralisation has triggered a significant rise in regional inequalities in the low income countries.(16) This holds true for educational decentralisation because the impoverished regions have weak capacity to compete for capital, investment and talent which can generate good conditions for schools.(11) References 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Almeida, M. (2006) Decentralization and Centralization in a Federal System: the Case of Democratic Brazil. Revista de Sociologia e Política, Curitiba, (1):1-18. Bandur, A. 2012. School-based Management Developments: Challenges and Impacts, Journal of Educational Administration, 50(6): 845 – 873 Bangay, C. 2005. Private Education: Relevant or Redundant? Private Education, Decentralisation and National Provision in Indonesia, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 35(2):167-179 Bjork, C. 2006. Transferring authority to Local School Communities in Indonesia: Ambitious Plans, Mixed Results. In Bjork, C. (Ed.) Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions, 129-148. Springer Bray, M. 1999. Control of Education: Issues and Tensions in Centralization and Decentralization. In R.F. Arnove and C.A. Torres (Eds.) Comparative Education: The Dialectic of the Global and the Local , 207-232. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Bray, M. and Mukundan, M. V. 2003. Management and governance for EFA: is Decentralisation really the answers. Paris: UNESCO-IIPE (IIEP Research Report) Briggs, K. and Wohlstetter, P. 2003. Key Elements of a Successful School-Based Management Strategy, School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 14(3): 351-372 Chan, P. 2008. A comparative study of Singapore's school excellence model with Hong Kong's schoolbased management, International Journal of Educational Management, 22(6): 488 - 505 Dyer, C. and Pauline Rose, P. 2005. Decentralisation for educational development? An editorial introduction, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 35(2):105-113 Gamage, D. and Sooksomchitra, P. 2004. Decentralisation And School-Based Management In Thailand, International Review of Education, 50(3-4):289-305 Guo, G. 2006. Decentralized education spending and regional disparities: Evidence from Chinese counties 1997–2001, Journal of Chinese Political Science, 11(2): 45-60 Hanson, M. 2006. Strategies of Educational Decentralization: Key Questions and Core Issues. In In Bjork, C. (Ed.) Educational Decentralization: Asian Experiences and Conceptual Contributions, 9-26. Springer Hawkins, J. 2000. Centralization, decentralization, recentralization - Educational reform in China, Journal of Educational Administration, 38(5):442 - 455 Karlsen, G. 2000. Decentralized Centralism: Framework for a Better Understanding of Governance in the Field of Education, Journal of Education Policy, 15(5): 525-538 Khanal, P. 2010. School Decentralisation in Nepal: A Disjuncture between Macro-Level Advocacy and Micro-Level Reality? Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 2010, 9(3):145-158 Lessmann, C. 2009. Fiscal Decentralization and Regional Disparity: Evidence from Cross-section and Panel Data, Environment And Planning A,41(10): 2455-2473

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 17. Lucia, E. and Cristian, M. 2010. The role of Local Public Authorities in Decentralizing Romanian Public Education System, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2):3432-3436 18. Mestry, R. and Govindasamy, V. 2013. Collaboration for the Effective and Efficient Management of School Financial Resources, Africa Education Review, 10(3):431-452 The 19. Ornelas, C. 2004. Politics of Privatisation, Decentralisation and Education Reform in Mexico, International Review of Education,50(3-4):397-418 20. Ozga, J. 2009. Governing Education through Data in England: from Regulation to Self‐Evaluation, Journal of Education Policy, 24(2):149-162 21. Pomuti. H. and Weber, E. 2012. Decentralization and School Management in Namibia: The Ideologies of Education Bureaucrats in Implementing Government Policies. International Scholarly Research Network (ISRN) Education. Volume 2012, Article ID 731072. 22. Prinsen, G. and Titeca, K. 2008. Uganda's decentralised primary education: musical chairs and inverted elite capture in School Management Committees, Public Administration and Development, 28(2):149-164 23. Raccah, A. and Gavish, Y. 2010. The LEA’s Role in a Decentralized School System: The School Principals’ View, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 38(2): 184-201 24. Rodríguez - Pose, A. and Ezcurra, R. 2010. Does decentralization matter for regional disparities? A crosscountry analysis, Journal of Economic Geography, 10(5):619-644 25. Sayed, Y. and Soudien, C. 2005. Decentralisation and the Construction of Inclusion Education Policy in South Africa, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 35(2): 115-125 26. Tan, C. and Ng, P. 2007. Dynamics of Change: Decentralised Centralism of Education in Singapore, Journal of Educational Change, 8(2):155-168 27. UNESCO.2004. EFA Global Monitoring Report: The Quality Imperative. Paris: EFA Global Monitoring Report Team

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Systems for accountability, supervision, and control Que Anh Dang

Ensure school inspections give accurate reports and explicit feedback to inform the school’s improvement plan.

All around the world schools are inspected with the rationale that inspection contributes to the quality of schools and education systems. Although different traditions use different terms—such as school accreditation, inspection, or supervision—these processes generally have two interwoven objectives: public accountability and school development.(2)(3) The particular balance of these objectives and their impact on learning and teaching in schools are dependent on the political context and education system of individual countries.(9) Issues and Discussion Different Traditions and Terminologies School inspections are institutionalised and practised in various ways around the world, resulting in a range of different terminologies. In most of Europe and in many developing countries, the term ‘School Inspection’ is defined as the process of periodic, targeted scrutiny carried out to provide independent verification and report on whether the quality of schools is meeting national and local performance standards.(15)(24) ‘Accreditation’ is the term used widely in the United States and Canada to denote a specific quality control process that gives a ‘stamp of approval’ indicating that a school has met certain minimum standards and ensuring that it is committed to continuous improvement.(4)(21)(33) Recently, the term ‘School Supervision’ has been used in an increasing number of developing countries to realise the goal of improving schools through ongoing support and guidance.(8)(16) Other terms used include school evaluations and school or pedagogical advisors. Despite these different designations, collecting data and giving feedback for institutional, professional, and system improvement remain fundamental to the undertaking. Basics of a well-functioning inspection and accreditation system Organisational Structure: The organisational structure varies across education systems, but it generally consists of a national and/or regional School Inspectorate or an Accreditation Agency. This agency governs inspection/accreditation systems through three main groups of functions; a) giving a public account concerning the quality of education; b) providing a guarantee of compliance with standards and regulations, and c) providing a service for quality management and improvement.(15) A ‘hard’ governance approach includes target-setting, performance management, benchmarks and indicators, and data use to foster competition and improvement. A ‘soft’ governance approach refers to processes of mediation, creating networks and partnerships of actors that rely on self-evaluations, giving good examples and learning from best practices. Most inspection/accreditation processes move within the continuum of ‘hard’ versus ‘soft’ governance.(9)

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Setting Standards and Criteria within a Framework for Inspection: The school inspectorate or accreditation agency sets up a framework outlining the purpose of inspection, what aspects of quality should be inspected, what standards/indicators should be used, and how the inspection will be followed with further steps for quality improvement. The key aspects addressed in an inspection may include 1) Overall effectiveness: the purpose, direction, quality and standards of education; 2) Effectiveness of leadership and management; 3) Quality of teaching, learning and assessment; 4) Personal development, behaviour (attendance, punctuality) and welfare of pupils; 5) Learning outcomes of pupils (different abilities, backgrounds, etc.); 6) Resources and support systems. Many inspectorates produce handbooks or guidelines for both inspectors and schools to explain these standards and criteria, and the processes of inspection.(1)(23) Inspection Methodologies: Both internal and external evaluation approaches typically employ four stages: 1) the gathering of quantitative and qualitative data against the set standards and criteria; 2) assessment and analysis; 3) the drafting of the evaluation report and 4) the implementation of changes. Internal evaluation, also known as school self-evaluation, allows the school to identify its own weaknesses and develop plans for quality improvement.(29) Such self-evaluation is, in most countries, regarded as a source of information for the inspector; this information plays a role in setting the agenda for the inspection visit and can make inspection more relevant and useful.(9) External evaluation is conducted by inspectors not affiliated with the school, who provides feedback to schools about strengths and weaknesses and indicates ways to develop. In both internal and external evaluation systems, realistic and transparent criteria help to make a more useful inspection report.(10)(13) Inspection reports are also used to monitor schools and ensure that improvements are introduced in practice.(15)(34) Inspectors’ Competences: The quality of school inspections, to a certain extent, depends on the competences of the inspectors involved. Inspectors must see their work as neutral and objective, should avoid conflicts of interest, and should act as ‘critical friends’. The inspectors’ relationship with schools, their communication styles and the feedback and advice they offer schools are important in making the school willing (or not) to act on the issues raised by the inspection.(20)(11)(17) Inspectors should be able to identify and distinguish between genuine achievements of schools and a fabricated performance in order to meet inspection requirements. They are required to have specialist knowledge and managerial experience to make judgements on the teacher’s and school’s quality, and support self-evaluation culture in schools.(18)(26) Criticism of inspectors is not uncommon. Therefore, inspectors are expected to be committed to basing judgements on first-hand evidence and to applying inspection criteria objectively and reliably.(18)(26) Effective Practices for Feedback and Improvement Clear and explicit feedback that is given by credible inspectors and reflects an accurate picture of the schools’ performance, their strengths and weaknesses against the standards, will inspire schools. Schools in difficult and challenging circumstances need different types of feedback from schools with high socio-economic status pupils.(10)(30) Regardless of the type of school, if actual improvements are to come about, plans for follow-up must be embedded in the inspection system. In addition to providing feedback directly to schools, other follow-up mechanisms include the publication of results, development of improvement plans, rewards, and sanctions.(35) In some cases, the follow-up may need to occur outside the school itself, such as through systemic improvements in teacher training, especially for issues that appear to affect many schools or the entire sector.

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Cautions about the use of Inspection Results in School League Tables and Public Media Teachers and principals in many countries find that performance league tables have negative effects on their well-being, causing loss of control, a sense of constraint without creativity, and frustration at having to work to a political (and sometimes commercial) agenda.(5)(19)(22)(25)(27)(28)(31) Mass media have considerable power in representing, naming, and constructing meanings of school inspections— sometimes with adverse effects.(5)(6)(7)(22)(28) Inclusiveness and Equity Schools outside the mainstream system Inspections with appropriate criteria should also be carried out at schools that are outside the mainstream public system—such as low-fee private schools, international schools, and schools serving minorities or specific ethnic communities. This practice helps to ensure that all students are attending schools of an adequate quality.(12)(32) References 1. 2.

3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

AdvancED.2011. Standards for Quality Schools. Altrichter, H. and Kemethofer, D. 2015. Does Accountability Pressure through School Inspections promote school Improvement? School Effectiveness and School Improvement: An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 26(1):32-56 Bernasconi, A. 2004. Current Trends in the Accreditation of K-12 Schools: Cases in the United States, Australia, and Canada, Journal of Education, 185(3):73-82 Bruner, D. Y. and Brantley, L. L. 2004. Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Accreditation: Impact on Elementary Student Performance, Education Policy Analysis Archives:12(34) Clarke, J. and Ozga, J. 2011. Governing by Inspection? Comparing school inspection in Scotland and England. Paper presented at the Social Policy Association conference, July 2011, at the University of Lincoln, England. Dedering, K. 2015. The same procedure as every time? School inspections and school development in Germany, Improving Schools, 18(2):171-184 Dedering, K. and Muller, S. 2011. School Improvement through Inspections? First Empirical Insights from Germany, Journal of Educational Change, 12(3):301-322 De Grauwe, A. 2001. School Supervision in Four African Countries, Volume 1: Challenges and Reforms. Paris: UNESCO IIEP Ehren, M., Gustafsson, J., Altrichter, H., Skedsmo, G., Kemethofer, D. and Huber, S. 2015. Comparing Effects and Side Effects of Different School Inspection Systems Across Europe, Comparative Education, 51:3, 375-400 Ehren, M. and Visscher, A.J. 2006. Towards a Theory on the Impact of School Inspections, British Journal of Educational Studies, 54(1):51-72 Ehren, M. and Visscher, A. 2008. The Relationships between School Inspections, School Characteristics and School Improvement, British Journal of Educational Studies, 56(2):205-227 Fertig, M. 2007. International School Accreditation: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?, Journal of Research in International Education, 6(3): 333-348 Gaertner, H. and Pant, H. A. 2011. How Valid Are School Inspections? Problems and Strategies for Validating Processes and Results, Studies in Educational Evaluation, 37(2-3):85-93 Jaffer, K. 2010. School Inspection and Supervision in Pakistan: Approaches and Issues, Prospects: Quarterly Review of Comparative Education, 40(3):375-392 Janssens, F. and van Amelsvoort, G. 2008. School Self-evaluations and School Inspections in Europe: An Exploratory Study, Studies in Educational Evaluation 34:15–23 London, N. A. 2004. School Inspection, the Inspectorate and Educational Practice in Trinidad and Tobago, Journal of Educational Administration, 42(4):479 - 502 Mclaughlin, T.H. 2001. Four Philosophical Perspectives on School Inspection: An Introduction, Journal of Philosophy of Education, 35(4):647-654

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 18. McNamara, G. and O'Hara, J. 2012. From Looking at Our Schools (LAOS) to Whole School Evaluation-Management, Leadership and Learning (WSE-MLL): The Evolution of Inspection in Irish Schools over the Past Decade, Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 24(2):79-97 19. Maguire, M. ; Perryman, J. ; Ball, S. and Braun, A. 2011. The Ordinary School – What is it?, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 32(1):1-16 20. Morrison K. 2009. School Inspection in Small States and Territories: an Overview and Case Study of Macau, Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 39(6):751-767 21. Mullen, C., Stover, L. and Corley, B. 2001. School Accreditation and Teacher Empowerment: an Alabama Case, Teacher Development: An international journal of teachers' professional development, 5(1):101-118 22. Neves T. ; Pereira M. J. and Nata G. 2014. Head Teachers' Perceptions of Secondary School Rankings: Their Nature, Media Coverage and Impact on Schools and the Educational Arena, Education as Change, 18(2):211-225 23. OFSTED. 2015. School Inspection Handbook. 24. Penninckx, M. ; Vanhoof, J. ; De Maeyer, S. and Van Petegem, P. 2014. Exploring and Explaining the Effects of Being Inspected, Educational Studies, 40(4):456-472 25. Perryman J. 2007. Inspection and Emotion, Cambridge Journal of Education, 37(2):173-190 26. Perryman J. 2009. Inspection and the Fabrication of Professional and Performative Processes, Journal of Education Policy, 24(5):611-631 27. Perryman, J., Ball, S., Maguire, M. and Braun, A. 2011. Life in the Pressure Cooker -School League Tables and English and Mathematics Teachers’ Responses to Accountability in a Results-Driven Era, British Journal of Educational Studies, 59(2): 179-195 28. Rö nnberg L. and Segerholm C. 2013. In the Public Eye: Swedish School Inspection and Local Newspapers: Exploring the Audit–Media Relationship, Journal of Education Policy, 28(2):178-197 29. Schildkamp, K. ; Visscher A. 2009. Factors Influencing the Utilisation of a School Self-Evaluation Instrument, Studies in Educational Evaluation, 35(4):150 -159 30. Schildkamp, K. ; Visscher A. 2010. The Use of Performance Feedback in School Improvement in Louisiana, Teaching and Teacher Education, 26:1389-1403 31. Thomas, G.1998. A Brief History of the Genesis of the New Schools’ Inspection, System, British Journal of Educational Studies, 46(4):415-427 32. Tokunaga, T. and Douthirt-Cohen, B. 2012. The Ongoing Pursuit of Educational Equity in Japan: The Accreditation of Ethnic High Schools, Equity & Excellence in Education, 45(2):320-333 33. Wood, C. and Meyer, M. J. 2011. Impact of the Nova Scotia School Accreditation Program on Teaching and Student Learning: An Initial Study, Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, Issues 124 34. Yeung, S. 2012. A School Evaluation Policy with a Dual Character, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 40(1):37-68 35. OECD. 2013. Synergies for Better Learning: An International Perspective on Evaluation and Assessment. OECD Reviews of Evaluation and Assessment in Education.

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Large-scale and summative assessments Que Anh Dang

Design large-scale and summative assessments that are valid, reliable, and equitable, and use the resulting data to improve learning through systemic change.

Summative assessments conducted at regional, national, and international levels can serve two major purposes: certifying students’ academic achievements and monitoring and evaluating educational provision and quality at a systemic level. In developing summative assessment systems, the different purposes of summative assessment should be considered, as well as the key properties of content, validity, reliability, quality-assurance, and impact. Issues and Discussion: What is Assessment for System Monitoring? Most education systems collect information about students’ learning through regional or national examinations. However, examinations are typically used more for certification and selection of individual students, than for monitoring the quality of the education system as a whole. Increasingly, countries monitor the quality of the education system through a separate programme of testing or surveys that involves samples of pupils at certain ages or grades. These assessments do not give scores or feedback to individual students, but rather provide aggregated results for measuring trends over time. Examples of such assessments for systemic monitoring include national and regional tests in specific subjects (e.g. Finnish education evaluation plan 2012-2015); citizen-led household-based assessments (e.g. the basic learning assessments conducted in India, Pakistan, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Mali, and Senegal); or international school-based tests such as the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), the studies conducted by the Latin American Laboratory for Assessment of the Quality of Education (LLECE), the Analysis Programme of the CONFEMEN Education Systems (PASEC), the Southern and Eastern Africa Consotrium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ), and the Southeast Asia Primary Learning Metric (SEA-PLM). These various assessment instruments are markedly different from one another, and while they are usually lowstakes for pupils and their schools, they are high-stakes and often high-cost for governments, politicians and policy makers. Hence, in-depth knowledge of the functions, methods and limitations of each type of assessment proves essential to education planners whose decisions rest on these test results. Designing Large-scale and Summative Assessment for System Monitoring As planners decide whether to join an existing assessment regime or design their own, there are a number of key questions to keep in mind. These include: What is the purpose of the assessment and how will the results be used to inform practice? What curriculum area (e.g. maths, science, mother tongue) or what construct (literacy, numeracy) needs to be assessed? At what stage should

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assessment take place and for what purpose? How often should the assessment take place? What standardised instruments, administration and scoring procedures should be used? What costs need be covered and by whom? Should the assessment be for the total population or a representative sample? How will individual student achievements in different schools/regions be aggregated to the system level? What other background information (school resources, family characteristics) should be collected to analyse the final results? How will the results be analysed, shared, and made use of? While these questions cannot all be answered here, four fundamental considerations should be kept in mind for all processes of assessment design: content, validity, reliability, and quality assurance. Content: The content of an assessment is determined by which aspects of learning are most valued and what can be expected of students in terms of progression and achievement. Good understanding of educational objectives and clearly defined learning outcomes will help identify the types of tasks to be included in the assessment or portfolios of evidence.(6,11) Validity: The overall validity refers to whether an assessment accurately measures what it is intended to measure. Not all knowledge can be broken down into tasks that fit the process and time constraints of common summative assessment methods. Ideally, assessment tasks should complement each other to measure knowledge in context, application, analysis, and capability.(2) Reliability: A reliable assessment measure produces consistent results across related items within the same test, across different instances of test administration, and across the scores assigned by different raters. The reliability of an overall assessment system lies in the methodology used in student sampling, the design of the assessment instruments, administration and scoring procedures, and methods of data aggregation and analysis. Reliability also implies that assessment must be consistent and comparable across candidates, with minimisation of bias and error from assessors.(11) Quality Assurance: In those countries where corruption and political nepotism remain part of the social context, transparency and quality assurance procedures become paramount.(3) Generally, the more weight given to the summative assessment, the more stringent the quality assurance system needs to be through such methods as inter-school moderation in scoring, double marking, machinemarkable tests, and the use of special software to analyse the results across cohorts, schools and regions.(8)(16) Impacts of Summative Assessment At the national, regional, and school levels, data from summative assessments is one of the most important sources of information for analysing the performance of the education system, diagnosing problems, projecting trends over time, determining system-wide or targeted intervention, planning institutional capacity building, and teacher training, designing curricula, and budgeting and distributing resources.(10) In many countries, assessment data is also used to hold accountable and improve the performance of schools and teachers.(9) While there may be positive impacts in terms of teachers working harder and more effectively to prepare all their pupils, accountability pressure may also impact negatively on learning and teaching, such as by restricting teaching methods and content, and by reducing teacher morale.(12)(14) At the level of learners themselves, summative assessment can be constructive for individual pupils when assessment tasks embody the desired learning outcomes, and when feedback on the results is used for formative purpose (e.g. summative assessment + feedback = formative assessment).(15) When pupils are involved in assessment processes they develop a better understanding of learning goals and they are primed for higher cognitive engagement in progressing towards these outcomes.(4)(5)

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However, an education system that places great emphasis on summative assessment and selectivity produces students with strong extrinsic orientation towards grades and social status, but weak intrinsic motivation for longer term learning.(2) Moreover, frequent use of high-stakes tests and examinations may lead to exam cheating and pressures to expand learning time through the private tutoring industry. Inclusiveness and Equity Inequality and Social Injustice: Summative assessments interact in complex ways with social injustice, inequality, deprivation, and other forms of disadvantage.(1) Disadvantaged learners who have low selfesteem and confidence, or who lack motivation and commitment, can be further demotivated by the pressure of tests and examinations. Furthermore, misuse of the aggregate results by the media and politicians can do considerable damage by consolidating unfair and inaccurate stereotypes. Many disadvantaged students can benefit greatly from more personalised modes of summative assessment, such as project and portfolio work, which can foster high levels of engagement.(1)(11) References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Beets P. and van Louw, T. (2011) Social justice implications of South African school assessment practices, Africa Education Review, 8(2): 302-317 Boud, D. (2000) Sustainable Assessment: Rethinking Assessment for the Learning Society, Studies in Continuing Education, 22:2, 151-167 Bethell , G. and Zabulionis, A. (2012) The evolution of high-stakes testing at the school–university interface in the former republics of the USSR, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 19:1, 7-25 Carless, D. (2015) Exploring learning-oriented assessment processes. Higher Education, 69(6), 963-976. Carless, D. (2007) Learning-oriented Assessment: Conceptual Bases and Practical Implications. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 44(1): 57-66 Harlen, W. (2007) Assessment of Learning. London: SAGE Harlen, W. (2009) Improving Assessment of Learning and for Learning, Education 3-13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 37(3):247-257 Harlen, W. (2012) On the Relationship between Assessment for Formative and Summative Purposes, In Gardner, J. (Ed.) Assessment and Learning. London: SAGE Hutchinson, C. and Young, M. (2011) Assessment for Learning in the Accountability Era: Empirical Evidence from Scotland, Studies in Educational Evaluation 37: 62–70 Kellaghan, T., Greaney, V. and Murray T. (2009) Using the Results of a National Assessment of Educational Achievement. Washington DC: The World Bank. Lau, A.(2015): ‘Formative good, summative bad?’ - A Review of the Dichotomy in Assessment Literature, Journal of Further and Higher Education. Lee, J. (2008) Is Test-Driven External Accountability Effective? Synthesizing the Evidence from Cross-State Causal-Comparative and Correlational Studies, Review of Educational Research, 78(3): 608-644 R4D. 2015. Bringing Learning to Light: The Role of Citizen-led Assessments in Shifting the Education Agenda. Washington, DC: Results for Development Institute Stobart, G. and Eggen, T. (2012) High-stakes Testing – Value, Fairness and Consequences, Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 19(1): 1-6 Taras, M. (2010) Assessment for Learning: Assessing the Theory and Evidence. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences (2): 3015–3022 Zupanc, D., Urank, M. and Bren, M. (2009) Variability analysis for effectiveness and improvement in classrooms and schools in upper secondary education in Slovenia: Assessment of/for Learning Analytic Tool, School Effectiveness and School Improvement, An International Journal of Research, Policy and Practice, 20(1): 89-122

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Financing education and addressing corruption Que Anh Dang

Dedicate sufficient resources to education and design school funding formulae to link resource deployment with key inputs and processes that can improve learning outcomes.

Increased quality and quantity of schooling for children is associated with higher income, better heath and less reliance on public assistance in the long term(15)—but sufficient resources need to be invested in order to achieve these outcomes. Education systems need to mobilise and dedicate sufficient funds for schooling, and implement mechanisms that ensure equity, efficiency, accountability and transparency, and maximise positive effects on student learning. Issues and Discussion Resources and Expenditure on Education Globally, public expenditure on education accounted for 4.7% of the world’s GDP in 2008, of which expenditure on primary education was 1.5%. The Sub-Saharan African region devoted 5.0% of total GDP to public education expenditure, which is the second highest percentage after North America and Europe (5.3%).(18) However, many sources indicate that even more needs to be spent on education in developing countries. International recommendations are that countries spent at least 20% of their national budget, or 4% of GNP, on the education sector. Currently, one third of countries do not meet this recommended minimum. Basic education is underfunded by US$26 billion per year worldwide, and in low-income countries, an additional US$6.10 per month per child is needed to provide quality primary education. Mobilising Resources for Education The public resources for financing a school system mainly come from national funding and international aid in the case of low-income countries—especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and Central Asia.(17) Budget constraints are acute in low-income countries and put pressure on governments and schools to mobilise resources and establish budget priorities, including trade-offs in allocation. In some cases, countries can meet their education needs by reprioritising funding among different sectors—such as reducing military spending in order to free up resources for education. In other cases, more innovative approaches may be needed to mobilise additional resources. The Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Education has proposed nine mechanisms to raise funds for education, encouraging countries to develop multiple options that fit their regional, bilateral or national contexts. These mechanisms include 1) taxes on international financial transactions; 2) local currency education bonds; 3) education venture funds; 4) diaspora bonds; 5) voluntary contributions from migrants; 6) debt-for-education swaps; 7) sports levies; 8) public-private partnerships; and 9) micro donations from individual bank transactions.(6) School Funding Formulae Every system distributes resources through different school funding formulae, which may also change over time. In general, however, effective funding formulae link resource deployment with learning outcomes. Designing a funding formula that is appropriate for a particular school system requires careful consideration of policy aims and objectives in order to determine the appropriate balance of

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functions such as aligning with directives, promoting equity, and regulating the market. In decentralised education systems, funding formula increasingly take the form of contracts, placing the school in the role of provider and the funding agency in the role of purchaser on its own behalf or on behalf of parents, students and citizens as ultimate customers.(8) Main components: National funding formulae for public schools often include four main components:(8) (1) A basic student allocation consisting of a base amount per student and a grade-level supplement according to year group or age level; (2) An additional amount for curriculum enhancement including an incentive to encourage selected schools and students to focus on particular types of curricula and specific subjects; (3) Additional funding for students with special educational needs; and (4) An adjustment for particular school sites depending on factors such as special buildings, school size, and regional cost variations. Criteria: The six key criteria which can be useful for either designing or evaluating a funding formula include effectiveness (adequate money for expected outcome), equity (political judgement on equity by addressing cost differentials), efficiency (effective budgeting, disbursement, and successful management of the outputs achieved and inputs used), integrity (indicators in a formula cannot be manipulated by the school, e.g. social background of students/parents should not be categorised by the school), administrative costs (formulae should be easy to construct and maintain over time including the collecting of necessary data), and accountability and transparency (easy to understand and high-levels of accountability to all concerned parties and stakeholders).(8) In order to meet these criteria, the design of the funding formulae must prevent corruption at all levels. A rule of thumb is to keep the formulae as simple as possible. Furthermore, careful preparation of the manual of financial procedures (procurement) and regulations (audits), regular staff training and effective management practices will reduce fraud.(7,10) Cost-sharing Models

Cost sharing is an arrangement whereby the government, on the one hand, and households and community organisations, on the other hand, share the responsibility of financing education.(19) Although in this funding policy the government is still responsible for some key inputs, such as the remuneration of most teachers and education administrators and funding for some school facilities, many other elements are dependent on parental and community contributions. The implementation of cost-sharing models has caused adverse effects on access to education, retention rates, and quality in many low and middle income countries.(19) Voucher Systems

Voucher systems allow parents to take their child’s portion of the public per-pupil spending to a school of their choice, thereby promoting competition among schools and making the education system function more like a market.(5,14) In some countries, school vouchers challenge the monopoly status of the public schools, causing improvements in quality. (5) However, school vouchers may also exert many adverse effects, including exacerbating segregation by race, socio-economic status, and ability level.(12) Voucher systems can have more positive impacts if they are applied only to public schools, or if private schools must select candidates randomly and accept the voucher as full payment of tuition fees. (1,11)

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Funding and Student Learning Outcomes Evidence from research shows mixed results about the causal relationship between school funding and academic performance.(3,9) The overall effects of increased funding appear to be the largest for schools with initially poor performance.(2, 13) On the whole, how the money is spent is more important than the overall size of the increase. Inclusiveness and Equity Vertical Equity in Resource Allocation

School funding formulae must ensure both horizontal equity (for pupils with the same needs) and vertical equity (for pupils with different needs).(8) For example, there are additional resource needs for teaching pupils with learning disabilities, those who come from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds, or those whose first language is different from the language of instruction at school. Additional funds for these populations, permitting additional teaching time, specialised learning material, and smaller classes, can advance equity and quality of education.(4) References 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Chakrabarti, R. 2013. Do Vouchers Lead to Sorting under Random Private School Selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee Voucher Program, Economics of Education Review, (34):191-218 Chaudhary, L. 2009. Education Inputs, Student Performance and School Finance Reform in Michigan, Economics of Education Review, 28(1): 90-98 Chung, Il H. 2015. Education Finance Reform, Education Spending, and Student Performance, Education and Urban Society, 2015, 47(4): 412-432 Fazekas, M. 2012. School Funding Formulas: Review of Main Characteristics and Impacts, OECD Education Working Papers, No. 74, OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/5k993xw27cd3-en Filler. R and Munich, D. 2013. Responses of Private and Public Schools to Voucher Funding, Economics of Education Review, (34):269–285 Leading Group on Innovative Financing for Development. 2010. 2+3=8 Innovating In Financing Education. Report of the Writing Committee to the Task Force on Innovative Financing for Education. http://www.leadinggroup.org/IMG/pdf_Innovating_in_Financing_Education_BAT.pdf Levacic, R. 2008. Financing Schools: Evolving Patterns of Autonomy and Control, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 36(2): 221-234 Levacic, R. and Ross, K. 1999. Principles for Designing Needs-Based School Funding Formulae. In Ross, K., & Levacic, R. (Eds.) Needs-based Resource Allocation in Education. Paris, France: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. Levacic, R., Jenkins, A.,Vignoles, A., Steele, F. and Allen, E. 2005. Estimating the Relationship Between School Resources and Pupil Attainment at Key Stage 3. Research Report. London: Institute of Education, ISBN 1 84478 571 8 Levacic, R. and Downes, D. 2006. Formula Funding of Schools, Decentralisation and Corruption: A Comparative Analysis. Paper presented at the International Seminar on Strategies for Incorruptness within the Educational System organized by the National Centre for Educational Development Research, Ministry of Education,the People’s Republic of China. Xi’an Jiaotong University, China, May 15-17th 2006 Luengo-Prado, M.J. and Volij. O. 2003. Public Education, Communities and Vouchers, The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, 43(1):51–73 Mizala, A. and Torche, F. 2012. Bringing the schools back in: the stratification of educational achievement in the Chilean voucher system, International Journal of Educational Development, 32(1): 132–144 Papke, L. 2005. The Effects of Spending on Test Pass Rates: Evidence from Michigan, Journal of Public Economics, 89 (5–6): 821–839 Piolatto, A. 2010. Education and Selective Vouchers, Economics of Education Review, 29(6):993-1004 Terman, L. and Behrman, R. E. 1997. Financing schools: Analysis and Recommendations, The Future of children, 7(3):4-23

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A portal on planning for quality education and improved learning outcomes 16. UNESCO. 2011. Debt Swaps and Debt Conversion Development Bonds for Education. Final Report for UNESCO Advisory Panel of Experts on Debt Swaps and Innovative Approaches to Education Financing. 17. UNESCO, World Bank and UNICEF. 2014. Education Sector Analysis: Methodological Guidelines. Volume 1: Sector-wide Analysis with Emphasis on Primary and Secondary Education. 18. UIS. 2011. Financing Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Meeting the Challenges of Expansion, Equity and Quality. Montreal: UNESCO Institute for Statistics. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001921/192186e.pdf 19. Wambugu, J. and Mokoena, S. 2013. Education financing in Kenya: Parents' perceptions about the implementation of the cost-sharing policy in secondary school education, Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(13):441-446 20. World Bank (2013). "World Development Indicators 2013." Washington, D.C.: World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/world-development-indicators

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Epilogue What works best to improve learning outcomes? Catherine A. Honeyman

Thousands of studies have been conducted to determine the most effective policy approaches to improving education quality in developing countries. More than two hundred of these used experimental or quasi-experimental conditions to measure the effects of different interventions on learning outcomes,(3) and a growing number of researchers have begun sorting through these studies to try to draw some generalizable conclusions about which approaches work best. Nine reviews of the literature published in the last few years each look at a different selection of research studies on efforts to improve learning outcomes to detect overall trends. Not surprisingly, the findings of these meta reviews are complex and often contradictory.(2) 







High teacher absenteeism is consistently seen as being linked to poor learning outcomes, although the best mechanisms to reduce absenteeism and incentivize better teaching are not clear.(3)(4)(5) Several reviews find that interventions in teacher professional development to improve pedagogical methods had the greatest effect on learning achievement,(1)(6)(9) while this finding is contradicted elsewhere.(3) One review concludes that basic factors such as functional school infrastructure, greater teacher knowledge, extra tutoring, and a longer school day were linked to improved student learning.(4) Another review draws attention to the effectiveness of less well-known interventions, such as helping parents improve their parenting practices and providing them with more information about the economic returns to schooling and the quality of different schools.(3) Several reviews show how certain interventions increase student attendance without necessarily improving learning outcomes,(3)(7) while another reaches the primary conclusion that the most effective interventions combine two or more approaches at once.(8)

What is missing from these literature reviews is the acknowledgement that education planners first need to diagnose the main issues of education quality that they face, before they can draw on the research to design an effective response for their own particular context. The decision tree below

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answers that need by linking the findings from these nine meta reviews to a series of diagnostic questions. By answering these diagnostic questions, using the example indicators or other relevant data that may be available, education planners can see a set of interventions that are relevant for addressing that particular barrier, and which have proven successful—at least in some contexts. Selecting Interventions to Improve Student Learning Outcomes: A Decision Tree * This decision tree assumes that although your education system has already achieved relatively high levels of enrolment, you are now looking for solutions to improve student learning outcomes. Interventions that researchers have highlighted as successful in some contexts (see the list of citations following the decision tree) have been grouped according to the major barriers to learning that different education systems may face. Keep in mind that each potentially successful type of intervention listed here requires many specific design decisions, some of which may be more effective or appropriate than others. The resources in the IIEP Learning Portal Library can help you to learn more about the options for designing and piloting your chosen interventions. In your context…

Do most teachers regularly show up and teach?

Example Indicators:  % of teachers present during unannounced visits to a sample of schools (observation)  Rate of teacher absence over the past X period (records)  % of teachers actually interacting with students during unannounced visits to classrooms (observation)

No

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Increasing parental involvement and information about school quality and principal performance  Consistent monitoring of attendance, tied to incentives or penalties such as conditional contract renewal  Teacher/principal incentives for student performance; but beware of possible negative effects)  General improvements in teacher salary and conditions; but evidence conflicts Also to consider: interventions aimed at increasing teachers’ intrinsic motivation and dedication to teaching as a vocation

No

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Early childhood care & education  Parenting education: early care and stimulation, time and support for home study, economic benefits to education, information about student performance  More nearby schools, free transport, free uniforms, or providing glasses  Expand schooling options (vouchers)  Health interventions (nutrition, deworming, latrines) improve attendance; effects on cognitive outcomes debated  Conditional cash transfers or student performance incentives; but design details matter and beware of possible negative effects  Improving other aspects of school quality to attract students (see below)

Yes

Do most enrolled students attend regularly and make an effort to learn?

Example Indicators:  % of students present during unannounced visits to a sample of schools (observation)  % of students absent for X or more days during X period (records)  % of students who complete their assignments (teacher survey/records)

Yes

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Do most teachers have advanced knowledge of their subjects and effective pedagogical skills?

Example indicators:  % of teachers with subject-specific qualifications and pedagogical training for age level of students  % of teachers with appropriate level of subject knowledge (assessment or observation)  % of teachers using appropriate pedagogical methods, according to defined best practices (observation)

No

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Teacher induction and mentoring  In-service pedagogical training, best if clearly linked to students’ learning through formative assessment; beware of reductions in instructional time  Providing specific instructions for delivering each lesson (especially when teacher capacity is very low)  Computer assisted learning programs that adapt to students’ level and are integrated into teacher practices  Teacher incentives tied to student performance; but beware of possible negative effects (narrowing, cheating) Also to consider: Channelling more and better candidates to teacher training programs; improving the quality of theory and practice in pre-service training

No

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Provision of additional pedagogical materials of a variety of kinds, but only if coupled with teacher training in how to use them, and with monitoring to ensure that students have regular access to them  Revising textbooks or supplementary materials to better correspond to the age and reading level of students  Providing mother tongue language materials or materials specially adapted to learning a second language

No

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Lengthen the school day or reduce long student vacations away from school  Reduce school days lost to in-service teacher training or student testing  Improve classroom management practices to increase time on task

Yes

Interventions successful in some contexts:  Reduce class size to allow teachers to respond to individual learning needs (especially if current size is very large)  Additional support or penalties to lowperforming teachers/principals  Additional academic and non-academic support to low-achieving students  Computer assisted learning programs that adapt to students’ level and are integrated into teacher practices

Yes

Are sources of knowledge (such as books, displays, laboratory equipment, and the internet) at the appropriate level available to teachers and students?

Example indicators:  Ratio of pupils to textbooks, internet access points, and other materials, for each subject and level (records)  Type and quantity of materials available at a sample of schools (observation/inventory audits)  % of schools where pedagogical materials are being used by students, not locked in storage (observation)  Reading level difficulty of available textbooks and supplementary materials (text analysis)

Yes

Are students in school and engaged in learning for enough time each day and each year?

Example indicators:  Instructional time per day/year, compared to international norms  % of school days devoted to instruction versus other activities  Effectiveness of classroom management practices (observation)  Compare the performance of similar groups of students who receive more instructional time per day or more days in school per year.

Yes

Are there any particularly lowperforming groups of students?

Example Indicators:  Disparities in learning outcomes between sub-groups such as school, region, gender, socio-economic status and poverty, ethnicity, immigrant or refugee populations, and religious and other minorities.  Number and location of students with special learning needs.  Number and location of particularly low-performing teachers/principals

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References: 1. 2. 3.

4.

5.

6. 7.

8.

9.

Conn, K. (2014). Identifying effective education interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A meta- analysis of rigorous impact evaluations. Doctoral Dissertation. Columbia University. New York, NY. Evans, D. and Popova, A. (2015). What really works to improve learning in developing countries? An analysis of divergent findings in systematic reviews. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 7203. Ganiman, A. and Murnane, R. (2016). Improving Educational Outcomes in Developing Countries: Lessons from Rigorous Impact Evaluations. Review of Educational Research: advance copy published online, February 2, 2016. Glewwe, P., Hanushek, E. A., Humpage, S. D., & Ravina, R. (2014). School resources and educational outcomes in developing countries: A review of the literature from 1990 to 2010. In P. Glewwe (Ed.), Education Policy in Developing Countries. Chicago, IL and London, UK: University of Chicago Press. Guerrero, G., Leon, J., Zapata, M., & Cueto, S. (2013). Getting teachers back to the classroom. A systematic review on what works to improve teacher attendance in developing countries. Journal of Development Effectiveness, 5(4), pp. 466-488. Kremer, M., Brannen, C., & Glennerster, R. (2013). The challenge of education and learning in the developing world. Science, 340(6130), pp. 297-300. Krishnaratne, S., White, H., & Carpenter, E. (2013). Quality education for all children? What works in education in developing countries. (Working Paper No. 20). International Initiative for Impact Evaluation (3ie). New Delhi, India. Masino, S., & Niño-Zarazúa, M. (2015). What works to improve the quality of student learning in developing countries? International Journal of Educational Development: advance copy published online, December 23, 2015. McEwan, P. (2015). Improving learning in primary schools of developing countries: A meta-analysis of randomized experiments. Review of Educational Research 85(3), pp. 353-394.

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© International Institute for Educational Planning, 2016

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