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questionnaire to collect the data during teaching and learning process. The research was conducted in one ... method, it is kind of cooperative learning. The students share and ..... Suprijono, Agus, 2012, Cooperative Learning. Teory & Aplikasi.

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JP3, Volume 1, No. 12, Agustus

2013

IMPROVING READING COMPREHENSION BY USING THINK, PAIR, AND SHARE TECHNIQUE Andik (Mahasiswa Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris FKIP Unisma) Abstract: This research was aimed to examine how TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique can improve reading comprehension at the first grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangduring Karangpenang Sampang. The researcher implemented Classroom Action Research (CAR) in order to improve students’ reading comprehension by using TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique. The subject of study was the students of the XD class consisting of 47 students. This study carried out some steps; they were planning, action, observation, and reflection. The researcher used test, observation checklist, and questionnaire to collect the data during teaching and learning process. The research was conducted in one cycle that consisted of three meetings. The finding of this research disclosed that the TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique could improve students’ reading comprehension. It was proven by the mean score or reading comprehension increased from 65.85 to 90. Based on the result of this research, the research improved the students’ comprehension at the first grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangduring Karangpenang Sampang successfully. Key words: Think, Pair, and Share Technique, Reading Comprehension.

INTRODUCTION In globalization era, people need an international language to keep communication of relationship among countries. English is an international language that many people use it. Every country has an alternative method to teach English for children. In Korea, English is taught since primary school as Sung said that primary school children learn English for four years from years 3 to 6. The main aim of the English class is to encourage children's interest in English language and culture. In Japan, primary school children have been given occasional foreign-language instruction since 2002, but South Korea made English compulsory at that level in 1997 and China in 2005. Japanese sixth-graders have, until now, received an average of 13.5 hours of English tuition a year, far fewer than their Chinese and

South Korean counterparts. Learning English involved four skills. Those are listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Listening and speaking are the receptive skills, while reading and writing are the productive skill. The receptive skill was taught first, before the productive one. Reading was one skill that was very important skill for the student, based on the government regulation (2005:19), language education should develop language competence with special emphasis on reading and writing according to the literacy level set up for every level of education. Based on the observation the researcher found the following problems. The first problem is the teacher used teacher-centered method. It means that the teacher was more active than the students. She kept explaining 28

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2013

the lesson in the front of the class. In fact, the KTSP curriculum needs the teacher to give many alternative strategies to make the students more active than the teacher. The second problem is the students had low motivation to understand the reading text. It made the quality or reading English performance of the students was not satisfactory. The last problem is based on the test, the students’ mean score in reading comprehension was 65, 85 whereas the SKM in that school was 70. The researcher is interested in using TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique as an alternative strategy. The creator of this strategy was Frank Lyman. According to Lyman (2009:213), there are three steps of this strategy as follows: the first is Think. The teacher provokes the students’ thinking with a question, prompt, or observation. The students should take a few moments just to think about the question. The second is Pair. It involves the students in partner. It can be a desk mate or randomly. They compare their mental or write notes and identify the answer they think are best, most convincing, or most unique. The last is Share. After students discuss their reason in pairs for a few moments, the teacher calls for pairs to share their idea with the students in the class. This can be done in round robin fashion, calling on each pair randomly, or taking answer as they are called out (or as hands and raise). Often the teacher or a designated helper will record these responses on the board or an overhead projector. From statement above about TPS method, it is kind of cooperative learning. The students share and discuss with their partner and group. The more students discuss the easier to students to learn. In this case, the language teaching method will be considered to emphasize the knowledge thought and share, and learners will express their willingness through pair interaction with their pair and friend in the real situation. The importance of this strategy is that the learning in community is more efficient than learning individually. It is important in reading understanding that students can share their

idea about the text because reading consists of many words. Therefore, the researcher will give new strategy to help the teacher of English subject to be applied. This statement above became the reason why the researcher wants to conduct a research using the title “Improving Reading Comprehension by Using Think, Pair, and Share technique at the first grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Karangpenang Sampang”. METHOD In this research, the researcher used Classroom Action Research (CAR). CAR is a simple research to solve the problem usually done by a teacher. Nowadays, Classroom Action Research is not a new research design in education because education faculty often conducted seminars or training activities for the teachers or trainers to introduce this design. According to Kusumah (2010:9), “Classroom Action Research is the research which the teacher acts in the class by using the planning, implementing, and reflecting to increase the students’ score”. Latief (2003:104) said that classroom action research for English subject was to develop a strategy or undeveloped strategy of teaching and learning process in order to solve the problem that the teacher and students have. It is especially used to get maximum result in their study. In this research, the researcher was involved in the action teaching and learning process, collecting and analyzing data, also making a conclusion and report. On the other hand, the problems of this research came from the difficulties of the students to understand reading materials. The focus of this research is to introduce the students to the English teaching technique which is able to improve their reading skill. The aim of this research was to improve the teaching and learning process in classroom, especially the reading comprehension at the first grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Sampang. Before doing the research, the researcher did preliminary study of the individual students in order to know the prior ability of the students in advance. The setting of this research was the first 29

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grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Karangpenang Sampang. This class consisted of forty seven students. The location was in MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Tlambah Karangpenang Sampang. The subject of this research was one class of the first grade of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Sampang. The researcher used TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique. TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) here was conducted by using these steps: about the application of TPS technique. In this case was about the time when it was effective to apply. Arends (2012:370-371) classified the teaching steps in main points. The first step is the teacher poses a question or an issue that related to the lesson then asks students to spend a minute to think alone about the answer or the issue. It is thinking time. The second step is the teacher asks students to pair off and discuss what they have been thinking about. In this time, the students can give opinion each other about the answer to their pair. The aim is every pair looks for the correct answer trough comparing their idea. Usually, the teacher allows no more than four or five minutes for pairing. The final step is the teacher asks the pairs to share what they have been talking about with the whole class. Usually, the teacher calls the pair to present their idea in the front of the class randomly. In this study, the researcher and collaborator teacher observed all the reaction that students make to this action. For collecting data, the researcher needed a test, a piece of observation paper during teaching and learning process using TPS technique, and questionnaire sheet. All of these were used the researcher as instrument to collect the data. For the test, the researcher used some questions. The test consisted of 10 items. The researcher provided 10 items for questionnaire sheet. The data from the questionnaire (adapted from Sugiono, 2011) were analyzed by using P = x 100% to find

showed that the students’ reading comprehension improved. It can be seen that the students’ mean score in the first test was 65.85 with the lowest score was 30, and the highest score was 90, while the students’ mean score in the last test was 90 with the lowest score was 60, and the highest score was 100. Six out of forty five students failed to fulfill the minimum mastery learning standard (SKM) at MA Miftahul Ulum Karangduring Karangpenang Sampang. There were 39 students scored more than 74. Thus, it could be said that the result of the cycle 1 fulfilled the criteria of success of this study. In the other words, 87 % students scored > 75. Therefore, the researcher did not need to continue the next cycle. The result of questionnaire sheet stated that mostly students strongly agreed to all the questions related to the TPS technique. It meant that the students are more motivated in studying reading after the implementation of TPS technique in the classroom. But, there were two students that answered slightly agree in item number seven and eight. The seventh item talked about enjoying students in the classroom when studying reading skill through TPS technique. The eighth item talked about situation of students whether they were fun and interesting when they studied reading skill through TPS technique in the class. So, based on the data, the students’ motivation significantly increased because of implementation of TPS technique. Based on the previous data, improving reading comprehension through TPS technique was effective. In the other words, the students’ reading comprehension improved. It was proofed by the average of last test score. So, Think, Pair, and Share technique increased the students’ reading comprehension and motivation to learn reading skill. They were some steps to apply TPS technique in the classroom according to Asmani (2012:45-46). The first step is the teacher gives the main matery and the target competency. Second, the teacher asks the students to think the problem or matery which is given by the teacher. Third, the students are

out the percentages. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS Based on the data, the result of the test

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asked to make a pair with a desk-mate then the teacher asks them to give their idea each other. Forth, the teacher lead a discussion in the class and every pair must give the result of its discussion. Next, from this activity, the teacher guides the students to the main problem and adds more information to the students related to the topic discussion. Next, the teacher makes a simple conclusion from the matery. The last technique is the teacher closes the class. The process of teaching learning in the class, of course based on the syllabus, lesson plan, and some other sources. In Think, Pair, and Share technique learning and teaching process, students provided authentic text that they had to share and communicate each other. The students were given some question related to the text to be thought individually before the students shared their ideas in pair then to the whole class. In the individual think, the students were not allowed to ask the other students. Then in pair time, the students just shared their idea to each pair in order that they could find out their own understanding. In this activity, the students were more active, argumentative, and selective. And the last activity was Share. Every pair had to share the ideas which they discussed in pair. Comparing with the result the preliminary study, the result of this research was more than Bukhari study. In this study, the mean score was 75.85, and more than 50% of the students scored more than 69 in the first cycle. The mean score in this research was 90, and more than 50% of the student got the result more than 74 in the single research. The researcher found some difficulties of this technique in the class exactly in the first class of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Karangpenang Sampang. The first difficulty was some students came late to the class because of the rain in the morning. So, the researcher had to wait the student who came late to the class in several minutes. It made the researcher had to economize the time maximally. The second difficulty was the students were crowded in the first time before beginning the class but, the researcher shortened the time to begin the class with

discipline time. In addition, the researcher felt satisfied because the students’ achievement of reading comprehension increased. And based on the questionnaire sheet of students, most of the students of XD class were interested in TPS technique to be implemented in the classroom. In the other word, this technique was success for improving students’ reading comprehension. They were enthusiastic to think and share their understanding. It was proven by the average score 90 in the last test. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS In this study, the researcher concluded that the students’ reading comprehension increased after the implementation of think, pair, and share technique in the grade XD at MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Karangpenang Sampang. It stated from the result of the post test that was 90, and more than 50% of the students got the result more than 74. During the process of teaching learning, the students were active and enthusiastic. They thought individually then they shared their ideas in pair and in whole discussion. The class was enjoyable and interesting during teaching and learning process. The motivation of students to read English text increased as well. It could be seen from the activities in pair group, and they shared about their understanding of the text. This activity increased students’ motivation. All of the students participated in these activities and made the class alive and cooperative, and the students were more confident to study reading skill. Principally, there are three major steps in TPS technique. The first step was Think; students think independently about the question that has been posed and forming the ideas of their own. The second step was Pair; students were grouped in pairs to discuss their thoughts. This step allows students to articulate their ideas and to consider those of others. And the last step was Share; student pairs share their ideas with a larger group such as the whole class. Often, students were more comfortable in presenting ideas to a whole class with the support of a partner. In 31

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addition, students’ ideas became more valid through these three steps. In the teaching and learning process of English in these activities, the first grade students of MA Miftahul Ulum Karangdurin Sampang was interested in and enthusiastic in learning when TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique was implemented. The first activity was thinking time individually related to the topic, then pairing work activity, and the last was sharing. The students were braver to share their understanding with the partner then shared it with the whole class. They were not afraid to make some mistakes. They learned from their self and societies. The activities in TPS technique matched to the material given. The students had the same chance to present their own ideas related to the topic or the text that was given by researcher. Beside that, the group in pair stimulated students to be brave to deliver the argument in the front of class. All the activities could raise the students’ spirit and enthusiasm in learning English especially reading comprehension skill. The suggestions are directed to English teacher. English teacher should think about using TPS (Think, Pair, and Share) technique in order to the students get better achievement in reading skill as proven from the result of this research. Then the teacher should be selective to choose the appropriate materials related to the topic of teaching English. Then the teacher had to create many activities to avoid monotone activities. The teacher should realize that there are many strategies for teaching reading skill. This strategy is also important not only in improving reading skill, but also in speaking and writing skill. So, teachers can develop their technique to teach students in the teaching and learning process. It will be better to the teachers if they use any kind of techniques to be used for teaching the students in class. Generally, teachers should be creative and innovative to avoid the monotone teaching technique in the class. And the teacher should have many ideas to make the students active and enthusiastic in order that they feel comfortable and spirit in the class. To the Next Researcher, in this study,

researcher had many weaknesses such as the researcher just used the paper work. It is suggested to the next researcher to use the newest sophisticated media as LCD projector. Since the research was Classroom Action Research (CAR) in which the result could be used for next researcher that have same condition, it was advisable that the next researcher can improve the quality of teaching English using TPS technique for different skill, such as speaking and writing, or applying TPS technique to improve students’ English achievement.

REFERENCES Arend, Richard I, 2012, Learning to Teach Ninth Edition, New York, The McGraw-Hill Companies. Asmani, Jamal Ma’mur, 2012, 7 Tips Aplikasi PAKEM (Pembelajran Aktif, Kreatif, Efektif, dan Menyenangkan) Menciptakan Metode Pembelajaran yang Efektif dan Berkualitas, Jogjakarta, DIVA Press. Bukhori, Imam, 2010 Improving Reading Comprehension through Think, Pair and Share Strategy at the Second Grade of SMA Al-Maarif Singosari, Skripsi Unpublished, Malang: Program S1 Universitas Islam Malang. http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2011/m ar/08/japan-launches-primary-englishpush, Accessed 27 April 2013 Huda, Miftahul, M.Pd, 2013, Model-Model Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Isu-Isu Metodis dan Paradigmatis, Yogyakarta, Pustaka Pelajar. Kusumah, Wijaya, 2010, Mengenal Penelitian Tindakan Kelas Edisi Kedua, Kembangan Jakarta Barat, PT Indeks. M. Echols, John and Shadily, Hasan, kamus Indonesia Inggris, Jakarta, Gramedia. M. Echols, John and Shadily, Hasan, kamus Inggris Indonesia, Jakarta, Gramedia. Mistar, Junaidi M.Pd., Ph. D Handouts Statistics for Language Teaching Studies, Universitas Islam Malang, Malang. 32

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Richards, Jack C. & Schmidt, Richards, 2002, Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics, Third Edition, London Sugiyono, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D, Alfabeta, Bandung 2011. Suprijono, Agus, 2012, Cooperative Learning Teory & Aplikasi PAIKEM, Yogyakarta, Pustaka Pelajar. Syah, Supiyan, 2009The Effect of TPS (Think,

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Pair, and Share) Strategy on the English Achievement of the Eleventh Year Students at Madrasah Aliyah Negeri 2 Batu, Skripsi Unpublished, Malang: Program S1 Universitas Islam Malang.

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