4D Escape Route Using RFID Technology

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system includes: (i) Sensor network monitor agent (SNMA), (ii) Rainfall .... free operating speed as 65 KPH, maximum volume of traffic as 136 CPK, and basic ...

2nd International Conference on Urban Disaster Reduction November 27~29, 2007

4D Escape Route Using RFID Technology Hsu-Yang Kung1, Che-I Wu2, Chi-Hua Chen3, Yu-Siang Liao1 1 2

Department of Management Information Systems,

Institute of Disaster Prevention on Hillslopes and Water Resources Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan 3

Institute of Information Management,

National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan.

Abstract When the heavy rainfalls or typhoons occurred, many counties were unavoidable to suffer the debris-flow and flood disasters in Taiwan. Therefore, it is urgently required to obtain and inform the real-time disaster information to display the situation, and it is important for people to design an effective disaster information system to assist the disaster protection and alerting works. To plan and design a Multimedia Escape and Survival System (MESS), which is a three-tier system composed of the mobile users, multimedia server, and disaster decision server, and the system combines mobile communication technology. MESS combines RFID technology, GPS, GIS and GPRS/3G to find out the 4D safety paths and roads in the disaster areas. Mobile users use mobile devices with GPS to locate the longitude and latitude, and transmitting these coordinates to the GIS server. According to the longitude and latitude, the GIS will draw VR map of disaster area using GIS relevant database and show the simulated safety way to users. The MESS can draw the points on the VR map that includes all users’ position and announces the best refuge and escape path. The reasoning engine of MESS is used Knapsack Problem (KP) and the Adaptive Path Algorithm (APA) which consider distance, security, traffic volume, cost, and refuges where RFID readers were installed to infer reason the 4D safety paths and escape routes. Keyword: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), Knapsack Problem, 4D Escape Route, Adaptive Path Algorithm, Mobile devices.


Corresponding author address: H.Y. Kung, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, No.1, Shuehfu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung, Taiwan 91201, [email protected]

1. Introduction There are more and more nature calamities happen in Taiwan in recent years. Those disasters often cause the serious nature destruction after torrential rainfall, an earthquake, and then creating the heavy losses of people's lives and properties. After the torrential rainfall and typhoon (Haitang, Matsa, and Talim) would be battering every area of Taiwan in June of 2005, and it had heavy rain and typhoon (Bilis, Kaemi, and Bopha) in Taiwan in May of 2006, there were no safe counties in Taiwan. There were many sediment disasters in mountain area to cause the damage of people's lives and properties. When disasters happened that the survivors didn’t know how to communicate, and rescue teams didn’t know where the survivors let the rescue work very slow in the same time. Therefore, disaster happened how to use the handheld devices via the wireless network to transmit the multimedia information of disaster including image, sound, and characters etc., which is one of the important issues. In view of this, this research will adopt Embedded Multimedia Communication technology to design the “Multimedia Escape and Survival System (MESS)” which it can overcome the space and time limiting. Users can use the handheld devices with high mobility via wireless network (3G/GPRS/GSM) to get disaster multimedia stream service. In addition, this research also combines Customized Services, Location-Aware Service, wireless Sensor Network, Multicast, Web GIS, Intelligent Agent, and Virtual Reality, etc. The MESS transmits the VR of the disaster to the server, and to overcome the space and time limiting with the end-server to exchange information. The MESS system will automatic to descript the best adaptable escape route, which provides and guides users the escape route and harbor place [7], [9], and monitoring the great natural disaster effectively such as Sediment, floods, earthquake, landslide, forest fire. The MESS system also provides rescue center to make best decision. 2. Research Background and Theory Discussion 2.1 The Third Generation mobile communication systems (3G) 3G provides broadband, packet-based transmission of text, voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to and possibly higher than 2 Mbps. Therefore, this study proposes transmission of multimedia data and alert of the flood / debris flow disaster using 3G devices. 2.2 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) A RFID system is composed of tags, readers and an application system [2]. A RFID reader is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID tag which responds by sending back its data. Hence, information is sent and read from RFID tags via radio frequency signals to computer systems for processing that the tags is exposed to radio waves of the current frequency. 2.3 GIS / GPS GIS develops geographical coordinate information which judges space distribution and database management technology, and combining such science and technology as geographical mathematics and map surveying, etc. [5]. GPS is a high-accuracy position system of three-dimensional space, which is based on satellite to receive data for global, all day. The receiving data of GPS receiver can be divided into three symbols: (1) $GPGGA, (2) $GPRMC, and (3) $GPGSA [3], and the system operation offers different treatment according to different distinguished symbols. 2.4 Knapsack Problems (KP) KP can be mathematically formulated by numbering the objects from 1 to n, and introducing a vector of binary variable xj [6]. The meaning is following formulas to define. 1 , if object j is selected Xj = { (1) 0 , otherwise

Then, if pj is a measure of the comfort given by object j, size of wj and c of the Knapsack will be selected from among all binary vectors x on our problem. n


j =1


* w


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