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pollution-free. Gases at ... of organic solvents exist that offer an extended potential range for waste oxidation ... hi,h-value chemical feedstocks from waste biomass [20], little .... A Pine. Instrument. RDE4 potentiostat was used for voltage sweep ...... the limiting current for a reversible reaction controlled only by mass transfer is.

December FINAL for

the

Period

REPORT

January

ELECTROCHEMICAL

December

1987

INCINERATION

Prepared L.

0 ,J

1989

OF WASTES

by

Kaba, G.D. Hitchens, and J.O'M. Bockris Surface Electrochemistry Laboratory Texas A&M University College

Station,

Texas

Prepared

77843,

U.S.A.

for

A/,¢ _z_-

(NASA-CR-12.5317) I_CINCRATION OF 19tl/ l]ec. IQg'_

1989

!:L _-C T _,uC H_ _ I CAL :_A?,T[S Fin_,I pe_,ort, (T_:_x_s A_,M Univ.)

/77p

_91-!$15_ J_.,n. -_:_ _ C _CL I )_

ELECTROCHEMICAL

L.

Kaba,

INCINERATION

G.D.

Surface

Hitchens,

OF

J.O'M.

Electrochemistry

Department

of

College

Bockris

Laboratory

Chemistry,

Texas

Station,

WASTES

Texas

A6_

778A3,

University U.S.A.

INTRODUCTION

The

disposal

increasing

public

wastes

into

years,

it

On

other

the

housing

New

the

has

developments

are

that

situation,

dissipatin_

oxides

of

low

to

the

site

in

and

converted

is

desirable.

the

combustion

of

in

environment

and

a

space

carbon

which

waste

monoxide

be

used

the

state

as

sea

to

during

for

is

chemicals is

undesirable

and

the

offer

the

to

due

the

by

be to

gases

several

any

NO

are

utilize

recycled. the

In

difficulties

presence

[5,6].

advantages

of

[3,4].

wastes

to

inevitable

effluent

absence

can

new

and

desireable

that

20

for

operate

posed

reject

last

and

and

of

[1,2].

chemicals

problems

it

to

the

cities

build

acceptable

where

a matter

unacceptable

to

The

is

permissible

but,

systems

expensive

in

and

raw

environmentally

into

techniques

may

of

vehicles

wastes

its

regarded

drainage

is

space

_iectrochemical

of

Here

in

including

and

CO

in

the

the

_ases.

l#ork papers,

and

convert

heat

zem9eratures

evolve_

farms

is

will

nitrogen

particular.

this

in

was

sink

cumbersome

at

demanding

treatments

that

waste

Gases

it

infinite

clear

whereby

waste

Earlier,

apparently

sewage

particuiarlv

organic

concern.

hand,

pollution-free

of

domestic

become

technology

zhis

of

done

and

early

hitherto

the

present

stages

of

in

this

report

area is

a potentially

an

has

been

attempt

valuable

restricted to

give

a

technology.

to more

technological fundamental

basis

THEELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC OXIDATIONTO CO2 Aqueoussolutions

have an electrode potential

window in which substances

can be oxidized without competition from oxygen evolution up to about 1.6 V on the normal hydrogen scale in acid solution oxidation potentials

at 25°C. Correspondingly,

of someorganic compoundsfound in humanwaste and

chemicals derived from biomass are shown in Table i. therefore,

to carry out a complete oxidation

of all

It should be possible, the components in fecal

wastes, including urea, to CO2 in aqueous solution.

Correspondingly,

of organic solvents exist that offer an extended potential

2), although the reduced conductivity presence of suitable

salts)

available

a number

range for waste

oxidation without competition from the oxygen evolution reaction

anodic potential

the

(see Table

in such system (even in the

would have to be taken into account [i0];

the most

used in the present work was 1.9 V versus the Normal Hydrogen

Electrode (NHE). On the solution,

there

systems

at

[i1,12]; wastes

it would

lithium The

in

view

of

material

is

650°C

may

a

be

at

of

650°C

of

with

bubbled

to

O°C,

during present,

oxidation

from

[131,

the

reactions,

the

waste

who

is

but

dissolution

the

of

known

in

of

into

in

the

about

[14],

Cu,

the

a

of

90%

the

the typical

potential. are

important

the

yield

temperature

was

of of

lowering

oxidation

it

conditions

oxidation presence

aqueous

carbonate

similar

reactions

when

CO 2 on

Kolbe-like

coal

or

application

that

in

molten

thermal

oxidation

found

incomplete

these

of

oxygen

reduction

little

under

without of

is

them

degree

mixture

Horri

wastes

oxidation

coefficients

work

of

introducing

considerable

carbonate

At

oxidation

anodic

a

the

formed

the

using

that

temperature

of

if

possibility

and

occur

obtained.

organic

hand,

potassium

temperature was

ocher

of

coefficient

reactions

found

methane

that,

of

(dE/dT)

- 4xlO"3 V/°C and (dl/dT) of coal product, it

" 0.i mA/°C. From considerations

seemedthat - an expected range for the oxidation of

wastes would be around 1.0-1.5 V (vs _E), significantly

of the oxidation

thus, not enough to decomposewater

on platinum.

The electrode materials

for waste oxidation

in aqueous solutions

should

be inexpensive, remain un-oxidized under the highly anodic conditions an oxide) and be a poor electrocatalyst

for oxygen evolution.

often used for organic oxidations since it a battery material) This field

(i.e.

be

Lead dioxide is

is highly conducting (it

is used as

and has a high overvoltage for oxygen evolution

[15,16].

is open to new oxide electrodes that have cometo be used in recent

years [17].

._nongthese are the perovskites

[18], where the addition of 20-

30%barium oxide to the materials such as lanthanum nickelate

allows a

conductin_ oxide to be used as an electrode which is stable to oxygen attack. In addition,

Ebonex (Ti407) may be used which is an extremely stable anodic or

cathodic material

in acid environments [19].

AlthouBh, electrochemical hi,h-value available

oxidations are an important meansof obtaining

chemical feedstocks from waste biomass [20], little on the complete oxidation of carbonaceous material

information to CO2.

is

Bockris

et al El_ showed that carbohydrates are completely oxidized to CO2 during electrol"sis,

initially,

the electrolysis

carbohydrates.' such as sucrose, cellobiose

was performed on simple (_.D-glucose dimer) and glucose, in

&0%H3?C i or f_: NaOHat temperatures of 80-I00°C. (52 cm2) :_as used as the anode. The reactivity increasinB complexity.

Nevertheless,

A platinized

platinum gauze

decreased for molecules of

it was found that cellulose

broken down to CO2 with a current efficiency

could be

of around 100%and only 2

faradays were involved in the evolution of I mol of CO2 perhaps because of

preliminary studied

on

The

anodic

platinum

in

generation

of

utilized

based

on

oxidants

of

of

for

urine

the

generation CI"

organic

and

used

from

an

humans

activated

and

was

lost.

although

the

No

electrochemical

method

Delphi

Inc

Research

redox

of

couples

_;aste

effluenc

which

material

which

of

such

contained

this

and

showed

that

to

of

activated

of

treating

electrochemical

the of

50

mA/cm

of

the

has

been

monoxide

or

urine

strong

chlorine

and

were

An

developed

holding

into

of

_he

odor

available,

"indirect"

used

tank.

chips

oxides

be

recently

were

fecal

of

could

products

electrodes

wood

a

2", furthermore,

detected.

a waste

and

mixture

100%

planar

generation

waste

CI 2 was

approach, to

of

were

close

generation

mixtures

that

the

the

and

using

been

as

Also,

the

electrolysis

OCI')

OCI',

manure

carbon

systems

of

treatment

cattle

no

studies

has

production

02

circulated

as

These

HOCI

the

the

approach

support

(CI 2,

estimates

C02,

In

life

chlorine

a current

waste

[8]. were

regenerative

This

about

the

quantitative

of

bring

solution.

electrodes,

using

evolution

themselves

by

include

Through

clarified

indirectly

by

means

platinum

achieved

removed

agent.

[10,25].

decolorized

be

features

on

the

[9,23,24].

could

be

which

in

in

effective

chlorine

quickly

urine

can

agents

activated

bleaching

as

mixtures

material

material

disinfectant

waste

waste

of

been

[22].

oxidizing

in

Additional

been

NaOH

Oxidation reactions of casein have

purification

electrodes.

has

IN

carbonaceous

from

the

reactions.

electrolysis

oxidation

of

hydrolysis

by

to

The

regenerate

conversion

a pollution-free

nitrogen

was

achieved.

The

of

use

use

potentials

of

various

of

new

without

flow

electrocatalysts,

interference

systems

to

of

increase

organic

solvents

oxygen,

wider

the

contact

to

increase

temperature

time

and

the

ranges,

eventually

range

the

carbonate

and

investigation.

other

molten

salts,

belong

to

a later

stage

of

the

METHODOLOGY

Electrochemica_

¢e11_

Two

kinds

of

The

cell

shown

electrolytes

the

counter

of

the

cell

sparging

the

gases

magnetic

follower

packed

with

solution.

a

The

thermometer

After

each

500°C

in

washed

For

experiments

added

from

electrolyte

the

electrolyte a00

was ml.

designed

so

lead

The

that

dioxide

was

Pine

and

stirred

it

on

Instrument

and the

with

working

rod

placed

3 cm

[9];

a hot

a

cc's.

Both

the

the

top

of

cell

in

with

the

nitrogen

gas

finally

was

waste

was

400

means

of

was

by

a

a

tube

hydroxide

was

a

hv

monitored

ground-glass

_reatment

_ashed

in

with

of

cell

used

was

25

cm

off-gases

biomass

a magnetic were

of

counter

the

urine

(Figure

2).

Argon

was

collected

as

high. were

and

follower.

The

either

a platinum

volume

of

electrode

was

the

used

(in

an

sulfuric

The

used

the

cell

to

of

foil

cell

in

on

both

potentiostat

was

used

for

voltage

an

sparge

described

volume

absence

had

CO 2

above.

The

electrolyte (I00

both

cm2),

sides,

cases,

plate.

RDE4

glass

a barium

using

products,

and

ground

temperature

_le_ned

cc's,

working

through

to

acid

water.

mixtures

was

the

which

a

carried

2.

in

stirring

was

and

cell

organic

as

additional

compartment

most

Pt

200

anodic

electrodes

occupied

compartment

the

distilled

_:ork

was

trap

glass

the

I and

anodic

and

eliminate

a U-tube

of

plate,

the

involving

all

Figures

a hot

experiment,

with

in

the

outlet

a water

into

for

and

The

through

fitted

shown

supplied

rpm.

on

of

of

through

rested

electrolyte,

used

electrolyte

6,000

to

are

compartment

the

finally

diameter

was

continuously

air

internal

and

volume

fitted

from

cell

and

A

used.

wool,

acid

cell

i,

at

at

a

Figure

was

oven

_as

in

cathodic

glass

The

joint.

of

used,

were

The

Aooaratus

were

electrodes

joints.

using

cells

were

volume

and

sweep

the

or

experiments below.

and Current

recorded

_aste

on

waste

of

sewage

its

and

contents

from

these

obtained

in

obtained

from

consistency

and

the

I_

weight.

All

For

the

was

weiBhed

sulfuric

_ave

_:as

made

described

time

curves

were

704AB).

a

strong

monitored

waste

involving

treated

sonicator

q Bm

O_ C

C3 q

C_'_

_V J

O_ _//t"

i

in=

I

_s

0

0.6

0.8

.tr

_/LT

I

1

1.0

1.2

J

i

1.4

1.6

Potential/V (NHE)

FL_=e

L5 :

Cu==enc.Eo=en=ial

cuz-ves for

dlfferen_

concen=ra:Lons

g/1LCec.

O

ra=e

i

=v/s.

I0 g/iL:er). T -

150"C.

of

oxide=ion

=ase£n

(_

Potential

of

case£n

_/!i=e=; l_=ics 0.5 -

Ln L2 _ H2SO_ for _

_ g/liter;

2 v (N_K).

_ Scan

6

4 -e-FIG.

16

OJ

E _me

_o

2

r_

L-L.-





O

0

!

1

2

4

Casein

FL_u=e

t6:

Effecu densi=y

of a=

concen=ra=ion in

eieccrode-po=enclal

OF POOF:

_

6

8

concentrationlg

casein 150"C

i

"_ ....... ,,'

j

10

=he

anodic

12 M H2SO _ from

=he

volcameuric

0.5

- 2.0 v

12

liter-1

on

limit

I

(NHE).

Limi=ing

Scan

current

behavior rage

l=v/s.

at pc

¢q

.p

i

E t.. "4r f om

U3

'lr

m

r_ J

J

k., t__

4

"t

.I¢ I

m

r-

0

i

0.6

0.8

I

i

1.0

1.2

PotentiaW

Figure

17

Currenc-pocenuial different

curves

=emporacures.

for exidaulon ( •

I

1.6

(NHE)

of casein

25"C; "_ 80"C; _

limits 0.5 - 2 v (N'HE). Scan race i mv/s. g/flier.

I

1.4

in 12 M H250_

150"C).

a=

Pocen=iai

Casein ¢onconcraulon

14

-2.6-

-2.8 -

Owl !

E

-_.0

-

-3.2

-

0


u

m em W

c o

log

i/Acre'2

40

o 30-

_._

20-

o 10-

0 !



0.0

,

2.5

b

_

5.0

7.5

Time

Elec=rochem¢cai H2$0 _ u.sing _/ltcer.

OF

?C_>,_ +..,:-:,:._-._ l'Y

l

i

10.0

12.5

15.0

of electrolysis

produce!on a P=

i

i

eiec:rode

of

CO2 dt_lcing

a=

150"C.

J

17.5

i

t

20.0

22.,5

(hours)

case£n

CaJle£n

electrolysis

concen=r&=¢on

_n 1_

12

"0

C_ t

8-

0

Potentiai/V

Figure

21"

Effec= density

of a_

eiec=rode.

yeas= 150"C

concen=racion in

Poten=ial

( •

2.5

g/li=er:

_!7.5

and

35

g/li=er).

12 M

SO_

limi=s

on from 0.5

5 g/liuer:

_

(NHE)

:he =he

anodic

!mzi:ing

vol_ammecric

2 v

(NHE).

Scan

7.5

g/liuer:Ol2.5

current behavior raue

ac

i mv/s.

g/li=er:

P:

_

A A

w

5-

4

/

== i tno

° ..e

/

/

° U V

;

10

3

Yeast

Effec= :enszcy

of yeas= a=

eiecurode.

150"C

Pocen=iai

!

30

concentrationlg

concen=ra=ion in

J

20

12 M SO4 limius

on from 0.5

=he

anodic

liter- 1

iLmi=ing

=he vol:amme=ric 2.0 v

(NHE),

curren=

behavior Scan

race

ac

P:.

i mv/s.

7

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

Potential/V

Figure

23:

Currenc-Po£en_ial differen_

curves

=8mgera=ures.

¢oncen=ra=ion

i_

g/l_:er.

for

( •

1.8

(NHE)

oxida=ion

Potential

1.8

of

lim_s

2S'C;

+

yeas_

0.5 80"C;

in

- 2.0 _

12 H H2SO a a_ v

(N_E).

120"C;

O

Yeast 1SO'C).

:.C

-2.0

@

-2.5 -

CJ

E -3.0

-3.5

i I

2.0

i

2.2

2.4

2.6

1/T=K

Fi-u.':_

"'

;aria=ion -_mDera=ure.

of

:he Yea/_

,+ .

limi:in

I curren_

concen=ra:ion

i

i

2.8

I

3.0

3.2

103

dlniit-y 23.4

as

g/li_er.

func:ion

of

t

3.4

Q

1.6-,

UJ

Z >

/

I

iI

C 0

ft.

08

..

]"

6

d

-5

-4

log

.--!_r_

25 :

Curren=/Po=enr-£al

< A),

for

yeas=

in

i/Acre- 2

reia:ionship

a=

12

Yeas:

M

H2SO_.

-3

80"C

(0),

120"C

=oncen=ra=£on

([_),

23._

150"C

g/li:er.

6O A

cO

¢/3

_.¢

c_J

0

0 w

m

0 k-

4

6

Time

.--L-u:_..=

"-'"

Elec:rochemical H2$0 _ _/licer.

°

using

a

8

12

14

16

18

of electrolysis (hours)

pro_uc:ion P_

10

eiec:rode

of CO 2 duping a_

150"C.

yeas:

Yeas_

elec:roLysis

concen_r&_ion

in 1_

!2

2.0

A

UJ

:3: Z > n oiBm

q) W

O

I

-2

log

- i _',:.:: •

Z-

Curren=/pocen=ial cellulose

([]),

reia=ionship casein

(/_),

i/Acre- 2

at and

!50"C yeast

for (0)

oieic in

acid 12

M

(0) H2SO4.

/ .--.....t

6 ;..J_er" 9.38 g.,_er" 18.72 g.,ter"

--.e-

23.4 g.,ter"

3.5 _j m

/

< _m am em

/

>" 2.5-

4me .el

c-

w

F I

i

i

"

0.5

l_otential/V

Currenm-po=entlai

Fixate 28 :

waste

_-;.

,. "_

curve

(NHE)

for :he oxicht=ion of

in 12 M H2SO _ on P_ for different

?o:enulal

:,,

1.5

1

limits 0.5 1.8 v (NME).

ar:ificial

concen_raclons

Scan rate I mv/s.

fecal

of waste. T - 150"C.

Figure

29

A v

10

20

30

Dry waste concentration/g

Fibre

29:

Effec= density P=.

of aU

elec=rode.

dry wasue 150"C

in

concen=ra=ion 12 M H2SO _,

Po_en=ial

limits

A _

on

from 0.5

4o liter"

=he

anodlc

uhe volu_eurlc - 1.8 v

(NHE).

limi=ing

current

behavior Scan

ra_e

at i

_V/S.

_'* '*-""':

QUALITY"

-S

A

< =

-/

Z.

;

2.4 1/T'K

OF

PO0;_

Variation

of :he

ano_ic

zemoera=ure

on P_.

Wasue

QUALITY

Z

,

2.6

!

2.8

w

1#

iimi=in 8 curren= concen_ra=ion

dez%siry

23._

as

g/li=er.

a fu_%c=ion

of

_

9

OJ

/

_em

w ,m

.,q

u_ /

E3 / dm,e

/

2-,

® /

/ C_

Potential/V (NHE)

.=i_=e

31;

Curren= au

pocan_ial

dlfferenu

Ar:ifical !20"C;

curves

_a_perauures

was_a

for on

concencra=ion

oxida=ion

9_.

of

Pouanuial

23._

g/li=er.

ar=Ificial limi=s (_

fecal

wasue

0.5

2.0 v

(N_E].

25"C;

4, 80"C;

*

O150"C).

'-',_' _ ", _'-'!', QUALITY

-e.-2 '-,e-

, IO'_M S , 10"_M

Pe !

E J

/ /

emm .me

C

u

L_

D

1.0

" 1.5

PotentiaVV

_urren_-Pouen_iai im 12 M H2S0 _ usin$ _a"+.

:" ....."""'_;

i_AGE IS

OF F_CO._; QU/_,LITY

curves

for oxida=ion

a P_ eiec_:ode

Sweep raue _ mv/s.

(NHE)

of ar=ificial

for dlfferen_

fecal waste

concencra=ions

of

A

0

0 Imb

0 0 0 C 0 tomb

m

Gram

0

0 0

5

10

15

Time of electrolysis

?i_-_re 33:

CO 2 production P= electrode

a=

dur_n_ 150"C.

20

(hours_

biomass

eieccroiysLs

in

12 H H2SO _ using

Biomass

concencra=on

14.OA

g/lizer.

a

-T--"

"

13

C_ q

/ I


o_

@

r_ I J

10

0

20

30

40

Time of electrolysis

?L_e

_

Total _ix_ure

nltro_on of

concencranion Currenu

conuen_

aruifical 15.3

I - 800

MA.

variation

fecal

wasuo

3 g/liter.

wig and

7O

(hours)

eloc=rolysis

uring

Platinum

60

50

at

time

60"C.

electrod_

of a

Dry waste

aria

I00

sq.

cm.

25O A

0

200 -

150

i 100

ii

10

0

20

30

443

50

8t3

-

Time of electrolysis (hours)

C02

produc:!on

PbO 2 electrode g/li=er.

durin_ at

Curren=

60"C

ar:ificial Ar=ificial

I - 800

MA.

fecal fecal

waste wasue

electrolysis concen=ra=ion

using 12.2

a 2

7

6

\

k,w W ,m m

5 \

©

\ \ \

3

m

i

0

10

20

30

Time

Fizure

47'

Toual

of

organic

arulficial

]7"C)

aiecurodes

(

carbon

facal

60"C).

area

variauion

was=e

Dry

i00

of

sq.

and

was=e

cm.

4O

50

electrolysis

wi=h

urine

=wo

Currmn=

13.5

I

-

=ime

differen=

co.cenurauion

800

7C

(hours)

eiecurolysis

a=

60

MA.

3

of

a

mixuure

=emperauures

g/liuer.

P=

(

12

8 t__ W e_ I

6

o 0 k-

0 0

i

I

j

10

20

30

40

I

I

50

60

Time of electrolysis

Figure

_.8 :

Total

of

organic

ar=ificial

waste

carbon

fecal

concentration

variation

was=e 13.3

wi=h 3

wi_h

urine

g/liuer.

I

60"C

Current

80

90

(hours)

electrolysis

a=

I

70

on I -

time

PbO 2 800

of

a mixture

elec=rode. HA.

Dry

--NO

I HCO_ EQ.

POINT

_./

USABLE

I

8

"-2

pH UNITS

IN 50-+5

ml

(PHENOLPHTHALEIN) 6

4

If_wCO2 EQ. POINT

_!

--

----BREAK

OF

t _

2

1 0

I ,

20

40

I

I

I

60

80

100

MILLILITER Figure

.',9-.

Ti_ra$ion

_

IN 100 -+5 ml

(.RO.CRESOLpH UNITS ,ET.,L RED) --2 120

0.04 N TITRANT

curves

forS_

;aOH (curve a) and HCl (curve h).

cc

50cc

of

of

.04M

.04M

R2CO 3 with

Na2CO 3 with

.04H .04M

HCO 3 EQ. POINT CO2, HCO;----_ BUFFER

"

REGION_

.

1.o

J

I

0.5 _._/_._ 'f CO...'" ". ///.'." ////

/_//_,_"/ "/'_"" /' "'

2

0

11

/HCO_'.

I

_BUFFER

!

I

...-._,,

REGION

. I

V::::::_:-HCOZ, -,:';::::_._'_.."-_\.CO_-.\"-

""(" :/. _ii._._" :"_:'"::';:'"":'"'"'"":':':':':'""

4

CO 3

6

8

_'\\\\_"

10

12

specles

as

14

pH Figure

50

Fractions

of

carbona=e

a

fun¢=lom

of

pH.

• .

J'

\

_.

-

........

_, "

r'-

,..,,_

" -.',:;E'.IS

i_OOi','OUAL/TY

Eo

Urea

-0.738(a

GLucose

-0.36

)

Formaue Manni:ol

+O.02(a

Succina_e

+O.ll(a)

Glu=amine

+O.ll(a

)

Bu=araldehyde

+O.ll(a

) (Kp)

Adenine Acid

$accnaromvc_s

cerevi_

Peak

or half

wave

(a)

Caiculaced

(b)

0.LM

(c)

Aqueous

(d)

2M H2SO A on

(e)

0.LM

from

NaOH

(E_)

potentials AGof

on

Pla=inum.

buffer

(pH

are

values

5.7)

on

signified given

in Ref

[_"

i.

40.

graphi=e.

phosphate

"

_

platinum.

buffer

(pH

7.0)

on

graphite.

32 "

by

-0.432

[38]

+l.O(b)

[22_

)

Casein

Uric

Ref

EP/2

or _/2

+1.25(c

)

C3B7

+0.86(d

)

[3s!

+0.98(e

)

[39!

repec:iveiy.

Solvent

Acetic

Anodic

Elec=roiyce

acid

Limit

NaOAc

+2.0

Acetone

(nSu)4NCl04

+i.6

Acetonitrile

LiClO 4

+2.5

Acetonitrile

(Et)4NBF

Dimethylformamide

(nBu)4NClO

4

+1.6

Hethviene

(nBu)ANCl0

a

+1.8

Nitrobenzene

(nPr)ANCI0

_

+1.6

Nitrcmechane

Mg(ClO_)

Propyiene

chloride

carbona=e

+3,2

4

2

+2.2

E=ANCIO

A

+1.7

P vridine

EtANCIO

A

+3.3

Suifoiane

EtANCIO

_

+3.0

Te_ranv_rofuran

Et_NCIO

A

+1.6

33

Contents

_asce

Component

Cellulose

Casein Oleic

acid

of Art!flcial

Fecal

Weight

Waste

(kg)

% Of

Total

Dry

0.60

33%

0.43

25%

0 12

7%

0 17

10%

0 37

20%

KCI

0.04

2%

_;aCl

0 04

2%

3aCi_

0 03

i%

_a_er

2

Weigh=

S

34

ii ,__,_