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(Carter, 1882), a common species in shallow waters of the western Atlantic (cf. ..... Lamarck, J.B.P.A. de, 1814. Sur les polypiers empâtés.— Ann. Mus. Hist, Nat.

Commemorative volume for the 80th birthday of Willem Vervoort in 1997

A new sponge Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. (Poecilosclerida: Desmacididae) from Indonesia R . W . M . v a n Soest

Soest, R.W.M. van. A new sponge Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. (Poecilosclerida: Desmacididae) from Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 323, 31.xii.1998: 427-434, figs 1-3.— ISSN 0024-1652/ISBN 90-73239-68-0. R.W.M. van Soest, Institute for Systematics and Ecology (Zoologisch Museum), University of Amsterdam, P.O. Box 94766,1090 GT Amsterdam, e-mail: [email protected] Key words: Porifera; Indonesia; new species; Desmapsamma. A new poecilosclerid sponge species Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. is described from several Indonesian localities: Ambon, Jedan, Salayar, Komodo, Java, and Irian Jaya. The species was earlier reported from several Indo-Pacific localities as D. anchorata (Carter, 1882), a common Caribbean shallow water species. Comparison with Caribbean specimens makes it clear that Indo-Pacific specimens demonstrate small but consistent differences.

Introduction Several Indo-Pacific sponge species still bear names of species o r i g i n a l l y described f r o m the western A t l a n t i c a n d Caribbean. A n example is Desmapsamma anchorata (Carter, 1882), a c o m m o n species i n s h a l l o w waters of the western A t l a n t i c (cf. V a n Soest, 1984), w h i c h has been reported f r o m N o r t h - E a s t A u s t r a l i a (Burton, 1934), a n d East A f r i c a (Burton, 1959; Pulitzer-Finali, 1993). It is likely that Indo-Pacific specimens reported as Desmacidon reptans R i d l e y & D e n d y (1887) f r o m Japan (Tanita & H o s h i n o , 1990) a n d the South C h i n a Sea ( L i n d g r e n , 1897) b e l o n g to the same species, since D. reptans - o r i g i n a l l y described f r o m B r a z i l - is generally considered a junior s y n o n y m of D. anchorata. O n close examination, other w i d e - s p r e a d Indo-Pacific/western A t l a n t i c 'species' i n v a r i a b l y t u r n e d out to consist of closely related b u t clearly different sister species. T w o sponge examples m a y suffice to illustrate this: (1) Biemna tubulata (Dendy, 1905) w a s o r i g i n a l l y recorded f r o m the I n d i a n O c e a n a n d subsequently f r o m the C a r i b b e a n (De Laubenfels, 1936; V a n Soest, 1984); specimens f r o m the latter area are n o w considered to represent a separate species, Biemna caribea P u l i t z e r - F i n a l i (1986). (2) Lissodendoryx isodictyalis (Carter, 1882) w a s o r i g i n a l l y described f r o m the Caribbean, a n d subsequently f r o m e.g. Indonesia (Carter, 1886; Topsent, 1897); the Indonesian specimens were described as t w o different species, v i z . L. similis a n dL.ternatensis b y Thiele (1899; 1903), w h i c h w a s c o n f i r m e d b y later authors (e.g. H o f m a n & v a n Soest, 1995). In line w i t h these c o m p a r i s o n s I m a d e a close s t u d y of Siboga E x p e d i t i o n a n d I n d o n e s i a n - D u t c h Snellius II E x p e d i t i o n samples p r o v i s i o n a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as Desmapsamma anchorata, a n d c o m p a r e d the results w i t h Curaçao, Bonaire a n d C o l o m b i a n samples. T h i s s t u d y revealed that b o t h sets of samples s h o w s m a l l b u t consistent differences a n d a c c o r d i n g l y the Indonesian samples are referable to a n e w species, w h i c h w i l l be described b e l o w .

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Material and methods Specimens f r o m the f o l l o w i n g localities w e r e s t u d i e d , a l l i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the P o r i f e r a collection of the Zoölogisch M u s e u m A m s t e r d a m : Z M A P O R . 836 (Siboga E x p e d i t i o n Sta. 162, labelled Desmapsamma anchorata, det. M . Burton), 838 (Siboga E x p e d i t i o n Sta. ?7, labelled Desmapsamma anchorata, det. M . B u r ton), 839 (Siboga E x p e d i t i o n Sta. 273, labelled Desmapsamma anchorata, det. M . Burton), 841 (836 ( A m b o n , coll. W i l l e m s Geerooms, labelled Desmacidon reptans, n o identifier mentioned, p r e s u m a b l y G.C.J.Vosmaer), 844 ( A m b o n , coll. W i l l e m s Geeroms, labelled Desmacidon reptans, n o identifier mentioned, p r e s u m a b l y G . C . J . Vosmaer), 2754 (Siboga E x p e d i t i o n Sta. 213, labelled Desmapsamma anchorata, det. M . Burton), 7887 (Snellius II E x p e d i t i o n Sta. 4.010, labelled Desmapsamma s p e c , det. R. v a n Soest), 8190 (Snellius II E x p e d i t i o n 4.007, labelled Desmapsamma s p e c , det. R. v a n Soest), 8206 (Snellius II Exped i t i o n Sta. 4.007, labelled Desmapsamma s p e c , det. R. v a n Soest), 8403 (Snellius II Exped i t i o n Sta. 4.079, labelled Desmapsamma s p e c , det. R. v a n Soest). F o r c o m p a r i s o n specimens i n the Z M A collections i d e n t i f i e d as Desmapsamma anchorata f r o m Curaçao, Bonaire, V e n e z u e l a , C o l o m b i a (cf. V a n Soest, 1984) a n d the C a p e V e r d e Islands (cf. V a n Soest, 1993) w e r e also s t u d i e d . P r e p a r a t i o n for light m i c r o s c o p y a n d S E M f o l l o w e d the u s u a l procedures (see for instance V a n Soest, 1984). Spicule size data are based o n 25 measurements. Taxonomic part P h y l u m Porifera Class D e m o s p o n g i a e O r d e r Poecilosclerida Suborder M y x i l l i n a H a j d u et al., 1994 D e f i n i t i o n : Poecilosclerida w i t h tridentate or polydentate, arcuate o r anchorate chelae. F a m i l y D e s m a c i d i d a e S c h m i d t , 1870 E m e n d e d d e f i n i t i o n : M y x i l l i n a w i t h tridentate anchorate o r unguiferate chelae a n d d i a c t i n a l ( n o r m a l l y oxeote) megascleres. N o m o r p h o l o g i c a l differentiation i n ectosomal a n d c h o a n o s o m a l megascleres. R e m a r k s : T h e contents of the f a m i l y D e s m a c i d i d a e are here n a r r o w e d d o w n to i n c l u d e o n l y the type genus Desmacidon a n d the closely related genus Desmapsamma. T h i s is i n s p i r e d b y recent refinements m a d e b y H a j d u et al., 1994, i n the classification of the Poecilosclerida, based o n the shape of the chelae a n d the differentiation a n d shape of the megascleres. A former, v e r y w i d e concept of D e s m a c i d i d a e (often cited as " D e s m a c i d o n i d a e " ) has been s h o w n to be inconsistent a n d untenable ( H a j d u et al., 1994). D e s m a c i d i d a e are the sister f a m i l y of the M y x i l l i d a e s.S., f r o m w h i c h they differ i n the lack of styles. It is p r e s u m e d that these have become replaced b y the ectosomal tornotes w h i c h are p r e d o m i n a n t l y oxeas i n D e s m a c i d i d a e .

Van Soest, Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. from Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 323 (1998)

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G e n u s Desmapsamma B u r t o n , 1934 T y p e species: Fibularia anchorata Carter, 1882 D e f i n i t i o n : D e s m a c i d i d a e w i t h p a u c i s p i c u l a r isotropic reticulation; s a n d i s nor­ m a l l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n variable quantities, especially f o u n d at the surface. R e m a r k s : The m a i n differences w i t h the o n l y other genus currently assigned to the f a m i l y , i.e. Desmacidon, are the m o r e anisotropic system of thick spicule tracts a n d the absence of s a n d of that genus. Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. n o v . (figs 1, 2 A - E , 3 A - E ) Desmacidon reptans Lindgren, 1897: 21; ?Tanita & Hoshino, 1990:127, pi. 13 fig.3, text-fig. 78 (not: Rid­ ley & Dendy, 1886: 345). Desmapsamma anchorata Burton, 1934: 547; Burton, 1959: 239; Pulitzer-Finali, 1993: 295; Hooper & Wiedenmayer, 1994:165 (not: Fibularia anchorata Carter, 1882: 283). ?Desmapsamma sp. 800 Hooper, 1994:104, table I. Material.— Holotype: Z M A POR. 8190, Dutch-Indonesian Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 4.007, 03°38'S 128°12Έ, Ambon Bay, Guru-Guru, near Eri, 7/111/26, 3.ix.l984, muddy coral reef, 4-10 m, coll. R.W.M. van Soest. Paratypes: Z M A POR. 8206, Dutch-Indonesian Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 4.007, 03°38'S 128°12Έ, Ambon Bay, Guru-Guru, near Eri, 7/III/43, 3.ix.l984, muddy coral reef, 4-10 m, coll. R.W.M. van Soest; Z M A POR. 7887, Dutch-Indonesian Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 4.010, Ambon Bay, inner bay, Ε of Tawiri, 10/11/12, 6.ix.l984, muddy shore, 1-4 m, coll. J . C den Hartog; Z M A POR. 8403, DutchIndonesian Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 4.079, 08°35"S 119°34.2'E, Komodo Island, Selat Linta, 79/III/29, 18.ix.1984, 4-11 m, coral reef, coll. R.W.M. van Soest; Z M A POR. 836, Siboga Expedition, Sta. 162, ca. 01°S 130°E, between Loslos and Broken Islands, W coast of Salawatti, Vogelkop Peninsu­ la, SE 1868, 18.viii.1899; Z M A POR. 838, Siboga Expedition, Sta. ?7, 07°55'S 114°26Έ, Batjulmati, East Java, SE 1562IV, ll.iii.1899, 15 m, coral; Z M A POR. 839, Siboga Expedition, Sta. 273, ca. 05°S 135°E, Jedan Island, Aru Islands, SE 145ÍA, 23.xii.1899, 13 m; Z M A POR. 841, Ambon, coll. Willems Geer­ ooms, no further data; Z M A POR. 844, Ambon, coll. Willems Geerooms, no further data; Z M A POR. 2754, Siboga Expedition, Sta. 213, ca. 06°S 120°E, Salayer SE 256, 26.X.1899,36 m.

C o l o u r . — Surface encrusted b y a thinner or thicker coat of s a n d grains w h i c h m a y cause the c o l o u r to range f r o m r e d d i s h b r o w n to g r e y i s h b l u e . U n d e r n e a t h this s a n d coat the c o l o u r is r e d or orange. Shape, size, surf ace a n d consistency (f ig. 1).— M a s s i v e l y encrusting, of ten w i t h elongate lobes or branches w h i c h m a y creep a l o n g the substrate. There m a y be also t h i n f istule-like outcrops i s s u i n g f r o m the u p p e r surf ace. Size of h o l o t y p e 6 χ 2.5 x 2 c m , of paratypes 2-10 x 1-3 χ 0.5-2 c m , l e n g t h of creeping branches u p to 12 c m o r m o r e . Surf ace irregular, a bit r o u g h i n appearance, sand-encrusted. Oscules f ree f r o m s a n d crust, s m a l l , of ten w i t h a star-like system of canals l e a d i n g to them. T h i s i s not apparent i n p r e s e r v e d samples. C o n s i s t e n c y compressible, so f t or s l i g h t l y f i r m , easily damaged. S p i c u l e s . — Megascleres oxeas (f igs 2 C , 3 A ) w i t h c y l i n d r i c a l shape (shaf t i s o d i a metric over most of its length), s l i g h t l y c u r v e d , w i t h sharp, occasionally mucronate, apices; size: 186-197.2-213 x 7-8.4-10 μιη (holotype), 150-215 x 7-11 μπι (holotype a n d paratypes).

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Fig. 1. Holotype of Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. (ZMA POR. 8190), photo L.A. van der Laan.

M i c r o s c l e r e s i n t w o size categories of anchorate-spatulate chelae (figs 2E, 3B-C), I: 18-19.5-21 μιτι (holotype a n d paratypes); II: 1 0 - Π . 8 - 1 3 μιτι (holotype a n d paratypes). Three size categories of sigmas (figs 2 D , 3 D - E ) , I: 33-36.6-40 μιη (holotype a n d paratypes); II: 18-23.5-29 μιη (holotype a n d paratypes); III: 12-13.9-15 (holotype a n d paratypes). S k e l e t o n . — E c t o s o m a l skeleton (fig. 2 A ) a n isotropic reticulation of oxeas a n d s a n d grains, i n variable quantities. I n the h o l o t y p e the s a n d coat is relatively l i g h t a n d spicules are r e a d i l y r e c o g n i z e d , i n other specimens the coat is m u c h thicker a n d c o n ­ sists almost entirely of a s a n d reticulation. M i c r o s c l e r e s at the surface are p r e d o m i ­ n a n t l y the smallest categories of chelae a n d sigmas. T h e c h o a n o s o m a l skeleton (fig. 2B) also is basically a n isotropic arrangement of tracts consisting of 2-5 oxeas, i n places encrusted or strengthened b y s a n d grains a n d b r o k e n spicules. T h e reticulation is rather i r r e g u l a r a n d occasionally confused. S a n d grains are less d o m i n a n t than at the surface. E c o l o g y . — I n s h a l l o w water, f r o m the i n t e r t i d a l z o n e d o w n to 45 m ; it is appar­ ently c o m m o n i n s e d i m e n t e d reef areas, w h e r e it encrusts d e a d a n d p o s s i b l y also l i v e corals. D i s t r i b u t i o n . — Indonesia, S o u t h C h i n a Sea, southern Japan, N o r t h - E a s t A u s t r a l i a , East A f r i c a . E t y m o l o g y . — N a m e d i n h o n o u r of Prof. D r W . V e r v o o r t o n the occasion of h i s 80th b i r t h d a y i n a c k n o w l e d g m e n t f o r h i s contributions to o u r k n o w l e d g e of m a r i n e invertebrate b i o d i v e r s i t y . D i s c u s s i o n . — T h e n e w species is v e r y s i m i l a r i n m i c r o s c o p i c a l characters to the

Van Soest, Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. from Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 323 (1998)

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Fig. 2. Drawings of microscopical details of Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. A , view of ectosomal skeleton showing the reticulation of oxeas and sand grains; B, choanosomal skeleton in section per­ pendicular to the surface, showing the reticulation of oxeas and sand grains; C, representative oxea and alternative morphologies of the apices observed in a spicule slide of the holotype; D, three size categories of sigmas; Ε, two size categories of spatulate anchorate isochelae.

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Van Soest, Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. from Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 323 (1998)

Fig. 3A-E. SEM photos of spicules of Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. A , large anchorate isochela; B, small anchorate isochela; C, a larger and a smaller category of anchorate isochelae; D, opposite apices of the same oxea; E, sigmas, F-G: SEM photos of isochelae of Desmapsamma anchorata from Curaçao (ZMA POR. 10755).

Van Soest, Desmapsamma vervoorti spec. nov. from Indonesia. Zool. Verh. Leiden 323 (1998)

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western A t l a n t i c Desmapsamma anchorata (Carter, 1882). H o w e v e r , the geographic sepa­ ration makes conspecificity of the Indo-Pacific a n d C a r i b b e a n p o p u l a t i o n s u n l i k e l y u n d e r a n y species concept other than a strictly m o r p h o l o g i c a l one. M o r e o v e r , a close c o m p a r i s o n w i t h western A t l a n t i c specimens i n the Z M A collection revealed the f o l ­ l o w i n g differences: C o l o u r : W e s t e r n A t l a n t i c specimens i n v a r i a b l y s h o w shades of p i n k or p i n k i s h orange, whereas the Indonesian specimens are b r o w n i s h or g r e y i s h . Surface: S m o o t h i n w e s t e r n A t l a n t i c specimens, r o u g h i n I n d o n e s i a n specimens. Oscules: L a r g e a n d often o n volcanoe-shaped lobes i n w e s t e r n A t l a n t i c speci­ mens, i n c o n s p i c u o u s a n d f l u s h , w i t h star-shaped canals l e a d i n g to t h e m i n Indone­ sian specimens. Oxeas: 144-165-190 χ 5 μιη i n w e s t e r n A t l a n t i c specimens, 150-200-213 x 8.5 μιη i n Indonesian specimens, thus o v e r l a p p i n g b u t w i t h significantly different average. Sigmas: T w o size categories i n w e s t e r n A t l a n t i c specimens, three i n I n d o n e s i a n specimens. These differences, t h o u g h s e e m i n g l y t r i v i a l w h e n considered separately, i n c o m ­ b i n a t i o n indicate that there are at least t w o closely related b u t clearly different species, D. anchorata a n d D. vervoorti spec. n o v . A c c o r d i n g to H o o p e r & W i e d e n m a y e r (1994) a t h i r d species of Desmapsamma, D. turbo (Carter, 1885; as Holopsamma), m a y exist i n S o u t h A u s t r a l i a . Its o r i g i n a l descrip­ t i o n m e n t i o n s n o spicules, its skeleton b e i n g entirely b u i l t f r o m s a n d grains. D e n d y (1896) c l a i m e d to have f o u n d t i n y chelae a n d t h i n styles i n a fragment of Carter's s p e c i m e n i n the B r i t i s h M u s e u m , o n the basis of w h i c h he assigned it to Esperiopsis, a genus of the M y c a l i d a e , suborder M y c a l i n a . T h e assignment to Desmapsamma b y H o o p e r & W i e d e n m a y e r (1994) w a s n o t e x p l a i n e d a n d m u s t therefore be considered tentative. The assignment of Tanita & H o s h i n o ' s (1990) specimens f r o m S a g a m i Bay, Japan, to o u r n e w species is not certain, because the oxea size q u o t e d b y these authors (110125 μιη) is far b e l o w the size f o u n d i n o u r specimens; also the authors d o n o t m e n t i o n the presence of s a n d grains i n their d e s c r i p t i o n . It is possible that their material belongs to a genuine Desmacidon species. The coasts of W e s t A f r i c a also h a r b o u r p o p u l a t i o n s of sponges i d e n t i f i e d as Desmapsamma anchorata (cf. B u r t o n , 1956; Levi, 1959; V a n Soest, 1993). T h e colour (dark b r o w n ) of l i v e specimens f r o m the C a p e V e r d e Islands is different f r o m those f r o m the C a r i b b e a n , b u t this m a y be d u e to the p r e d o m i n a n c e of v o l c a n i c s a n d i n the C a p e V e r d e Islands. T h e o v e r a l l shape w i t h oscules o n volcanoe-shaped lobes is s i m i ­ lar to the shape of C a r i b b e a n specimens. F o r the time b e i n g it is therefore a s s u m e d that the W e s t A f r i c a n specimens are conspecific w i t h those f r o m the C a r i b b e a n . Acknowledgements M r J. V e r m e u l e n ( Z M A ) m a d e the S E M photos of the spicules. M r J.C. d e n H a r t o g ( N N M ) collected one of the paratype specimens. D r J. v a n d e r L a n d ( N N M ) i n v i t e d m e to participate i n the D u t c h - I n d o n e s i a n Snellius II e x p e d i t i o n i n September 1984.

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