Accepted Abstracts

7 downloads 20 Views 2MB Size Report
However, a significant increase in market share, sales and customer ..... deploy same to their selfish advantage of securing their second term ticket during ..... that if the educational system particularly, the academia is free of corruption,.
International Conference on Sustainable Development 2014 South Africa Jointly presented by the International Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Law (ICIRL) at Laurentian University, Canada, Centre for Research in Social Justice and Policy (CRSJP) at Laurentian University, Canada Department of Politics and International Studies (POLIS), University of Zululand, South Africa and Ontario International Development Agency (OIDA), Canada.

Accepted Abstracts Conference location Protea Hotel Water Front Richards Bay Corner of Bridgetown and Pioneer Roads, Tuzi Gazi Waterfront, Richards Bay 3900, South Africa

December 02 - 03, 2014

1

Blank page

2

Ref#: 001/SA/14/SSHD Contemporary Security Treats and Terrorism in Socio-Economic and Political Development of Nigeria Akintunde Bukola Akinola Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Business and Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Security is generally accepted to be about the condition of feeling of safety, the protection and preservation of core values and the absence of threats to these values. It also has to do with freedom from danger or from threats to a nation’s ability to protect and develop itself, promotes its cherished values and legitimate interests. Security is crucial to the survival of any nation-state. Without adequate security of lives and property, the society will be plunged into the Hobbesian state of nature manifesting lawlessness, chaos and eventually disintegration. Security is not just a scared value for humans, groups and nations, it is the ultimate value. Security in the world today has become a seriously endangered value. Nigeria’s contemporary constitution actually asserts that the security and welfare of Nigerians shall be primary duty of government. Unfortunately today, Nigeria has become the country where citizens are most endangered. Apart from the dangers posed by corruption, citizens are daily exposed to the fires from armed robbers, rapists, assassins, thugs, ritualists, human traffickers, arms traffickers cross-border bandits, drug traffickers, kidnappers, militants and above all terrorists. This paper examines the implication of contemporary security treats and terrorism of Boko Haram and Ansaru on the socio-economic and political development of Nigeria. The paper however, adopts classical theories to explain security, insecurity and terrorism from normative, qualitative and value judgement point of view. These nourished two important lines of thought, realism and idealism, which contributed greatly to the understanding of the nature, determinants and dynamics of the concepts of security, insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria. Realism is central to the security paradigm. The approach was developed under the basic assumption that competition and conflict among nations continue in some form or the other. It stresses the struggle for power or the contest for power among nations. Most nations revolve around this power paradigm for protecting their security. They adapt various means like balance of power, deterrence and alliances, for effective check of the contest for power. The theory is basically concerned with the interests of various groups and nations, and ensures the welfare of human kind. This paper however utilizes content analysis to practically examine the problem of insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria and concludes that to curtail instability, insecurity and terrorism in Nigeria, there is a need to embrace a political system of government that gives more power to the federating units rather than concentrating so much power at the centre. Keywords: Development, Economy, Politics, Security Treats, Terrorism.

3

Ref#: 002/SAF/14/SSHD Building Sustainability in the Township Retail Supply Chain: An Exploratory Study of Third Party Distribution Justin Henley Beneke School of Management Studies, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract In the South African retail market, Township retail outlets have different needs to ordinary retail stores, thus creating a problem for manufacturers of Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) on how to distribute their products effectively to these retailers. This paper aims to investigate the various forms of Third Party Distribution and how effectively they are able to service the Township retail industry. In doing so, sustainability in the supply of such merchandise can be built and maintained. The literature determined that using Third Party Distributors allows companies to focus on their core activities as well as reduce costs. Three models of Third Party Distribution were identified, namely Asset-Based Vendors, Warehouse clubs and Hybrid Models. With regards to Township retail, three major typologies of retailers operate in that sector, namely Hawkers, Spazas and General Dealers. When conducting the empirical research, a large portion of findings coincided with that of the literature. However, previously undocumented findings were also recorded. Some major findings include the improved access to facilities that township retailers possess, as well as new unique forms of distribution discovered within the townships. In terms of FMCG companies, it was found that costs were not significantly reduced when outsourcing distribution. However, a significant increase in market share, sales and customer satisfaction was confirmed. In particular, certain products seem to be delivered though specific models. Staples such as milk and bread are most likely to be delivered by the company concerned, whereas most other products are obtained from Warehouse Clubs (as much as 80% in some cases). In terms of the performance of a business, it can be seen that there are no significant cost savings associated with the use of a Third Party. Another effect of Third Party Distribution indicates a direct and positive relationship between outsourcing the distribution function and Market Share, where the greatest gains tend to be obtained from the use of Warehouse Clubs, followed by Asset-Based Vendors and then Hybrid Models. A similar relationship was discovered between outsourcing and sales (by volume) as well as in customer satisfaction, where it was found to be improved. Asset-Based Vendors were found to be the most accessible form of distribution for companies. They are the most extensively used method and provide moderate to good improvements in Sales, Market Share and Customer Satisfaction. This is largely due to them being able to meet the unique requirements of Township retailers, namely smaller volumes at higher delivery frequencies at a lower cost than that of the FMCG Company. Based on the results obtained it is clear that Hybrid models present significant benefits to companies who are able to establish and maintain such a system. Thus we recommend the undertaking of such a distribution model as it would provide for excellent first mover advantage, particularly in industries where this distribution is not particularly common (i.e. household products). With this long-term strategic view, companies may be able achieve significant improvements in performance, especially as these models become more efficient. However it is recommended that these models should not completely replace all other forms of distribution as the costs inhibit its complete adoption as a means to service Township retailers exclusively. Furthermore, it is still more efficient to conduct direct deliveries to some of the larger retailers as the transportation methods typically employed (small trucks etc.) by hybrid models do not allow for large volumes of goods to be transported at any one time. Keywords: Food, Retail, South Africa, Supply, Township

4

Ref#: 003/SAF/14/SSHD Harnessing the Economic Potentials of Borno State for Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria a,b

Shettima Bulama Mustapha a, Undiandeye Ukwapu C. b, Gwary M. Musa c Department of Agricultural Extension Services, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Poverty alleviation is one of the most difficult challenges facing any country in the developing world, where on the average, majority of the population is considered poor. Evidences in Nigeria shows that the number of those in poverty has continued to increase and Borno state was acknowledged to be at the forefront. Governments and institutions have the capacity to enhance both the viability and the attractiveness of options by providing programs and incentives, leading to the promotion of peace & development and reduction in poverty. This paper, therefore attempts to identify sustainable poverty alleviation strategies for harnessing the economic potentials of Borno state, Nigeria. The paper described the concept of poverty, its causes & alleviation, and ascertained the economic potentials for poverty alleviation in Borno State. The paper also identified the approaches for designing sustainable poverty alleviation programmes and investigated sustainable strategies in harnessing economic potentials for poverty alleviation in Borno State. Furthermore, challenges of harnessing economic potentials for poverty alleviation in Borno State were identified. The paper recommended that conducive policy environment should be established through strengthening development partnerships, supporting the agricultural sector and development of infrastructure in Borno state. Keywords: Economic potentials, Harnessing, Poverty alleviation, Sustainable strategies, Nigeria

5

Ref#: 004/SAF/14/SSHD

Parental Challenges while rearing their child with Autism; an Indian perspective Santoshi Halder a, Bappa Adak b Department of Education, University of Calcutta, Alipore Campus, Kolkata-700027, India. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Autism is a neurological developmental disorder typically diagnosed between the ages of three years. It is characterized by deficits in speech, sociability, sensory perception, cognitive awareness, health, and physical behaviour. Parenting or rearing a child with autism is indeed one of the most challenging experiences which starts at birth and goes on throughout life. Empirical evidence suggests that parents of children with Autism face more challenges than parents of typically functioning children. In fact parents faced dual challenges at one hand coping with their own frustrations and needs and on the other hand satisfying their childs’ needs. Parents face multiple challenges like medical barriers, financial barriers, educational barriers, social barriers, psychological barriers, informational barriers, day to day challenges and health care factors. The study identified various challenges faced by the mothers of children with ASD. The study implemented descriptive analyses with supporting case studies. Information was gathered from the 30 selected mothers of Children with Autism already diagnosed in an around Kolkata (Eastern part of India), one of the most populated part of India. Purposive sampling technique was used. Participants responded to the General information schedule comprising demographic details about the child and mothers and Barrier faced by mother’s questionnaire. Findings have implications for management of barriers associated with parenting a child with Autism and for future child and parent programs, health care, education and service system. Keywords: Autism, Barriers faced by parents, Parenting, Challenges of inclusion

6

Ref#: 005/SAF/14/SD Withdrawn

7

Ref#: 006/SAF/14/SSH The Diary of Anne Frank: Dark tourism in context a,b

Graham Donald Busby a, Helen Devereux b Faculty of Business, Plymouth University, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA, United Kingdom. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Background: Tourism takes many forms; dark tourism concerns visits to tragedy sites. Throughout academic literature, dark tourism has been referred to using many different terms including thanatourism (Seaton 1996), including morbid tourism (Blom 2000) and black spot tourism (Rojek 1993). Although, dark tourism seems to be the most commonly accepted, these terms are described by academics as interchangeable (Dunkley et al 2007). Despite similar characteristics of literary tourists, which tend to belong to a highly educated group of consumers (Herbert, 2001), researchers tend to agree that visitors’ expectations and motivations will differ across literary sites and depend upon their location, a site’s qualities, and the popularity of a literary figure, associated with them (Busby & Shetliffe 2013). Purpose: A review of the literature suggests that whilst motivations for undertaking dark tourism have been studied, there has been little research into what influences these motivations. This study examines whether literature, specifically The Diary of Anne Frank, can influence the motivation to visit dark tourism sites by raising awareness. Methods: The primary data collection was undertaken with a questionnaire and used convenience sampling. The pilot survey involved 8 respondents. From 400 questionnaires issued, a response rate of 82.75% was secured (n=331); 55% of respondents being female and 45% male. A limitation to this research is the age factor. The book ‘Anne Frank – Diary of a Young Girl’ is often aimed at and read by young adults. Considering this, a suitable market to aim the questionnaire at would be secondary school children. However, a limitation in the research is the parental consent needed for under 18’s when answering questionnaires. Findings: With a mean age of 47, it is surprising that nearly 60% were graduates; 51% of respondents had read the book. There was a significant association (99% level) between gender and whether the book had been read; perhaps, not surprisingly, there was a similar level of association between those who had read the book and a wish to visit the location in Amsterdam, indicating the direct influence of literature. Many other statistical associations were tested. Conclusion: Respondents who had read the book were more likely to be encouraged to visit the site of the ‘Secret Annexe’ than those who had not. This shows the direct impact that a book can have on the visitation of a site that is not associated with leisure concepts. On the other hand, although many respondents stated that having read the book would encourage them to visit, few had actually acted upon this. It was also indicated that film and television programmes are the most influential out of the five media types discussed, in educating and making people aware of the Holocaust. Keywords: Anne Frank; dark tourism; literary tourism

8

Ref#: 07/SAF/14/SD Can ISO 9001 certification of water utilities in developing countries be used to evaluate institutional sustainability? Sam Kayaga School of Civil and Building Engineering, Loughborough University, Loughborough, Leicestershire LE11 3TU, UK. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Provision of reliable water services is critical for sustainable development. Next year (2015), the United Nations will review achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Based on previous trends, it is estimated that about 700 million people will not have access to safe drinking water in 2015 (WHO/UNICEF, 2010). During the post-2015 era, urban water utilities in less developed regions of the world will face greater challenges in extending and sustainably providing water services, where, it is projected, the urban population will increase from 2.57 billion in 2010, to 3.95 billion in 2030 (UN-Habitat, 2010). Consistent with various scholars such as Brinkerhoff and Goldsmith (1992), we argue in this paper that there can be no sustainable development in any sector without the support of effective and sustainable institutions. Whereas indicators for measuring improved quality of service are established in policy and practice, there has been no agreement between policy makers, practitioners and academicians on how best to measure institutional sustainability. An increasing number of urban water utilities in developing countries are adopting quality management systems (QMS) based on ISO 9000 series of standards in order to improve their performance. This paper reports on the results of a study commissioned by the World Bank to assess whether ISO 9001 QMS offer a sound framework for evaluating institutional sustainability of urban water utilities. The study was conducted in 2011/12 through a comprehensive literature review and primary data collection from two case study urban water utilities in sub-Saharan Africa. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews and questionnaires with senior and middle-level managers; Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with lower cadre staff of the utilities; and analysis of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) before and after ISO certification. Evidence from the literature showed that there is a plausible link between ISO 9000 QMS standards and institutional sustainability. Field data from the two African water utilities corroborated the findings from the literature. However, findings from the case studies indicate that there is no causal link between ISO 9001 certification and institutional sustainability. The study shows that the purpose and motivation for implementing ISO 9001 QMS are important moderating factors. Furthermore, ISO 9001 framework does not adequately cater for many factors in the external environment of the service providers, which are critical for institutional sustainability. There is need, therefore, to develop a more effective assessment tool for tracking a water utility’s progress towards institutional sustainability. Keywords: Developing Countries, Institutional Sustainability, ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems, Sustainable Development, Urban Water Utilities

9

Ref#: 008/CAN/14/SSH Second Tenure Syndrome and Consolidation of Electoral Democracy in Nigeria: A Reflection on the 4th Republic Ezeh Chubah Damian Department of Political Science, Anambra State University, Igbariam Campus, Southeast Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract With an increasing wave of global appeal, democracy as a practice has no doubt become the most acceptable form of government in modern times for both the developed and developing states obviously for its majoritarian appeal and the capacity to sustain national development and sense of belonging to the citizenry. However, the Nigerian democracy of the 4th republic has taken an obvious new twist following from the rising appetite for a second tenure bid in office by many political incumbents who were elected to serve for a term of four years in the first instance but are now clamoring for what they term, second term bid as if to say that democracy confers electoral mandate outside the power of the ballot box. As most African states have been thrown into a new sense of learning along the lines of democratic practice, some unusual behaviors have continued to manifest itself which often times tend to compromise the democratic spirit and its consolidation in the African environment one of which has remained the desire for a second term in office or outright perpetuation in office both of which may be antithetical to the tenets of true democracy the world over. In her fifteen (15) years of unbroken democratic sustainability, the Nigerian state has got to contain with the insatiable appetite of political leaders who are bent at either perpetuating themselves in office or earning a second term in office at the expense of the ballot box, the practice which has led to a brazen quest for political victory by all means or its aftermath as a do or die affair. This work is therefore an attempt to periscope the impact of the increasing wave of political office holder’s desire for a second term in office on Nigeria’s over all democratic sustainability and the political economy implications of such a desire. Employing therefore the content methodology and the Marxian class theory of the state as a framework of analysis, the work was able to find out amongst others that the desire for a second term in office among Nigerian politicians has always overheated the democratic space thereby subjecting it to a contest of do or die affair. Secondly, the urge has exacerbated the craze among politicians to hoard state scarce resources only to deploy same to their selfish advantage of securing their second term ticket during elections thereby aiding and abetting political corruptions of various magnitudes. Based on the above, this paper recommends that African states in general and Nigeria in particular should rather opt for a political tenure of a single five (5) year term as a means of mitigating the daring effects of second tenure ambition at all costs among her political class. Keywords: Democracy, Democratic consolidation, Election, Electoral Democracy, Second tenure

10

Ref#: 009/SAF/14/SSH Impeachment at Local Government Leve and The Global Concern: Nigeria as A Case Study Fatai Ayisa Olasupo Department of Local Government Studies, Faculty of Administration, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun-State, Nigeria Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Of recent, Local Government or what is known in some other countries as Mayor is – and for the first time – attracting global attention over impeachment process and its attendant theatrics. Beginning with the Mayor of Toronto who for more than one week entertained the world on Cable Network News (CNN); to the Mayor of Kampala in Uganda; Mayor of Bogota in Colombia; and the countless number of impeached Local Government Chairmen in Nigeria, the stories are the same. Reactions are the same across the globe; first, for the Mayors themselves, second, for their supporters and, thirdly, for other extraneous factors in the impeachment process. In all of these countries, there are deep involvements of central as well as provincial governments in the impeachments of Mayors for one reason or the other leading to series of theatrics that entertain the local electorate in particular and the general public in general. This paper intends to use Nigeria as a case study of not just how Federal and Provincial governments as well as other godfathers interfere with affairs of Local governments and thus render their (Mayors’) autonomies useless against the wish of the Constitutions or Charters, as the case may be, that set them up. Keywords: Local government, Provincial government, Constitution, Charter

11

Ref#: 010/SAF/14/SD Withdrawn

12

Ref#: 011/SAF/14/SD Monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for sustainable development in Sedibeng District Municipality Shikha Vyas-Doorgapersad a, Engenine Zwane b Public Management and Administration, Faculty of Humanities, Vaal Triangle Campus (North-West University), South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The restructuring of local governance in South Africa requires municipalities to serve the communities within their areas of jurisdiction. This has brought capacity challenges for the municipalities. They are charged with delivering acceptable standards of services to the residents. The current lack of deliverance is evident in the widespread protests, with community members showing their dissatisfaction with sub-standard service delivery and backlogs. Furthermore, municipalities are required to formulate their own by-laws to improve the lives of community members, and to implement their legislative mandates satisfactorily. In order for the municipalities to perform more effectively a transformative model is necessary. The quality of services currently delivered at municipal level must be reviewed. Monitoring and evaluation, key elements of assessment must be undertaken. The rationale behind this monitoring and evaluation is to make the system of governance more effective by an even-handed assessment of policies, programmes, projects, strategies, performance of personnel, and indeed of the organization as a whole. The article is based on a study conducted to investigate the implementation of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms at South African municipal level. The local government structure requires more attention because of marked skill challenges. However, there is a need not only to enhance the performance of employees but also the quality of services provided and the effective management of municipalities as a whole. The focus area of this research is Sedibeng District Municipality (SDM), a Category C municipality in the Gauteng Province. The study was based on the hypothesis that effective monitoring and evaluation mechanisms can provide sustainable development in Sedibeng District Municipality with improved service delivery. In order to validate the hypothesis, empirically based questionnaires on the monitoring and evaluation, and service delivery were utilized. Frequency analysis, which lends itself to correlation analysis, of employees’ responses and residents’ responses was conducted using the Pearson Correlation. The study tried to identify gaps within municipal capabilities to assess community needs. The quantitative study has revealed gaps in infrastructure delivery related to lack of capability mainly in primary resources, viz. financial, technical and human. The capabilities of Sedibeng District Municipality require effective utilization of these primary resources, resulting in acceptable standards of service delivery to satisfy community needs. The municipal performance to address community needs can be identified, reviewed, prioritized and strategized through a Municipal Assessment Tool, discussed in a proposed model called as Monitoring and Evaluation for Sustainable Development (MESD). Once the above model is in place the municipality may well achieve a level of efficiency towards sustainable development. Keywords: monitoring and evaluation; municipal assessment tool; Sedibeng District Municipality; service delivery; sustainable development.

13

Ref#: 012/SAF/14/SD Assessing the role of gender in local governance [political context]: the case of South African municipalities Shikha Vyas-Doorgapersad Public Management and Administration, Faculty of Humanities, Vaal Triangle Campus (North-West University), South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Due to social and economic factors, gender inequality persists in society requiring initiatives for women empowerment. It is vital that government policies must be gender-sensitive incorporating the elements of genderdisaggregated data, gender-based demography, gender-based tasks and gender equality resulting into women empowerment. The review of relevant literature, official documents and international/regional/national policies [descriptive and analytical methodology] reveal the lack of women participation in political decision-making, especially at grass-roots level. The reasons could be lack of skills, capacities, household responsibilities, societal pressure, cultural beliefs, to name a few. This nature of constraints can be overcome through building women’s capacities for improved political involvement in local governance [a hypothetical statement]. In order to find solutions, the article raises the following questions for [on-going] debates and discussions: What is the magnitude of gender-awareness in political decision-making in municipalities? To what extent gender equity policies are implemented at grass-roots level? Are municipalities acknowledging the need of women empowerment? Are there any initiatives in place to capacitate women in order for them to partake in decision-making processes? There are diverse argumentations to explore the issue. The strong augmentation emphasizes the significance of normative approach that supports public participation as a form of transformation. Another augmentation stresses upon the instrumental approach supporting the political decentralization for participatory decision-making at grass-roots level. In order to find answers to the above-stated questions, the paper looks at the status of women in South African local governance [political context]. The article utilizes an empowerment approach of feminist theory. The empowerment approach has its own indicators for measurement varying from individual to collective at micro and macro levels. The micro level symbolizes an individual seeking progression from subjugation to an evolutionary personality. The macro level symbolizes the institutions/authorities/regulations taking relevant decisions regarding progression of individuals. In this article, the micro level-the individuals, are women seeking empowerment and recognition, and the macro levels are municipalities (organizations), authorities (political office--bearers), and regulations (gender equality policies and programmes). The article recommends that it is vital to review and revise existing constitutional, political, legislative and regulatory frameworks, including electoral systems, to remove provisions that hinder women’s equal participation in decision-making processes. To facilitate research on the conditions under which women’s representation is enhanced in political parties, parliaments and government at all levels is significant. The government must ensure monitoring and evaluation of the participation and representation of women in decision-making processes. At political level, the parties must review and revise their manifesto and structures to accommodate women participation. To enhance the participation of women in political decisionmaking, gender quota is being considered as an important policy measure. At social level, there is a need of changing attitudes, that should include: the culture of local government needs to change to ensure that women are treated fairly and equally and to make sure that discrimination against women is not acceptable, gender awareness programmes for men and women need to be developed, and opportunities need to make available for women as soon as they are elected to learn about local government and their governance and to provide them with support. The concept gender in this paper focuses on women and aims to explore the inclusion/exclusion of women in local governance political processes in South Africa. Keywords: empowerment approach; gender; gender equity; local governance; women empowerment.

14

Ref#: 013/SAF/14/SD Oil Economy, Corruption and Poverty: The Nigerian Experience Ayobami Emmanuel Adesiyan Department of Local Government and Development Studies, Faculty of Business and Communication, The Polytechnic, Ibadan, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract A nation’s resources are always perceived as the source of its power and development, when properly utilized and annexed. This is because basic economic evidence shows that abundance of natural resources can increase the income levels of its citizens. As political economists argue, countries that have enormous valuable natural resources are likely to have high living standards on a sustainable basis by simply replacing some extracted resources with financial assets abroad. Nigeria is one of the largest countries in Africa having a population of about 180 million with abundant natural resources. It is the 8th largest producer of oil in the continent. The oil wealth serves as the main stay of the economy, as it provides about 90% of its total income. However, despite this stupendous oil wealth, it remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Recent Human Development Index Report indicates that 54% of its population is living less than the International guideline for extreme poverty of $1 a day. Resource wealth has tragically reduced the nation to a mere parable of prodigality. This study therefore examines the paradox of oil wealth and poverty of this nation called Nigeria. It utilizes the political economy as theoretical construct to establish the interconnection between Nigeria’s fragile oil economy, corruption and poverty. Secondary data on corruption in the oil sector, with the active connivance of the elite collaborators and the consequent poverty stricken masses, were drawn from internet facilities, relevant journals, magazines and text books. Data were subjected to content analysis. This study revealed that, the more country earns from oil the larger the population of poverty - stricken citizens. The discovery of oil and the consequent neglect of other sectors of the economy, resulted in the emergence of a class of petit bourgeoisies lacking economic base and entrepreneurial ability. This class of people has succeeded in diverting the wealth of the nation into private pockets through the instrumentalities of the state. The profligacy has resulted in poor state of infrastructure, high growth rate of unemployed youth, and lack of basic social amenities and thus the pauperization of the citizenry. Indeed more than half of the population of the country that nearly earned one trillion dollar in oil revenue since the discovery of crude oil continues to wallow in poverty. The oil wealth has entrenched corruption as result of mismanagement of resources in government and reduced the incentive for value added work, creativity, and innovation in our public sector. It is thus recommended that for Nigeria to experience meaningful sustainable development that would impact on the citizenry, the oil economy must be totally overhauled. Moreover, the other sectors like agriculture and mining must be given the deserved priority attention. However, this is a function of visionary, transformative leadership, which the country presently lacks. Keywords: Corruption, Development, Nigerian State, Oil Economy, Poverty.

15

Ref#: 014/CAN/14/ Occupational Details of Collectors of Post-Consumer Clothing Waste in Mumbai Suman D. Mundkur a , Ela M. Dedhia b Department of Textiles and Apparel Designing, SVT College of Home Science (Autonomous), S.N.D.T Women’s University, Juhu Road, Mumbai-400049, India. b Textiles and Fashion Technology, College of Home Science, Nirmala Niketan, (Affiliated to Mumbai University), 49, New Marine Lines, Mumbai 400020, India. Corresponding author: [email protected]

a

Abstract Consumers are discarding their clothes much before they are fit to be thrown away. This may be due to the fast changing fashion, increased spending capacity and growth of the retail industry. Disposal of clothes is not given much thought. One of the options is to exchange them for a value. Unique in India is a mobile door-to-door collection service of used clothes discarded by households. This is done by men and women known as bhandivale in Mumbai, India. Their livelihood depends on the bartering skill in exchange for stainless steel utensils and plastic ware. They specialize in collecting, sorting and selling clothes in the second-hand market. Unlike rag-pickers, studies on bhandivale who make a living exclusively by collection and redistribution of clothes in Mumbai are limited. This is part of a larger study on these collectors of post-consumer clothing waste in Mumbai. The objective of this study was to understand the present working conditions and identifying the changes in their work environment. A Descriptive Research Design was selected. Both qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used. The research Design made use of survey non-participant observation, case study, oral history and narrations to elicit the data. A semi-structured Interview schedule and observation schedule were used as tools to gather primary data. The process of collecting clothes from various residential locations between Bandra and Borivali in Western Suburbs, Thane in the Eastern Suburbs and Sion and Central Mumbai and selling old clothes at the second-hand goods market, Chor Bazaar near Mumbai was observed during the field visits in the business hours. The samples were drawn through non-probability convenience sampling design using snowball technique. Work of the bhandivale business involves a number of activities. Understanding the nature of work itself, the number of hours per day devoted to the profession, the various activities involved and the time taken for rest and breaks. This paper also deals with the pattern of exchange, the mode of transport and the competition faced. The increase in the highrise residential tower apartments has to some extent changed the method of collection of clothes from the residents. The security personnel of these indirectly help in facilitating transactions for the bhandivale. There is flexibility in the pattern of exchange thus requiring a regular cash flow that is generated through sale of second-hand clothes. Direct selling of the clothes in the second-hand market gives a higher rate of return than selling the clothes through agents called Chindhivale. Some bhandivale have taken up alternate occupation alongside with the family business; has given them a better living. They have not given up on their traditional occupation. The bhandivale themselves do not realize that they are important stake-holders in the recycling industry. As important contributors to the environment and mobilize solid waste in terms of surplus clothes generated from Mumbai households. Keywords: Clothing waste; Collection; Second-hand clothes; Occupational details, working conditions

16

Ref: 015/SAF/14/SSHD

Adult and Non Formal Education as a Tool for Evolving Transparency Culture for Sustaining Nigerian Educational System in a Corruption Ridden Environment Adebiyi Alani Adelakun Department of Continuing Education & Community Development, Faculty of Education & Arts, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Corruption in Nigeria is almost as old as the nation itself. This parasite is so rooted in the Nigerian system such that it has permeated all sectors of the country and has virtually become a norm or convention. In fact, it is more or less of a culture in which those who amassed wealth from corrupt practices are given prime of place within the society’s socio-political structure. Honesty is virtually no longer a virtue and therefore not fashionable as the voice of the upright or honest is not heard in the scheme of things. Corruption cuts across every strata of the society - the old and young; single and married; lowly and highly placed; male and female are all involved in corrupt practices. To establish this argument is the fact that corruption has become an issue all over the media such that hardly would a day pass by without capturing an issue about corruption both on electronic and print media. The most unfortunate aspect of it is that the academia that is expected to be the hallmark of discipline and transparency and indeed, an agent of change by being role a model to other sectors at least for its primary role of developing capacity for other sectors, is by far rotten and overridden by corruption. Inflation of contracts; sexual inducement; deviation from due process in various appointments; admission racketeering; inflation of budget; diversion of funds; godfatherism and a host of others are corruption areas in the educational system in Nigeria. The effects of all these if not checked would produce a negative multiplier effect on the wider system. To bring this situation under control and sustain the system of education that is fast collapsing as manifested in dilapidated facilities, failure to employ qualified personnel and in appropriate proportion, lack of breakthrough researches and inadequate community services, one would be thinking right if a culture of transparency evolves within the academia to save the situation. To achieve this, is to reach out to the hearts of stakeholders in the educational system – policy makers and implementers of policies and indeed, the academia. Since every evil is said to be planned in man’s heart, education can serve as a panacea to change the minds of perpetrators and those that may still wish to take after them in this unprogressive act. This proposition is rooted in the Julius Nyerere’s philosophy of conscientization. In other words, educating the mind of stakeholders including the academics is the solution to curb corruption in the educational system and if adult education used as an intervention strategy, it is likely to produce a positive result.. This paper therefore examines the basis upon which corruption is premised in Nigerian educational system and the possibility of evolving a culture of transparency to save the educational system from collapsing. To evolve the culture of transparency, conferences, symposia, workshops, community education and continuing education should be organized constantly in every unit of the educational sector carrying the message of transparency and all these fall under the purview of adult and non formal education. The paper concludes that if the educational system particularly, the academia is free of corruption, other sectors of the Nigerian society are likely to be free all things being equal. Keywords: Adult and non formal education; corruption; culture; evolving, transparency

17

Ref#: 016/SAF/14/SSH Multi-sectoral District Development Programme : A Flagship Programme for Addressing the ‘Development-Deficit’ in Minority Concentration Districts in Rural India Pardeep Kumar a, Vinod Kumar Vadhawan b a University of Delhi, Delhi, India. b Ex-Director, Government of India, India. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract As per the Constitution of India, which is the supreme law of the land, India is a sovereign socialist, secular, democratic republic. Liberty, equality and fraternity are the hallmarks of our democracy which is enshrined in the preamble of the Constitution. The fundamental rights clearly envisaged the right to equality before law and prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth and equality of opportunity in jobs. Though our country consists of people belonging to different castes, communities, races, religions, languages and cultures, our strength lies in unity in diversity. The welfare, safety, security and development of minorities are among the Government’s priorities. Based on this principle, the present United Progressive Alliance (UPA) launched a very ambitious flagship programme called Multi-sectoral District Development Programme (MsDP) for the welfare of minority communities. It is a special area development programme launched during 200809 in 90 Minority Concentration Districts (MCDs) to improve the socio-economic parameters of basic amenities for improving the quality of life of the people and reducing imbalances in MCDs during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period with a plan allocation of Rs. 2750 crore. Identified ‘development deficits’ would be made up through a district specific plan for provision of better infrastructure for school and secondary education, sanitation, pucca housing, drinking water and electricity supply, besides beneficiary oriented schemes for creating income generating activities. Absolutely critical infrastructure linkages like connecting roads, basic health infrastructure, ICDS centres, skill development and marketing facilities required for improving living conditions and income generating activities and catalyzing the growth process would also be eligible for inclusion in the plan. The total amount released to the States under the programme is Rs. 1243.87 crore and expenditure reported by the States/ UTs is Rs. 253.27 crore which is 20.36 per cent of the releases made and under the programme, district plans of 80 districts have been approved, of which 15 MCD plans have been fully approved and 65 district plans have been partially approved till March, 2010. Keywords: Constitution of India, Development Deficit, ICDS, Liberty, MCDs, MsDP, UPA.

18

Ref#: 017/SAF/14/SD Determinant Factor Analysis of Foreign Direct Investment in Asean-6 Countries Period 2004-2012 a,b,c

Eleonora Sofilda a, Ria Amalia b, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c Sustainable Development Management Program, Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, West Jakarta, Indonesia. c Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Region of Association of South East Asian (ASEAN) has become an attractive region as an investment destination and regional production base in the last two decades. As a whole region, ASEAN with a total population of 567.6 million peoples and a total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reached about USD1.1 trillion in 2012, promises enormous economic and a huge market potential. In addition to favorable demographic factors as well as the growing purchasing power of regional, natural resources, also offers promise. Hence, inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) continually were increasing from year to year. In 2010, the inflow of FDI in ASEAN reached about USD 75.7 billion (double increase) compare to the year 2009, which amounted to USD 37.8 billion. The amount in 2010 has exceeded the highest level achieved in the period before crisis of 2008, which reached approximately USD75.6 billion. In the last decade (period of 2002 to 2010), the inflow of FDI in ASEAN grew by an average of 19%. This is very helpful for countries in the ASEAN region to develop their own potency. FDI is one of the sources of financing or capital that important for a country, especially for developing countries. This investment also provides a great contribution to development through the transfer of assets, management improving, and transfer of technology in enhancing the economy of a country. In the other side currently in Asean countries emerge the interesting phenomenon where some big producers are re-locate their basic production among those countries. This research is aimed to analyze the factors that affect capital inflows of foreign direct investment into the 6 ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, and Vietnam) in period 2004-2012. This study uses panel data analysis to determine the factors that affect of foreign direct investment in 6 ASEAN. The factors that affect of foreign direct investment (FDI) are the gross domestic product (GDP), global competitiveness (GCI), interest rate, exchange rate and trade openness (TO). Based on the statistical tests results, there are three of five independent variables (ie: global competitiveness, GDP, and trade openness) are positive and significant effect on the entry of FDI in ASEAN-6. Among these three variables, GDP is a variable that has the greatest influence on the inflow of FDI in ASEAN-6. However, the ease and attractiveness of investment between ASEAN countries is quite diverse. Currently, the European Union countries as the highest source of investment in ASEAN countries, is hit by the crisis. In anticipation of a possible reduction of investment into ASEAN due to the crisis, ASEAN needs to attract greater investment from another region. The facilities that have been provided by ASEAN Investment Forum, like: investment promotion, investment services, after-care for investment, fiscal and non-fiscal incentives, co-investment, and the Public-Private Partnership is as a strategic steps in attracting investment into ASEAN. Keywords: exchange rate, foreign direct investment, the gross domestic product, global competitiveness, panel data analysis.

19

Ref#: 018/SAF/14/SSHD Finding sustainable options out of poverty: Field notes from Cameroon Victoria M. Time Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, 23529, U.S.A. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The purpose of this study is to discuss sustainable measures to counter poverty among African women. Women’s roles in Africa have been shaped by long lasting cultural practices. These cultural practices and statutory provisions that promote men’s rights and suppress those of women play an integral role in limiting women’s rights to not only property, but to education, and to other opportunities that may increase their chances of getting out of poverty. Further, natural disasters, wars, and conflicts disproportionately affect women in that they have the added responsibility of fending for their children, especially if the husband dies. These factors notwithstanding, time poverty, that is, those activities that many African women engage in that are not counted in the Gross Domestic Product elevates income poverty in numerous ways. Using Cameroon as a case study this paper utilizes multiple methodologies including one-on-one interviews, focus group interviews, observations, as well as archival data in order to understand factors that contribute to women’s marginalized stances in their society, and to gauge from participants how they think poverty can be curbed. The multi-dimensional approach enabled the researcher to not only rely on existing literature, but to add actual first hand voices to the dialogue. Results reveal that the causes of poverty among women are varied, but that primarily family choices, and how viable the family is determines if males or females will receive further education—a vital component for upward mobility. Corruption, mismanagement of funds and resources, high trade tariffs, absence of technology and modern tools and equipment also limit grade and level of crop productivity thereby stagnating farmers’ prosperity. Farming as it so happens is relied upon by a good number of African women for both subsistence and surpluses for sale either in local markets or in the case of Cameroon women, for export to neighboring countries. Of particular relevance to the study are policy initiatives proposed by the researcher but guided by the participants. Among these initiatives are for government to provide more educational opportunities, and invest more resources for education, ban customary practices that are repugnant and subjugate women. As well, technology that can facilitate farm work, and other domestic work should be heavily invested in as that will reduce time poverty, and improve and increase crop productivity. Better trade policies, lower trade tariffs with other countries, and better roads will facilitate more trade with other countries. Keywords: Africa, Cameroon, Education, Poverty, Women

20

Ref#: 019/SAF/14/SD Gold Mining and Sustainable Development in Saudi Arabia Mohammed Ibrahim Aldagheiri Department of Geography, Faculty of Arabic Language & Social Studies, Qassim University, Qassim-Buraydah, Iran. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Mining is a vital sector in the economic development of many countries, including Saudi Arabia. At first glance, mineral-rich economies have an advantage over those less well endowed because minerals provide funds for rapid development and poverty reduction. Sustainable development requires recovery of resource rent generated by mining, and investment of this rent in other forms of wealth, capable of generating income and employment once minerals are depleted. The minerals sector in Saudi Arabia has great potential to play a leading role in diversifying the Saudi economy and has been regarded as a strategic factor for the inducement of future economic and industrial development in the country due to the Kingdom's enormous and relatively untapped mineral resource base, including precious and base minerals as well as industrial minerals. The natural resources of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are highly diverse, both in terms of their variety and their location throughout the country. The Saudi Arabian soil has a large variety of metallic and non-metallic mineral resources that range in size and value occurrences of limited potential to deposits large enough to sustain profitable exploitation. Regarding the significance of the minerals industry, the case study has shown that the mining sector has great potential to play a leading role in the Sustainable development and the diversification of the Saudi economy due to the Kingdom's enormous and relatively untapped mineral occurrences, large area (more than 2,000,000 square kilometres) and the increasing demand for raw materials both in domestic as well as international markets. The minerals industry in Saudi Arabia, which includes bauxite, will become one of the main activities attracting foreign investment, and during the next decade it is hoped will be one of the causes of considerable economic growth in the region and the country. The minerals sector will become a third pillar of the economy after hydrocarbons and petrochemicals. The mineral industry will also have several positive effects on the national economy, such as constituting a source of additional revenue for the government, increasing exports and contributing to export diversification, creating new opportunities for the creation of industrial activities in the Kingdom. This paper examines the gold mining which is considering one of the metallic minerals important to the economy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, focusing on its production, geographical distribution and its effects on sustainable development. Keywords: Gold Mining, Sustainable Development, Saudi Arabia

21

Ref#: 020/SAF/14/SD The Interdiction of Okada Transportation Business: Implication for Human Security, Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development in Kaduna State Akume Albert T. a, Abdullahi Yahya M. b, Dahida Philip D. c a b , Kaduna polytechnic, Kaduna, Nigeria. c Public Adminstration, University of Abuja. Abuja-Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Abstract: It is established that poverty is rife in Nigeria. Acknowledging this, various governments have been committed to eradicating poverty using different approaches; with motorcycle transportation (okada) featuring prominently. Due to the ease of operation, low cost of start-up, and guaranteed steady income, the government did not only morally encourage but financially supported okada as an approach for eradicating poverty in Kaduna state. Unfortunately however, the okada approach to poverty eradication had to be proscribed because it became a reliable mechanism for perpetrating crime and terrorism thereby heightening insecurity in the state. It is against this backdrop that this paper uses the documentary and analytical research methods to examine the implication of interdicting okada business for poverty reduction, human security and sustainable development in Kaduna state. The study therefore emerges with this outcome: while the ban strengthened traditional security, it however has severe consequences on poverty reduction, human security and sustainable development in Kaduna state. It was therefore recommended that the government should rather strengthen her traditional security apparatus and facilitate cooperation that addresses security risk on the citizens Keywords: Ban; Human Security; Okada Transportation; Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development.

22

Ref#: 021/CAN/14/SD A pathway to Sustainable Agriculture through Protection and Propagation of Indigenous Livestock Breeds of Pakistan- Cholistani Cattle as a Case Study a

Umer Farooq a, Syed Aamir Mahmood b, Ijaz Ahmad c, University College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. b Semen Production Unit, Karaniwala, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. c Imperial University, Lahore, Pakistan. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstracts Objectives The present work is being presented with a general aim of highlighting the role of protection/propagation of indigenous breeds of livestock in an area. Specifically, the aim is to introduce a formerly neglected Cholistani breed of cattle being reared by the Cholistani desert nomads of Pakistan. Method The said work will present a detail account of research work conducted during the last five years by the presenter. Furthermore, it will present the performance (productive and reproductive traits) of this breed as being reared under various nomadic systems of the desert. Results Results will be deducted on the basis of the research work conducted on Cholistani cattle and keeping abreast the latest reforms being provided by the Food and agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Initiative to Support Pastoralism (WISP) of the UN. Conclusions The timely attention towards the protection and propagation of this neglected breed of cattle will pave a smoother way towards poverty alleviation of rural/suburban areas and a successful sustainable agriculture in low input production systems such as Pakistan. Keywords: Cholistan Desert, Indigenous cattle, Pakistan, , Performance traits

23

Ref#: 022/SAF/14/SSHD Withdrawn

24

Ref#: 023/SAF/14/SD Solar Lighting and Water Preheating in Tropical African Homes: What Sustainable Possibilities?

a,b,c

Kant Eliab Kanyarusoke a, Jasson Gryzagoridis b, Graeme Oliver c Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellvlle, Cape Town – South Africa. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Talk of harnessing solar energy in Tropical Africa today: most probably the audience will think of a photovoltaic application – primarily to produce electricity which can quickly be used to give light. This is understandable because in energy terms, the region is striking for night darkness in rural home steads - where about 590 of its 936 Million people live. There is however, a second and more significant aspect of solar energy use. Much human energy, time and health are expended in fetching firewood and burning it either to light up the home at night, or to cook food, or to boil water for various uses. In this and a companion paper on solar-assisted potable water generation, we discuss how to use the abundant solar resource in the tropics to enable lighting, water preheating and water purification in rural tropical Africa’s homes. This paper focuses on two areas: lighting and water preheating. In lighting, we discuss direct conversion of solar energy to electricity at a rural home level. We show how use of a 200 W(p) photovoltaic (PV) panel can help convert a rural homestead to the Internationally accepted description of “with access to electricity”. In solar water heating, we explore use of locally and sustainably made solar syphon systems to preheat water to the 40-50oC temperature range. Materials and Methods For the solar resource availability, we used weather data at stations reported by the American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and in the TRNSYS software. Data for 80 stations was compiled and modelled both in Matlab and in the industry-standard TRNSYS software to give annual resource availabilities on fixed slope surfaces. In spite of our ongoing work on solar tracking, we chose fixed slope energy harnessing systems for this paper because this is considered the simplest and most affordable way of harnessing the energy by “energy-poor” rural inhabitants. The chosen slopes were optimized using a method described in our previous work. Photovoltaic (PV) energy yields for lighting – and enabling the “energy poor” convert to “with access to electricity” - were also worked out for the 80 stations in like manner. The models were checked for consistency experimentally over a two week period at our campus weather station using a locally sourced 90 W(p) mono-crystalline Silicon PV panel. A solar syphon system was designed and a model constructed, using suitable low cost materials we could find around Cape Town. It was tested at campus for one month in open air – as would happen in a real rural home compound. It had a 1.08 m2 energy collection area and a 250 litre tank. Its design parameters were then modified in a TRNSYS solar syphon model to predict energy yields and temperature gains for a 2 m2, 50 litre system at the 80 rural Africa weather stations. Typical Results Figure 1 shows a sample of available energy resource and predicted heating yields for five rural stations chosen at random in the North, South and at the equator. Cape Town is included only for comparison and modelling validation purposes.

25

Figure 1: a sample of available energy resource and predicted heating yields for five rural stations

Figure 2: The predicted PV yields from 90 W(p) and 200W(p) panels, now readily available in South Africa at indicated prices. Conclusions From the findings, it was concluded that in rural tropical Africa homes: • With about US$ 400, it is possible to convert a rural homestead of 2 to the category of “with access to electricity”. • It is possible to reduce the water heating burden by adoption of locally made solar syphon systems.

26



A combination of solar syphon water heating and PV lighting at about US$ 500 per homestead would significantly and sustainably reduce rural energy poverty in Tropical Africa.

Keywords: Energy poor; PV panels; Solar syphon; Tropical Africa; Water heating.

27

Ref: 024/SAF/14/SD

Effect of Micro Finance Scheme of the National Special Programme on Food Security (NSPFS) on Livelihoods and Well-Being: A Panacea for Sustainable Development in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Nelson Udo Okorie a, Julius Ajah b, Francis E. Nlerum Faculty of Agricultural Education, School of Vocational and Education, College of Education, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Department of Agricultural, Faculty of Economics and Extension, Agriculture, University of Abuja, Nigeria. Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, River State University of Science and Technology, Rivers State, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] a

Abstract The overall purpose of the study was to assess the operations and effect of micro-finance scheme of the National Special Programme on Food Securities on Livelihoods and Wellbeing in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study estimated the effect of the programme on per capita expenditure of beneficialries and to compare them with those of non-beneficiaries. It analyzes the perception of the beneficiaries on the effect of NSPFS microfinace on their socio-economic lives, identified the major constraints to effective participation and performance of beneficiaries and identify factors affecting timely repayment of the loan. The study was carried out in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Two project sites out of the three project sites in Akwa Ibom State was randomly selected, namely; Ukana Uwa site in Essien Udim Local Government Area of Ikot Ekpene Senatorial District and Ikot Essien in Nsit Atai Local Government of Uyo Senetorial District. One hundred and Twenty project beneficiaries (120) and One Hundred and twenty non-project beneficiaries were sampled from each local government Area. A total of two Hundred and Forty (240) respondents made up of One hundred and twenty (120) beneficiaries and One hundred and twenty non-beneficiaries were used in the study. Copies of questionnaire and interview schedules were used as data collection instrument. Percentages, propensity score, matching technique, mean, standard deviation, factor analysis, and t-Test were used in the analysis of data. Results showed that a greater proportion (92. 3% and 77.5%) of the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries were male, married, and had large households and mean age of 48.7 and 51.2 years respectively. Majority (75.0%) of the beneficiaries were crop farmers while 25.0% were livestock farmers. Cassava, maize and groundnut were the major crops grown in the project sites by the beneficiaries. Majority (55.0%) of the beneficiaries defaulted in paying back loans received and they attributed these to problems like untimely loan disbursement, poor marketing/poor sales, Hugh cost of inputs and insufficient loan. The beneficiaries perceived great level of impact on their social-economic lives as a result of NSPFS in areas like increased crop output, increased level of social interaction, improvement in nutritional status, among others. The result however showed that several factors constrained the effective performance of NSPFS in the study areas. These factors were grouped into logistic problems, management problems, technical problems and financial limitations. Strategies suggested for effective performance of the programmed included early/timely disbursement of loans, provision of sufficient loan, adequate/effective monitoring of the programme, creation of marketing channels, and provision of farm inputs. The findings further revealed that there was no significant difference in the perception of the beneficiaries who have received credits facilities once and beneficiaries who have received credit facilities at least twice on the impact of NSPSF on their socio-economic live only as pertaining to better marketing strategies. The impact of NSPSF on the beneficiaries was ascertained using propensity score matching technique result showed the average gain in expenditure per capita by the beneficiaries, using nearest neigbough matches to be N8, 750.58 with a significant t-value of 2.85 at p< 0.05. It is recommended that before the commencement of another phase of the programme, government prioritize constraints identified in this study and look for possible solutions if the MDGs by 2015 should be realized to give as a panacea for sustainable development. Keywords: Effect, Food Security, Livelihoods, Micro Finance, Sustainable Development

28

Ref#: 025/SAF/14/SSHD New Wine in Old Wineskin: Understanding Slavery in Contemporary Africa

a,b

Joyce Oke Idahosa a, Daisy Igbinovia b Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract In both extant and recent academic discourse, the trade in human commodities, otherwise known as slavery is often treated with intense emotions. Worthy of note is the fact that, apart from the general belief that this phenomenon existed predominantly in Trans-Atlantic trade, the internal dynamics that gave births to its externalization has generated less rigorous academic interest. However, the fabric of African kinship tradition is knitted to create supporting roles for the younger siblings in relations to the older ones. This age-long practice has come under serious attack (purely for economic reasons) in recent times. Thus, the supportive role of family relationship has become the objective of economic exploitation, especially in large cities in Africa. Lagos the economic capital of Nigeria has gradually become the epicenter of internal slavery. As often the case, young boys and girls are enticed from their parents in their home towns/villages with the promise of a good life only to be sold as modern-day slaves and some things lured into prostitutions in this bourgeoning cosmopolitan city. This study intends to interrogate the intervening variables behind the booming business of teenage slavery in some selected areas of Lagos. Interviews will be conducted to generate the necessary data for analysis. The focus is to understand the latent and manifest reasons behind the act and to gauge official response to the practice. In all, policy prescriptions will be given on how to handle the problem Password: Academic, Externalization, Exploitation, Slaves, Cosmopolitan

29

Ref#: 026/SAF/14/SD Sustainable Development: Gandhi Approach Indu Gupta Paryavaran Shiksha Prasaar Samiti, Moradabad(U.P), India. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Sustainable development means to “fulfil the present needs without compromising the needs of future generation.” Mahatma Gandhi’s way of living is the best example of sustainable development for world. In Mahatma Gandhi words, “Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need but not any man’s greed”. The economic development is the most important marker of country’s growth. In order to achieve targets of development, developing and developed countries are irrationally exploiting their natural resources without concerns and understanding of how to exploit and when to exploit. Our lives are widely dependent on availability of the natural resources. If correct balanced is strike between usage of resources and availability of resources than lives of people and integrity of planet could be managed well. However when life is turned into excessive luxury and comfort this balance could break. The concept of the sustainable development is multi-dimensional and multi-modal. “Use and Throw” is not fit for the sustainable development while Reduce- Recycle - Reuse is the best concept of sustainable development as it refers to balancing of needs and usage. Instead of economic development we should focus on environmental development. Before any type of development we should check for ecology and environmental impact, good building might not be good development every time. There should be environmental, social, moral and spiritual balance without all these values development is unperfected proxy for the progress. A specific concern is that those who enjoy the fruits of economic development today may be making future generation worse off by excessively degrading the earth, resources and polluting the earth’s environment. This is fact that environmental damage hurts people today and future. Sustainable development adopted by the world commission of environment “Present generation should fulfill their needs without compromising the ability of future generation. In my opinion without damaging environment should done any type of development with social, moral and spiritual values. With full values the development will called Sustainable development. New social ethics should be inculcated amongst the children both in school and at home, emphasizing concern for environment, personal growth and peaceful coexistence. Economic growth should mean equitable and sustainable growth. Rate of population growth should be controlled through education and awareness. Resources must be conserved through judicious use and recycled. Keywords: Moral values, Protectionism, Reduce, Recycle, Reuse, Spiritual values, Social values

30

Ref: 027/SAF/14/SD Range suitability model for livestock grazing in Taleghan Rangelands a

Hossein Arzani a, Ali Reza Mousavi b, Masoud Jafari Shalamzari c , Ghanimat Ajdary d Reclamation of Arid And Mountainous Regions, College of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. b Department of Range Management, College of Natural Resources, Industrial University of Isfahan, Iran. c University of Gorgan, Iran. d University of Tehran, Iran. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract This paper follows FAO model of suitability analysis. Influential factors affecting extensive grazing were determined and converted into a model. Taleghan rangelands were examined for common types of grazing animals as an example. Advantages and limitations were elicited. All range ecosystems’ components affect range suitability but due to the time and money restrictions, the most important and feasible elements were investigated. From which three sub models including water accessibility, forage production and erosion sensitivity were considered. Suitable areas in four levels of suitability were calculated using GIS. This suitability modeling approach was adopted due to its simplicity and the minimal time that is required for transforming and analyzing the data sets. Managers could be benefited from the model to devise the measures more wisely to cope with the limitations and enhance the rangelands health and condition. Keywords: Keywords: extensive grazing, land evaluation, land-use, modeling, range suitability,

31

Ref#: 028/SAF/14/SSHD Not available

32

Ref: 029/SAF/14/SSHD Assessment of Adaptation Strategies to Rainfall Anomalies in Calabar, Nigeria. Raphael Ayama Offiong a, Itita Augustine Ekpe b, Asuquo Isong Afangideh c Faculty of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Calabar, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

a,b,c

Abstract The study assessed the adaptation strategies to rainfall anomalies adopted by residents of Calabar. Rainfall data for the study were collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar. Statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, standardized anomaly, coefficient of variation (CV), and Pearson’s product moment correlation statistics were used for the analysis. From the results, years 1995 and 2011 showed the highest positive deviation from the normal with coefficient of variation values 26% and 37% respectively. While years 1993 and 2006 showed the highest negative deviation from the normal with coefficient of variation values of 14% and 17% respectively. To adapt to the rainfall anomalies, most of the residents build flood water defence wall while others create temporal drainage channels which help to divert flood water and protect their houses from flood no matter how high the rainfall intensity might be. From the result of the correlation, a correlation coefficient value (r) of 0.54 was obtained, giving a coefficient of determination of 29%. This implies that the adopted strategies of rainfall anomalies adaptation was only 29% effective in helping the residents adapt to the problems posed by rainfall anomalies in Calabar. In other words, the continuous loss of lives, buildings and properties to flood in Calabar can be explained by 71% inefficiency of the adopted strategies of rainfall anomalies adaptation by residents’ of the area.) Keywords: Adaptation strategies, Anomalies, Calabar, Rainfall, Residents

33

Ref#: 030/SAF/14/SD Globalization and development, The impact on Africa: A political economy approach Ishaku Bitrus Lere Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences. Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The world is becoming a global village because of advancement in information communication technology, culture, political, economic and social activities across the globe. The pro globalization scholars would want us to believe that, globalization is all about modernity. Globalization is another form of re colonization of African countries including those nations that were hitherto not part of the old colonization, have discovered a virgin ground for the re colonization of African countries. This involves the use of exploitative instruments like World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, multinational corporations and other international financial institutions in order to capture the world in the name of globalization under the umbrella of United States of America. All these gadgets in the name of globalization are diversionary and plausible because there is no any country in the word that is in the process of development as a result of globalization or that have developed as a product of globalization. The pro globalizers deceives people that, there is a path to development in which all African countries suppose to follow in order to become modern. The assertion has been problematic, this is because, and there is no any country in the world that has passed through this process of development. Thus there is no any country in the world that is in the process of developing in the name of globalization or has developed because of its involvement in the global economy. In other words, globalization at this juncture is seen as another new method of recolonialization of African countries by those developed nations who where hitherto not part of the old colonialization to explore virgin land to operate and be part of the exploiters of the African countries. Afterwards, the path to modernization as suggested by the modernization scholars can be described as a new wine in an old bottle masquerading and metamorphosing in different forms from colonialism, neocolonialism and now globalization as the solution to the development of African countries.The benefits of African countries in the global world are economic, political, social, religious and cultural crisis pervading the nocks and crannies of African countries. It is based on this premise that the paper intends to introduce the topic, conceptualizing and contextualizing the concepts of globalization and development, a brief historical origin of globalization, the impact of globalization on the development of African countries and the way out of this present predicament and conclusion. Keywords: development, globalization, impact on African countries, recolonialism.

34

Ref#: 031/SAF/14/SD Problems in Paradise: Rethinking Poverty and the Response of the Nigerian State Osaretin Igbinehimwen Idahosa Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract It is widely acclaimed that Nigeria has met the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (i.e.., eradicating extreme poverty and hunger). However, despite it richly endowed natural resources, a large percentage of Nigerians still live below the United Nations’ drawn poverty line. This paper investigates the factors that cause shift in government policies and culminates in new frameworks for poverty alleviating initiatives in the country. The introduction of a series of poverty reduction programmes as well as the subsequent broadening of their scopes has been instrumental in the fight against poverty in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the future is strewn with a lot of challenges. The Nigerian government is yet to fully address poverty as a societal and developmental issue that tend to integrate inputs from the poor themselves. In other to overcome this challenge, this paper calls on the Nigeria government to focus more on macroeconomic issues that affect the poor such as high inflation and slow economic growth on development. Keyword: Poverty, Macroeconomics, Inflation, Policy, Eradication

35

Ref#: 032/SAF/14/SSHD Intensifying HIV education for sustainable human and social development Nceba Nyembezi Division of Academic Affairs and Research, Directorate of Research Development, Walter Sisulu University, Postdam Campus, East London, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract HIV and AIDS present a critical challenge to the viability of education systems in many countries. As the spread of the HIV and AIDS epidemic continues, the potential of the education sector to respond to the root causes of vulnerability to HIV infections has increasingly been highlighted. While raising the educational level of the population is a desirable goal in itself, it can help to restrain the spread of HIV and AIDS through effective prevention education linked to adequate support services provided by other sectors. Numerous international texts and global agreements have reaffirmed the basic right to education for all, and countries have invested considerable public and private resources in developing their education system. Without specific targeted responses, the AIDS epidemic will continue to threaten this investment in several ways. In countries with a high prevalence of HIV, the human resource base of education systems is decreasing. Other sectors are also affected, reducing productivity and hard-won human capacity, and thereby reversing economic and social development gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate Grade 12 learners’ perceptions of their vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This was to gain insight into their experiences of HIV and AIDS in two purposively selected high schools in the Eastern Cape. The study adopted a mixed method approach in which focus group discussions and questionnaires were used to gather data. However, this article reports only on the qualitative data, and thematic categorisation was used to analyse the data. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was found to be relevant to this study. The findings revealed that respondents were of the opinion that the teaching of HIV and AIDS or Life Skills is not adequate in the schools. It is possible that the lack of learner involvement in the design and implementation of the programmes is one of the reasons for the poor participation of learners in the intervention programmes in schools. There is need for strong advocacy of the use of condoms as a preventive measure against unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. More involvement in extra-curricular activities would help learners to develop self-esteem and the ability to resist drugs and other risky sexual behaviours. This study identified various strategies that could rescue and protect education systems in countries heavily impacted by HIV and AIDS to determine what the various stakeholders of the international community can and must do to encourage and assist countries to overcome the effects of the epidemic on basic education. Keywords: aadolescents; Grade 12 learners; HIV infections; perceptions; vulnerability

36

Ref#: 033/SAF/14/SSHD Reorienting teacher education towards social inclusion for sustainable development Nceba Nyembezi Division of Academic Affairs and Research, Directorate of Research Development, Walter Sisulu University, Postdam Campus, East London, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract In recent decades, the issue of exclusion has gained prominence in the discourses of social policy, education and social structures and relationships. Essentially, exclusion is a concept that captures a way of positioning oneself with regard to the surrounding social and natural environment, an approach to viewing the world and acting within it. These ways of being in the world, which are grounded in our life experiences and can be either exclusion - or inclusion-oriented, notably either essentially sustainable or unsustainable, are an important issue of concern. Alienation and disconnection in mutual relationships between individuals and the surrounding social and natural environment can have destructive consequences, which is why we need to recognise that individuals are mutually interrelated in a plurality of relationships with human and non-human others. Thus, to survive and retain the Earth as a favourable habitat for future generations, we must basically alter our relationship with the world to make it more inclusive and sustainable. It requires a shift in the way we perceive the world and ourselves within it, which entails significant implications for education at all levels and teacher education in particular. In 2001, the South African department of Education adopted the White Paper 6, which led to the implementation of inclusive education. This breakthrough was meant to be stepping stone to ensuring the accommodation of various learners experiencing barriers to learning in ordinary schools. This article deals with the needs of learners experiencing barriers to learning and their immediate support from ordinary teachers, who form the backbone of support within the inclusive classroom. However, the teachers themselves are in dire need of support. Teachers, on the other hand, experience various demands due to the crowded curriculum. In most schools there are no dedicated staff employed to provide support and counselling to learners and teachers. It was therefore important to ask a question whether the teachers were able to deal with learners experiencing barriers to learning. The objective of this paper was to clarify the range of special needs to be included in ordinary classes, and to focus on the challenges and demands this situation places on teachers. The findings of this study also point to some severe deficits by teachers to handle issues of sexuality and HIV and AIDS, either due to lack of knowledge, pressure at work, or negative attitude about discussing them with learners. This calls for either proper pre-service training or in-service training of teachers towards HIV and AIDS support. Keywords: HIV and AIDS; inclusive education; special needs; support

37

Ref#: 034/SAF/14/SD

A Study of Waste Water From Ogbomoso Slaughter House Oyejide Opeyemi Afolabi Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso. Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The slaughter house wastewater has a complex composition and is very harmful to the environment i.e. the animal and human health. The process employed in the generation, treatment and disposal of waste water in a slaughter house in Ogbomoso, Nigeria was studied in order to evaluate the waste water management of the slaughter house. The methodology employed for the study of involved field survey, physical observation, and oral interview. The result of the study showed that approximately 8,000-12,000 l/day of waste water is generated from about 50 cattle killed per day, also that the sewage flow per day/heads of animal killed is about 60-70% of volume of water used which equals to about 7,800l/day.all these parameters are used to design an anaerobic lagoon which will reduce the BOD, BOD5, COD for a detention time of 11days. From the study, it discovered that the mode of generating and discharging waste water at the slaughter house was not efficient enough to produce an effluent that is not harmful to the animal and human health. Some management techniques should be put in place to ensure the training of slaughter house’s employees in blood conservation and recovery, water conservation, and the use of simple engineering tools such as small diameter hoses instead of bucket etc. Also, a supervisor for proper waste water monitoring should be employed. Keywords: Wastewater, slaughter house, BOD, COD

38

Ref#: 035/SAF/14/SSH Slavery Revisited: Social, Cultural, Political and Economic Impacts of Imported Forces in Modern Day Sub-Saharan Africa Rasel Mpuya Madaha Department of Agricultural Education and Extension, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract It might be a surprising thing to revisit the topic on slavery in contemporary world. In particular, slavery appears to be a thing of the past because it has received its adequate share of scholarship and believed, by some scholars, to be irrelevant in the modern globalizing world. On the contrary, the forces created by slavery as conjoined with tribalism, religion, colonization, and globalization, are still very much alive and in fact, influential in Africa and Tanzania in particular. In modern times, the forces appear to have reached their pick, perhaps more than any other time in the history of Tanzania. For example, in 2010 presidential elections, CCM, the unchallenged ruling party for decades, faced the greatest challenges of all time after loosing support in some of its key strongholds along religious and/or tribal lines. In Tanzania Zanzibar, CCM had to form a coalition with its key opposition part: CUF. Those lines appeared to threaten the peace and unity of the country and they were strongly blamed, by many scholars, religious leaders and activists alike. While religious extremism appears to divide Tanzanians and it is on the rise in modern times following technological globalization, it should be known that it is not a new phenomenon because forces such as Nyerere’s African socialism, slavery and colonialism played a key role in shaping them and religion cannot, at least at the moment, cause significant civil unrest. This paper employs anti-colonial discursive theoretical framework to freely examine the truth. Anti-colonial discursive framework has been employed because it has been observed that colonialism has imbedded its memory in the spirits of the colonized. Although colonialism has stripped the colonized of their institutions, their resources, and their history, the colonisers continue to assert their control and declare the colonized deficient and deserving of their fate. The unforgettable mark of shame and inferiority is one of colonialism’s most effective tools (Cordova 1998). Anti-colonial discursive framework has been used because of its ability to free the author from being entrapped by hegemonic theories of which purpose is not to empower the people being studied (colonized) but rather to further colonial exploitation. Here, it is meant that there is a possibility that past studies on slavery were done so as to meet the interests of the colonisers. Colonialism is not dead and manifests itself in variegated ways including re-colonization and neoliberalism. What is important is that knowledge is highly political because it is a product of certain social contexts. For that reason, hegemonic knowledge needs to be interrupted so as to foster a true understanding of today’s social, political, and economic inequalities (Dei 2006). According to Dei and Kempf (2006) anti-colonial theorizes colonial and re-colonial relations and the repercussions of existing social structures on the process of knowledge production and validation, the understanding of indigeneity, and the quest of agency, resistance and subjective politics. From anti-colonial perspective Tanzania may be viewed as a colony as long as it is subjected to external and internal colonial interests. Specifically, an anti-colonial discursive framework criticizes ongoing colonization and seeks for alternatives rooted in the standpoint and understanding of the colonised (Dei, and Asgharzadeh 2001). Without entering in the risky of overestimation, this paper attempts to rewrite the history of slavery in Tanzania and in so doing, shed light in forces shaping modern day Tanzania. Evidences for this paper have been gathered from secondary data, participant observations and interviews. Specifically, content analysis has been used to analyse evidences and qualitative data gathered from secondary sources, interviews and participant observation in Zanzibar and Bagamoyo (key towns involved in slavery, in line with objectives of the paper). Using content analysis of secondary data, archival records in museums, interviews and participant observation, it is argued that the most feared division among Tanzanians is an imported conflict, which cannot successfully divide Tanzanians beyond party politics because the supposedly diving forces are not successfully integrated along tribal lines whose role in grassroots collaboration is increasingly becoming apparent in modern day Tanzania. Keywords: Christianity, Colonialism, Globalization, Islam, Slavery

39

Ref#: 036/SAF/14/SD Advocacy and Awareness to Influence Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Agro by-products in Food Security and Climate Change Interventions: Orange Fruit Peels as Case Study Chinedu Christian Odoemelam a, Bernard Rwubatse b, Agnes T. Luhanga c a Department of Mass Communication, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. b College of Agriculture, Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Rwanda, Musanze, Rwanda. c National Small Holder Farmers’ Organization of Malawi (NASFAM), Lilongwe, Malawi & Department Of Agricultural Extension, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract World demand for sustainable food security and healthy foods is increasing. FAO (2013) reported roughly1/3 of food production is lost or wasted every year, emitting the same amount of CO2 as 1.5 million cars. On a global scale that is about 750 billion USD in wastage a year. Data shows that 12% people worldwide are undernourished and One billion people across the world go to bed hungry. One of the wastes is agro-industry by-products such as peels, seeds and pulp which represent over 50% of processed raw material. Citrus fruits are among fruits which contribute to the waste as they worldwide rank within the top three cultivated fruit crops Oyedele and Yahaya (2010). Scientific data shows that these wasted by-products could serve very useful economic purposes. For instance, a high percentage of orange production (70%) is used to manufacture derivative products and approximately 50–60% of the processed fruit is transformed into citrus peel waste (peel, seeds and membrane residues) (Rwubatse, 2014; Wilkins et al.,2007a). Orange fruit peels are a home of minerals, vitamin C, fibers and phytochemicals (bioactive compounds), (Adewole et al. 2012). The peels of orange fruits are highly rich in phytochemicals, carbohydrate, fibers, minerals and vitamin especially Vitamin C (Rwubatse 2014; Esrus and Cam, 2007). Phytochemicals are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. The consumption of the photochemical by humans has been shown to keep cells in the body healthy and stable in many ways. Thus, more food phytochemicals are required from both conventional and new sources (Ersus and Cam, 2007). Phytochemicals provide health benefits due to risk reduction of chronic illness such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Onimawo and Akubor, 2012). For instance, flavonoids have a wide range of biological effects such as inhibition of key enzymes in mitochondrial respiration, protection against coronary heart diseases and anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and antimicrobial activities. Fibers may delay the gastric emptying of ingested foods into the small intestine, resulting in a sensation of fullness, which may contribute to weight control. Fibers can interfere with the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol, as well as with the enterohepatic recirculation of cholesterol and bile acids, which may result in reduced blood cholesterol concentrations. Fiber of fruits which is associated with the significant contents of the bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) such as flavonoids, carotenoids, etc., has better nutritional quality than that of cereals (Chou and Huang, 2003). Phytochemicals are anti-oxidants, prevent cardiovascular diseases, obesity, various types of cancers, type-2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases. Orange peel rejection is associated with environmental degradation, economic loss and food insecurity. Studies have shown that orange peels have high nutritional, food security and economic benefits but due to ignorance, these agro by-products are rejected. Literature have shown that ignorance of the economic and nutritional usage of orange peels as well as the concomitant environmental hazard resulting from orange peels wastes, is associated with rejection of peels from sweet orange. Also, available survey data suggest that public knowledge about the nutritional, economic and environmental potentials of orange peels is limited. Previous studies highlight the importance of investigating agenda setting through media advocacy and agricultural extension activities as key contributors in shaping both policy discourse and public understanding of environmental, food security and other related risks. In order to prevent problems related to the disposal of the peels of orange fruits and environmental concerns, these wastes could be properly processed into valuable products such as healthy and nutritious foods. Information is very critical in influencing positive behaviour towards wastage observed in agro-industry by-products. Studies (Moemeka, 2012; Odoemelam and Oma, 2013) have shown that mass media advocacy is a veritable instrument for 40

influencing behaviour change. However, despite the fact that information about the food potentials of orange peels and the consequences of peel wastes is very important, studies exploring the role of communication and agricultural extension activities in providing a general understanding among the populace regarding the ecological challenges of peel wastes and the economic consequences, are scanty and underdeveloped. We situate the discourse on the agenda-setting and the diffusion of innovation theories and examine in this work, the potentials of mass media and agricultural extension interventions in influencing public behaviour with regard to orange peels. We assume in this study that, exploring these factors will contribute to an understanding of multidisciplinary and intercultural approaches to food insecurity interventions. Keywords: Agricultural extension services, Food Security, Interventions, Mass Media, Orange peels, Nutrition.

41

Ref#: 037/SAF/14/SSHD Localising the Fight against Illicit Drug Use in South Africa: A Social Development Policy Masterstroke? Fay Hodza Department of Sociology, Monash University (South Africa Campus), Roodepoort, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract South Africa adopted a new National Drug Master Plan (NDMP) in 2012. The plan covers the period 2013 to 2017 and is being implemented in communities by the Department of Social Development. The Plan provides the operational framework for all drug intervention programmes in the country. One of the most celebrated elements of the NDMP is its emphasis on the localisation of the fight against illicit drug use. Localisation refers to the process of empowering local organisations, neighbourhoods, communities and individuals to be key actors in creating and implementing strategies for combating drug abuse. To operationalise this concept, the NDMP provides for each community to have a Local Drug Action Committee (LDAC) that is mandated to develop and coordinate all illicit drug abuse programs and activities in every community. While localisation has been celebrated as a social development policy masterstroke by pro-government actors such as the African National Congress (ANC), its critics view it as inadequate due to its failure to address the structural dimensions of drug abuse in the country. This paper examines whether or not localisation is indeed a social development policy masterstroke. It interrogates the promises, successes and challenges of Local Drug Action Committees (LDACs) as strategic development structures in the fight against drug abuse in the West Rand region of Johannesburg. In this paper, I argue that whilst LDACs offer a wide window of hope for reducing drug abuse problems in depressed communities, a myriad of challenges needs to be overcome for them to yield the expected results. These challenges include lack of funding, diverging interests, infiltration by outright criminals, locally entrenched “cannibalistic capitalist activities,” and police corruption. These challenges are so entrenched in the communities to an extent that it becomes almost impossible for LDACs to effectively fulfil their mandate. Hence, this paper will show that localisation alone does not guarantee positive results unless if it is accompanied by equally robust community based training in selfless and value based leadership and community volunteerism. There is also a need for government to mobilise resources to support LDACs so that they can become self-supporting in the future. The observations and conclusions made in this paper are based on an ongoing qualitative research study that commenced in June 2014. I have been conducting secondary data reviews, in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with various stakeholders involved in the fight against illicit drug use in the West Rand region in order to understand how the localization of the responses to the drug abuse scourge has been implemented and with what results. Grounded theory analysis was employed in order to make sense of the data and generate answers to the central question under discussion, that is, does the National Drug Master Plan’s focus on localization represent a social development policy masterstroke? Keywords: Drug abuse, local drug action committee, localisation, national drug master plan, social development policy.

42

Ref#: 038/SAF/14/SD The imperative of Community Media for Sustainable Rural Development in Nigeria Tsegyu Santas Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Languages & Communication Studies, Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai, Niger State Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Nigeria is the most populated country in the African continent. The country is endowed with abundant natural and material resources. After the country got her independence in 1960, the newly democratic government rolled out series of development programmes. Subsequent regimes both military and civilian had developed blue print which metamorphoses into the country’s developmental agenda. Since 1960, Nigeria’s quest for national development especially in regards to rural development has been a bad omen for the country. All the developmental projects initiated by the governments failed to satisfy the yearnings and aspirations of Nigerian rural communities. Nigerian rural areas are one of the most neglected, impoverished, and poverty stricken communities in the entire continent. Despite the rich natural and material resources inherent in the country, majority of the populace are living in deplorable conditions. The mainstream media in Nigeria does not seem to report the despicable conditions of the rural people and yet the rural populace constitutes more than 70% of Nigeria population. The mainstream media tends to be urban based and biased in their reportage of national issues and thereby cutting out the rural dwellers completely from government’s developmental programmes. It is in the light of the foregoing that community media can serve as a veritable platform for rural people to lend their voices on national issues. Community media can therefore help to democratize and decentralize the communication system in Nigeria and thus provide equal representation and participatory democracy which is the hall mark of democratic institutions the world over. The paper strongly argued that for development to be sustained in Nigeria rural communities, it is important that a viable community media system should be established in Nigerian rural areas. The paper noted that the present structure of media system in Nigeria need to be review in order to give more emphasis to rural or community needs. Even though Nigeria have a policy for the establishment of community media in her rural areas, several factors serves as impediments to the realization of this goal. Therefore, the study intends to investigate these issues and help provide answers to address the long neglect of rural areas by the mainstream media in Nigeria. The study adopted the analytical method in the discourse of the paper. The study is hinged on the development media theory and the Agenda Setting Theory as the theoretical framework of the study. Keywords: Community Media, Mass media, Nigeria, Sustainable Development, Rural development

43

Ref#: 039/SAF/14/SSH Piracy in Southeast Asian Waters: Problems, Legal Measures and Way Forward Ahmad Almaududy Amri Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Southeast Asia is considered as an area which is important in terms of piratical studies. There are several reasons to this argument: firstly, it has the second highest figure of piracy attacks in the world from 2008 to 2012. Only the African Region transcends the number of piracies that were committed in Southeast Asia. Secondly, the geographical location of the region is very important to world trade. There are several sea lanes and straits which are normally used for international navigation mainly for trade purposes. In fact, there are six out of 25 busiest ports all over the world located in Southeast Asia. In ancient times, the main drivers of piracy were raiding for plunder and capture of slaves; however, in modern times, developments in politics, economics and even military technology have drastically altered the universal crime of piracy. There are a variety of motives behind modern day piracy including economic gains from receiving ransoms from government or ship companies, political and even terrorist reasons. However, it cannot be denied that piratical attacks persist and continue. States have taken measures both at the international and regional level in order to eradicate piratical attacks. The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Convention on the Suppression of Unlawful Act against the Safety of Navigation served as the two main international legal frameworks in combating piracy. At the regional level, Regional Cooperation Agreement against Piracy and Armed Robbery and ASEAN measures are regard as prominent in addressing the piracy problem. This presentation will elaborate the problems of piracy in Southeast Asia and examine the adequacy of legal frameworks at both the international and regional levels in order address the current legal measures in combating piracy. Furthermore, it will discuss current challenges in the implementation of anti-piracy measures at the international and regional levels as well as the way forward in addressing the issue. Keywords: Piracy, Southeast Asia, Maritime Security, Legal Frameworks.

44

Ref#: 040/SAF/14/SSHD Greening of Human Rights: A Reassessment Christiena Maria Van der Bank a, Marjoné Van der Bank b Department of Human Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. Department of Legal Sciences, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark, South Africa. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 is important legislation, providing remedies for preventing or redressing acts that undermine the constitutional right to an environment that is not harmful for peoples’ health and well-being. Environmental rights do not fit neatly into any single category or “generation” of human rights. In the struggle for a clean and healthy environment, a rights-based approach to ecological governance thus signals more than environmental protection per se. It also signals that norms of non-discrimination, justice and dignity must be central in all aspects of ecological governance, the way in which it is achieved as well as the way in which it functions thereafter, including the manner in which it processes and resolves environmental grievances within its jurisdiction. It also promotes access to information and public participation in developments that affect the environment. Human rights and environmental laws have traditionally been envisaged as two distinct, independent spheres of rights. Towards the last quarter of the 20th century however, the perception arose that the cause of protection of the environment could be promoted by setting it in the framework of human rights, which by then have been firmly established as a matter of international law and practice. There are many complex issues that arise when these two disciplines interact, it is to be expected that there are different views on how to approach the environment and human rights. The environmental issue undoubtedly adds a new dimension to the problem of human rights. In the first place, it shows once again that all human rights are closely interlinked, and secondly, that the problem of human rights is inseparable from practically all other processes in human society, and especially from economic development and the progress of science and technology. The main conclusion is the model of sustainable development which has its roots primarily in environmental issues. A balance must be struck between securing economic growth and stability, providing for the socio-economic needs and social welfare of all people in South Africa, and protecting vulnerable ecosystems and natural resources, whilst also respecting the cultural values and practices of a diverse array of communities. When weighing the sustainability factors (social, economic, cultural and environmental) a fair balance must be struck, (in true environmental justice jargon), between the current generation and the generations of people still to be born. In this process of evolution, environmental law has unleashed a number of novel principles such as: the participatory principle, the polluter pays principle, the precautionary principle, the inter-generational and intra-generational principles, the prevention principle, the sustainable development principle and so on. At the same time, protecting human rights helps to protect the environment. When people are able to learn about, and participate in the decisions that affect them, they can help to ensure that those decisions respect their need for a sustainable environment. Keywords: Environment, Green, Human Rights, Protection and Resources

45

Ref#: 041/SAF/14/SSHD Indigenous peoples’ rights to sustainable development and the green economy agenda Carol Chi Ngang Department of Public Law, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract In this paper, I interrogate the potential for the realisation of indigenous peoples’ right to sustainable development in the face of the green economy agenda. An extensive repertoire of human rights literature and other pro-poor commentaries have lamented and decried development paradigms that prioritise economic growth and the centrality of the market over people-centred human development. In relation, the discourse on integrating development and human rights has experienced a steady increase in advocacy and campaigning to override economic growth models with rights-based approaches to development with the aim to project the human person as the focal point around which development must evolve. However, the tempo of development and human rights politics around the world seems to be attuned to the rhythm of the Bafia dance where for every single stride that is taken forward; three strides are taken backward. In spite of the many international and regional instruments that aim to protect and advance human rights instead of promoting market instruments, progress towards implementation has remained slow-paced because of the constant menace of capitalist offensive. Within this scenario, the human rights of vulnerable groups have continuously been stretched to the limits, more than ever with the invading forces of globalisation, which sometimes come disguised in human rights clothing. I argue that the propagation of the green economy, which is presented as the ‘future we want’ constitutes a counter force to the human rights agenda. For instance, the probability of effective implementation of the rights of indigenous peoples is threatened by the advent of the green economy that emerged a few years after the adoption of United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, which promises protection of the eco-system that provides livelihood to indigenous communities. Through a qualitative socio-legal analysis of existing literature, including primary and secondary sources, I focus the discussion in this paper on the indigenous communities in the Amazon rainforest of South Africa and the Equatorial rainforest of Central Africa for a couple of reasons: first, because of the rich biodiversity that these eco-systems provide, which incidentally is of interest for the achievement of the green economy agenda. Second, because these rainforest regions are hosts to indigenous peoples whose existence is exposed to extermination as a result of the uncontrollable raping of the forest habitat on which their livelihood and survival is dependent. I explore the vulnerability of these indigenous communities in relation to the international and regional instruments that guarantee their protection. I then further make an anatomy of the green economy in relation to its potential to ensure realisation of the right to sustainable development for the indigenous communities of the Amazon and the Equatorial rainforests. I argue that the green economy, though coined in human rights language is nothing less than a capitalist globalisation weapon fashioned to frustrate realisation of the rights of indigenous peoples whose dependence on nature for survival is inseparable and unmarketable. In conclusion, I suggest that if indigenous peoples’ right to sustainable development is to be taken seriously, the advancement of the green economy agenda within indigenous communities must be viewed with caution. I recommend that appropriate regional and domestic policies and programming are required to guarantee the protection of the Amazon and Equatorial rainforests against the capitalist agenda behind the green economy in order to ensure the sustainable social and human development of indigenous peoples. Keywords: Green economy, indigenous people, right to sustainable development, social and human development.

46

Ref#: 042/SAF/14/SD Connecting Two Nations: A Bridge or a Tunnel? Mohd Hazmi bin Mohd Rusli a, Rahmat Mohamad d Faculty of Syariah and Law, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Malaysia. a Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security, University of Wollongong, Australia. d Asia-African Legal Consultative Organization (AALCO). a Corresponding author: [email protected] a

Abstract Following criticisms against the proposed Strait of Malacca Bridge, plans have been mooted to construct the JohorRiau Link, a tunnel to link Sumatra in Indonesia and Johor in Malaysia. Unlike the proposed Straits of Malacca Bridge, the construction of this tunnel would not in any way, disrupt the traffic flow of transiting vessels in the Straits of Malacca and Singapore which at the moment is accommodating more than 70, 000 vessel movements per year. Both Malaysia and Indonesia are parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982 (LOSC) and these States are expected not to hamper free passage of vessels via the Straits of Malacca and Singapore. This article examines whether or not this proposed tunnel is a more viable project for both Malaysia and Indonesia, by comparing and contrasting it to the proposed Strait of Malacca Bridge project. One big question to ponder is whether the proposed tunnel or the proposed bridge could really foster economic benefits for both countries? The locations of the proposed tunnel or bridge that will be spanning across the Strait of Malacca should also be considered to ascertain whether or not these areas are in fact strategic site for its construction. This article concludes that unless highways in Sumatra are being upgraded, this proposed tunnel or bridge project may not be able to serve its purpose as a connector of two major countries in Southeast Asia, Malaysia and Indonesia. Keywords: Economic Growth and Sustainability, Law of the Sea, Shipping, Straits of Malacca and Singapore

47

Ref#: 043/SAF/14/HRGG Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: Lessons for the Kenyan Judiciary Douglas Lucas Kivoi Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA), Bishops Garden Towers, Bishops Road, Nairobi, Kenya. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract This research examines various ways of accessing justice through alternative dispute resolution (ADR) mechanisms as a way of decongesting Kenyan courts. ADR is now well entrenched in the constitution article 159. Kenyans seeking access to justice have to grapple with high litigation costs, illiteracy, and long distances to courts among other factors. ADR includes mechanisms that are used to management of disputes without resorting to formal courts which are expensive and time consuming. If Alternative Dispute Resolution is used to complement formal courts, is a sure way of ensuring Kenyans access justice. This one of the methods the Judicial Service Commission (JSC) should pursue as a way of decongesting the Judiciary which has a backlog of many cases some dating to decades. Mechanisms such as Arbitration, conciliation, Mediation, Negotiation, Negotiated Rule Making, Early Neutral Evaluation, Community traditional courts, Peer Mediation and ombudsman can be incorporated in Kenya’s judiciary mechanisms to provide justice to Kenyans. This is because ADR is a flexible process, not so complicated and can be run at low costs both to the warring parties and the government. ADR mechanisms are closer to the people, flexible, expeditious, foster relationships, voluntary and cost-effective and thus facilitate access to justice by a larger part of the population. Keywords: Courts, Decongest, Dispute resolution. Judiciary, Justice,

48

Ref#: 044/SAF/14/SD A Solar Water Purification System For Rural Areas Pauline Joella Koura Mbadinga a, Kant Eliab Kanyarusoke b, Jasson Gryzagoridis c Mechanical Engineering Department, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Bellvlle, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Background It is a necessity for humans to have access to water in adequate quantity and quality. Yet, in many parts of the world and especially in arid and rural areas, water is a limited and vulnerable resource. This causes roughly about 780 million people around the world to lack access to clean and safe drinking water. However, there is plenty of saline water both underground and in the oceans. Water purification is the process of removing contaminants from water, thus producing freshwater from unclean water. Some widely used purification methods consist of chlorination, flocculation, filtration, sedimentation and distillation. Distillation proved to be a unique purification method in the sense that it can purify even muddy or salty undrinkable water. Since this method is energy intensive, use of solar radiation as the source of heat for water evaporation is an attractive proposition. As a matter of fact, with the majority of rural and arid areas situated in regions with high solar radiation levels, the problem of solar distillation in these areas is not so much of technical feasibility as of socio-economic viability. A rural household of 4 people would need about 4 litres of direct drinking water a day since the balance bodily requirements can be consumed in fruits and cooked food. This translates to a daily 5.9 kWh/m2 of solar radiation requirement at present day 40% first law efficiencies of solar stills. This paper describes performance of a model solar still. The performance will be used as a baseline for an improved design (Figure 1) which more than doubles the efficiency and yield of purified water. The ultimate objective is to reduce costs and use less space when applied in a rural homestead compound. Materials and Methods A new solar still unit was designed and a scale model constructed and tested. The still consists of a black painted galvanised steel evaporator containing saline water (see figure 2). The evaporation surface area is 0.163m2. A suitably designed glazing cover made of resilient, shatterproof transparent material readily available in Cape Town was used to allow and trap sunlight in a still mounted at an angle of 53o to allow maximum solar radiation to enter the evaporator. This particular angle was selected for its optimality during the test June month. A suitably designed external condenser was mounted as a transformation duct – collection tank unit. The scaled model was tested at the Cape Peninsula University of Technology under Cape Town (33.93°S, 18.42°E) winter conditions at ambient temperatures ranging between 9oC – 260C and at atmospheric pressure over a period of one month (June 2014). Productivity data as well as incident solar radiation were collected and the efficiency computed.

49

Figure 1: Improved solar still design

Figure 2: Solar still model

Results and discussion Experiments were conducted on the solar still model. Typical results of the variation of evaporator and water temperature as well as the distillate output as a function of daytime during a representative day of testing are shown in Figure 3. The evaporator and water temperature matched very closely for the whole testing period. The distillate was 0.502 Litres for an input of 1.7 Litres. The incident solar radiation on the transparent cover of the still during the day is shown in Figure 4. The total insolation was determined to be 21.482MJ/m2 (5.9 kWh/m2), giving a still efficiency of 21%.

Figure 1: Variation water temperature and distillate output as a function of daytime during a representative day

50

Figure 2: Incident solar radiation on 21st June 2014

Conclusion An un-insulated, unimproved and small model presented 21% efficiency and yielded just less than 2 litres of purified water per square metre of glazing surface. The improvements intended for patenting on the actual unit being manufactured are designed to more than double this yield and thus satisfy drinking daily requirements of a homestead of 4 people. Keywords: Water distillation, single slope solar still, productivity, rural areas

51

Ref#: 045/SAF/14/SD Foregrounding Foundation Phase learners’ knowledge gaps in literacy in schools in KwaZulu-Natal a

Nontokozo Mashiya a, Phindile Khuzwayo b, Department of Early Childhood Education, Faculty of Education, University of Zululand, Empangeni, South Africa. b Department of Basic Education, Faculty of Education, University of Zululand, Empangeni, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Early childhood education is the niche area for the country. In quest of better education, the South African government has prioritized this area by developing policies that advocate early childhood Education and also formalise Grade R. However, there are issues that still need attention, and therefore this paper aims at exploring means that can make significant progress in the education of young children. Using a purposive sampling, two teachers teaching in rural schools who are faced with a challenge of teaching grade 1 learners from different backgrounds were interviewed. The findings indicate that learners have knowledge gaps and some of these gaps do not shrink as learners’ progress to upper grades. The study recommends that grade R should be made compulsory so as to give learners enough grounding, this is presumed to have a potential of improving grade 12 results. As a result the entire country is likely to benefit, and thus will lead to sustainable development. Keywords: Reception Year class, literacy, mother tongue, prior learning, rural schools, knowledge gaps

52

Ref#: 046/SAF/14/HRGG The Illusion of Democratic Participation in Nigerian Local Government 1999-2011 Onovwakponoko Lucky Ovwasa Department of Political Science, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Federal University Lokoja,Kogi State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract This paper examines what appears to be a deliberate isolation of the Nigerian Local Government Institution from democratic participation and consolidation by the state governments in the Nigerian Federal system of government. This is because elections in any democratic setting obviously provide the opportunity for citizens to participate in the political process of choosing their representatives at all levels of government. The analysis reveals that since the recommencement of democratic government in Nigeria on May 29th 1999 elections have not been held in most of the 774 local governments in the country whereas elections are being held as when due at the Federal and state levels. The paper adopts the elite theory as its theoretical framework to analyze this apparent deliberate exclusion of the Nigerian local governments by the state governments from periodic elections as required by the country’s constitutions. The elite is a group of people with comparative advantage over other groups in the society because they are powerful, influential, intelligent and wealthy. The methodology adopted in this work is both descriptive and analytical including content analysis. The main arguments of the paper are that the non-elections at the local government levels violate the 1999 constitutional provisions that stipulated periodic elections for the local governments and that this situation is blamed on the higher level of government which deliberately deny local government the opportunity of participating in the democratic process of election. The paper also argued that this negative attitude of the state government towards the practice of democracy at the local government levels is responsible for the absence of democratic practice at that level which in turn affects development at the grassroots level. This attitude places a limitation on the capacity of the local governments to effectively discharge their constitutional responsibilities to the local communities. The paper also opined that there are other constraints on local council’s election in Nigeria such as some sections of the 1999 constitution and the electoral bodies. For instance, although the 1999 constitution in section 7 (1) made provision for the existence of local governments across the country but their administrations were left at the mercy of state governments by the same constitution. The paper concluded by observing that the failures of many local government councils in Nigeria to perform their constitutionally assigned functions of socio-economic and political development for their communities could be blamed on the absence of democratic governance at the grassroots level in the country. This is because the achievement of freedom, self determination, self reliance and the eradication of poverty among the rural communities in Nigeria calls for a joint efforts and the entrenchment of enduring democratic governance at the grassroots levels. Some recommendations, such as that the State Independent electoral commissions (SIEC) should be made truly independent of the state governments by ensuring that a separate budgetary allocation is provided for them and that the National assembly in its constitutional review role should consider granting financial autonomy to the local government and transfer the powers of the state independent electoral commissions to the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) are made to move the grassroots democratic practice forward for the local governments in Nigeria to be more responsive and efficient in the discharge of their duties to the people. Keywords: Democratic; Government; Illusion; Local; Participation.

53

Ref#: 047/SAF/14/SD Sustainable Agronomic Practices Needed in Second Season Planting by Women Farmers in Ikot Ekepene Senatorial District, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria Timothy Udoudo Ekpo Department of Agricultural Education, College of Education, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Nigerian agriculture is mainly rainfed especially in the Southern part of the country with two main cropping seasons namely early and second planting seasons. Under rainfed agriculture, the season is characterized by high rain intensity and duration. Hence roots, tuber crops, cereals, vegetables and economic trees and fruits are prominently grown during this season. However, the season is relatively associated with erosion and leaching of plant nutrients, timing of cereal harvest, wind hazards, increase in weeding frequency, rain interference with some agricultural operation and sundrying is relatively difficult. The secondary sources of food supply in Nigeria are from Fadama and irrigated farming. The incremental food production from these sources is necessary to make food production surpass average population growth rate and guarantee national food security. Besides, several efforts have been made by federal and state governments to increase food security under irrigation and fadama farming. It is remarked that the small scale irrigation enables farmers extend their cultivation period, adding off season crops to traditional rainfed ones during the dry season. Few cultivators are involved in irrigated and fadama farming. This could be due to limited irrigation scheme. It is also remarked that fadama farming in the Southern part of Nigeria is prevalent along limited river banks and wetland areas and the crops mainly grown are vegetables. Hence many food crops such as cassava, yam and plantain are not suitable for the prevalent fadama farming because of limited duration of moisture for crops. In the second-season planting; weeding frequency, leaching, erosion and wind hazard are relatively low perhaps due to less rain intensity, frequency and duration. At present, second season planting in Akwa Ibom State is mainly practised by women farmers. This farming is facing a lot of drawbacks including low level of technology, disease, pest and weed infestation and low soil fertility. In the light of this, a research was carried out from July 2013 to April, 2014. Six objectives and twenty-one research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of the study was 1200 women farmers. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 250 women farmers to constitute the sample size. The instrument used for collection of data was questionnaire. Mean was used to answer the research questions. The results showed that women farmers are in need of sustainable agronomic practices in tillage, seed treatment, weed control, strategy of fertilizer application and crop protection. It was recommended that women farmers should be trained and properly informed through seminars and workshops by Women in Agriculture and Agricultural Extension Officers in order to minimize food insecurity in offseason food production. Keywords: Farmers, Planting, Training, Second-Season, Women

54

Ref#: 048/SAF/14/HRGG The Role of Parliamentary Constituency Offices in Promoting Community Participation Pumla Kweyama Parliament of South Africa, Monte Vista, Cape Town, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The accountability of Parliament to the people of South Africa is of great importance because Parliament is the institution that links government to the people, representing the people’s needs and safeguarding their needs. This arrangement calls for a decentralized two-way reporting system – from parliament to the constituents and from the constituents to parliament. Since MPs cannot be in constant contact with their constituents, provisions have been made for the establishment of the PCOs and for the administrators to assist in promoting accountability. This study determines the extent of the actual effectiveness of PCOs in fulfilling the role they were established for and seek to create practical channels for people to participate and to communicate their needs to parliament and for parliament to be informed by the people. It examines the strengths, weaknesses and challenges faced by the PCOs by conducting a survey with the MPs, PCO Administrators and with the constituents. This study concludes by saying that PCOs need to be accessible and well understood so that the constituents are regularly and actively involved in their work and make recommendations on how to make them effective. Keywords: Access, Accountability, Community Participation, effectiveness, Parliamentary Constituency Offices

55

Ref: 049/SAF/14/SSH Dynamics of Poverty, Deforestation and Beekeeping in Northern Nigeria: Concerns for Policymakers II Muhammad R. Ja’afar-Furo Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Poverty and deforestation, reforestation and beekeeping are seemingly interrelated. While the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) seemed to be fielding aggressive programmes towards promotion of Afforestation as a measure of minimizing deforestation, and the level of poverty still remaining at the lowest extreme, the supposedly beekeeping projects that can serve as a bridging force has been neglected. This study investigates the dynamics between the very poor livelihoods of the people of northern Nigeria, reforestation programmes of the FGN and promotion of apiculture as a strong link for stabilization of the economy in the area. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. Descriptive statistics and computation of values were applied in the analysis of the data. Results show that the rate of poverty is higher in the northern parts of Nigeria where the livelihoods of the people are heavily depended on utilisation of forest resources, thereby leading to massive deforestation. In addition to documenting that beekeeping is largely indigenous in practice in the region, the application of the farming system in regaining vegetative cover through reforestation has been broadly explored. Although it can be stated that the poor livelihoods of the people of the northern parts of the country had direct link with utilisation of the forest resources, it is expected that the policymakers should use the available information in rectifying the anomalies towards improving the status of the people of the area economically. Keywords: Beekeeping, deforestation, dynamics, Nigeria, poverty.

56

Ref#: 050/SAF/14/SD The Important Role of Springs in South Africa’s Rural Water Supply a,b

Zamaswazi Wendy Nkuna a, Ednah Mamakoa b Council for Scientific and Industrial Research , Brummeria, Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources globally. In Africa, particularly groundwater has been the only realistic water supply option for meeting the daily water needs of rural communities because they are geographically located in hard to reach areas due to their dispersed nature and bad terrain. In South Africa, these conditions have made it particularly expensive to deliver services and hence have made it difficult for water service providers to effect services to rural communities. It is estimated that there is still about two million people in South Africa without access to a basic water services. Consequently such rural communities have no option but to rely on hand-dug wells and springs for their daily water needs. It is further estimated that because of the lack of formal water supply, about 60% of South Africa’s rural communities depend on water supplied from springs. These communities regard these sources as a sustainable and reliable means of obtaining water compared to formal water supply from the relevant service providers. However the challenge is that water service providers disregard these sources since they are considered as insufficient hence communities have to struggle to maintain these sources by themselves with no support from relevant water service providers. Furthermore there is not much information documented on the extent of this use and the quantities being drawn on a daily basis. In a water scarce country such as South Africa, this use contributes to unmanaged and uncontrolled abstraction and/or dewatering of the aquifers which often lead to boreholes, wetlands and springs drying up. This lack of data means that questionable data sets are being used and incorrect assumptions are being made about groundwater use and sustainability and hence no proactive measures can be taken if and when there are water shortages. Because of this challenge, it is stipulated on South Africa’s Groundwater strategy that more emphasis should be put on measures to improve awareness and knowledge of the importance of and potential of groundwater resources in South Africa through increasing research and documenting case studies showing the use and importance of springs in rural communities. In addition to showcasing the use of springs, the study further advocates that water supply through springs be formally recognized and recorded by water service providers especially in in communities where springs are considered a significant resource. Furthermore these sources should be considered during planning of water services such that formal support can be provided to communities relying on springs. In this way communities still consume water of acceptable quality which will help improve on health and reduce poverty rates. This study will use two case studies of the rural communities in South Africa to document the use of springs through mapping the spring water sources, as well as understanding the extent of the use and the importance of such sources. The study will further show that conducting regular mapping of water points, irrespective of the source can provide valuable source of information to water service providers in achieving the important goal of scaling-up water supplies and ensuring their sustainability and ultimately improving water service backlogs. Such information will further improve the planning and design of rural water supply schemes in the rural areas especially where springs are a significant resource. Keywords: Groundwater, rural communities, springs, water services planning

57

Ref#: 051/SAF/14/SSHD

Assessment of e-learning Facilities in Open and Distance Learning and Information need by Students Elizabeth Sabo National Open University of Nigeria, Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Electronic learning is increasingly popular learning approach in higher educational institutions due to vast growth of internet technology. This approach is important in human capital development. An investigation of open distance and e-learning facilities and information need by open and distance learning students was carried out in Jalingo, Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were administered to 70 registered ODL students of the NOUN. Information sourced from the respondents covered demographic, economic and institutional variables. Data collected for demographic variables were computed as frequency count and percentages. Assessment of the effectiveness of ODL facilities and information need among open and distance learning students was computed on a three or four point Likert Rating Scale. Findings indicated that there are more men compared to women. A large proportion of the respondents are married and there are more matured students in ODL compared to the youth. A high proportion of the ODL students obtained qualifications higher than the secondary school certificate. The proportion of computer literate ODL students was high, and large number of the students does not own a laptop computer. Inadequate e books and reference materials, internet gadgets and inadequate books (hard copies) and reference material are factors that limit utilization of e-learning facilities in the study areas. Inadequate computer facilities and power back up caused inconveniences and delay in administering and use of e learning facilities. To a high extent, open and distance learning students needed information on university time table and schedule of activities, availability and access to books (hard and e-books) and reference materials. The respondents emphasized that contact with course coordinators via internet will provide a better learning and academic performance. Keywords: Electronic books, Internet gadgets, information required, Likert scale test, Open and distance learning

58

Ref#: 052/SAF/14/SD Sustainable Development and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Sebastian Heinrich Von Solms Department of Business Management, University of Zululand, Richards Bay, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract This paper introduces a conceptual framework of Sustainable Development (SD) that illustrates the systemic nature of SD. The paper argues that this systemic nature requires a particular managerial approach and highlights three aspects of such an approach by adopting; (i) SD as an integrative concept, (ii) A holistic mindset and (iii) A Multicriteria decision-making approach. The paper focuses on the last aspect presenting the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a tool to achieve decisions balanced in terms of Economic, Environment and Social Issues. The AHP is suggested as a tool to assist three particular areas; (i) In converting the conceptual framework of SD into a Policy by prioritizing the different elements comprising SD; (ii) Ensuring that time and resource allocation, strategic planning and decisions regarding development projects are done in line with this policy and (iii) Facilitating the involvement of different stakeholders in the process. Keywords: Analytic Hierarchy Process; Multi-criteria Decision-Making; Participative Management; Sustainable Development; Systems Approach.

59

Ref#: 053/SAF/14/SSH Exploring the Underpinnings of Pseudo-Prostitution in Institutions of Higher Learning in selected African countries : A Literature Review. Itai Mafa a, Simon M. Kang’ethe b Department of Social Work, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Fort Hare, Alice, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract: Indubitably, as poverty continues to take a huge toll in developing countries, university environments, too, have not been immune to this phenomenon. A clandestine transactional sexual engagement on a small scale by some students in the institutions of higher learning to secure or top up their financial needs may fall under the category of pseudo-prostitution. Due to the undeniably - though covered-up prevalence of pseudo-prostitution among tertiary institutions, this article has espoused a desk research methodology as it sought to unearth such silent contributory factors leading to this supposedly demeaning social ill; as well as recommending remedial efforts that can restore morality among universities. Of interest is Africans’ mentality and cultural values which may not come into grips with this kind of behaviour as it is coated with shame and undignified insults, especially towards women. In fact, prostitution is degrading and considered as ethically and morally wrong, although its existent cannot be denied globally. Even the criminalizing of prostitution in some African nations such as Zimbabwe has not stopped the spread of the sex work industry. As such, this research has discovered that students are pushed into pseudoprostitution by the following factors: poverty and lack of a viable financial support; sexual permissiveness; poor adaptation to new settings; acculturation as well as peer and media pressure on sexuality. The aftermaths of such behaviour have been found by the researchers as leading to unplanned pregnancies and increased matrifocality; back-street abortions; drug and alcohol abuse, all aspects leading to a loss of academic focus. Unfortunately, where there is loss of academic focus, failure and drop-outs are inevitable, which may subsequently trap back this potentially great and young generation into poverty and possibly conventional prostitution, as a survival strategy. Therefore, the need to consider the innumerable voices calling for the decriminalization of the phenomenon has also made it necessary to debate and form discourses that will possibly help societies strike the balance and give the phenomenon its rightful niche in the contemporary societies especially considering the current global dispensation in terms of human rights and gender. The paper proposes the following as possible measures to curtail the prevalence of poverty and adverse effects of pseudo-prostitution in universities: consistent financial aid by universities and governments; moral restoration through the involvement of Faith Based Organizations on campuses; improved edutainment-oriented campaigns on HIV and AIDS, desensitizing the sex subject and tightening residence access control measures. The researchers advocate for eliminating the latent root causes of pseudo-prostitution rather than trying to cure the obvious manifestations thereof. The Moral Development theory has been found befitting analyzing the birth and perpetuation of pseudo-prostitution in tertiary institutions. The theory has been preferred due to its ability to explicitly explain the development and instillation of morality into children – a sense of wrong and rightthrough socialization, thereby putting the article to rest. Keywords: Matrifocality; Poverty; Pseudo-prostitution; Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); University Students.

60

Ref#: 054/SAF/14/SSHD Disabling Campuses: The Development And Outcomes Of Nigerian Disability Policies a,b,c

Abubakar Ahmed a, Zakaria Al-Cheikh Mahmoud Awad b, Mastura Adam c , Department of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Over and against the development and outcomes of Nigerian disability policies, accessibility for students (living) with disabilities (SWD) in Nigeria from two selected campuses was investigated. Government’s implementation commitments towards the disability policies and her promises for equal opportunity in education, transportation’ accessibility and host of other benefits in the country were highlighted and assessed in the light of infrastructural provisions on ground. Disability as a product of overlapping self-reinforcing layers of disadvantages was discussed. Lack of incorporating SWD at the design stage in Nigeria might have contributed to the marginalization of the disenfranchised members of the society and hamper their social as well as physical mobility. The methodology involved utilization of different but converging sources namely, primary and secondary materials. The primary data was recorded from one time observation of twenty selected buildings of interest to all students disable or not, from two selected university campuses in Nigeria. The accessibility factors enumerated include ramps to building, automatic doors, and elevators in multi-storey-buildings, curving, washroom, seating and designated parking for the disabled. Physical Access Audit Checklist (PAAC) was used to examine how much of the building facilities can be used independently by Students with Mobility Limitations (SWML). The audit checklist was based on the use of matrix comprising of predetermined factors with weightage ascribed. Photographs were taken for further illustrations. Content analysis of policies texts and literature reviewed are expected to validate the research through the process of triangulation. The study found that accessibility to buildings and infrastructure in Nigerian universities is poor and is worsening. Only the health buildings/ centers/infrastructures are provided with ramps, definitely not because of the disabled but because of hospital stretchers. Majority of public buildings in Nigerian universities lack the facilities to support integrated and inclusive education for the disabled, which has been declared a right for all. The correlation of the findings adhered to the previously identified in literature and findings of others and portrayed a large-scale disagreement between decade’s old policy and facility provisions. While international human rights framework has changed lives of the disabled in most developed and some developing countries, SWML have not reaped the same benefit in Nigeria. In this era of social sustainability efforts should be made by policy makers, building and urban designers to incorporate accessibility modes into their planning and design of educational institutions to accommodate both abled and the challenged group, for national development. Keywords: Accessibility; Assessment; Built-environment; Policies; SWD

61

Ref: 055/SAF/14/SSH Nolly Wood and the Growing Length of Shallowness, A Tragedy of AaYawning Divide Between the Industry and the Art Institutions in Nigeria a, b

Ebekue Onyeka Emmanuel a, Arinze-Umobi Somtoo b Department of Theatre Arts, Faculty of Arts, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract: The Nigerian film industry known as Nolly wood has been graded the 3rd biggest film industry in the world following behind America's Holly wood and India's Bolly wood respectively. The grading however is done based on the quantity of films churned out every year from these industries. Unlike its counter parts, Nolly wood has been noted as having very much more films with copious flow of shallow and inept contents. Many of its stories lack depth of feel and can barely challenge one's imagination as the plots are mostly on a flat scale and maintain a lineal progression. The technical aspect is not without its incessant flaws mostly evident in the continuity, sound and editing. These and many more form the bedrock of the numerous flaws that mar the quality in content of the blossoming industry. This study however observes that the major factor that is responsible for the low quality in many of Nolly wood's films is lack of professionalism. It also observes that there are so many quacks operating in the Nigerian film industry because there is a widened cleavage between the industry and the art institutions in the country. Therefore, it is the aim of this research to find ways by which the industry can have a complemented relationship with the schools of art in Nigeria so as to enhance a more quality output. Focus group discussion and literally analysis will be the underlying method used in this research Keywords: Nolly Wood, Industry and Art Institutions.

62

Ref#: 056/SAF/14/SD Formulating the least cost feeding strategy of a custom feeding programme : A linear programming approach a, b

Bonani Nyhodo a, Victor Mbulah Mmbengwa b, Abongile Balarane c , Xolile Ngetu d National Agricultural Marketing Council, Markets and Economic Research Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. c National Agricultural Marketing Council, Agribusiness Development, Pretoria, South Africa. d National Agricultural Marketing Council, Agricultural Trusts, Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract The profitability of a developmental project depends on effective use of available resources. That is normally referred to as appropriate decision making that requires a computation of a feasible option among several options to determine the optimal choice. To do that (get the optimal choice) a mathematical technique called Linear Programming was used in this study to provide the cost minimisation option (feed ration). The feed ration that was computed is the least cost feeding strategy (cheapest feed ration that meets the dietary requirements of cattle) appropriate for the custom feeding programme run by the National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC). The custom feeding programme, like commercial feedlots, keep animals in a zero grazing and unlike the commercial feedlots accepts even older animals. Noteworthy is that the cost of feed constitute the biggest input used in the custom feeding programme (more than 60% share of total cost of all input used). Therefore, minimising the cost of buying feed is very important to the NAMC and all stakeholders involved in purchasing of feed. The optimal solution indicates that the least or cheapest feed would cost the NAMC R4.71c/kg which is a combination of VM and MB. The most expensive feed to add in the ration would be Lucerne and yellow maize meal. The feasible solution has surpluses of each of the required nutrients. Keywords: Beef, NRMDP, Linear Programming, Feed, Optimization

63

Ref#: 057/SAF/14/SD Divided Based Return Forecast as Benchmark for REIT Performance in Malaysia a,b,c

Olusegun Olaopin Olanrele a, Rosli Said b, Mohd Nasir Daud c Department of Estate Management, Faculty of Built Environment, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract: REIT return benchmark in specific REIT market are produced using NAV, Leverage, Income, Dividend forecast and Star rating of investment. A range of benchmarks exist across the different REIT markets including US NAREIT, UK IPD, AUX LPT and EPRA. The Asian REIT market have S-REIT index and J-REIT index as a benchmark for REIT return, yet there is absence of regional benchmark index. This paper focuses on establishing a sector predicted benchmark for REIT performance in Malaysia for competitive comparison across Asian REIT market in full consideration of the joint contribution of identified return predicting factors. To measure portfolio or investment performance, studies have traditionally employed performance measures that compare the returns of managed portfolio with benchmarks like S&P500 index, NYSE Composite, NAREIT Index, Composite Price Index (CPI), KLCI, ASI, or ratios like Jensen Measures, Treynor ratio, Sharpe ratio etc. This study attempt a forecast of REITs return benchmark using Time Series analysis. The study adopted the quantitative research approach. A sample of 10 listed conventional REITs were selected to reflect diversity in portfolio and location. Data were extracted from the annual reports of selected REIT companies through their websites for period of eight years (20062013). Time Series regression was performed on the collected data from the listed REITs to establish a linear model for the forecast of REIT return at any period that can serve as benchmark for the REITs. The data shows that none of the predicting variables have a one direction of influence with dividend. A decline in the Size or NAV or FFO does not rigidly lead to a fall in dividend and vice-versa. Therefore the predictors jointly influence dividend. The regression for the trend estimation for forecast also support this position of joint significant influence of predicting factors on dividend. The study found that predicted return of 7.5% is above the actual return from REIT (6.26%) which indicates that REIT is performing below their capacity and could do more. The forecast is 18% higher than the actual. The forecast for the first quarter of 2014 is a bit higher than the actual dividend declared (table 6). A final dividend of 9.2 Sen and 7.6% annual return is predicted for year 2014 and could serve as benchmark for REIT performance for 2014. The study covers the conventional REITs that were listed in Bursa Malaysia, hence, the 4 Islamic REIT were excluded from the study. Similar study on Islamic REIT could serve a subject for another research. Keywords: Benchmark, Dividend, Performance, REIT Return, Time Series

64

Ref#: 058/SAF/14/SD Urban Storm Water and Residents’ Livability in Akure, Nigeria Abolade Olajoke a, Odunjo Oluronke Omolola b, Adigun Oyenike Folasade c , Arohunmolase Olasijibomi Precious d a ,c, d Department of Urban and Regional Planning Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The recent phenomenon of climate change and its associated quandary in the world, calls for urgent attention by respective government and public. Several attempts to alleviate this challenge have not been really effective particularly in developing nations and in particular Nigeria. The effect has being worsened by improper use of land resources and other natural attributes like topography or terrain of land in the affected areas. This undoubtedly has continued to pose serious threats to environmental sustainability and human conveniences. Against this backdrop, the paper appraises impact of storm water on the livability of residents in Akure Nigeria. It analyses topographical situation of land terrain, incidence of urban storm water and its associated impacts on residents, adequacy of storm sewers and allied facilities as well as perception of residents on government effort in solving the menace. The study employed mainly primary data from structured questionnaire. This was used to elicit relevant information on the subject of discourse. Using random systematic sampling techniques and interval of five buildings, questionnaires were administered to three hundred and eighty residents (380) in selected localities. The method of data analysis was both parametric and nonparametric. Chi-square was used to compare the difference in storm water situation and adequacy of drainage facilities in the selected localities while correlation analysis was used to explain the relationship between incidence of storm water and livability of residents. The study reveals that a significant proportion (>70%) of respondents affirmed that the underlying factors responsible for storm water are heavy rainfall, inadequate drainage facilities, topography , unpaved surfaces , blocked drainage and indiscriminate disposal of waste to water channels. There is a strong relationship (correlation coefficient = 0.71) between incidence of storm water and inadequacy of drainage facilities. The Chi Square analysis shows a significant difference (P value= 0.00) for the effects (i.e. loss of farm crops, loss of property, traffic problems, pollution physiological stress among others) suspected to result from urban storm water. There is also a significant difference (P=0.00) in the adequacy of drainages facilities between the wards. Government intervention towards the menace was also observed to be poor (P value of 0.00) for drainage construction, clearing of blocked drains, construction of bridge and tarring of road. Against this background, the paper recommends that government should be more pragmatic in provision of public utilities particularly construction of more drainages and repair of the damaged ones. Coupled with this, there should be proper environmental management through public participation efforts and discouragement of indiscriminate dumping of waste into drainages and water bodies especially during raining season. These would ultimately promote a sustainable environment. Keywords: Five words in alphabetical order) Urban, Storm Water, Livability, Sustainability

65

Ref#: 059/SAF/14/SSH Training to teach music through distance learning: A case of a primary school teacher training college in Zimbabwe a,b,c

Sithulisiwe Bhebhe a, Ratau John Monobe b , Tawanda Runhare c Department of Curriculum Studies and Education Management, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, Limpopo, South Africa. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract In training teachers open and distance education has been a current move towards greater professional development. In Zimbabwean teacher training colleges student teachers undergo teaching practice, a distance learning phase in which they learn teaching different subjects in schools. Music is one of the subjects in the Zimbabwean school curriculum and some student teachers during teacher training choose to major the subject. This study sought to examine the quality of teaching practice (TP) mentoring in the teaching of music at primary school level at one college of education in Zimbabwe. The study examined the experiences and perceptions on Teaching Practice mentoring in music by student teachers. A purposive sample of 17 music student teachers was selected. The study employed a qualitative case study research design in which one-on-one interviews, focus group discussions and documentary analysis were used to collect data. This was summarised and conclusions were drawn. The conclusions of the study were that music was not taught in Zimbabwean primary schools. Student teachers lack guidance, support and coaching in learning how to teach music in their practicing schools. Recommendations drawn from these conclusions were that policies should be put in place to ensure that music is taught in Zimbabwean primary schools. The study also recommended that key stakeholders involved in training teachers should work in partnership to ensure that music student teachers are given the needed support in learning how to teach music. Keywords: Distance learning, Music, Teacher training ,Teaching practice, Student teacher

66

Ref: 060/SAF/14SSH Keynesian Analysis of Speculative Demand for Money: The Reality of Liquidity Trap in Nigerian Capital Market Adegoke Yetunde Oluranti Economics and Development Studies, Humanities and Social Sciences. Federal University, Oye-Ekiti. Ekiti-State. Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract In Nigeria, since the early eighties, people invest their money in the capital market as an alternative to holding cash. Given the egregious state of the capital market, people have completely lost interest in the market. This study authenticates the reality of liquidity trap in the Nigerian capital market by adopting the regression analysis and error correction mechanism in testing the significance of the incorporated variables ; marginal rate of return( interest rate), per capita income, average dividend on equity and money supply. These variables were all identified as important determinant of money demand. While lending rate and exchange rate were not statistically significant. The test of direction between interest rate and demand for money was negatively signed and this verified Keynesian analysis of liquidity trap in the Nigerian economy. The study, therefore, recommends that the government of Nigeria should do everything possible to remove the imperfections in the capital market and the monetary authority should fix the interest rate at a level that will attract more investment in the capital market. Keyword: Capital market, Interest rate, Keynesian analysis, liquidity trap, Nigeria,

67

Ref#: 061/SAF/14/SD

Vulnerability to Climate Change in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa: What Does Future Holds for Smallholder Farmers? Sunday Yiseyon Hosu a, Elphina N. Cishe b Directorate of Research Innovation and Development, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, South Africa. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Climate variability and change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production in Southern African subregion. Assessing the level of smallholders’ vulnerability and the adaptive capacity will provide information required for adequate policy formulation for adaptation and to improve food security among the poor households. This current study article utilized the data from a survey of 223 small farm households in the Eastern Cape Province, one of the poorest agrarian provinces in South Africa, to explore the exposure of smallholder farmers to climate change, their adaptive capacity and the vulnerability to climate shock across major agro-ecological zones. Data on production of main staple foods and household assets and access to institutional facilities were analyzed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). General Circulation Models (GCMs) scenarios were used with a crop model (EPIC) to explore impact of future plausible climate patterns on farmers’ income. Farmers in the Karoo zone are currently the most vulnerable to climate variability. Scenario analysis also showed that maize production in Eastern Cape will be positively affected by climate change under both low-input and irrigated management systems, whereas potato yield will decrease. It is projected that smallholder farmers who significantly rely on maize can expect an increase of up to 45 percent revenue by 2050 under UKMO-HADGEM1 climate scenario if average estimated future yields materialize. Institutional and infrastructural supports in form of access to credit and irrigation facilities are recommended for adequate adaptation to future climate change impact, in particular climate volatility, which is not taken into account in our yield projections. Keywords: EPIC, food security, GCMs PCA, small farms,

68

Ref#: 062/SAF/14/SSH Assessment of Parking Space Demand in University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria: Case Study of Faculties of the Social Sciences, Law and Education a,b

Olugbenga Olufemi Soyebo a, Oluwole Ajayi b Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract The demand for vehicular parking spaces has hardly been given proper attention in the dynamics of physical and land-use development alongside demographic and socio-economic development of communities and cities. Similar trends exists in university campuses which particularly attracts very high traffic volume and consequently generates considerable measures of parking demand. The study assessed the demand for parking spaces in selected faculties in the University of Ibadan through investigative parking utilization indices survey and the parking facilities users’ behavioral survey. Findings reveal a mixture of inadequacy of designated parking facilities for staff and students in particular, and the under-utilization of some other parking provisions. This is indicated by a range of 60.7% to 133% peak parking occupancy ratios through the designated parking facilities only. Also, parking behaviours reveals strong preference (46.3%) for proximity to destination and (33.2%) for tree-shaded areas found mostly in un-defined parking situations and some stretches of on-street parking. The study portends the need (as recommendations) for more parking supply for staff, students and visitors based on the current parking demand excesses over the existing parking supply, and the parking generation capabilities of the faculty activities. Thus recommends that improvements on existing parking facilities and the planning and construction of new parking facilities be given due consideration to capture to a large extent, the convenience, comfort and ease of parking for the major users. Finally, effective parking management strategy should be put in place to fore-stall future burst in demand for parking in the event of space limitation for parking. Keywords: Parking demand, Parking spaces, University Campus

69

Ref: 063/SAF/14/SD Gender Issues and Environmental Management in Nigeria Oluronke Omolola Odunjo a , Simon Ayorinde Okanlawon b , Olajoke Abolade c a,b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. c Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Against the background of the recognized fact that gender issues have gained significance as every nation of the world is in a bid to achieve sustainable development, this study investigates female gender participation in Environmental Management in Nigeria. Questionnaire and direct field observation are the instruments for data collection and Ibadan Metropolis consisting of five local government areas was purposely selected for the study. A total of eleven Community Based Organizations that engaged in Environmental Management were identified and simple random sampling techniques was used in selecting Landlords/tenants association, out of which 281 questionnaires were randomly administered to members. The data obtained were analyzed with frequency counts, percentages and chi-square. The study found out that, Environmental Management project undertaken in the area are road construction and maintenance (41.4%), environmental sanitation (29.2%) as well as Environmental conservation (26.4%). However, female gender is grossly underrepresented in the association thereby, accounting for 4.1% of the total membership strength. The adduced reasons for this include male egocentrism, lack of education and lack of self-confidence. The study concludes by proffering solutions towards balancing gender inequalities in the area and in Nigeria in general. Keywords: Environment, Environmental Management, Gender issues, Women participation.

70

Ref#: 064/SAF/14/SD

The Human Face of Urbanization: A Case Study of Nigeria Oluwole Oluwaseun Ajayi a, Oluronke Omolola Odunjo b , Oluwaseyi Dorcas Adeoye c, Olugbenga Olufemi Soyebo d a,b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. c ,d Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University Of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The unprecedented increasing size and densities of human activities in the urban cities have not only created enormous problems of congestion and overcrowding but have also resulted into degradation and haphazard development. The high proportion rate of urbanisation in the less developed countries (LDCs) and the inability of these countries to provide basic services and infrastructure have resulted in the development of slums thereby creating an urban sprawl and decline in the inner city. The rapid rate of urbanization in Nigeria is noted to account for the depreciating quality of housing in the country’s urban centre. The paper discusses the unprecedented population and high rate of urbanization which results in development of urban slums thereby, causing degradation of urban centers and the provisional challenge of urban housing sustainability in Nigeria. Keywords: Cities, enormous problems, housing, slums, urbanization.

71

Ref#: 065/SAF/14/SD

Budget Financing and Crude Oil Price Benchmarking in Nigeria: A Time Series Forecasting Approach Olufemi Muibi Saibu Department of Economics, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract This paper contributes to on-going empirical search for an appropriate crude oil price benchmark that ensures greater financial stability and efficient fiscal management in Nigeria. It adopted the seasonally adjusted ARIMA forecasting models using monthly data series from 2000m01 to 2012m12 to predict future movement in Nigeria crude oil prices. The paper derived a more robust and dynamic framework that accommodates fluctuation in crude oil price and also in government spending. The result shows that if the incessant withdrawal from the ECA fund and the increasing debt profile of government in recent times are factored into the benchmark, the real crude oil numerical fiscal rule is (US$82.3) for 2013 which is higher than the official benchmark of $75 used for 2013 budget proposal. The paper recommends a benchmark price of US$82 for the 2014-2016 Medium Term Expenditure Frameworks instead of the US$74 proposed by the Government. The paper argues that the current long run price rule based on 5-10 year moving average approach adopted by government is rigid and inflexible as a rule for managing Nigerian oil funds. The paper concludes that except the federal government can curtail its spending profligacy and adopts a more stringent fiscal discipline rules, the current benchmark is unrealistic and unsuitable for fiscal management of oil revenue in the context of Nigerian economic spending profile Keywords: ARIMA Model, Energy Resources, Public Finance, Oil Price Benchmarking/Rule, Oil Price

72

Ref#: 066/SAF/14/SSHD Counselling, Sustainability and Human Development: A Review of Counselling Interventions for Female Students at South African Universities Vedhna Lalla Department of Sociology, Monash University, Johannesburg, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract As more and more female students are being enrolled into universities, the issue of coping with the academic, social, cultural, economic, and political pressures of higher education can no longer be ignored. Institutions of higher learning all over the world are increasingly concerned with ensuring that female students thrive in an environment that has been traditionally a preserve of affluent males. Counselling has been embraced as one of the most important interventions necessary for building positive and sustainable capacities for female students to enable them to thrive in institutions of higher learning. However, there is limited knowledge on how counselling interventions have contributed to the social, academic and personal development of female students in universities in South Africa. Most institutions that have adopted the counselling approach to supporting female students do so because they are either required by law or by university policies on gender and women's empowerment. This paper provides a detailed literature review of the nature, results and sustainability of counselling interventions at universities in South Africa. Counselling interventions are defined as processes and activities that are designed to offer students opportunities to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more resourcefully and towards greater well-being in their lives. On the other hand, sustainability is defined as an uninterrupted continuous process or condition that can be maintained indefinitely without progressive diminution of valued qualities inside or outside the system in which the process operates or the condition prevails. Central to this paper is the idea that counselling contributes to human development. Human development can be simply defined as a process of enlarging choices. It is both a process and an outcome. It is concerned with the process through which choices are enlarged, but it also focuses on the outcomes of enhanced choices. In the context of this paper, the focus will be on how the choices of female students in the tertiary education environment have been enhanced through counselling. Four questions will be addressed. One, what counselling interventions are available for female students at universities in South Africa? Two, how have these interventions contributed to the development of female students at both academic and social levels? Three, how sustainable are these interventions and finally, what makes counselling services sustainable? Addressing these questions will enable us to assess the contribution of counselling to female students' empowerment and evaluate the sustainability of these interventions as reported in existing studies. The ultimate goal is to identify gaps in literature and what future research on counselling interventions for university female students should address. Based on our extensive literature review, we found out that studies on counselling for female students at South African universities are extremely scarce. This particular area of research has not been explored and documented in the South African university settings. Many different counselling processes and programmes are offered but the focus is not specifically on female students. This justifies the need for more detailed research to find out how female benefit or do not benefit from current counselling interventions. We argue that there is need for research that explores how counselling supports economically and educationally disadvantaged female students with respect to adjustment difficulties in making the transition from secondary school to university. This kind of research is necessary because there is overwhelming evidence that indicates that adjustment is a key determinant of academic performance and success. Thus, a deep understanding of the role of counselling in helping female students to adjust to the university environment will invariably have a strong bearing on their academic performance. Student counselling does not only provide programmes for under-prepared students; it also equips them with skills to excel in a challenging academic environment. We argue that future research should explore how counselling programmes for female students enhances their academic success, retention and course completion rate. Women's success in academic circles is one area where we can gauge societal transformation and human development. Keywords: Counselling, interventions, South African Universities, female students, retention, academic, empowerment, development, sustainability, adjustment, success.

73

Ref#: 067/SAF/14/SD African Union and the Prospect of Sustainable Development in the Twenty First Century Rahila Timothy Dantong Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Science, Plateau State University of Bokkos. Plateau State, Nigeria Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The AU succeeded the Organization of African Unity (OAU), which was set up in 1963 to secure the decolonization of Africa and the sovereignty of individual nation states, while simultaneously promoting unity and prosperity on the continent. With one of the main goals achieved, a new organization was needed to take Africa forward into the 21st century: a stronger, more efficient and practical body working to create “an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena”, the world’s perception of Africa was at low ebb. The African renaissance that was promised at the end of decolonisation instead gave birth to a sustained period of ‘afro-pessimism’, following a series of devastating conflicts, endemic corruption and chronic underdevelopment. Which not only slowed the African development process, but produced new sets of elites who received instructions for development externally? As a result, Africa was brought on her knees to a total state of dependence and as a dependent economy the performance of the African economy is often conditioned by the expansion or decline of external economies. This paper therefore, appraises AU and the prospect of development in Africa within the framework of NEPAD. It further argues the neoliberal orthodoxy that has informed the initiative, providing a critical perspective of its overarching order whilst emphasizing the need for African ownership of the process and product of NEPAD, especially in the context of a newly established African union. Keywords: Decolonization; afro-pessimism, African unity, peaceful Africa

74

Ref: 068/SAF/14/SD Assessment of Knowledge Management Capabilities of the Nigerian Quantity Surveying Firms a

Isma’il Umar a, Baba Kolo Adama b , Yusuf Gandu Joe c Department of Quantity Surveying, Hussaini Adamu Federal Polytechnic, Kazaure, Jigawa state, Nigeria. b,c Department of Quantity Surveying, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Purpose: Knowledge management (KM) capabilities provide the supportive structure required to share knowledge within the context in which it is required in an organizations and they can encourage acquiring knowledge, protecting knowledge and facilitating knowledge sharing in an organization. This paper aims to assess the capabilities of the Nigerian Quantity Surveying firms in adopting KM concept and provide proper recommendation in order to adopt and implement KM successfully. Design/methodology/approach: 78 structured questionnaires were submitted to the professionals in the practicing Quantity Surveying firms to obtain the required data for the purpose of this study. A quantitative research approach was carried out to achieve the stated aim of the study. Findings: Our assessment uncovers to us the extent of KM capabilities of the Nigerian Quantity Surveying firms and also pin point the grey areas such as motivation that should be improved in order to adopt and implement KM successfully. Research limitations/implications: The statistical sample of the respondents participated in the questionnaire survey was limited to only practicing Quantity Surveying Consultancy firms resident in Kaduna and Kano states of Nigeria and this could affect the generalization of the findings to the entire country. The structure of the questionnaire search was focused only on the capabilities of the practicing Quantity Surveying Consultancy firms in view of adopting KM and the variables considered was restricted to only knowledge-based capabilities (creativity, intelligence, skills, motivation and communication) whereas resource-based capabilities (organizational culture, structure and technology infrastructure) was not give much emphasis in this research work. Originality/Value: This research consolidates collective movement towards implementation of KM in the Nigerian Quantity Surveying Consultancy firms and forms a guide for improving KM capabilities in these firms. Keywords: ANOVA, Knowledge Management Capabilities, Nigeria, Quantity Surveying Firms, Ranking,

75

Ref#: 069/SAF/14/SD The Human Face of Urbanization: A Case Study of Nigeria Oluwole Oluwaseun Ajayi a, Oluronke Omolola Odunjo b, Oluwaseyi Dorcas Adeoye c Olugbenga Olufemi Soyebo d a,b,c,d Department of Architecture, Faculty of Environmental Science, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The unprecedented increasing size and densities of human activities in the urban cities have not only created enormous problems of congestion and overcrowding but have also resulted into degradation and haphazard development. The high proportion rate of urbanisation in the less developed countries (LDCs) and the inability of these countries to provide basic services and infrastructure have resulted in the development of slums thereby creating an urban sprawl and decline in the inner city. The rapid rate of urbanization in Nigeria is noted to account for the depreciating quality of housing in the country’s urban centre. The paper discusses the unprecedented population and high rate of urbanization which results in development of urban slums thereby, causing degradation of urban centers and the provisional challenge of urban housing sustainability in Nigeria. Keywords: Cities, enormous problems, housing, slums, urbanization.

76

Ref#: 070/ SAF/14/SSH Analysis of the Effect of Technology Adoption on Yields among Fadama III Farmers in Adamawa State, Nigeria Umar Adamu Madu Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Adamawa State University Mubi, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract The study was conducted in Adamawa State, Nigeria in 2013. The main focus of this study was to assess the effect of technology adoption on yields among Fadama III farmers. In its four years of operation, Fadama III project has made remarkable impact on household access to new and proven technologies and subsequently increases in yields among Fadama III beneficiaries. Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Double Difference (DD) estimator was used to determine the effect of technologies adopted on the yields of the beneficiaries. Percentages and standard deviation were also used to describe the results. T-test analysis was used to estimate the significant difference between the beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. Adoption rate of technologies among beneficiaries increased from 43.75% before the inception of the project to 96.25% after the project intervention. This indicates 50% increase against only 20% increase among the non-beneficiaries. Yields among beneficiaries have increased significantly due to adoption of proven technologies. The increase was higher among crop farmers (59.38%) followed by livestock farmers (48.75%). The increase in yields across all the enterprises has exceeded the set target of 20% increase except for fish production (11.25%) and Agro-forestry (6.88%). The increase was more among the beneficiaries compared to nonbeneficiaries. It can be concluded that adoption of new technologies by Fadam III beneficiaries have resulted in increase in yields among the beneficiaries. The project has equally influenced the non-beneficiaries living in Fadama III communities to adopt those technologies Keywords: Adoption, Fadama III, Improved Technology, Yields.

77

Ref#: 071/SAF/14/SD Women Entrepreneurship Activities on Construction Sites in Ogbomoso, Nigeria Oluwaseyi Dorcas Adeoye a, Odetoye Sunday Adeola b, Ayanda Oyeniyi. O Ladimeji c, Joseph Joshua Olu d a,b,c,d Department of Architecture, LadokeAkintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso Oyo State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Housing development is a productive and important source of income and employment. It encourages microenterprise, which could in turn be used to solve most socio-economic problems especially among women. In spite of their considerable involvement in both labour intensive construction work and non-construction related services at housing development sites, the contribution of these women has largely been ignored in official statistics. The sizes of their microenterprises are too small to be qualified for official assistance by the government. This study examined the activities of women micro-entrepreneurs at housing construction sites in Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. The study adopted sustainable development framework and the impact of microenterprises intervention to provide the conceptual basis for this study. It identifies the various types of microenterprises established by women in the study area and appraised their operational activities and examine ways through which housing development constrain or facilitate women micro-enterprise. Data were collected from both primary and secondary sources. A multi-stage sampling method was adopted for administering a questionnaire to 92 women micro-entrepreneurs in 15 housing construction sites where the women micro-entrepreneurs were found. Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The outcome of the analysis revealed that majority (64%) of women between the ages of 25-44 years actually engage in this activity while 63% of the respondents signified that they are married with average household size of four (4) persons. The highest level of education for the respondents is secondary school level. Food vendor appear to be the major activity of these women. The multiple regression results showed that the overall level of explanation of the five explanation variables, is not significant (r2=0.157; P0.05). This means that the achievement scores of male and female students do not differ significantly. The effect of Parent Educational Background on students Achievement in Population and Family Life Education was not significant {F(2,197) = .179,P>.05}. This means that the differences in the achievement scores of students from low, medium and high Parent Educational Background was not significant. This is a pointer to the urgent need for efforts in Nigerian schools to concentrate on the use of population and family life education strategy particularly in the teaching of population education concepts in biology. Textbook writers, curriculum planners, should give attention to population and family life education strategy in their biology methodology. The biology textbook should draw the attention of the pre-serving and serving biology teachers to the use of population and family life education strategy and the procedure for the use should be clearly spelt out. Keywords: Biology, conventional teaching strategy. Population and Family Life Education and Students’ achievement

83

Ref#: 077/SAF/14/SD

Poverty and Environmental Degeneration in Central City Of Ibadan, Nigeria Funmilayo Lanrewaju Amao a, Amos Olusegun Amao b, Odetoye Adeola Sunday c, Joseph Joshua Olu d a Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria. b Department of State Service, Abuja, Nigeria c Department of Architecture Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. d Department of Architecture Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract There is a high magnitude of housing inadequacy in urban centers in Nigeria. This is manifested in quantitative and qualitative terms. Severe overcrowding and insanitary physical environment characterize the housing in the urban centers. The culminating effect of this is the growth of slum areas. This paper takes a critical look at inter-allia history and anatomy, general characteristic, present condition, root causes, official responses and reactions, possible solution and advocacy housing in central city slum of Ibadan. It also examines slum development and consequent deviant behaviors in the inner-city neighborhoods of Ibadan, the capital city of Oyo State, Nigeria. Deleterious and anti-social behaviors such as prostitution and house burglary are commonplace in the neighborhoods. The paper examines building conditions in the neighborhoods and the nexus with the deviant behavior of the inhabitants. The paper affirms that there is monumental deficiency in housing quality, while the design and the arrangement of the buildings into spatial units significantly influence the behavior of the residents. The paper suggests a two-prong approach in dealing with the situation. This involves urban renewal and slum upgrading programmes on the one hand, and an improvement in the socio-economic circumstances of the inhabitants. Keywords: Slum; Behavior; Housing; Poverty; Environmental Degeneration Track Three: Emerging Trends in Environmental Sciences (ETES)

84

Ref#: 078/SAF/14/SSH Withdrawn

85

Ref#: 079/SAF/14/SSHD

Problems in Paradise! Rethinking Poverty and the Response of the Nigerian State Osaretin Igbinehimwen Idahosa a, Joyce Oke Idahosa b Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Social Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. b Department of Political Science and Public Administration, Faculty of Social Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] a

Abstract It is widely acclaimed that Nigeria has met the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (i.e.., eradicating extreme poverty and hunger). However, despite it richly endowed natural resources, a large percentage of Nigerians still live below the United Nations’ drawn poverty line. This paper investigates the factors that cause shift in government policies and culminates in new frameworks for poverty alleviating initiatives in the country. The introduction of a series of poverty reduction programmes as well as the subsequent broadening of their scopes has been instrumental in the fight against poverty in Nigeria. Nonetheless, the future is strewn with a lot of challenges. The Nigerian government is yet to fully address poverty as a societal and developmental issue that tend to integrate inputs from the poor themselves. In other to overcome this challenge, this paper calls on the Nigeria government to focus more on macroeconomic issues that affect the poor such as high inflation and slow economic growth on development. Keywords: Development Government Policies Poverty Resources

86

Ref#: 080/SAF/14/SSH Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus among Patients Attending State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri, Nigeria Mustafa Alhaji Isa a, Ummu Kulthum Muhammad b, Hassana Mangga Kyari c , Adam Mustapha d a Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. b Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, Nigeria. c, d Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. a Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Hepatitis C virus is among the most common cause of viral hepatitis which considered as a major public health problem worldwide. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C (HCV) antibody among patients attending State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri using test kits(Manufactured by NEB CO., LTD), after the patients were advised on the need to know their status. Out of one hundred serum samples, only 6(6.0%) were positive. This includes, 2 (4.3%) were male while 4 (7.5%) were female. Distribution of HCV based age showed that those between 11- 20 years had higher prevalence of 13.6%, followed by >40 years 8.3%, 31- 40years 3.7% and 2130years have 2.7%. However, zero prevalence was recorded among