Accepted Abstracts

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An environmental lawyer's worst nightmare of seeing so many pages ... There were new towns in all the historic period. But after ... Knowledge-Theme Park (Case Study: 10 District of Mashad's municipality in Iran) ...... Chizar has been a village located on the north side of Tehran, bounded to Qheitariyeh hills from one side, a.

Accepted Abstracts International Conference on Sustainable Development 2015 Athens, Greece. "Innovating ideas for a better world" Jointly presented by the International Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Law (ICIRL) at Laurentian University, Canada, Centre for Research in Social Justice and Policy (CRSJP) at Laurentian University, Canada and Ontario International Development Agency (OIDA), Canada.

Conference location Event Location Stratos Vassilikos Hotel (AIRO Group of Hotels) 114 Michalakopoulou 115 27 Athens Greece

September 02 - 03, 2015

Ref: 001/GRE/15 Revolutionising the Civil Courts in South Africa through Information Technology Rashri Baboolal-Frank Procedural Law Department, University of Pretoria, 3rd Floor, Law building, Main Campus, Lynnwood, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract: A consultative approach was undertaken by a handful of academics in assessing the information technology of court systems from a global perspective inter alia southern hemisphere countries to European trends, which resulted in academics writing critically about this process in revolutionising the case management process and technology. Chief Justice Mogoeng of the Constitutional Court in South Africa remarked that the e-filing system was required to address some of the problems that judicial officers face in hearing appeals when dockets are lost in their entirety. In this specific context there is needed reform for the case management structure of matters that appear on the court roll. The time delay in transcribing records for Judges/Magistrates to access for writing their judgments sometimes backlogs a judgment from only being delivered eight months after the trial. This is unfavourable for the litigants that have their matter unduly delayed and causes an incremental rise in litigation fees. A possible solution is for the technology that enables and allows for ‘real-time transcript,’ which ensures that when evidence is given in court it is automatically transcribed. This means that the Judge/Magistrate has immediate visual access to it on the computer. This particular technology could save costs and allow for accurate information to be given to the Judge/Magistrate for faster digestion of the matter before them. The paper-based system perpetuates that copious amounts of pages are filed at court. An environmental lawyer’s worst nightmare of seeing so many pages that have to be printed instead of referring to a ‘soft’ copy. To a litigants aghast, after the very tedious process of paginating the court files and their own files and on the day of the trial/application the court file goes walkabout. The result is that it is impossible for the matter to proceed on the same day, accordingly the trial is postponed to locate the file and the originals alternatively for the respective litigants to file the necessary copies to ensure that the matter can proceed with a copied file for a civil dispute. However from a criminal perspective when the docket is lost, then the case is postponed for the location of the docket and if it cannot be found then the matter is removed from the roll, until it can be found and then the matter will then be re-enrolled on the court roll, sometimes matters take years to re-appear if at all. The result sadly is that when documents go missing that criminals are released into society once again. European countries have adopted Courts that function on an online basis where witnesses can attest to evidence through online mediums akin to skype. In the Southern Hemisphere countries such as Singapore and Australia have some of the most advanced Information Technology systems such as e-filing systems and video conferencing are some of the developments that contribute to the ‘dawn of a new era of cybercourts.’ Australia had initially developed the court system for matters that were ‘complex’ but then a particular necessity for it evolved and as a result at least one permanent cyber court sits in each court. Another reason for using information technology in Australia was to ease the backlog of a paper-based system. The trends in technology is not only to revolutionise business and marketing but also has its place in court. Advanced technology usually sums up convenience and especially in the struggle for access to justice ‘convenience’ is a fad that can address access to justice. A major drawback of information technology is that it is an expensive system, but surely government may address the cost concern if it weighs the successes of the system to paper-based outdated systems. In Singapore the courts have converted to an electronic litigation system, meaning every iota of the litigation is computerised. It has been argued by Laverne that if one adopts any system in the judiciary that you need to analyse the context and apply it to the circumstances. This paper shall only deal with an analysis of the court online system to revolutionise the civil system within a South African context. Keywords: court information process revolutionise technology

Ref: 002/GRE/15 Strategic Analysis of Past Experiences of New Towns in Iran to Achieve New Approaches for the Future


Hamid Majedi a, Farah Habib b, Fereshte Ahmadi c Department of Art and Architecture ,Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran , Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract There were new towns in all the historic period. But after the Industrial Revolution and the increasing problems of megacities, these new towns are made by modern purpose in order to solve the population and economic problems of megacities. In our country, proposing a new urban development plan for the metropolitan area as means to balance, decentralization of large cities was considered as creation of new towns around the megacities. Now after a couple of decades in the life of these new towns was built on this basis, we observe irregulars and problems in them that has caused to we make unsure and hesitant to decide to continue to develop and more investment in them or build them. Because of past experience of new towns shows that, except in a few cases, the goals and aspirations of these settlements have been fundamental changed to the objectives and qualitative aspects of the issues has declined in quantitative aspects. This paper seeks to answer the key question: what are the most important strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of past experience of New Towns in Iran? Strategic analysis of the various factors involved in the process of creating and building new towns in Iran, on the one hand to answer the essential question of this research and on the other vision, provides the goals, strategies, operational review policies of the current new towns and their future development policies. This study has been conducted with qualitative method and SWOT technique. SWOT analysis, is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project. It involves specifying the objective of the project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. Five new towns in Iran including Andishe in Tehran and Baharestan, Shahinshar, Puladshahr, Majlesi new town in Isfahan have been selected as the case study in this research. Studied and analyzed aspects of these new towns was eight dimensions consists of region and spheres of influence in the town, environment and geography, urban management, population and social factors, economic and urban activity, spatial and quality of accommodation, urban facilities and utilities, movement and access network. Based on the research results, the main strength of new towns is that the prices of land and housing in them are lower than in megacities. The main weaknesses of the new towns are: inattention to environmental potentials in locating of new towns, Fragmentation of urban management, absence of popular participation in urban development plans, lack of population absorbing centers, limited and low diversity of jobs and etc. Feasibility to review experiences of massive urban development projects and feasibility to coordinate, both public and private sectors are the biggest opportunities of new towns. Inconsistent new towns with the goals expected for their is the main threats facing the new towns in Iran. As well as environmental sustainability, livability, identity creation and competition admission are the main criteria for projects and programs of new towns in Iran. Keywords: New towns in Iran, strategic analysis, strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats, reviewing past experiences

Ref: 003/GRE/15 Improving The Educational_Recreational Capacity Of Cities Through Designing Knowledge-Theme Park (Case Study: 10 District of Mashad's municipality in Iran) a,b

Fereshte Ahmadi a, Shirin Toghyani b Department of Art and Architecture and Urban planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. a Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Iran is a cultural and knowledge based global city with iranian and Islamic, beautiful, resistant, rich and model identity in Islam's world. Iran's Supreme Leader: "... We must promote the basic knowledge in a manner that knowing sciences such as physics, chemistry, mathematics and other fields of the basic science become customary and public concerns." Digest: In fact, 'City' has the same nature as what comes to the mind as culture. However, by development of cities and unlimited increase of cities, the relation between the human being and the nature has been reduced. Nowadays, the machinery life through the daily increase of cities has made the human being so far away from the nature. That is why breathing in a healthy weather and having rest and fun have become a vital need for the people of the cities. Therefore, as parks are the place of city inhabitants' rest, to avoid jobs and life's problems, these people try to use parks. This need has made that place a proper tool for culture making and an indirect education. This resulted into that the experts and relevant officials, through making the parks thematic and also with the education during fun, to improve the knowledge of their people and to be able to attract tourist as well. Therefor, designing knowledge theme parks in order to improve the education al and amusing capacity of cities is under focus of this paper. The general topic of this research is to provide a proper field for merging education, amusement and building a pleasant, attractive and different atmosphere for the people, tourists and particularly for the kids in form of making knowledge theme park. In this regard, the basic concepts of knowledge, park and its functions, the knowledge park and its aims, the characteristics and the history of establishment are described. Then the national and foreign experience in theme parks and the derived norms and standards for designing them are reviewed. Finally, due to an increase in the number of Iranian and foreign tourists and pilgrims of Mashad city and because of the need in quantitative and qualitative improvement of leisure and tourism atmospheres and also the necessity of revising the process of planning and designing parks, the district 10 of Mashad's municipality is introduced for the case study; and therefore, the knowledge theme park is designed for this site. The research methodology of this paper is descriptive-analytical and is based on the process of environmental planing and designing. Keywords: knowledge theme park, city, education, outing, designing. "I hear and I forget, I see and I remember. I do and I understand."

Ref: 004/GRE/15 Profitability of Snail Rearing Enterprise for Sustainable Rural Development in Nigeria Henry Mbeh Ndifon a, Friday Ogar Idiku b, Jimmy Bassey Ijogu c, Ejeje Igwe Agube d Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. a Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Snail rearing is a lucrative business in Nigeria as majority are derived from the wild life bank and are used as food, animal feed or source of income in the country. The main objective of this study was to assess the profitability of snail farming in Nigeria. Other specific objectives include identifying types of snail and snail farming systems in Nigeria, determining the economies of snail production and estimating the cost and returns in snail enterprise in Nigeria. This study was carried out in Nigeria, a West African country having a population of about 140,003,542 million with an annual growth rate of 2.8% (NBS, 2006). The country has over 350 ethnic groups with two major religions Christianity and Islam as well as a land size of 923,768 sq. km (UN, 2006). The population of this study comprise of the snail farmers in the study area. A stratified random sampling technique was employed to select 150 respondents. Primary data were obtained through oral interview with snail farmers on the management practices, cost and returns on both small and large scale snail enterprises as well as the sustainability of snail rearing in Nigeria. Budgetary techniques were used to determine the gross margin and net farm income obtained from snail production in the study. Profitability ratio analysis such as benefit cost ratio (BCR) was used to measure the profitability of the snail rearing enterprises. The findings revealed that the giant West Africa snail called Achatina marginata were the most desirable species for snail farming due to its high yield capacity while Achatina-achatina good for commercialization because of its profitability. Both in-door and out-door snail farming systems were identified to be suitable for the country. The cost and returns on both small and large scale snail enterprises showed a high level of profitability for sustainable rural development. Therefore, it was recommended that for sustainability, snails should not be harvested from the wild, rather, everyone should rear snails using the modified out-door farming system. Keywords: Nigeria, snail rearing, sustainability, profitability, protein

Ref: 005/GRE/14 Non-farm Employment and Poverty among Rural Farmers in Nigeria Friday Ogar Idiku a, Caroline Linus Aboh b, Augustine Oko Angba c, Henry Mbeh Ndifon d, Kalu Iroha Ogbonna e a,b, c,d,e Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract Multiple job holdings are common phenomenon in Nigeria and elsewhere. Recent studies have pointed to the fact that income from rural household members’ participation in non-farm employment activities has been contributing significantly to farm households’ welfare in Nigeria as it does in other parts of the world. It is against this background that this study on non-farm employment diversification and poverty among rural farmers in Cross River State was conducted with the major objective of examining the effect of non-farm employment on poverty. This study was carried out in Cross River State; one of the 36 States in Nigeria. The State covers an area of 21,636.6 square kilometers and lies at latitude 5°45' north and longitude 8°30' east. It has a population of 2,892,988 (NPC, 2006) and a population density of 137 people per square kilometer and accounts for 2.1 percent of Nigeria's total population. Both primary and secondary data were used with primary data obtained through the use of questionnaires. A multi-stage random sampling technique was employed to select 260 samples for the study while descriptive statistics and logit regression were used to analyze the data collected. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents were male (83.0%), aged 41-60 years (52.0%); attained primary education (42.0%), belonged to several social organizations (92.0%); had household sizes of 1-5 (67.0%), owned land (83.0%) and earned an annual income of between N41,000–N60,000 (63.0%) with an average or mean income of N60,502.50. In addition, a large proportion of the respondents had farm experience(s) of 1-5years (58.0%), farm size of 1-3 hectares (67.0%), and lack access to credit (92.0%) but used mostly family labour (75.0%) for farming activities. The logit regression diagnostic statistics result showed that the model was well fit and indicated that farm experience; land ownership, access to credit; non-farm experience and educational status were factors that positively and significantly determined the likelihood that respondents’ participation in non-farm employment will reduced their probability of being poor. There were also significant differences in the mean income of farm and non-farm employment while high financial risk was one of the greatest constraints to participation in non-farm employment sector. Recommendations were made for the development of the non-farm sector of the rural economy, reform of land tenure system, provision of credit facilities to farmers and building human capacity while areas with high poverty incidence, depth and severity should be prioritize for poverty intervention Keywords: Farmers, non-farm employment, Nigeria, poverty, rural

Ref: 006/GRE/15 Proposing Principles And Criteria For Ecotourism Planning Along The Sustainable Tourism Management a

Fereshte Ahmadi a, Omid Khajeh b Department of Art and Architecture and Urban planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. b Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract In recent years tourism has been extremely important . This issue are seen as a major thrust for the development of industry and economic - social growth. Iran is one of the ten countries with historical attractions and one of the five countries with the highest climatic and biological diversity. It has potential in many fields particularly Ecotourism (Nature Tourism) in the world. Ecotourism is the travel in nature and intended to enjoy that occurs the goals of sustainable development. Ecotourism Study is necessary of the different views: scientific and professional, social - cultural, physical, economic and environmental. Main aim of this paper is to achieve the appropriate model for ecotourism in natural areas along the sustainable tourism management. In line with is mentioned this objective: initially defined, the history, significance and role tourism and particular ecotourism in world. Then is discussed to identify principles and criteria for sustainable tourism development, ecotourism projects and components forming the terms tourism planning. Finally offered practical suggestions for Management resorts to considering the principles of environmental management along the principles of tourism management. Research paper method is analytical and based on practical planning process and environmental design.

Keywords: Ecotourism , Planning , Sustainable Development , Tourism Management

Ref: 007/GRE/15 Urban Landscape Impact On The Social Behavior Of Citizens (Case Study of Julfa and Zainabiayeh Districts of Isfahan) a

Fereshte Ahmadi a, Omid Khajeh b Department of Art and Architecture and Urban planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. b Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract One of the important issues of urban studies is Urban Landscape impact on mental, perceptual, and behavioral aspects of citizens. Urban Landscape, as a result of the interaction of the factor formation of city and urban community, reflects the characteristics such as the development of civil society and citizens, and their social maturity, the values and norms, economic conditions, tastes and aesthetic criteria and more. In this paper, in order to understand the urban landscape impact of mental image of citizens and to study their behavioral characteristics, we selected Julfa & Zainabiayeh districts of Isfahan, and had distributed a number of questionnaires among the inhabitants. The results of comparative analysis from these districts show that Julfa has the dynamic and old buildings with historical value, but Zainabiayeh has the worn out buildings with poor features of the urban landscapes and the social capital can be more successful in attracting economic capital in Julfa. Moreover, the indicators and social behavior patterns of citizens in Julfa is more desirable, since its inhabitants have a legible mental image and sense of belonging to place. Keywords: Urban Landscapes, Social Behavior, Social Maturity, Values and Norms

Ref: 008/GRE/15 Towards Commercializing Irrigation Agriculture: An Econometric Appraisal of the Nigeria Farm Fakayode Bamidele Segun Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Oye-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Though over 70 percent of Nigeria’s population engage in subsistence agriculture, productivity in the agriculture sector is a low as 60 %. This situation to a large extent is sequel to the seasonal rain dependent nature of the country’s agriculture. In this vein, this study investigated commercial irrigation initiatives in Nigeria, using Oshin Irrigation site in Kwara State as a case study. Specifically the study examined irrigation facilities and incentives, farmers perception via-a-vis public-private irrigation, demand for public-private irrigation and constraints faced by farmers under the public-private irrigation For the study sixty farm households beneficiaries under the Oshin irrigation scheme were surveyed and interviewed. Tools of employed for the study were the descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Anova and Principal Component Analyses PCA. Results of the study revealed that beneficiaries enjoyed subsidized irrigation facilities and other incentives under the Scheme. However it was found that most of the lands cleared for beneficiaries use were lying fallow and unused. Beneficiaries were found to have had little or no formal education at all. Public-Private Irrigation initiatives were perceived to be beneficial, provide easy access to irrigation facilities, reduce unemployment and gateway to the provision of water resources to communities. The demand for public-private Irrigation initiatives were found to be explained by irrigation facilities availed farmers and the opportunity cost of partaking in such ventures (Receipts from other businesses). Constraints faced by respondents under the Scheme were mainly those of inadequate funds, pest and diseases and those of poor input supply and availability. The study therefore calls for the need to encourage the mass of the countries idling youths in irrigation farming. The introduction of high revenue yielding and viable irrigation agriculture to encourage participation, provision of funds and timeliness in supply and adequacy of relevant inputs. Keywords: Idling youths, Oshin irrigation Scheme, Principal Component Analysis PCA, Public-Private Irrigation, high revenue yielding irrigation agriculture

Ref: 009/GRE/15 The Effect of Play Acting on the Pre-School Children’s Skills and Abilities in Communication with Disabled Children Fatemeh Fakhri Department of Indian Theatre, Faculty of Design And Fine Arts, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract During early preschool years children develop a strong need for peer acceptance. During this stage disabled children have a disadvantage due to their disability because it is not considered to be socially acceptable for nondisabled children to be sympathetic or to communicate with disabled children. This study investigates “the effect of playacting on the preschool children's skills and abilities in communication with disabled children.” The participants of this research include the preschool pupils of one of the districts of Tehran, who are culturally, economically and socially similar to each other. The statistical sample consists of 40 children of ages 5 to 6 of two preschool groups. They were taken randomly and classified into two groups of 20 members. Each group in each preschool with 20 nondisabled children accepted two disabled children. In one of the preschool test groups, the children participated in play-acting, and in the other preschool control group, the ordinary programs of the preschool were presented without any theatre program. In this research, an experimental design has been used. Dramatic activities and the skills used by nondisabled children to communicate with disabled children are independent and dependent variables of this research. The tools of data collecting included the observation method (film and photographs), and the results were analyzed using McNemar test. The results of the study are very significant. It shows that nondisabled children were able to communicate with differently talented children 85% more as a result of 15 sessions of group work. Positive reactions from nondisabled children were developed, and communications between differently talented ones were improved. These results were not evident in the control group. Moreover, the improvement of verbal and motor skills as well as communicative skills of the disabled children and the change of their attitude towards nondisabled children were also findings of this research. Keywords: Communication, Disabled children, Preschool, Play-acting

Ref: 010/GRE/15

Comparative survey of residential spaces in hot and dry regions (Yazd) with principles of sustainability Pegah Dalvand a, Shirin Toghyani b , Negar Dalvand c a Danesh Pazhoohan Institute of Higher Education, Iran. b Department of Art and Architecture and Urban planning, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran. c Department of Urban Planning in Islamic Azad University (Tehran Central Branch), Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract: Sustainable development is a concept seeking solutions to current crises regarding environmental, economic and social issues at local and world levels. The aim of sustainable development is to create and form a kind of socioeconomic behaviour towards nature trying to preserve the life of environmental and natural systems for future generations. The important point is that the aim of sustainable development is to create and form a kind of socio-economic behaviour towards nature that will preserve the life of environmental and natural systems for future generations. In fact, sustainability is not a state we can reach; rather, it is an effort towards which we should move. Therefore, it can be said that sustainability is an attitude and a process. In this paper, with regard to the ancient architecture of this land, which is a connected chain of experiences and values that have been passed on to us by artists, architects and people of Iran since thousands of years ago; and compatibility of Iranian cities, villages and buildings in different places and at various times with social, cultural, religious and environmental grounds, efforts have been made to show that Iranian architecture has always fulfilled the people and society’s material and spiritual needs. Particularly, hot and dry climate is one of the four climates of Iran, and Yazd is the most outstanding sample whose structure can clarify the spatial combination of an Iranian traditional city in the hot and dry climate in spite of major changes in the forties and after that. The present paper is an attempt to concentrate on environmental issues and ecological features governing cities in hot and dry regions of Iran (Case study is Yazd); particularly, to deal with the issue of climate and its effect on residential homes and spaces existing in them, and to survey the relationship between the principles governing their design and the degree of their compliance with sustainable architecture. Keywords: Hot and dry region, Sustainable development indices, ecological features, Residential homes, Introverts

Ref: 011/GRE/15 Effects of Boko Haram Insurgency on The Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria c

Joseph Okwesili Nkwede a, Emmanuel Ogbonna Abah b, Oliver Uchenna Nwankwo a,c Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. b Public Administration, Management Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract One of the most intractable elements in the governance of Nigeria as a country is the current Boko Haram insurgency which has continually posed a serious threat to the corporate existence and unity of the country. Contemporaneously, it has seemingly defiled all political solutions to the extent that the spate of terrorist attacks on the innocent Nigerian citizens, are on the increase. Consequent upon government efforts to tame the dreaded ailment in the polity, the fragility of Nigerian state embedded in this monster has fascinated and heightened iniquitous terrorist uprising and dimension. The paper aims at investigating the activities of Boko Haram in Nigeria with particular attention on its effects on the socio-economic development of the country. The paper ventured into panoramic view of Boko Haram insurgency and its manifestations in Nigeria. A critical examination of the origin, forms and dimensions becomes sacrosanct. This session is therefore devoted to the discussion of Boko Haram insurgency and socio-economic development with Nigeria in perspective. Keywords: Boko Haram, Development, Insurgency,Nigeria, Socio-Economic.

Ref: 012/GRE/15 New Environmentalism of Kerala for Sustainability Omana Joyce Russel Department of History, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Kerala is widely well known as the ‘God’s own country’ because of its scenic beauty and bio-diversity. But the multinational companies have exploited the natural resources of Kerala after globalization. In Kerala, the nature lovers, environmental activists, Adivasis or Tribal people, the poor and the marginalized people launched various movements against polluting industries, pesticides, construction of dams etc. they have defended their environment in rural areas and their concern is with livelihood, environmental justice and protection, thereby contributed to the environmental sustainability of the economy. The environmental movements in Kerala are the Silent Valley movement, the Mullaperiyar Dam issue, Save Chaliyar movement, movement against endosulfan and Coca cola. People protested against the Government of Kerala when the government decided to construct a hydro-electric project at Silent Valley in Palakkad district. The cry of the people was so loud that the government was forced to protect the ecosystem of the area by declaring Silent valley as a National park in 1985. The people of Kerala agitated for the protection of Mullaperiyar dam which was constructed in 1895 A.D. The State government has proposed to construct a new dam to protect the people from destruction. Save Chaliyar movement was the agitation of the native people against the air and water pollution causing serious health problems and death by the multi-national Company viz., Gwalior Rayon Factory in Kozhikode district. This is a success story of a people’s environmental movement in the state. Ordinary people of Kasaragod district were at the forefront of the battle to ban the use of endosulfan, a toxic pesticide that has been used for decades in India. Endosulfan’s impact is evident in the maimed, mentally and physically disabled children and in the health of men and women of this area. The Hindustan Coca cola company extracted 15 million litres of ground water per day free of cost. This created water crisis for the tribes, dalits and the farmers. All these environmental movements were mass movements by the marginalized sections of the Kerala society against destroying the resources and the environment of the state. These ecological and environmental movements are the examples of the collective action of several social groups. The subaltern masses agitated for their control over their resources, the right of the indigenous people to preserve their culture, protection of environment and maintenance of ecological balance as the government policies affected the human life to a great extent. Environmental movements in Kerala encompass the enhancement in the quality of life through recognition of people’s right over their natural resources, their right to live with dignity and their participation in the decision making. This is against the modern capitalist agenda of the state government which led to the destruction of environment, poverty and the marginalization of the rural masses. The developmental strategies of the governments in Kerala do not reflect the needs and demands of the people and ecology of the state. Massive struggles against the government policies and their success led to the development of a new environmental consciousness among the people of Kerala, i.e., the New Environmentalism which has a significant role in shaping the governmental policies. The present paper is an attempt to re-look and reinterpret the environmental movements in Kerala in the historical frame of new social movements, especially of post colonial Kerala in the theoretical frame of rising subaltern consciousness after globalization of the economy. The environmental movements in Kerala can be identified as part of the rising subaltern consciousness mainly under subaltern theories of Ranajith Guha, Spivak and Antonio Gramscy. Methodology and objectives Analytical method is used to identify the new environmental movements in Kerala as part of rising subaltern consciousness. • To understand the growing consciousness of the environmentalism of the poor. • To classify the movements under the historical context of ‘new social movements’ after independence. • To examine the failure of the post-colonial governments to offer a sustainable and eco-friendly developmental strategy for the state. Keywords Endosulfan, Environmental Movements, Marginalised people, Sustainability, Subaltern consciousness

Ref: 013/GRE/15

A Geographical Analysis of Water Quality in Kalady Panchayat, Kerala, India a,b

Lancelet Thankam Simpson a, Brilla Balsam Junus b Department of Geography, Sree Sankarachrya University of Sanskrit, Kalady, Kalady P.O, Kerala, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The paper entitled ‘A Geographical Analysis of Water Quality in Kalady Panchayat’ is an evaluation of potability of surface and ground water in Kalady panchayat. Water quality is a major issue in this fast growing world. Water quality becomes a problem due to population explosion, socio-economic growth and poor management of natural resources in the 21st century. Surface water namely rivers, ponds, lakes etc have been contaminated at an alarming rate due to the dumping of waste materials in a meaningless way. The paper reveals improper waste disposal system, dumping wastes in public water resources in an unsustainable manner in the study area. Ground water was the major source of drinking water in the early years but now due to over exploitation it is also contaminated and exhausted. In turn, humans are affected by the poor quality of water in the form of health impacts. The paper gives general introduction with water quality and its global, Indian and Kerala scenario and the major reasons for poor quality of water. Since the study is supported by the concept that ‘water quality has a major health impact’, a brief statement about medical geography is also included. Medical geographical aspect is a sub division in the discipline of geography that explains about the influence of local conditions upon the human health. ‘Statement of the problem’ and the ‘significance of the study area’ that are explains about the present problem of investigation in the study area Main objectives The present study may evaluate the water quality and thereby checks the possibility of health impacts due to poor water quality in Kalady panchayat. The water quality parameters include physic-chemical and micro-biological characteristics of water also be considered. Methodology Grid sampling method is used for collecting samples from wells and 12 samples were collected from wells. 13 samples were collected from streams, ponds and Periyar River together. Therefore, 25 samples were collected from surface and ground water and they were collected in three seasons. So, total 75 samples were collected for water quality analysis in the study area. The water quality parameters selected for water quality analysis include physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics. The physic-chemical factors are temperature, pH, turbidity, TSS (Total suspended solids), Electrical conductivity (EC), TDS (Total dissolved solids), DO (Dissolved oxygen), BOD (Biological oxygen demand), total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, silicate, sodium, potassium and iron. The micro-biological indicators used for water quality analysis were total coliforms, fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci. Physical and chemical parameters were analyzed by using the standard procedure used in the laboratory (APHA method). Standard plate count method was used for analyzing micro-biological characteristics. Scope Water management needs water quality data and comparison of the same with Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limit. So the results are compared with BIS limit for drinking water. The study represents graphs showing different parameters and separate graphs were produced for ground water and surface water. The sample locations of surface and ground water are shown in separate maps. Post-monsoon season shows maximum contamination than other two seasons. There are variations for water quality in surface and ground water. The result shows that most of the water resources are not potable. The high level of certain parameters causes some diseases. Certain locations experience high level of contamination. They are due to the influence of local conditions. Generally nutrients show low level that means that there is no chance for the condition of eutrophication. The study concludes monsoon water quality is comparatively good and post-monsoon shows poor water quality. Keywords: Bureau of Indian Standards, Eutrophication, , Grid sampling, Micro-biological , physic-chemical

Ref: 014/GRE/14

Biogas for sustainable energy generation: development and perspectives Abdeen Mustafa Omer Energy Research Institute (ERI), Forest Road West, Nottingham NG7 4EU, United Kingdom. Corresponding g author: [email protected] Abstract: Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas. Biogas technology cannot only provide fuel, but is also important for comprehensive utilisation of biomass forestry, animal husbandry, fishery, evoluting the agricultural economy, protecting the environment, realising agricultural recycling, as well as improving the sanitary conditions, in rural areas. The biomass energy, one of the important options, which might gradually replace the oil in facing the increased demand for oil and may be an advanced period in this century. Any county can depend on the biomass energy to satisfy part of local consumption. Development of biogas technology is a vital component of alternative rural energy programme, whose potential is yet to be exploited. A concerted effect is required by all if this is to be realised. The technology will find ready use in domestic, farming, and small-scale industrial applications. Keywords: Biogas application, Biomass resources, Energy, Environment, Sustainable development

Ref: 015/GRE/15

Making m-health services more effective by the use of Cell Phone for Infant and Young Child Feeding Promotion Umme Salma Mukta a, Barnali Chakraborty b, Umme Sayka c , MD Raisul Haque d, MD Moslem Uddin Mia e a,b,c,e Research and Evaluation division, BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh. d Health, Nutrition and Population Programme, BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Introduction Globally, the total number of cell phone users is more than 3 billion which comprises about 25% from developing countries (Internet). With the blessing of globalization, use of mobile technologies has been increasing rapidly in many developing countries including Bangladesh. A total population of Bangladesh is around 148 million of which 82.44 million is mobile subscriber indicates that each two people having at least one mobile (BBS 2011). Considering the situation, BRAC took an initiative to utilize the cell phone in the Alive and Thrive (A & T) areas for the beneficiaries and staff to solve any queries or barriers regarding the practices of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) faced by the mothers. As a part of it, the Pusti Karmis (PKs) are given Tk.100 from January 2010 to operate their cell phone. PK is the one, who was recruited as an IYCF Promoter from the beginning of the project for trouble shooting of IYCF services. In this package of intervention, A& T, program delivered about 1.9 million stickers including the PKs’ contact number to the eligible participants of the catchment area. Thus the programme aimed to achieve more responses from the beneficiaries on IYCF related problems and to deliver services as and when necessary to improve the practices. However, the response from the target people (especially from the mothers or care givers) was still to be satisfactory level. Objective Considering the situation, BRAC-RED was proposed to conduct a study to identify the factors and barriers associated to this low response rate and provide feedbacks to the program. Methods The study was conducted in 5 upazillas of Manikgong and Meherpur districts. For the study mainly the PKs, and mothers/caregivers enrolled in the A&T intervention were selected for interview, those had received the incentives on cell phone or involved in the communication process through cell phone. Findings The study revealed that the common barrier of cell phone use was the load shading problem of electricity that restricted charging the phone. Some mothers informed that they couldn’t operate the cell phone properly to communicate to PKs while they felt the necessity. All the mothers told that though their husbands got it recharged but they thought it was unnecessary to call the PKs and discussed child feeding issues. They advised to wait until PKs/SSs (Shasthya Shebika) visited and discussed the matter. Some mothers, PKs as well did not have own cell phone. They used husband’s or other family member’s cell phone. They had limited access to cell phone for whole day to communicate. On the other hand, most of the PKs informed that, hundred taka was not enough to communicate over cell phone to mothers, as they needed to communicate for other official purposes as well. Each of them had at least 150 under two children in individual catchment area, lump sum amount of Tk 100/- for a month, as they mentioned, was inadequate to maintain communication over cell phone. Until and unless the mothers called, rather, they felt to solve the problem by face to face counseling. Family members especially the ancestors and husbands didn’t take it normally. They thought that they gossiped over cell phone. Lack of awareness was another issue, for instance, even if mothers were not practicing the IYCF properly, interns of children’s age, they perceive that they were right. Conclusion Considering the fact, cell phone remuneration might be increased for the PKs and awareness of mothers and their family members needed to be strengthened. Keywords: Barriers, Cell phone users, Incentive, IYCF services, M-health services

Ref: 016/GRE/15 Delivering aid effectively in disasters: an analysis of donor-funded post-disaster reconstruction interventions in Swat, Pakistan Murad Ali Department of Management Studies, University of Malakand, Chakdara, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Like numerous other countries across the globe, Pakistan is also prone to myriad natural disasters including earthquakes, cyclones, droughts, famines and floods. Among all these hazards, floods have been the most recurring natural disasters in Pakistan which cause widespread destruction and loss of lives. However, the 2010 floods were unprecedented in the country’s history as these broke all the previous records of flooding. The torrential rains and flash floods of July-August 2010 not only resulted in the loss of numerous precious lives but also caused significant destruction to livestock, crops and infrastructure throughout the country. Affecting 20 million people and damaging 1.6 million homes, the floods rendered 7.3 million people homeless. More than 2,000 precious lives were lost and damage to property, livelihood and infrastructure was substantial. Bringing about 160,000 square kilometers of land under water, about one-fifth of Pakistan's total land area, the floods caused unmatched damage to infrastructure and affected almost every sector of the economy. It destroyed and damaged standing crops, roads, bridges, irrigation channels, railways, electricity towers, gas lines and education, health, water and sanitation facilities. The education sector was severely affected as 10,348 schools, 23 colleges and 21 vocational training centers were fully or partially damaged by the floods. As a result, over seven million school-going children were affected for whom temporary tent schools were established. The country’s fragile economy suffered more than US$ 10 billion as a result of flooding. The response of the international donor community was swift as well as generous as planes full of relief items arrived in Pakistan soon after the disaster. Over 80 donors provided a total of US$ 3.042 billion in aid consisting of both food and non-food items as well as direct cash grants. Using the 2005 Paris Declaration (PD) on Aid Effectiveness doctrines, particularly the first three commitments including ownership, alignment and harmonization, this study examines the extent to which aid donors delivered aid effectively and fully in line with the PD commitments. The study explores whether or not donors incorporated the PD commitments in post-crisis humanitarian interventions. Primary and secondary data was collected in Pakistan in 2013-14 through a series of field trips and interviews with key stakeholders comprising government officials and staff of various donor agencies. The findings and analysis show that aid was more effectively delivered when it was utilised according to the PD principles and was less effective when the PD guidelines were not adhered to. Although the study focuses on District Swat in northern Pakistan, this research has significant implications for the global aid effectiveness agenda espoused in the PD and other subsequent declarations. Keywords: Aid effectiveness, Disaster, Pakistan, Paris Declaration, Reconstruction/Rehabilitation.

Ref: 017/GRE/15 Individual empowerment - An Eastern Perspective Sylaja Hymavathy Department of Psychology, Sree Sankaracharya University of Sanskrit, Kalady Ernakulam, Kerala, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The community psychology literature views empowerment in part as the building of self knowledge and self esteem of the individual to reduce feelings of solidarity and legitimacy. Therefore individual empowerment is the reciprocal influences and confluence of macro and micro level forces that impact the emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects of individuals. It entails changes In: meaning which revolves around beliefs, values and behaviors, competence or self-efficacy, that is the belief of being able particular tasks or roles; that is the belief of being able to carry out particular tasks or roles; self-determination or the choices individuals have initiating or regulating their actions. Empowerment, however, should not be about simple trade-offs between the individual and the group, but rather how the group can reinforce individual agency and vice versa. Individual empowerment can only occur in a social context and so must involve co-operation. Individual empowerment occurs through the process of personal development, which entails both the growth of skills and abilities and a more positive self-definition. Empowered people feel better about themselves, there is an increased sense of personal dignity, self respect and self esteem at the psychological level. Also there is a new confidence and a sense of personal efficiency. The person perceives himself or herself as more capable, worthy. There is totally new psychological re definition of self. As a result there is actual increase of knowledge, information, competence, skills, resources, opportunities and more effective action and interpersonal relationship. The development of self-confidence strengthens personal ability to individual transformation of consciousness and capacity. The results of a personal empowerment process are feelings of personal change and development and the sign of changed behavior. This changed behavior can increase decision making in the household, starting to vote or meeting others outside the household. These kinds of activities are often seen as indicators of economic, political and social empowerment .But why do some people changed while others remain the same under the same condition? A key feature for this kind of questions could be psychological aspects: increased confidence, power or the belief that actions will be successful. Some confidence in the outcomes of certain action is indispensable for making a start. Contextual and structural aspects have considerable influence on empowerment processes; however, some authors emphasize psychological aspects. Rowland and Schwartz (1997) view these aspects as the ‘core’ of the empowerment process without which any real empowerment will take place. This ‘cores’ is the transformation of the individual that leads to empowerment. Psycho-social processes are the development of psychological elements like self-confidence, self-esteem, self-respect and self-worth; being able to interact and influence things and the expectation of receiving respect from others and the right to receive this respect. Eastern approaches like Gita, Yoga, Ayurveda, Budhism and Taoism have their own techniques and measures to the development of Individual empowerment, which in turn, will help for the development of a peaceful society. Methodology and objectives Content analysis is used to find out the ways of empowerment in eastern perspective. To find out the eastern perspectives like Gita, Yoga, Ayurveda, Budhism and Taoism and their role in individual empowerment. Keywords: Ayurveda, Budhism, Empowerment, Gita, Self-esteem.

Ref: 018/GRE/15 Enhancing Human Productivity by Bridging the Gender Gap in the World Oludele Adesina Moyofade MADAM - Migration And Development in Africa Monitors – Nigeria, O.A.U CHAPTER. Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Science, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Women participation in the democratic political process could be enhanced if she is well informed on integrating her livelihood with other issues which will bring out her positive strength. In the last decade, governments in Africa prioritized gender parity in all her sectors. Nigeria as one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa needs to intensify efforts to achieving it. while the population ratio of men to women in the 2006 census is 51: 48, bridging the gender gap of 92:8 (current ratio) as against 65:35 ratio the Nigerian women are advocating in her democratic political process is imperative. This paper highlights some factors that are militating against women vis-ŕ-vis her active participation in the political process. Furthermore, with respect to the available data analyzed in gender gap in the number of seats held in national assembly by state and seats held by women and men in national assembly by year and gender, it is inferred that for the African women to be competent and capable of participating in the democratic political processes, education and access to information technology is inevitable. From the data it was discovered that in 1999, the percentage women in the upper chamber was 2.75%, while that of men was 97.25%. In the lower chamber, the percentage of women was 3.33%, while that of men was 96.67%. By the year 2003, the situation improved slightly. In the upper chamber, percentage of women increase to 3.67% and in the lower chamber there was a significant increase, the percentage of women in the lower chamber was 5.83%. More so, in 2007 the percentage women in the upper chamber increased to 8.26% and in the lower house, the percentages of women also increase to 7.22%. Thus, this paper proposes a Ubiquitous Computing-based learning model that can be integrated into the livelihood of African and an ambitious woman. Women constitute half of humanity and probably the better half. In the absence of gender equality, humanity is depriving itself of a substantial strength from fifty percent of its constituents. It has been the case almost from the beginnings of civilized society that women were cast in specifically discriminatory roles and thus have never been empowered to contribute their best to the advancement of the society observed.. Researchers asserted that a relational understanding of ‘gender’ requires recognition of the dynamic processes by which gender inequalities are constituted across different arenas of human life. Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Gender Gap, Gender Enrolment, Poverty, Health, culture.

Ref: 019/GRE/15 Insurgence; A Threat To Fundamental Human Rights In Nigeria Joshua Onuenyim Nweke Department of Sociology, Anthropology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract In 10th December 1948, the United Nations Organization adopted the bill on human rights by resolution 217a (111). By this act, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was established. This placed Human Rights on a global agenda which certified its universality. This spurred regional bodies like Europe and America to declare convention for the protection of human rights and fundamental freedom in 1950 and 1969 respectively. Other nation states took a queue from Europe and America in adopting the universal human rights declaration. In African, the Chatter on human rights was adopted in 1981 and came into force in 1986. In the 1979, Nigeria adopted this chatter, signed it into law and it became part of the constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. By the provisions of the constitution of Nigeria, all her citizens have rights to life, right to own properties, right to fair hearing, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of association, freedom of movements and so forth. These rights are not to be infringed upon by any individual, government, association or organization. In Nigeria, these rights have been infringed upon through the activities of insurgence. Many lives have been lost. Properties worth billions of USD have been lost due to the activities of Boko Haram insurgence especially in the north eastern Nigeria. This has created a big security threat in Nigeria. The internal security of her citizens is in jeopardy. The citizens live in fear and cannot predict the next security threat. This paper underscores the extent of abuse of fundamental human rights and its implications to national development. This is a theoretical paper. It explores measures that could be employed to address the security situation in Nigeria especially as it affects fundamental human rights abuse. The paper recommends the use of political will power and peace building as alternatives to insurgence in Nigeria. Keywords: Human, Insurgence, Rights, Security, Threat,

Ref: 020/GRE/15 International cooperation mechanisms on regional water governance Integrated management plans of water resources for areas under severe hydric stress Prospective analysis for using desalination technologies at regional scale Rafael M. Plaza Research Directorate, Law School, University of Chile (U), Avda. Santa María 0200 3er Piso Providencia, Santiago de Chile. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Statement of empirical concern (research topic) After numerous and often frustrating international efforts to address the ecological, economic and social challenges of climate change, this research aims to study the relationship between ecology and the economics of development from a different perspective, technological and regulatory, though modest no less effective and possibly even more efficient: through promoting international cooperation on specific projects with local impact, such as desalinated water production, integrated management plants and treatment. So, it will focus on how international cooperation in integrated management plans may promote more sustainable and less expensive methods to desalinate water. It will explore the potential of the symbiotic use of renewable energy to power desalination plants in areas of high water stress and, thus, eliminate or minimize the environmental impacts of desalination on air quality and climate, land use and harmful by-products discharge. Research topic & literature review According to the World Water Development Report 4, large areas in India, western United States and Mexico, North Africa, Middle East, Australia and parts of South America qualify as hot spots or areas of high water stress. The UNESCO's Global Water Assessment Programme further relates that factors such as population growth and industrial activity particularly mining, and high demand for agricultural irrigation have exponentially increased the total water withdrawals during the last century; as much as increasing droughts causing huge economic losses. However, as to water desalination is concerned, there is a sensitive lack for scholar works on international legal mechanisms to foster it as a means for tackling that matter and contribute to sustainable development. Main arguments and supporting evidence Climate change is one of the biggest global challenges and requires prompt and concrete measures to fight against and mitigate its pernicious effects. The research builds upon the diagnosis and the priority of water and energy security as challenges for sustainable development in order to propose a multidisciplinary approach to promote economic, business opportunities and human and social sustainable development. Therefore the paper advances that countries should adopt not only individually, but preferably at the regional level, common strategies for responsible and sustainable use of water resources, ones to perfect the availability of water present and future, and to ensure stable and continuous financing needed management works or related activities, whether research and technology transfer-related or through investing in innovation, development and infrastructure in the water sector. Following the hypothesis, abating climate change and strengthening countries' water-energy security must be framed within policies, plans and common tools for integrated management at sub-regional level at the least; be contained in integrated and uniform regulations governing the proper use of vulnerable and scarce natural resources, using practical tools of international cooperation in managing water resources and the cooperative use of available technologies to benefit people and the preservation of the environment alike.

Brief account of methodological approach The methodology includes the review of the international regulatory framework for water with emphasis on water policies and plans of conservation, management and promotion of water resources; the identification of tools for international cooperation in the implementation of such instruments and their control indicators along with comparative case analysis on international energy cooperation and technology transfer in the water industry, particularly, on desalination. Statement of conclusions and relevance The relevance of this research is to contribute to the discussion of the international community on common priorities and closely related issues such as water supply and energy security. Paying special attention to areas with physical or economic water scarcity on the planet, the study explores viable mechanisms for international and regional cooperation able to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) into technology industries and/or energy infrastructure, in order to opening markets with trade potential in the fields of desalination, water management and sustainable water treatment in high water stress zones. As practical outcomes the research envisages: (i) the identification of potential policies and joint plans for production, management and efficient water treatment in areas with severe water stress; (ii) the identification, analysis and comparison of tools for financial assistance and legal-policy to attract foreign direct investment (FDI) in the water sector (rainwater catchment, extraction from aquifers, international trade and transport of water, treatment and reutilisation of gray waters, desalination) under any form of association; (iii) analysis of investment and development conditions for a prospective desalination market and further commercialization of water and byproducts, and (iv) according to utilisation, contribute to the development of common and uniform water quality standards within the integration territory and to build up regional capacity for data collection about it and their impact on the environment.

Keywords: Desalination - International cooperation - International Trade - Technology - Water

Ref: 021/GRE/15 Agriculture and Climate Change in the Context of Social and Economic Adaptation in Rural Areas of eThekwini, South Africa Andrew Emmanuel Okem School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4001, Republic of South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The impact of climate change is an ongoing global concern. In South Africa, climate change is expected to have a significant effect on all sectors of the economy and could lead to a fall of about 11.5% of the country’s Gross Domestic Product by 2050 (a fall roughly equivalent to the total of current annual foreign investment). Agriculture is seen as the most vulnerable sector to climate change because it is highly impacted by climatic variations. Changes in climatic variables could have significant implications for food security for the country in general and rural dwellers in particular. This study employed a mixed research method to document the knowledge of rural dwellers about the impact of climate change on food production and current adaptation strategies. The study found that 65% of the study participants were aware of the direct negative relationship between climate change and food production. Conversely, only 20% reported that there have been initiatives in their communities to mitigate the impact of climate change on food production. This study recommends deliberate government policies that will increase opportunities and access to information, knowledge and support on climate change adaptation in rural areas. This will go a long way in ensuring that rural dwellers are adequately prepared to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on food security thus ensuring sustainable human development. Keywords: Adaptation, Agriculture, Climate Change, Food Security, Vulnerability

Ref: 022/GRE/15 Political Participation and Women in Public Offices a,b

Ishaku Bitrus Lere a, Dantong Rahila Timothy b Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Plateau State University Bokkos, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The contributions of women in societal development cannot be overemphasized, women in the society constitute about fifty percent of the world`s population. The level of participation of these women folk in public life has been grossly inadequate; it means that we are neglecting about fifty percent development. Thus women supposed to be occupying equal positions with their men counterpart in the public offices but the case is not like that all over the world. Since women are seen as vanguard for societal transformation, they are supposed to be given a pride of place in public offices so that they can also make their own contributions to the realization of the aims and objectives of setting up a state. The enormous role that women perform in the society supposed to be extended to public life. This calls for the involvement of women in political activities since they are seen as partners in progress for the transformation of the society in general. Afterword’s, women participation in political activities has been impeded by some factors which needs to be radically address in order to have equal representation in governance. Most often, women are relegated to the background when it comes to political participation. This is obvious because of some socio-cultural and religious factors which hinder their active participation in politics and other public offices. In the area of political party membership across the globe, women usually constitute a small percentage; this is because of the social, cultural and religious attitudes of different societies against women which most often tend to relegate them to the background. As a consequence, in some of the countries, only few educated men allowed their wives to come out and participate in politics and occupy public offices. A cogent example is found in the northern part of Nigeria ``purdah system`` i.e. house seculation of women is one of the major obstacle to women participation in politics. This is applicable in many other countries of the world. Therefore, this paper intends to look at the extent to which women have participated in politics and public offices. It will traced the historical involvement of women in politics and public offices from pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial era, whether they are making break through or they are retrogressing in terms of political participation and involvement in public offices. The paper will preview the various international, national, regional and local conventions in support of women participation in politics and public offices will be x-rayed to ascertain the extend of the conformity of the various member states to the agreements. The factors impeding women participation in politics and public life will be discussed and the way forward in order to have a society whereby there will be equity, justice and fairness will prevail. The key words are: political participation, women in politics and women in public offices. Keywords: Politics, Participation, Women, Public Office, Development

Ref: 023/GRE/15 Trends And Determinants Of Educating Older Children In Farming Households Of Ogun State, Nigeria Yiseyon Sunday Hosu a, Elphina N. Cishe b, Olufemi Sunday Enilolobo c, Wale Oni d a Centre for Rural Development, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. b Research Directorate, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. c Federal University, Dutsinma, Katsina, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Human capital development is recognized to contribute or improve household well-being as well as serve as an important means for poor countries increasing their labour productivity, which in turn can attract capital to drive economic growth. This study identifies time allocation to household activities and factors influencing adolescents’ educational level attainment/ drop-out rate in faming households in agrarian communities in Nigeria. The survey was carried out among 95 farming households in Odeda local Government Area of Ogun state, Nigeria with the aid of questionnaire. The data were analysed with descriptive statistics and inferential modeling (Logit model). The study found out that adolescents in the farming households spend more time on school attendance and the probability of female adolescents completing educational grades are higher than male adolescents. Educational level attainment was however influenced by parents’ educational level, distance to the school, adolescents’ age and households’ works. The study shows that household head’s educational status plays a vital role on children’s schooling and judicious decision on time allocation between schooling and household work. It recommends early compulsory enrolment policy in sub Saharan African because the dropout rate increases as the age of the adolescents increases. Keywords: Adolescents. Farming household. Human capital development. Logit model

Ref: 024/GRE/15 The Study of Rural Settlements Through Development Plans (A content analysis of the fourth and fifth Macro Development plans) a

Hamideh Dabbaghi a, Ali Sarkamari b Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. b Zanjan University, Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The concept of rural settlements plays an important and vital role to contribute and distribute rural population around the country (Iran). The development, the promotion of spatial equity and the sustainable development issues will be achieved if macro development plans as operational laws have been studied and improved. So this investigation is approached to analyze macro development plans for recognizing problems and weaknesses of rural development issue theoretically. Also we focused on rural settlements concept and its three important aspects that will lead to sustainable development in Iran. We used content analysis method to study and analyze documents and texts of fourth and fifth development plans to describe and explain three aspects of the rural settlements: the appearance and features, the expansion and the management of rural settlements. It was found that there is more attention to the appearance, features and the expansion aspects of rural settlements than the management aspect of it in the both fourth and fifth documents. Also there are not local institutions and authorities to manage and make a decision on rural and local things. According to the definition of the first aspect, both development plans have been focused on using Iranian and Islamic architectural models and patterns. Although the fifth plan has been drew attention to renew and reconstruct old buildings, to organize countryside and marginal zone but it has been missed many indicators of the second aspect (the expansion aspect) like: to build cheap houses, to aggregate small villages and make a big rural settlement area, to accommodate tribes and nomads. Through forth document, there are many Legal materials and points about ddetermination of the geographical boundaries and local development which shows devolution to local management. Unfortunately, many aspects of sustainable development like to prevent the destruction of the natural landscape and environment, to distribute land and allocate to the optimal utilization by predicting many specific solutions, to redistribute population and prevent uneven development and haunted the rural settlements, have been neglected. Keywords: Rural Settlements, Sustainable Development, The fourth and fifth development plans of Iran, content analysis.

Ref: 025/GRE/15 Cultural Challenges Faced by Global Project Teams: A Research Theme a,b

Muhammad Imran Malik a, Saddam Hussain b Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Attock, Pakistan. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Healthy organizational functioning depends upon good participation from the workforce employed ot carryout functions within the organization. Cultural challenges facing workforce is the outcome of diversity prevailing in workplaces. workforce diversity can be regarded as acknowledging, comprehending, and recognizing individual differences without taking into account the race they belong to, the gender they have, the age group they belong to, class they belong to on the basis of financial health, the physical strengths they possess, sexual orientation they have, their involvement in spiritual practices etc. Majority of the researchers are of the view that culturally diverse teams generally have the opening to develop competitive strength over non-culturally diverse teams. The current study aims to examine challenges related to cultures while working at Makkah Clock Tower established in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - KSA. The quantitative approach helped in conducting questionnaire survey to investigate the said issue. Questionnaires are helpful in obtaining the concrete responses from the responses which are easy to analyze. The reliability of the instrument used for gathering responses resulted in satisfactory output. This issue was considered for investigation in the case of clock tower located in Makkah city KSA because the non-Muslim foreigners can not be allowed to enter the holy city of Makkah. This gap has not been addressed earlier as an aspect of ever changing workforce. The contemporary workforce is multi-dimensional in its formation as compared to past. This is because of the changing demographic dynamics including the issues of immigration and economic factors like globalization. The sampling techniques used cater for the non-probability ways of selecting the sample from the given population. Appropriate statistical test were applied using state of the art statistical packages available for data analysis.The results are compared with the earlier studies available in the related context. Keywords: Challenges, culture, diversity, workforce, Makkah Clock Tower, KSA.

Ref: 026/GRE/15 What is the Human Rights and Good Governance at present days? Iskander Mombekov Human rights and Democratization Division, Center for European Studies, Almaty, Kazakhstan. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Too many people in too many places live in unbearable conditions. We are together and each of us individually cannot agree with it and accept it. The HR Council is mandated to make the world a better and safer by taking the following steps: 1. Provide opportunities to remind each nation of its obligations and responsibilities. 2. Involve countries accountable when their actions do not meet international standards. 3. To help countries respond effectively to internal problems in the field of human rights. 4. The proposed method for self-assessment of individual countries, including through the universal periodic evaluation. The deeper knowledge of the international community on specific human rights violations, the greater will be the pressure on offenders to get them to change course. And in the end - not always right, but in the end - the pressure often leads to certain changes, save lives and expand freedom. When it comes to human rights, no country in the world should be free from control, but at the same time, no country should be the target of unfair or unjustified criticism. States should promote the development of civil society, building the rule of law and the welfare of the population through the implementation of activities aimed at achieving the rule of law and good governance, protection of citizens' rights, promoting the interests of people and their legal culture, as well as to contribute to the institutional development and participation in democratization of society. At present, the doctrine took shape "good governance" considers inefficient management as one of the main causes of crises in society, seeks to identify the shortcomings of each of the subjects behavior management decision making and to find ways of balanced cooperation between government agencies, society and man. Raising awareness of human rights through student debate and education of young people, as well dissemination of project activities among government agencies, international organizations and the general public in order to stimulate discussion, affecting human rights and civic engagement. The modern international human rights law has developed and continues to develop standards that are directly applicable in the protection of individual rights and freedoms and are able to exert influence on the progressive development of national legal systems. The importance of international standards is due primarily to the fact that they establish certain criteria in the legal regulation of universal rights and freedoms. These criteria are then the basis for the preparation and conduct of judicial protection, suitable for the comparative evaluation of national legislation and practices in individual countries. As you know, natural law prevails in the direction of modern international human rights law. The essence of this approach is based on the understanding that there are rights and freedoms in the context of present-day conditions, but at the same time takes into account the primacy of rights with respect to the law. "Revival" of natural areas in the right had been in the second half of the last century as a reaction to the consequences of the functioning of totalitarian states based on the unconditional subjection to the law. Great contribution to this made by the German lawyer G. Randbuh, who called back to the idea of "international legislation of the rights" to opposite of totalitarianism "legal wrong." Keywords: Development, Freedom, Good Governance, Human Rights , Political system

Ref: 027/GRE/15 Chizar- From a Rural Fabric to an Urban Neighbourhood Marzieh Azad Armaki Rajayee University, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Chizar has been a village located on the north side of Tehran, bounded to Qheitariyeh hills from one side, a historical and identical region in Tehran the capital of Iran. This fertile land holds two religious and main shrines, bringing forth great amount of pilgrims and visitors yearly which due to its religious and national stories has always been considered sacred and identical. In the late years due to the expansion of city boarders, many old villages have been ingurgitated in the limits of mega polis and therefore merely limited to community centers, some very inconsiderable ones. In the following article, Chizar has been studied with methods such as documentary studies, observation and mostly field study, attempting to obtain obstacles and potentials of this area as to empower it as an active community center once again. Keywords: Chizar, City boarders, Ingurgitate, Mega polis, SWOT, Tehran, Urban neighbourhood

Ref#: 028/GRE/15 Assessing the Evidence of the Impact of Poor Governance in African Societies on Economic Growth, Human Development, and Gender Inequity Victoria M. Time Department of Sociology & Criminal Justice, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23259, U.S.A. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract How poverty in Africa can be ended has been the subject of several scholarly works and discussions. Many researchers have examined trade practices, aid dependence, famine, diseases, conflicts, low standard of education, and poor governance, among others as causes of Africa’s economic stagnation. This paper zeros in on poor governance as the leading reason for Africa’s slow growth. The paper argues that poor governance/ corrupt leadership as the catalyst, and interacting with other factors create several unique challenges that without adequate and proper intervention entrenched poverty in Africa is likely to persist. The millennium development goals for poverty reduction, has not seen significant changes in Africa especially in those countries that have always been classified as the poorest. Even though Africa’s economy is currently classified as the fastest growing globally, when discussion is narrowed down to individual countries, it is clear that some countries are still left way behind, and corruption and cronyism remain the main causes of the sluggish pace of Africa’s economy. Corruption in all so many ways stalls the growth of the economy. With money just in the hands of a slender corrupt sector of the population, expanding the economy is almost impossible. For private businesses to then stimulate the economy, it entails an increase in the cost of staying in business or creating new businesses. For the government, with budgets skewed, a vast majority of persons become disproportionately disenfranchised. It then requires drastic cuts in jobs and social services, cuts in funding for education, reduction in access to other opportunities that could enhance the livelihood of the masses. In order to understand how poor governance is correlated to macro poverty in Africa, a document and textual analysis is utilized. In this regard, peer reviewed journal articles, textbooks, commercial medial accounts such as newspapers, magazines, documents from organizations such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, British Broadcasting documents, and other archival documents inform the study. Two broad questions are scrutinized: First, how does poor governance that entails corruption foster poverty? Second, what initiatives can be put in place to abate corruption in order to revamp the economy of those most affected African counties? As a broad term poverty is fluid, but in this paper focus is placed on economic growth, human development, and gender inequity. Recommendations on how poor governance may be reduced include but are not limited to: open, transparent and fair elections of leaders; having aid donors to any country put in place mechanisms for monitoring the recipient governments; have constant peer review of a country by other African countries; have in place mechanisms to address impunity and to enforce restitution; having more diverse groups of persons represented in government, making sure that constructive critics of how government is run are not subjected to reprisals. These among other recommendations are discussed in the paper. Keywords: corruption, economic growth, poor governance, poverty

Ref: 029/GRE/15 Achieving Food Security: Policy Lessons from the Philippines Shienna Marie Galindo Esteban Department of Political Science, College of Liberal Arts, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The global food system is beset by challenges and threats. With the global population rapidly increasing, changing global landscape, and environmental risks that endanger agriculture, food security is now a huge concern. It has now become a major challenge to attain and maintain food security at a time of economic uncertainties and high commodity prices. In the Philippines, the challenge of achieving food security has long been recognized by the government, together with domestic agricultural productivity. In line with this, the current administration’s goal is to achieve food security and food self-sufficiency by 2016. Through the Department of Agriculture, Food Staples Sufficiency Program (FSSP) 2011 – 2016 was launched with an aim to achieve self-sufficiency in food staples towards ensuring food security. The main target of FSSP is to achieve domestic requirement by 2013. Towards 2013, FSSP aims to strengthen resilience against the impact of climate change to increase production of food staples. Aside from FSSP, the Philippine government had implemented various policies directed towards self-sufficiency and food security after the 2007-2008 global food price crisis. With these policies, the paper tries to look at the current food security situation of the Philippines with respect to the goal of achieving food security. Moreover, the paper reviews the performance of Philippine agriculture vis-à-vis its economy. An analysis of the policies introduced during the post-global food crisis is also provided with their objectives, strengths, and weaknesses. Furthermore, the paper also tries to look how the Philippine agriculture vis-à-vis its fellow ASEAN countries, especially now that the region is gearing towards integration. Through a review of related literature and secondary data from DA, DBM, BAS - CountrySTAT, PSA, NSCB, PIDS, IRRI, UN-FAO, and World Bank among others, the study revealed that Philippines is still far from being food secure and resilient to climate change due to implementation gaps and lack of coordination among relevant government agencies. Thus, the goal of FSSP does not appear to be feasible. Moreover, results showed that food security has rapidly weakened by the government’s rice importation. Results also revealed that the volatility of weather in the country and high cost of agricultural inputs alleviate the production of food supply. Given the current situation, the upcoming ASEAN Integration will not bode well for Philippine agriculture. Filipino farmers are not yet ready for a regional trade as their domestic market is still fragile. Furthermore, although Philippines has a high potential, it still has no comparative advantage when compared to its neighbors such as Thailand and Vietnam. The paper concludes that for the Philippines to be successful in pursuing food security, it should undergo institutional reforms and improve infrastructure and technology to increase production.

Key words: ASEAN integration; food security; input policy; institution reform; sustainable development

Ref: 030/GRE/15 Gender and Sustainable Development’s Role on the Devolution of the Philippine Maternal Health System Karla Camille Nocon Ruiz Department of Political Science, College of Liberal Arts, De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract: This paper aims to analyze how the Philippines utilized Inclusive Growth under the Gender and Sustainable Development paradigm in terms of resource allocation for maternal health services in two distinct cities found in two different regions. This was done to create a more or less uniformed comparison of maternal health services in the country. In doing so, the question regarding the country’s stagnant Maternal Mortality Ratio/MMR -the number of women who die due to pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium per 100,000 live births-- and Gender and Sustainable Development Role could be explained through a critical review of literature on related topics. The comparison between Makati and Zamboanga city’s data examined difference in funds disbursal in relation to their level of health services and poverty incidence. Makati City’s total appropriation in 2009 was Php9 Billion with a 0.5 MMR and 3.8% poverty incidence while Zamboanga City’s total appropriation was Php2 Billion with a 2.2 MMR and 38.5% poverty incidence. There is an inverse correspondence on funding in relation to MMR and poverty incidence. Therefore, in addressing the stagnant MMR due to inadequate maternal health services resulting from lack of funds, the importance of inclusive growth through proper resource management and allocation for different parts of the country is highlighted. Furthermore, through the Gender and Sustainable Development paradigm, the maternal health issues aim to incorporate financial and social services that could expand opportunities that women could avail of. Keywords: Collaborative Governance, Gender and Sustainable Development, Inclusive Growth, Maternal Health, Maternal Mortality Ratio

Ref: 031/GRE/15 Sustainable Communities: Understanding Community Development in the context of Iloilo City’s Sustainable Development Efforts Danica Ella Panelo Panelo Department of Political Science, College of Liberal Arts, De La Salle University Manila, Philippines. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Various case studies about the Third World region demonstrated the existence of a serious imbalance between the people’s or citizens’ aspirations and needs as well as the adequacy of their respective countries’ administrative machineries in meeting those goals. Such case studies also highlighted the importance of having responsible national and even local bureaucracies which are free of excessive and unnecessary formalities in order to enhance the chances for substantial national development. In other words, most of the developmental literature about the Third World region actually give much primacy to the role of development administration – representing those aspects of and changes in public administration needed to effectively carry out policies, projects, and programs so as to improve social and economic conditions – in the success of national development planning and implementation. Moreover, such case studies about Third World development tell us that certain development administration strategies, particularly community development, are quite vital in ensuring the efficient delivery of local public goods and services. This is because of the common view that people or citizens who live in any contiguous settlement are considered a “community”, and that life will improve quite significantly once the ties of sentiment between these people or citizens are strengthened. More importantly, the main assumption of this theory is that when community members are given the power to control their own development, it can significantly increase their competence as citizens to create programs that directly address key developmental issues that are most relevant to their own localities or communities. Thus, this paper shall attempt to answer the following research question: In what ways do development administration strategies, with specific focus on community development, aid the creation and delivery of local government programs in the Philippines? In particular, the city of Iloilo shall be studied since the said local government unit (LGU) was ranked as the best performing city in the 2013 Cities and Municipalities Competitive Index and second in the 2014 Index in terms of government efficiency and sustainable productive expansion. Moreover, it will assess selected environmental programs that have been implemented in the city in order to determine if the LGU’s competitive success is due to its development administration strategies which focus on community development. Finally, this paper will also draw implications for development administration strategies or policies so as to strengthen the capacity of Philippine LGUs in general in integrating substantial community participation into sustainable development programs and projects. Keywords: Community development, development administration, Iloilo City, Philippines, sustainable development

Ref#: 032/GRE/15 Imparting English Language Skill for Disadvantaged Learners in India through M-Learning A Geetha Department of Computer Science, VMKV Arts and Science College, Salem, India [email protected] Abstract This paper addresses three issues: how to prepare instructional design for imparting English language skill from inter-disciplinary self-learning material; how the disadvantaged students are benefited from such kind of language skill imparted through m-learning; and how do the m-learners perform better than the other learners. This paper examines these issues through an experimental study conducted among the distance learners enrolled in preparatory program for bachelor’s degree. This program is designed for the disadvantage learners especially for the school drop-outs to qualify to pursue graduate program through distant education. It also explains how mobile learning helps them to enhance their capacity in learning despite their rural background and other disadvantages. In India nearly half of the students enrolled in schools do not complete their study. The pursuance of higher education is very low when compared with developed countries. This study finds a significant increase in their learning capacity and mobile learning seems to be a viable alternative where conventional system could not reach the disadvantaged learners. Improving the English language skill is one of the reasons for such kind of performance. Exercises framed from the relevant self-learning material for enhancing English language skill not only improves language skill but also widens the subject-knowledge. This paper explains these issues out of the study conducted among the disadvantaged learners. Keywords: English, disadvantaged learners, distance education, m-learning

Ref: 033/GRE/15 An assessment into the impact of social policies in democratic regimes upon socio-economic prosperity & well-being: A case for Pakistan a,b

Syed Toqueer Akhtar a, Muhammad Haider Khan Tareen b Faculty of Economics, Lahore School of Economics, Lahore, Pakistan. b Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The study aims at identifying the effect of social policies in democratic regimes and military intervention in politics upon socio-economic well-being in Pakistan. This is imperative to establish that if democratic or military regimes contributed positively in livelihood and well-being. Because of the strong Geopolitical dimension of Foreign Aid in military regimes in Pakistan, in form of Russian invasion in Afghanistan and then after the 9/11 incidence, common notion is that military regimes were more conclusive for social development. An index of Quality of life was constructed to represent well-being in each year since 1990 to 2013. The index includes variables that represent Physical Quality of Life such as secondary enrolment, life expectancy, access to water, access to sanitation, natural resource depletion, urban population, labour force (female), roads paved, fossil fuel consumption, telephone lines, calorie supply per capita and population per doctor. In order to find the effect of policies in a democratic regime upon Quality of life in Pakistan, Distributed Lag Model was used in order to take into account the slowly emerging effect of some variables on Quality of life. Rationalize existence of time lags results prove the hypothesis that democratic regimes are more successful in improving Quality of life in Pakistan, compared to a military regime. Other variables such as political rights, worker’s remittances received in democratic regimes and equality of income play an important role in promoting better socio-economic well-being. Keywords: development policies, Distributed Lag model, government regimes, Physical Quality of Life, socioeconomic well-being.

Ref: 034/GRE/15 Neural network analysis to predict factors affecting on conservation behaviour of rural operators around Shadegan wetland Mansour Ghanian Department of Rural Development, Faculty of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Ahvaz, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Wetlands are unique ecosystems that often occur at the edge of aquatic or terrestrial systems. They are among the most productive ecosystems on the earth. Loss of wetland has disastrous effects on wildlife and biodiversity that has important international and regional effects wild life, scientists believed that wetlands destruction are caused native species global extinction to completely depend on specific habitat. As most poor people live in rural areas of developing countries and are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood, the key to eradicating current suffering must lie in the creation of dynamic rural communities. Shadegan Wetland in Khuzestan province is the largest one of Iran covers about 400,000 hectares and also recognized under the Ramsar Convention. It is one of the 18 international wetlands registered on UNESCO’s Natural Heritage List. Unfortunately, it is one of these wetland areas that is threatened by undervaluation and overexploitation from natural hazard and inappropriate activities. In other word, human processes are as important as the ecological processes” to understanding Conservation of natural resources. This valuable wetland affected by natural factors (such as drought phenomenon) and abnormal human factors (such as changing land use, decant of agricultural, industrial and domestic wastewater into the wetland, Building non-professional dams upstream of Surgery river, etc.) which cause it to dry and disappear; so that Human factors affected dramatically on the expansion drought phenomenon in the context of wetland. Humans interact with their environment through their actions. In fact, although drought is a natural phenomenon caused by global climate change, but it shouldn’t consider as a physical or a natural phenomenon. Its effect on society result of interaction between a natural phenomenon (rainfall less than normal due to climate change) and people‘s water requirement. In fact, humans can exacerbate the effects of drought. Shadegan operators with wrong measures will accelerate drought-speed of the wetlands. Due to critical condition of Shadegan Wetland, Personal-professional factors influencing rural operators' conservation behaviour can protect the wetland and its rural operators' sustainable livelihoods. Research methodology was correlation- descriptive. Data was gathered via the use of a research- made questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the expert and its reliability were confirmed by pilot study. Neural network analysis (NNA) by Statistical software, SPSSv20 was used for analyzing. Multi-Layer Perception (MLP) network is the most popular neural network, which is used in this study. The MLP is known to be a powerful tool, commonly used and well-studied for classification and prediction and important method of research. So it was suitable for the aim of the research. Total population was rural operators who were living in the central part of the town and Khnafereh village in Shadegan city, Khuzestan province. They are consisted of eight villages with 2319 household operators (N=2319). Random- quota method was used as sampling (n=124). Depend variable was conservation behaviour which were asked as a series of five-point Likert scale question regarding respondent. Independent variables were upon on personal-professional characteristics. In the study of human behaviour don by social psychologists the theory of reasoned action, and planed behaviour were most popular. The purpose of these models are understanding the predictive variables of behaviour in a way that they recognize correctly, causing a change in behaviour. In present study, neural network analysis used to test the significance of personalprofessional variables influencing conservation behaviour among rural operators of Shadegan wetlands. Based on the results obtained from neural network analysis, important variable which are the most affected on how network classified respondent, named: distance from location to the Department of Agriculture Jahad, distance from location to nearest city and Experience in Agriculture practices. First factor highlight the role of public organization due to serve extension and education in the field of conservation behaviour, so among rural operators more public organization attention result in more responsible behaviour. In accordance with the result rural operators who live near the city because their livelihood just not depends on wetland it is expected that behave in responsible manner. Generally, effective communication should be connected between public organizations and rural operators in order to they trained via education and extension conservation behaviour which can reduce the vulnerability of shadegan wetlands caused by natural and human hazard. Keywords: Artificial neural network analysis, responsible behaviour, irresponsible behaviour, natural hazards

Ref: 035/GRE/15 Non Government Organisation’s financial sustainability challenges in South Africa Cleopas Chiyangwa Bologna Business School, University of Bologna, Villa Gausta Villani Via Degli Scalini, Bologna, Italy. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract This paper presents the challenges faced by Non Government Organization’s (NGO) in South Africa on accessing funding that will allow smooth operations as agents of community development. The funding constraints and challenges facing civil society organizations emanates from the perpetual shrinking budget by the state in financing non main stream development activities by the civil sector since post 1994. The culture of dependency has paralyzed the long term financial sustainability of NGOs since donor institutions are limiting funds to civil society organizations. The sheer lack of sustainable entrepreneurial models embedded in the NGO’s business models poses significant threats to financial sustainability. Keywords: Civil society, community development financial sustainability, social entrepreneurship, self financing strategy

Ref: 036/GRE/15 Forced eviction and questions of sustainable peace in Lagos, Nigeria Ndubuisi Ozioma-William Odiaka Peace And Conflict Studies Programme, Institute Of African Studies, University Of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Life experiences after forced eviction seem to be gaining increasing attentions from peace scholars, especially as it links to a possible source of public aggressions and violence. Beyond the consequential effect of forced evictions evident in the rise in social ills, is the challenge faced by major cities in managing the post-eviction conflict situations. Lagos metropolis, being one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, has records of evictions and forced evictions. Beyond the moral question of forced evictions, this paper queries the peace agendas and conflict management culture of the state government as it affects the former residents of Maroko, a slum once existing in Lagos. This paper aims at reviewing the governmental conflict management strategies before and after the evictions and understanding the resilience capacity of the victims 25 years later. The research method is a case-study approach involving qualitative analysis of primary data from participantobservation, key informant interviews (KII) and a focus group discussion (FGD). The research draws secondary data from documents relating to the Lagos metropolis. Expected findings of the paper include: identification and understanding of strategies employed before, during and after the eviction process; the degree of success or failure of the peacebuilding programs designed by the government; mode of interventions by non-governmental agencies; and the victims’ resilience capacity. Keywords: Conflict management, Forced eviction, Lagos metropolis, Nigeria, Peace programs

Ref: 037/GRE/15 Urban form and crime in two neighborhoods of Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria a,b

Irene Doosuur Mngutyo a, Adam Ajene b Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Benue State University,Makurdi.Benue State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract This study seeks to assess the potential for designing out crime in Angwan Jukum and Akpehe low income neighbourhoods in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Potentials and weaknesses of these areas are defined with an aim to reduce the occurrence of crime by design using the principles of defensible space. Purposive sampling of victims of crime using questionnaires was done to highlight areas within the neighbourhoods where crime occurs frequently. Maps and sketches are used in describing the crime prone areas. A sample size of 4 and 16 streets respectively was determined by randomly choosing 10 percent of the total number of streets found in each of the two neighbourhoods. On the selected streets the first ten crime victims served as sources for information. Anticipated findings include dimensions of the form of the neighbourhood that encourage and discourage crime. Types of crime prevailing in such neighbourhoods and gender dimensions .These characteristics form a basis for designing out crime. Keywords: Urban Form, Crime, Pattern, Designing out

Ref: 038/GRE/15 The concept of Sustainable Development: Indian Perspective Rahul Mishra Amity Law School, Amity University, Jaipur, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract As far as India is concerned, sustainable development has become ever more important. In keeping with United Nations report, India’s population is currently near about 1.2 billion and is expected to grow in the coming years by another 300 million. With mega cities generating two thirds of countries economic out put, an alarming number of Indians are leaving remote areas to seek bread and butter in mega cities. May be, by the end of next forty years from now, it is envisaged that sixty eight Indian cities will have more than one million inhabitants and six mega cities with more than ten million each. The constant growth of metropolis causes a large number of unforeseen predicaments including less power supply, discomforted public transport, so called access to inadequate medical treatment. In order to meet such complexities of continuing growth, without hazarding an atmosphere and social integrity, planning eco-friendly city culture has become the need of the hour.So much so, the rural area is also got to be developed but not at the cost of environmental hazards. For example- basic amenities like good schooling, good primary health facilities, good sanitation, and adequate supply of drinking water must be taken care of. As far as the agriculturists are concerned, they should get remunerative price for their production. There is a constant demand for wheat, rice vegetables and fruits not only in the cities overseas as well. Therefore, it would be advisable if they get right cost for their production. Ultimately onus lies on the government as to how to make both ends meet in this regard. The researcher explores all possibilities in the light of sustainable development in the said article at length. Keywords: Law, Legislation, Parliament, Sustainable Development, Virtual World

Ref: 039/GRE/15 Arsenic Accumulation in Benthic Crustaceans a,b

Shahrzad Khoramnejadian a, Forouzan Fatemi b Department of the Environment, Damavand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damavand, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Accumulation of toxic metals in marine organisms can significantly affect the public health and economic performance of many countries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the concentration of arsenic in blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus, collected from the Persian Gulf waters in Asalouyeh, Iran as a bioindicator of metal pollution in this area. Sampling was carried out over the winter months in 2014. Arsenic analysis was performed using an atomic spectrophotometer. The results showed that the mean concentration (mg/kg dry weight) of arsenic in the soft tissue of Portunus pelagicus in January, February and March were 0.08, 0.21 and 0.22 mg/kg respectively. There was not a significant difference (P > 0.05) between stations, but significant variation was found between months (P< 0.05). The lowest concentration of arsenic was for station 2 (0.13) and the highest was for station 3 (0.23). Results also showed that arsenic concentrations in all stations and months were lower than the standards limits. Keywords: Arsenic, Bioaccumulation, Industrial pollution, Portunus pelagicus, Toxic Metals

Ref: 040/GRE/15 Participatory Planning Approach for Sustainability of The Desert Regions Forest Planting In the North East Of Iran, Sarayan a

Mostafa Taleshi a Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University, Tehran, I.R of Iran, a Sustainable Development of Geographical Environment, Commission of Shahid Beheshti University, Iran. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract One of the most vulnerable and fragile areas in terms of ecological and socio-economic is desert. The uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources in the desert areas in most of developing countries is caused progress of desert areas and instability of rural settlements and destruction of vegetation. Participatory planning approach is essential to achieve stability in rural areas. Villagers will guarantee in participatory planning in partnership with sustainable use of renewable resources. In this paper, using Haloxylon forest planting method and modeling participatory planning in the Sarayan area is a successful experience of the desert regions sustainability in the East of Iran. This successful experience can be executed in other developing countries with the same ecological and socio-economic situation. Keywords: participatory planning, desertification, sustainable development, Sarayan, Iran

Ref: 041/GRE/15 Study on the Practice Model of Recycling Agriculture in Fengning County, Hebei Province– Taking the Edible Mushroom Industry Mode as an Example a

Chengjing Nie a, Jinguo Ye b School of Public Administration and Policy Hebei University of Economics and Business, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China. b Collaborative innovation center, Hebei University of Economics and Business, Shijiazhuang City, Hebei Province, China. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Located in the northern part of Hebei Province, Fengning County has a semi-humid to semi-arid mid-temperate continental monsoon plateau mountain climate, showing large temperature differences between day and night. Supported by the edible mushroom industry, Fengning County has developed a resource utilization recycling agriculture model based on the use of agricultural wastes. By making full use of agricultural and forestry biomass energy resources, Fengning County has been able to reduce environmental pollution and ecological damage to the greatest extent and thus realize a harmonious development of a virtuous cycle of ecology and rural construction. First of all, this study introduces the development of edible mushroom industry and other related industries. Next, this paper makes an in-depth analysis of the fundamentals, structural features and three benefits of the edible mushroom industry model in Changge Village, Fengning County. Through the aforementioned analysis, it turns out that this resource utilization recycling agriculture model based on the use of agricultural wastes is an important choice for the modern agriculture development in north Hebei. Finally, based on the characteristics and effects of the edible mushroom industry model, this study proposed three suggestions for future development – creating new ways to utilize wood shavings and crop straws as resources, organizing a professional association for farmers and adopting new technology to utilize solar energy comprehensively. Keywords: Edible Mushroom Industry,Fengning,Practice Model, Recycling Agriculture

Ref: 042/GRE/15 How Do Women Empower Themselves? An Exploration in Indian Context Subramaniam Chandran Vinayaka Missions University, Salem, India Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract This paper explores how women empower themselves instead of being empowered by an external agency. This exploration is supported by case studies. It brings out how women play meaningful and responsible role in family, civil society and formal organization. It shows how the disadvantaged women empower themselves to overcome the external hurdles and sustain the values. Exploring women predicaments as well as their achievements reveals the actual empowering process. The first case shows how the woman mediates between the pressures of tradition and modernity in her family setup thereby empowering her status as decision-maker. The second case shows how she overcomes the fear of public opinion and challenges put by her rivals. The third case shows how she maintains gender equality and respect among employer and colleagues. It is evident that Indian women have the capacity of assuming power and authority not necessarily given by society or state. This also reveals that the power and authority are not used for domination but to serve. Harmony rather than conflict is the remarkable outcome of this empowering process. The empowered women assimilate both traditional and liberal views and discover solution for themselves in their own way. This paper reveals that men remain a facilitator rather than an active player in empowering the women. Keywords: civil society, empowerment, modernity, tradition, women

Ref: 043/GRE/15 Comparative Economic Analysis of Rain-fed and Irrigated Onion production in Nigeria Raphael Ajayi Omolehin a, Abdulrahman Danuwa b, Ben Ahmed c, Dave Funsho Omokore d a Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Faculty of Agriculture, Federal University Oye-ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. b School of Agriculture, Federal College of Education, Okene, Nigeria. c Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. d Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract This study evaluates the comparative economics of rain-fed and irrigated onion production in Nigeria, using Kano State as a case study. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to randomly select 217 onion farmer’s households (106 irrigated and 111 rain-fed onion farmers households) for the study. Stochastic frontier production model and farm budgeting analysis were used to analyze data for the study. Information collected includes those of socioeconomic characteristics of the famers as well as the inputs and output data from onion production. The study showed that the mean efficiency for irrigated was higher (89%) than that of rain-fed (83%) indicating that irrigated farmers are more efficient than rain-fed farmers. Moreover, irrigated farmers operated at higher profit level (N205,882.60)/ha than the rain-fed (N122,800.87)/ha. It was recommended that Farmers should be encouraged to increase their farm holdings to enhance farm mechanization and consequently, farmers could enjoy economy of scale in onion production. Farmers should also be encouraged to adopt onion production under irrigation since this production system has better yields and profit level with better level of production efficiency. Keywords: Farmers, irrigated, livelihood rain-fed, Onion, sustainable

Ref: 044/GRE/15 “Harmonious Man” Hypothesis: :A Perspective of Sustainable Development Wanxian Li Hebei University of Economics and Business Shijiazhuang, China. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract: The past human hypotheses characterized as maximization of human interest and efficiency since 20th century, such as Economic Man, Social Man and Self-actualized Man etc, on which management theory was established and greatly enhanced the development of economy as well as science and technology, but at the meantime, broke the harmony of nature that has been up rearing we humans and led ourselves into the dilemma of efficiency and crisis. Based on Chinese traditional culture and the harmony theory of Aristotle and Adam Smith, this paper proposed (1) a four-dimensioned “Harmonious Man” hypothesis that aimed at human sustainable living and development, which actively adjusts the balance between human needs and environmental permission in order to realize personal harmony, social harmony, cultural harmony and the harmony between man and nature. (2) The Doctrine of the Mean, Balance and Reciprocity as the way of Harmonious Man actualization. Keywords: Harmonious Man, human hypothesis, sustainable development

Ref: 045/GRE/15 Realism in the Market Place: Does the Global South Have Much Bargaining Power? Enoghayin Cynthia Idahosa Department of Political Science, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Realism sees global politics as not only competitive but also driven by the self-interest of the competing unitary actors (states). This principle drives the relationship between the North and South. If states that are engage in international relations are, according to the realist sovereign, the sanctity of states’ would be upheld by all. Nowhere else has this been undermined than in the application of the principles of Responsibility to Protect (R2P). This study interrogates the parallel of R2P in Libya and Syria. It uses the historical method of analysis to generate the required data. Keywords: Realism, Politics, States, Unitary, Sovereign

Ref: 046/GRE/15 Performance Management as a tool to sustain community projects for Poverty Reduction Tlou Samuel Setati Department of Human Resource Management, University of Venda, Thohoyandou, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract This study will look at a theoretical framework of ‘sustainability’ and performance management with specific reverence to community projects initiated by community members and sponsored by government for poverty reduction. The government has strategies in place to assist unemployed community members, youth in creating employment and reducing poverty. This theoretical framework will be followed by analysis of study on the realities of selected community projects which need to be sustained for employment opportunities. The government or community start the projects with specific targets to fulfil, which its set objective is for poverty reduction. The project initiator needs to design and set a strategy for the interventions regarding sustainability of the community projects as this is paramount important. However, the concern for sustainability of achieving the set outcomes of the project is always questionable. Reviewing relevant literature will demonstrates the concern for sustainability. The literature review will be used to describe ways in which performance management as relevant tool to can assist in sustaining community projects. The community members including youth and unemployed are considered to be those with beneficial impacts enduring beyond the original time frame of the project; if the project is well sustainable through different interventions it will reduce poverty. A variety of concerns for project sustainability could be identified through review of relevant literature and empirical evidence. The concern about failure of community projects and lack of interventions for sustainability will be investigated in the study. Is performance management a remedial action to curb poor management of the community projects? The present study aims to investigate performance management measures and interventions that can be used to sustain community projects beyond its implementation stage. This study will be based on the qualitative methods for collecting data from beneficiaries and projects sponsored. The data will be collected through interviews of the project beneficiaries, project implementer, government project manager, traditional authority, political counsellors, ward councillors and non-governmental organisation within the project jurisdiction, including other available stakeholders. Key informant interviews (KIIs) will be used to conducted data on selected government officials, project beneficiaries, traditional authority, respective NGO personnel and other stakeholders. The open-ended questionnaire will be designed to collect data from government officials on specific interventions and methods that can be used to sustain the project, for its survival and its benefits for unemployed community members, women, disabled and youth. Keywords: Community projects, Performance Management, Poverty reduction, project initiators and Sustainability.

Ref: 048/GRE/15 Indigenous institutions and contemporary Transfrontier conservation in Zimbabwe: A case of Lower Zambezi Transfrontier Park Wedzerai Chiedza Mandudzo Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract Among the significant events in Natural Resources Management in southern Africa is the integration of biodiversity conservation into developmental policies. Resultantly conservation of biodiversity has moved from site level focus to broader border-less landscapes known as Transboundary Conservation areas. These areas are heralded as vast biodiversity rich wilderness inhabited by rare and precious flora and fauna; have been extensively heralded as the inevitable possibility of simultaneously achieving biodiversity, socioeconomic, and peace and security goals in the region. Resultantly Transfrontier Conservation symbolize incomparable spaces of opportunity for ecosystem conservation, freedom through peace and wealth for regional states and people. The problem however, is that there is currently very scanty documented information on the role of indigenous institutions in such areas. Using a case study of Lower Zambezi Transfrontier Park in Northern Zimbabwe, this study therefore seeks to examine the role of indigenous institutions in transboundary conservation. It will focus on how transboundary conservation has changed the functionality of indigenous institutions in biodiversity conservation and the consequent effect to livelihood security strategies of indigenous people. To do this, the study will investigate the history of indigenous institutions in transboundary areas, the changes that have occurred to indigenous institutions over the years and subsequent novel dynamics in relation to their potential in sustainable conservation. To satisfy the stated objective the study will employ ethnographic research method and wherever possible participant observation will be the main research tool. Data will be collected using key informant interviews supported and augmented by a desktop study. Collected data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. The paper concludes that, an appropriate and holistic inclusion of indigenous institutions in contemporary transboundary conservation can go a long way in harmonizing the multiple objectives which the landscapes intended to achieve, at the same time addressing livelihood security issues. Such an approach is critical for endogenous sustainable development. Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Endogenous development, Indigenous institutions, livelihoods, Transfrontier landscapes,

Ref: 047/GRE/15 Democratic Ferment, State Fragility and Regime Change: Understanding the Re-Emergence of Military Intervention in African Politics Osaretin Igbinehimwen Idahosa Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Since the end of the Cold War (a period characterized by the struggle for the heart and soul of Africa by the two global ideological protagonists), there has been what is often dubbed the ‘Fourth Wave’ of democracy on the continent. What seemed to have started in Benin Republic in 1991 suffered a reversal of fortunes with military seizure of power in Sierra Leone in May 1997. In West Africa, the military coup d’état in Mali led by junior officers and the domino effects in Guinea Bissau few weeks before the general elections in these countries started a trend to truncate democracy in the sub-region within the first decade of the 21st century. These events had parallels in Central Africa typified by the military intervention in Central African Republic and the recent coup attempts in Burundi. Considerable confusion, despair and even disgust have been caused by these military incursions not only in these countries but in the entire continent. This study uses a case study approach to gauge the diffusive rate of democratic ferment in Africa. The basic premise is to locate the possibility or impossibility of a mutation process of this democratic predicament on a continental scale. The study hopes to provide an empirical framework from which to examine how diffusion theory can be applied to the understanding of military interventions in African politics. Keywords: Africa Coup Intervention Military Politics

Ref: 048/GRE/15 Indigenous institutions and contemporary Transfrontier conservation in Zimbabwe: A case of Lower Zambezi Transfrontier Park Wedzerai Chiedza Mandudzo Department of Anthropology and Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Among the significant events in Natural Resources Management in southern Africa is the integration of biodiversity conservation into developmental policies. Resultantly conservation of biodiversity has moved from site level focus to broader borderless landscapes known as Transboundary Conservation areas. These areas are heralded as vast biodiversity rich wilderness inhabited by rare and precious flora and fauna; have been extensively heralded as the inevitable possibility of simultaneously achieving biodiversity, socioeconomic, and peace and security goals in the region. Resultantly Transfrontier Conservation symbolise incomparable spaces of opportunity for ecosystem conservation, freedom through peace and wealth for regional states and people. The problem however, is that there is currently very scanty documented information on the role of indigenous institutions in such areas. Using a case study of Lower Zambezi Transfrontier Park in Northern Zimbabwe, this study therefore seeks to examine the role of indigenous institutions in transboundary conservation. It will focus on how transboundary conservation has changed the functionality of indigenous institutions in biodiversity conservation and the consequent effect to livelihood security strategies of indigenous people. To do this, the study will investigate the history of indigenous institutions in transboundary areas, the changes that have occurred to indigenous institutions over the years and subsequent novel dynamics in relation to their potential in sustainable conservation. To satisfy the stated objective the study will employ ethnographic research method and wherever possible participant observation will be the main research tool. Data will be collected using key informant interviews supported and augmented by a desktop study. Collected data will be analysed using thematic content analysis. The paper concludes that, an appropriate and holistic inclusion of indigenous institutions in contemporary transboundary conservation can go a long way in harmonising the multiple objectives which the landscapes intended to achieve, at the same time addressing livelihood security issues. Such an approach is critical for endogenous sustainable development. Keywords: Natural Resources, Socio-economic, Transboundary, inclusion

Ref: 049/GRE/15 Lack of institutional services: The impact on rural household food insecurity Mfundo Masuku a, Mosa Selepe b Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, Faculty of Arts, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa. b Department of Consumer Sciences, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Zululand, KwaDlangezwa, South Africa. b Corresponding authour: [email protected]


Abstract The aim of this study was to explore how food security at household level is affected by lack of institutional services. This study particularly looks at how these constraints affect access to food and assess the availability of institutional services in Ntambananaa. The availability of institutional support in rural areas is regarded as means of rural development which eliminate problems of access to food and other services. Rural people are affected by factors such as poverty, poor access to markets and lack of institutional support and these factors has exposed them to food insecurity. The cause of food insecurity or hunger in South Africa is not due to shortage of food but rather an inadequate access to food by certain categories of individuals and households in the population. Furthermore, poor governance systems also make rural areas poor investments. Related to this are weak structures of community participation and contribution and development plans that never address needs of the specific area leading to communities being not involved in their own development and being deprived of local opportunities. A descriptive design combined with quantitative and qualitative methods in order to observe several angles and to acquire multiple measures of the same phenomena by applying different research measures was applied. Qualitative method was used to gather data pertaining local perception and opinions on the lack of institutional services and policy outcomes using semi-structured questionnaire. The quantitative method enabled the researcher to quantify data in terms of statistics, tables and percentages. A descriptive study seeks to elicit a comprehensive and improved understanding of a situation as it offers a richly descriptive report of the individual’s perceptions, attitudes, beliefs, views, feelings, meanings and interpretation. The participants were requested to describe their own understanding of institutional services on food security in their area in order to verify their understanding of development and programme implementation processes of food security. A sample was drawn from the four areas of Ntambanana area and respondents were selected as key elements in qualitative data gathering. This population was targeted precisely because it was the most reliable population to provide appropriate data that will assist in achieving the objectives of the study. A convenience sampling procedure classified as a non-probability sampling procedure involving the sample being drawn from that part of the population readily available. The convenience sample included selected stakeholders that are involved in issues of food security such as non-governmental organisations, community leaders (Amakhosi and Izinduna)a and Community Based Organisations in the area. In this study government officials were purposefully selected particularly those exposed in the issues of food security. The questionnaire was designed in order to collect both qualitative and quantitative data. Due to the geographical area of Ntambanana questionnaire were used because respondents were scattered and there was no proper transportation. The researcher assisted those who were unable to read and write by filling the questionnaire for them. Interviews were used to obtain rich descriptive data which helped in understanding the participant’s construction of knowledge and social reality. Open- ended interview explores the participants’ views, ideas, beliefs and attitudes about the effects of institutional deficiencies on food security. One session on focus group discussion with community organisations that were selected was held. The sample was sufficiently homogeneous, because of the age group and cultural background including their socio – economic background. Detailed notes were taken and tape recorder was used to record the discussions. The Microsoft excel was used to analyse the quantitative data. Content analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data for this study where the researcher generated themes from the questionnaires and focus group discussions.

The general findings of the study reveal that assessment and evaluation of policies that are based on rural development and food security is very important. These include improving communication amongst various stakeholders, creating an enabling environment for local businesses, ensuring the availability of facilities such as storage, communication and transport facilities. This study concludes that the cost effective ways to improve access to food is to assist local small scale businesses to earn cash through creating market for them and invest in institutional services that lead to improving food security. The study recommends that improved rural institutional services sustains food security as well as contributes to the improvement in the living conditions of rural households. Key words: access to food, food in/security, institutional services, institutional support, rural households.

Ref: 050/GRE/15 Environmental Sustainability of construction projects in Higher Education Institution of Pakistan A critical review Attaullah Shah a, Raza U.Khan b , Irfan U.Jan c , Ehsan U.Qazi d a Project Directorate, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad, Pakistan. b National Agriculture Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan. d National Centre of Excellence of Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan c National Institute of Science and Technical Education (NISTE) Islamabad, Pakistan . Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Construction industry is enormously exploiting the natural resources in the world. The sustainable built environment demands conservation of natural resources in the design and construction including conservation of material, water and energy. Construction industry in the developing countries is posing extensive challenge to depleting natural environment. The excessive exploitation of natural resources has made the construction industry un-sustainable in these countries. The air and water pollution owning to construction activities are contributing to the environmental degradation. The lack of proper environmental impact assessment of the developing projects in these countries is further worsening the poor environment. There is a need to develop integrated environmental and social management plan for the infrastructure development projects. The huge investment in the higher and tertiary education of Pakistan in the infrastructure projects for last few years has led to extensive developmental activities in the universities and higher education institutions. But most of the construction related staff of these institutions lack the basic capacity to deal with the environmental and social issues at the construction sites. Hence there is an urgent need for their capacity building in these core areas. This research is mainly aimed at creating the capacity of various tiers of human resource engaged in the construction and developmental projects at Universities and Higher Education Institutes (HEI’s). In this work, Environmental and Social Management Plan (ESMP) for construction projects has was developed and various checklists were elucidated for implementation of the plan at the construction sites in Pakistan with special reference to higher education institutions. The plan covered the environmental and social issues at the construction sites and related preventive measures. The environmental issues of construction sites include air pollution, soil degradation, deforestation, material wastage, energy conservation, oil spillage, noise pollution, traffic related issues etc. The social issues include work site problems associated with human resources such as construction site safety and security, health and hygiene problems etc. The hierarchies of the organization for the implementation of the plan have also been suggested and continuous monitoring and evaluation system has been devised. Additionally reporting formats have been developed to ensure that the plan is implemented to the possible extent. A questionnaire survey was conducted amongst the project execution staff at various institutions across the country, to assess the impediments in the implementation of ESMP during various phases of construction projects. The results have shown that poor capacity of the execution agencies, lack of commitment from supporting organizations and shortage of staff are the major problems faced in the implementation of ESMP in the construction projects. Keywords: construction industry, natural resources, built environment, Pakistan

Ref: 051/GRE/15 Ability, Motivation and Opportunity as Determinants of Green Human Resources Management Innovation – Structural Equation Modelling Approach Ismi Rajiani a , Nurul Shazwani Mohtar b Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia. Faculty of Technology Management and Technopreneurship, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract In management field, recently we witness the rapid growing research literature on Green marketing, Green accounting, Green retailing and Green general management. However, Green human resource management (GHRM) research, referring to the HRM aspects of environmental management, is relatively scarce. Though in HRM there is no agreed or fixed list of HRM practices that are used to define or measure human resource management as debates regarding “best fit“ and “best practice“ keep on proliferating, recently new trend is established: the AMO. Drawing on AMO framework, which discloses the importance of employees abilities, motivation and opportunity to participate, Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is used to map the terrain for further study on Green Human Resources Management as an innovation. Though many companies have been working on product innovation for environmental sustainability yet there is a scarce study on the area of process innovations leading to environmental sustainability. Thus, by applying AMO concept, this paper identifies the need for initiating GHRM practices in manufacturing companies of Malaysia as a process innovation by integrating people, process, technology and the organization itself. Finally, the model is expected to support the recent National Green Policy. Keywords: green human resources innovation, green ability, green motivation, green employees,green opportunity, SEM

Ref: 052/GRE/15 Financial Sector Development Analysis to Support Sustainable Development in Indonesia Period 1998.1 – 2013.4 Dini Hariyanti a, Juswar Zainul Basri b , Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c a,b Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, Malaysia. c Sustainable Development Management Program, Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School, Indonesia. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The objective of this research is to analyze the Financial Development and it identifies the various channels through which Financial Development is transmitted to saving, bank lending to manufacture industry, manufacture industry investment, and output manufacturing industry of the economy. Also identifies the effect of Financial Development on output manufacturing industry and influence on the environmental and poverty to support Sustainability Development. The model of this research is simultaneous equations, the development of research Afangideh (2009) by adding two models; the influence of output for the environment and poverty to fill the gap from previous studies. This research also uses two approach Financial Development indicators; that is the ratio of credit/GDP and the ratio of M2/GDP. Secondary data obtained from BI, BPS, BEI and the World Bank during the period 1998 – 2013, with a method of Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). From six models of simultaneous equations and one identity models, the results of the models are Financial Development indicators with the approach the ratio credit/GDP is more significant than the ratio M2/GDP. The result showed that gross national saving, investment is the channel of Financial Development that affect to the output manufacturing industry; which is influence to the environment and poverty. Instrument determining financial development indicator in Indonesia is ratio credit/GDP. Based on existing models, saving and investment are substitute for Financial Development and the effect on real output of the manufacturing industry in Indonesia. Furthermore, the Financial Development through the output level will affect the environment and the poverty in a Sustainable Development. The results showed that the determining of the financial development sector in Indonesia is ratio Credit/GDP. Savings and investment are substitute for financial development. Savings are important for economic development to transform into productive investments. Control of interest rates as a policy tool needs to be done carefully (Prudent behavior) because of competition the interest rate of financial liberalization. Credit should be directed to the productive sector and not the consumption because Financial Development Sector Indicators and Stock Market Indicators for bank loan didn't optimal. Economic outlook needs to be improved because of the low interest rate credit is not necessarily addressed by the community to improve the credit demand what if the economic outlook is weak. Stock market indicators needed to encourage investment due to the low use of capital markets for financing investment and limitations intermediation by non-bank financial institutions (eg, hedging and insurance facilities are inadequate). There is the influence causality between output and pollution (environmental). The financial development sector can contribute to the environment by providing incentives for companies to adopt environmentally friendly technique during the production process. So that a sound financial sector can improve the quality of the environment. The high Gini ratio shows that poverty inequality has not improved as a result of deterioration in the quality of economic growth because they have not determined the structural changes in the poverty rate. Finally, the development of the financial sector can be a channel for sustainable development in Indonesia so that the policy taken by the government should pay attention not only on the output but also its impact on the environment and poverty. Keywords: GMM, Financial Development, Gross National Saving, Investment, Bank lending, Output Manufacturing Industry, Environment, Poverty and Sustainable Development

Ref: 053/GRE/15 Determinant Variable Analysis of Indonesia Human Development Index (Case In Areas With Human Development Index High And Low For Year 2004-2013) Eleonora Sofilda Soemargono a, Putri Harmiyanti b , Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c a,b Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, Indonesia. c Sustainable Development Management Program, Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School, Indonesia. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Compared with countries in the Southeast Asian Region (ASEAN), Indonesia has a Human Development Index (HDI) which is still in medium level. Based on the report of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Indonesia's HDI ranking in 2013 was ranked 108 out of 187 countries. One factor of low HDI in Indonesia is the imbalance of development that occurs between Western Indonesia and East Indonesia. This is as the result of a centralized government implementation before decentralization in 2001. Some areas in Eastern Indonesia have HDI far below of the average National HDI (Indonesian National score 0.73). Overall, only 17 provinces in Indonesia which has an above-average National HDI and the remaining 16 provinces, below the average of the National HDI and is mostly in Eastern region. Theoretically, one of the factors driving the increase in HDI is the increase in percapita income. This improvement will increase the purchasing power of people and at the end will improve the quality of education and health. However, high growth sector in the region do not necessarily reflect equitable prosperity for all people of the region. Moreover, the rapid rate of economic growth by itself will not be followed by growth or improving the distribution of profits for the entire population (see: Tadaro, 2011). Actually, increased demand would stimulate investment which in turn will increase revenues and led to a second round of investment, and so on. But it can also happen that the concentration of economic activities is quite high only in certain areas and not in other areas. This will affect income inequality community. Furthermore, high HDI will improve the quality of the economic development. HDI is a composition index based on three indicators, namely: health, educational attainment, and standard of living. One of several policies is fiscal policy reformation, that starts with the law number 22/1999 on Local Government, which is equipped by the Law No.25/1999 on Financial Balance between Central and Local Government. The both laws are updated with the law number 32/2004 on local government and law number 33/2004 on the financial balance between central and local Governments. A few studies those have been successful in verifying the potential contribution of fiscal decentralization to economic growth. One of the main objectives of fiscal decentralization is equality in the distribution of income. Centralistic system in the past (New Order Regime) made inequality in distribution of income, where West Indonesia region has a high average economic growth and HDI meanwhile East and Middle regions only have average low economic growth and HDI. Based on this, the expected establishment of the fiscal decentralization policy can reduce income inequality, so that people's welfare can be enjoyed equally by all people of Indonesia. On the other hand, income inequality is also very closely related to population growth that has exponential growth rate. Rapid population growth led to the inability of an area to support a certain amount of human life at a reasonable level. The increasing number of population will not cause an excess of labor. Excess workforce will create unemployment, which certainly will add to the burden of the area. Based on the above conditions need to improve the role of government through some kind policies to promote human development. The Government should be able to increase the budget allocation for increasing the quality of education, health and standard of living. Therefore, the policy that issued to the public must be a good policy, eliminated poverty through pro-poor or to create jobs through pro job. This study aims to examine Indonesia's HDI determinant variables. The methodology used in this research is multiple linear regression models with the panel data (33 provinces in period year 2004 to 2013), with the divide into two regions. Results of this research shows that: (i). areas which have HDI below the average national HDI show that the average variable spending per capita, population, unemployment rate, budget allocation for education and health significant effect on the HDI and (ii). areas which have HDI above of the average National HDI show that GDP at constant prices, average spending per capita, the dependency ratio, unemployment rate, and the education budget have a significant effect on the HDI. Keywords: Human Development Index, GDP at constant prices, the average expenditure per capita, population, dependency ratio, unemployment rate, budget allocation.

Ref: 054/GRE/15 Suitability and Prospective of Implementing the ASEAN Single Currency Kadek Ayu Susiani Dewi a, Itjang D. Gunawan b, Muhammad Zilal Hamzah c a Indonesian Business School, Jakarta, Indonesia. b Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia. c Sustainable Development Management Program, Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University and Indonesian Business School, Indonesia. c Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The rapid global development in recent decades in the field of economy, culture, social, information technology, education and free trade area, making cross borders between countries are increasingly blurred and lost (nations borderless). The process of globalization in the economic and trade cause of occurrence of fundamental changes to the map of the world economy, which includes three main dimensions, namely: the ideological dimension (shown by the emergence of capitalism), economics dimensions (shown by the establishment of a free market economy), and technology dimension (see Friedman, 2002). Free market economy already made the realization of the regional or blocks of economic market. The emergence of regional economics integration which are characterized by the formation of specific blocs or economic zone, resulting in the need to establish a single currency in these areas, such as EURO currency in European Economics Area. This aims to create the smoothing of trading process at that area. This research was conducted to observe the feasibility and prospects of implementing the single currency in the ASEAN Region for all ten-member states, by analyzing seven macro economic variables such as: GDP, inflation, government debts, exports, imports, exchange rate differences and government reserves. This research uses a VAR (Vector Auto Regression) model, Williamson Index and Beta Convergence (β-Convergence) and Panel Data Regression and the period data of year 2004 until year 2012. To complete the research method, statistical description and a series of tests were performed into the macro economic variables that have mentioned previously, start with unit root test (integration, co-integration and EngelGranger test) up to classical assumptions test (normality, autocorrelation, multicollinearity and heteroscedasticity test). The results proved that the VAR model already shown that the independent variables was able to demonstrate the diversity shown by the high value of R-Square, while the Forecasting Error of the Variance Decomposition (FEVD) respectively able to explain the relationship between variables according to macroeconomic theory. Furthermore, Williamson index test described the economic disparity occurred between states member, as well as the Beta Convergent Test able to explain the feasibility of implementing the single currency in the ASEAN region. The Panel Data Regression Test for the seven variables has been tested partially. All variables such as inflation, government debt, exports, imports, exchange rate differences and government reserves, except for GDP had no significant effect at the level of 1%, 5% and 10%, for the establishment of a single currency. However, overall, the dependent variable 98.22% was influenced by all independent variables, which was recognized by Adjusted-R-Square value and the rest were affected by others variables which not included in the study. Agarwal, et al., (2004), discovered that the possibility of the integration of the ASEAN single currency (ASEAN Dollar) is sufficient if the Government Deficit to GDP is not greater than 3%, the ratio of government debt to GDP should be less than or equal to 60%, exchange rate relatively stable with the normal fluctuations of 15% for two years and have never experienced a devaluation, and the inflation rate does not exceed 1.5% compared to the average inflation of the three best-performing member states. And the vice versa if it does not meet the criterion, the application of the single currency is not feasible. Keywords: GDP, inflation, government debt, exports, imports, exchange rate differences, government reserves.

Ref: 055/GRE/15 The Effect of Electromagnetic Field RadiationfFrom Mobile Base Station Sites on Human Health a,b,c

Yakubu Adamu a, Ndanusa Babakatcha b, Lucky Peace Ajakaiye c Department of Physics,Faculty of Natural Sciences Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University, Lapai. Niger State. Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The advent of telecommunication services over the past few decades has led to an unprecedented increase in the number of mobile phone users. This growth has necessitated an inevitable increase in the number of base station sites by the telecommunication service providers to meet the teeming demand for better services by their users. Today, particularly in Nigeria, such base station sites are located in residential areas; this has led to public outcry and concern for possible health impact since the base stations transmit Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) which are in the form of emitted and absorbed charged particles and which in turn can be harmful to human body depending upon the radiated power density and the distance from the transmitter. This research investigates the implication/effect of EMR from mobile cellular base station sites on human health in selected towns in Niger state. Base stations from Lapai, Bida, Minna and Suleja in Niger state of Nigeria were sampled as they constitute the major towns where these stations are cited and because of the number of people exposed to such stations. A frequency counter and a cellular mobile network analyzer was used to measure the intensity and frequency of the linear or radial wave (signal) radiating from the base station transmitter at various distances ranging from 50cm at an intervals of 5cm in steps. The radiated power absorbed is calculated with respect to intervals of distances from the transmitter (sources). Conclusions from the result were drawn based on the power density measured within 50m distance from BS transmitters. Measured values were compared with international set standards to ascertain the health risk of citing such Base Stations close to residential houses. Recommendation on best practices is proffered both for government and telecommunication service providers to ensure that the power density radiated is reduced generally and measured distances where the Base Stations transmitters should be located from human residences are strictly adhered to. Keywords: Base Station, Electromagnetic Radiation, Frequency, Human Health Power Density, .

Ref: 056/GRE/15 Somali Peace Processes: Failures, Consequences and the Way Forward Chukwudi Solomon Osondu Conflict Transformation and Peace Studies, School of Social Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Terrorism is one of the gravest threats to contemporary global advancement and sustainable development. No meaningful development can be achieved in societies beset by conflicts. In many contemporary societies, attained developmental gains have been reversed by upheavals and years of conflicts. The level of global insecurity has of recent, taken a horrific dimension with the events in Syria, Yemen, and Iraq. The environment of the failed state of Somalia has become very important in any discourse of currency regarding global security/insecurity architecture. The collapse of the Somali state over twenty-four years ago left in its wake an ungoverned environment which has been exploited by the international Islamist Organizations to develop a “viable” terrorist hub in the Horn of Africa. The alliance of the local Somali Islamists, the al-Shabaab, with the al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and the ISIS increased the security profile of Somalia. Again, the serial coordinated terror attacks in Kenya and Uganda in the past three yaers, and the linkage of al-Shabaab with the Islamist insurgency in Nigeria, and the upheaval in Yemen has rekindled global attention to the collapsed Somali state environment as very important in any serious effort to address contemporary global security/insecurity and development. The case of Somalia was not that efforts have not been and/or are not being made towards finding peace among the warring parties and reversing the trend of Somali state collapse. It has, rather, been the case of numerous failed peace processes. At last count, there have been over twenty-six (26) known peace talks on finding solutions to the Somali conflict. Indeed, many peace conferences and processes have been undertaken and numerous agreements reached and signed, but the conflict seems to have defied all possible solutions. This paper, therefore, focuses on the reasons why the peace initiatives on Somalia had usually failed. It highlights the difficulties on the path to peace in Somalia as both locally and externally generated. It also tries to discuss the consequences of the failures of these numerous peace initiatives. The paper finally argues that rebuilding the Somali state is a very important element in finding sustainable peace not only in Somalia and the region but also as of global import. I goes ahead to interrogate the canvassed options of unitary and federal systems of government for a new Somali state. The paper considers the peculiarities of Somali society which predisposes Somalia to conflict and concludes with a proposal of a “constitutional consociation” system of government as an option best suitable for Somalia. Keywords: conflict, consociation, development, peace process, Somalia

Ref: 057/GRE/15

The Role of Local Economic Development Initiatives in Poverty Reduction at Big 5 False Bay Municipality a

Mfundo Mandla Masuku a, Mosa Selepe b Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Zululand, South Africa. b Department of Consumer Sciences, University of Zululand, South Africa. a Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The study examined and analysed the role of Local Economic Development (LED) in poverty reduction in Big 5 False Bay, KwaZulu Natal. The primary aim was to determine the role of local economic development initiatives in poverty alleviation. LED is concerned with the creation of an environment which will engage stakeholders in implementing strategies and programmes that alleviate poverty. This perspective had to be aligned with the country’s macro-economic strategy which focused on re-entering the global market, providing a climate which is open to national and international investments. It focuses on creating competitiveness, increasing sustainable economic development by ensuring that it is inclusive. Local governments and private sector functions include environmental planning, business development, infrastructure provision and financial support to emerging businesses. The study seeks to respond to the questions who are the beneficiaries of LED and do local people participate in LED initiatives. Focus group discussions were held with existing co-operatives of men and women and interviews were conducted with governmental officials and community members. A questionnaire then was employed to confirm responses and test the validity of information from the interviews. Community members aged from 18 to 65 and above (n=30), three municipal officials and Ensimbini cooperative participated in the study. The study found out that 60% of the population is unemployed and forty percent were employed. It further indicated that 47% of the total population in the study was not involved in the LED projects, and that means the majority (53%) of the study population were involved in the LED projects. Our study revealed that LED initiatives does not create job opportunities for the local community members and also the findings indicated that they was no budget for LED initiatives and LED unit opt for an option to apply for funding in private and public institutions. The study recommended that the Big 5 False Bay Municipality should encourage communities in all steps on how to participate in LED projects and should move for a Private Public Community Partnership (PPCP). The Municipality should also take in to cognizance that the educational status of communities and bring measures that will match the status of the communities in LED. The study also recommended that municipality should find a way of creating a specific budget for implementing LED projects. Municipality should also accelerate on skills development and reduction of illiteracy level through forming partnership with universities, and training and skills development institutions around the study area. The municipality bears the responsibility to create conducive environment and some incentives to attract outside investors, in doing that the municipality needs to have a well-trained LED practitioners and town planners. Keywords: LED, community, project, municipality, poverty reduction.

Ref: 058/GRE/15 The Provision of Recreation Facilities for the Youth in Umlazi Township KwaZulu-Natal Nkosi Raymond Ngcobo Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Zululand KwaDlangezwa, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Corresponding author: [email protected] Recreation of the different age groups is a fundamental human need hence the assurance of its sustainability is of utmost importance like any other fundamental human needs. The need to recreate among human beings has been seen being constant through all human cultures and across historical time periods. According to Max-Neef, Elizalde and Hopenhayn. (1989), a fundamental human need is characterized by a need for subsistence; protection; affection; understanding; participation; leisure; creation; identity; and freedom. Recreation is therefore seen to be satisfying all the needs to be classified as a fundamental human need hence its sustainable development. It is therefore against this background that the Reconstruction and Development Programme (1994) in South Africa have placed emphasis on the involvement of youth in recreation related activities. This policy position has in turn indirectly compelled various South African municipalities to see to it that their areas of operation are provided with recreation facilities and programmes. The general theory states that if youth are kept involved in recreation activities, then their antisocial behaviour substantially becomes controlled for the positive. It is against this background that this research inquiry was undertaken. The fundamental aim of this paper is to establish the extent to which the youth in Umlazi Township are exposed and involved in recreation activities. It also seeks to determine the levels of recreation provision of facilities for the youth. The paper also seeks to establish the perceptions of the youth towards policies related to the provision and management of recreation facilities and activities within the study area. The operational hypothesis upon which the study based its findings was that the Umlazi Township authorities are not adequately providing recreation facilities and activities for the benefit of the youth in the area. Further that the youth was not positively disposed towards the provision and management of recreation facilities. It was anticipated that the findings on the study would display a positive outlook towards the initiatives of the South African democratic government, associated with the Reconstruction and Development Programme. On the contrary, the findings indicated that the youth in Umlazi were negatively disposed towards the provision and management of recreation facilities and activities within the study area. It was also found that the youth thought that levels of recreation provision of facilities were inadequate. Furthermore the study discovered that the youth are insufficiently exposed to recreation activities, and hence their minimal involvement in recreation. Notwithstanding the emerging negative perceptions of the youth regarding their awareness, participation and authorities’ provision of recreation facilities and programmes, it remains true that the involvement of youth in recreation activities would continue to play a pivotal role in creating a nation of well-rounded individuals in the South African society. In supporting the fundamentality of recreation as a human need, the Nevada Daily Mail (1970) had this to say: “Recreation is also a means to educational objectives, such as the social development of the individual, strengthening family life, strengthening democracy”. Keywords: recreation, democracy, sustainable development

Ref: 059/GRE/15 "Not yet Uhuru!": Media,Freedom of Information Act and the Quest for Sustainable Development in Nigeria Ayodele Thomas Odunlami Department of Mass Communication, Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The euphoria that characterized the eventual presidential assent given to the Freedom of Information Act in 2011 in Nigeria had barely settled when the mass media, civil society groups, including lawyers and activists started facing impediments in their bid to invoke the law to enable them to have access to vital information on issues of public interest. Prior to this time, expectations were high from stakeholders on the assumed benefits of the FoIA to press freedom and transparent governance. Though not exclusively a mass media law, the FoIA was seen as instrumental to the attainment of sustainable development through an open, free society and democratic ethos. Four years after, how have the mass media fared in the use and applications of the provisions of this vital law? To what extent have the much- touted benefits of the Freedom of Information Act impacted on the investigative journalism skills of practitioners towards realizing the goals of transparency on the one hand and sustainable development on the other for the largest black African nation? These and more were the issues examined in this paper.The methodology was through library research and documentary analyses. The paper concludes that mere legislation without the requisite democratic ethos and open attitude to information management by leaders of social and governmental hierarchies might defeat the essence and goals of sustainable development and the cherished values of the Freedom of Information Act in Nigeria. Key words FoIA, Press freedom, open – society, sustainable development, public interest. Keyword: FoIA, open-society, press freedom, public interest, sustainable development.

Ref: 060/GRE/15 Polygamy versus equality rights: Is polyandry a solution? Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema Department of Public Law, University of Zululand, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The right to Equality has been accepted as one of the principles of jus cogens since the Second World War and it is protected in numerous international and regional human rights instruments. The Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Woman (CEDAW) is a comprehensive document that serves as the international Bill of Rights for women and it prohibits polygamy. This paper examines whether the most unusual customary practice of polyandry would serve as a solution in elevating the status of women to be on par with that of man that are polygamists or not. This paper concludes by arguing that polyandry cannot solve the problem of inequalities that are confronted by women because even in polyandrous societies there is male domination that is detrimental to the equality rights of women. Keywords: Human Rights, Polyandry, polygyny & polygamy

Ref: 061/GRE/15 The Impact of Customary Law on Children’s Rights in Botswana Nqobizwe Mvelo Ngema Department of Public Law,, University of Zululand, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Botswana has a dual legal system, one based on customary law and the other on the received law. This appears clearly from the Constitution that ring-fenced customary law from any constitutional scrutiny. A customary practice may continue even if it discriminates against women and children. As a result of this, numerous human rights of children are infringed. Firstly, if parents are married under customary law and separated, the custody is granted to the father and the mother merely having the right to visit. Secondly, female children are not entitled to inherit property. Thirdly, there is no age for marriage under customary law and even a child at the age of 10 years can get married. Lastly, marital power of a husband still continues under customary law and therefore females are still treated as perpetual minors. The latter infringement of rights is not in the best interests of children and conflicts with Botswana’s international obligations. Botswana is a signatory of various international and regional human rights instruments and it is suggested that it has to accelerate the incorporation of human rights instruments into domestic law in order to safeguard the best interest of children. Keywords: custody, marital power, best interests of a child

Ref: 062/GRE/15 Evaluating the role of schools as community hubs for grassland ecosystem conservation Efrat Eilam a, Georgia Garrard b College of Education, Victoria University, Australia. b The School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Australia. a Corresponding authour: [email protected] a

Abstract Natural Temperate Grassland of the Victorian Volcanic Plain is a highly fragmented and critically endangered ecological community situated at the South-eastern part of Australia. Less than five per cent of the pre-European distribution remains today, and the remainders continue to be under threat of urbanization, insufficient management and other ecological threats. The Grassland region situated within the Western suburbs of Melbourne Metropolitan are of particular vulnerability, since this region is fast growing, populated mainly by migrant communities, characterized by low socio-economic status and disengagement with environment and development issues. Within this context we set out to develop a longitudinal educational program at a local primary school. Our aims were: (a) to develop and implement a grassland environmental education program; (b) to evaluate the extent to which a local school can become a hub for community engagement with the local grassland; and, (c) to evaluate the extent to which developed attitudes and values were transferable to other similar ecosystems which students did not have any immediate contact with. To meet these goals we established in 2013 a three year partnership with a local school. Qualitative data was collected in the forms of pre-post written questionnaires from the students, their parents and community members, and an end of year focus group with students. The results indicate that schools are well situated to act as hubs for community engagement with local ecosystems. As regard transferability, most students did not conceptualize a broad perspective that would be applied to remote grassland areas. The implications are discussed in regard to grassland management and environmental education pedagogy. Keywords: Sustainability Education; Community Environmental Education; Informal Environmental Education

Ref: 063/GRE/15 Impact of the FabLab Ecosystem in the Sustainable Value Creation Process Babasile Daniel Osunyomi a, Tobias Redlich b, Sonja Buxbaum-Conradi c, Jens Wulfsberg d Institute of Production Engineering (LaFT), Helmut-Schmidt-University, Holstenhofweg 85, Hamburg, Germany. Corresponding author: [email protected] Abstract From the slums in India to the shacks in South Africa, the need for the creation of global and sustainable values are of paramount importance. The value creation concept aims to create not just a paradigm shift in developmental strategies, but also a shift in the creation and distribution of livelihood, thereby providing adequate means for wealth and job creation to the populace in both the developed and developing countries. In response to the need for adequate value creation, various initiatives were rolled out to tackle the urgent issue of inadequate value creation, among which is FabLab. FabLab signifies fabrication laboratory, a basic FabLab facility is a small-scale workshop equipped with flexible computer controlled tools and systems for the production of digital fabrications of widely distributed products, which are used to encourage creativity and innovation among individuals irrespective of their demographic and anthropological status. As of April 2015, there are 490 FabLab facilities within the Fab ecosystems which spans over 70 countries globally. Moreover, the outlined goals of the initiative are to provide open access to tools for digital fabrication, to encourage entrepreneurship, openness, collaboration, and constant transference of knowledge and information within the ecosystems, to encourage technological learning thereby contributing to the broad development of science, technology, engineering, and technology (STEM), which has been deemed to be vital aspects in ensuring innovation and sustainable growth of any economy, and lastly to serve as an avenue for quality human developmental process. The aim of this research study is to analyze the growth pattern of FabLab movement, explore the socio-economic impact of the FabLab ecosystems in terms of the value creation process, to explore the success rate of the FabLab initiative in terms of its set goals and objectives, and also to identify the constraints to the effectiveness of the FabLab ecosystems. The research study was designed using a quantitative research method, through the conduction of an online survey. The research survey was directed at the managers, volunteers, and instructors of the FabLab facilities globally. It was conducted for approximately two (2) months, and a total of 94 respondents participated in the research survey. This paper provides the results of the research survey conducted to explore the tools and techniques used within the FabLab ecosystems in ensuring its sustainability, uncover the socio-economic impacts of the FabLab movement, and to identify some barriers to the effectiveness of the initiative. From the survey, it was discovered that FabLab has been productive up to date, and it is highly effectual in encouraging creativity, innovation, and entrepreneurship. However, constraints such as insufficient funds, lack of a formalized operating structure and diversified communication platform poses as the major impediments to the full effectiveness of the initiative. Keywords: Collaboration, FabLab, Innovation, Sustainability, Value creation

Ref: 064/GRE/15 The Effectiveness of the Low Cost Housing Delivery Approach to the Beneficiaries of uMhlathuze Village and Slovos Settlement in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa Primrose Thandekile Sabela Department of Anthropology and Development Studies, University of Zululand, South Africa. Corresponding e-mail: [email protected] Abstract In South Africa, the provision of housing to the poor remains a significant issue which is largely attributed to the discriminatory policies of the colonial and apartheid era. In order to address the imbalances of the past and to create sustainable human settlements, the government of South Africa has taken great and impressive strides to provide housing to the poor and various post-apartheid policies and legislative developments have been adopted to realise the right to adequate shelter. Section 26 of the South African Constitution (Act 108 of 1996) guarantees the right to housing for all South Africans and that the state has to make use of all available measures at its disposal to ensure that this right is realised. However the right guaranteed is not clearly defined whether it is the quantitative or qualitative right. There are also concerns about the use of ‘adequate housing’, as it not clearly defined whose adequacy is considered (provider or recipient) and how the concept is defined as this relates to how the end product is received by the beneficiaries. Likewise, The Housing Act, (1997) makes provision for, among other things, facilitation of sustainable housing development processes, and for this purpose lays down general principles applicable to sustainable housing development in all spheres of government. Indeed, the South African Government boasts a remarkable delivery of more than 2million houses that have been delivered to the poor, since 1994, addressing a backlog that was estimated at 1.6 million in 1994 however, the current statistics indicate a widened shortage of 3 million (SERI, 2013, and Tissington, 2011). Concern has also been raised in Gilbert (2004) that provision of low cost housing in South Africa is characterised by higher levels of beneficiary movement out of the newly created settlements, back to the slums or squatter settlements.The question of basic housing for the poor majority of the world’s population remains a festering global development challenge given the plethora of housing delivery models which abound. In South Africa, the capital housing subsidy scheme and the comprehensive plan for the development of sustainable human settlements are the dominant policy models that the post-apartheid government has used to deliver low-cost housing for poor South Africans. Despite significant efforts attained by the Government of South Africa at addressing the imbalances of the past by providing basic needs to the poor and needy people in South Africa with much attention to comfortable and affordable human settlements, there is limited information available to ascertain the effectiveness of the low cost housing delivery approach to the beneficiaries particularly those living in the subsidized housing units. This paper assesses the effectiveness of the existing housing delivery approach using human settlements created within selected municipalities of uThungulu District municipality, in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, with a view to examine the implications of the delivery to the beneficiaries. Using a triangulation of research approaches, data collection methods and analysis, the study did an extensive review of secondary and primary sources of information, surveyed 90 respondents and conducted key-person interviews in the selected municipalities. The study found that the respondents expressed appreciation of having accommodation and of being afforded ownership rights by the government but raised concern about the quality of structures provided and that the delivered houses are contrary to their expectations. Dissatisfaction with the overall current housing delivery approach was expressed and that the subsidized houses failed to meet the needs of the intended beneficiaries. Keywords: beneficiary; effectiveness; low cost housing; subsidized housing; Sustainable delivery

Ref: 065/GRE/15 Labour Productivity and Optimal Wage of Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia Iskandar Simorangkir Bank Indonesia Regional Office of Central Java Province Jl. Imam Bardjo SH No. 4 Semarang 50241, Central Java, Indonesia. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Amid of increasing complexity of employment dynamics, wages remains a major problem in developing countries such as Indonesia. The labor market that characterizes by excess supply on one side and low productivity on the other side, has led wage to become a central issue. In terms of economic sector, wage setting and labor productivity in manufacturing sector attracts more attention since this sector provides greater value added, has the largest share in the economy and is the 4 largest sector for employment absorption. Therefore, in this study the analysis of productivity and labor costs refer to the data from the manufacturing sector The main purposes of this study are (i) to analyze whether the development of real wage in the manufacturing sector is still in line with the growth of labor productivity , ii) to calculate the optimal wage based on labor productivity and iii) to analyse the impact of deviation in actual wages and optimal wages on employment in the manufacturing sector. To test the consistency between the development of real wages and labor productivity, we apply Westerlund panel cointegration and to calculate the optimal wage we apply the fixed effect panel to estimate the production function and to find labor share in the manufacturing sector. To analyse the impact of wage deviation to employment, we use dynamic panel. We use panel data of provincial manufacturing sector from 2002 to 2012 and panel data of large and medium industries’ enterprises from 1998 to 2009. The empirical results proves there was no cointegration relationship between labor productivity and real wage in the manufacturing sector. In other words, the growth of real wage was not in line with the growth of labor productivity. This result is supported by the calculation of optimal wage. We find that during the observation period, most of the provinces (± 20 provinces out of 26 provinces) paid actual wage higher than the optimal wage. While on the other side the high actual wage is not supported by high labor productivity. Furthermore, empirical results proves that deviation between optimal and actual wage have a negative impact on labor absorption in manufacturing sector. Moreover the growth of manufacturing sector output, and average years of schooling in the each provinces have a positive effect on employment growth in the manufacturing sector. Deviation between optimal and actual wages in the manufacturing sector needs serious attention because in the long run it may reduce employment and competitiveness of Indonesia’s manufacturing product. Therefore, the application of the minimum wage policy should pay more attention to labor productivity. Meanwhile, efforts to increase labor productivity through skills enhancement should continue to be activated. Keyword: Labour, productivity, complexity, absorption

Ref: 066/GRE/15

Rule of law and human rights on hold: The emergence of extreme emergency in modern states Gerard Emmanuel Kamdem Kamga University of Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss new mechanisms of suspension of law and human rights in modern states. Traditionally there are two possible ways of bringing human rights and the rule of law to a standstill. Firstly through the concept of limitations and secondly through that of derogations. Whereas the permanent tension between the protection of individual’s rights and the community (state) interests justifies the limitations of human rights, the idea of derogation to human rights amounts to their complete or partial elimination as an international obligation in times of emergency threatening the existence and the security of the state. In other words in time of peace human rights may be subject to limitations for the sake of public order, public moral or public health for instance. A contrario, human rights are subject to derogations following the enforcement of emergency powers such as a state of exception or a state of emergency deemed the state’s immediate responses to exceptional circumstances namely war, natural cataclysm, insurrection, invasion or nuclear disaster threatening its safety, Owing to their intrinsic nature that may bring about abuses of all sort including the concentration of powers to the profit of the executive power, the establishment of a totalitarian state such as that of the Nazi Germany under Hitler, the concept of limitations and derogations are currently subject to a strict regulation. With regard to the former not only they have to ‘be determined by law’, but also only those limitations are permitted which are ‘necessary’, or ‘necessary in a democratic society. Talking about the idea of derogations, it is currently argued that ‘in essence derogation clauses express the concept that states of emergency do not create a legal vacuum. The derogation regime aims at striking a balance between the protection of individual human rights and the protection of national needs in times of crisis by placing reasonable limits on emergency powers.” On this account the international legal standards on emergency regimes provides a set of principles that state parties must deal with when confronted to emergency situations. The idea of emergence of extreme emergency in modern states accounts for the situation where human rights and the rule of law can be brought to a standstill without any procedural rule or constraint. The modern emergency has reached its extremity as the state seems to be operating in an environment where citizens are considered first of all as a mere potential threat to the “society’s safety.” The recent spreading of antiterrorist legislation, the legalisation of mass espionage activity, the concepts of indefinite detention, war on terror and preventive war are an indication that emergencies in modern states have reached the point of non-regulation characterised by a global civil war where governments have the privilege to confront their own population suddenly considered as an alien feature of the statehood. Unlikely to the classic emergencies strictly framed by domestic and global legal restrictions, the extreme emergency is entirely driven by the executive power in an environment where nothing prevails except guilt and retribution. It is this extreme emergency, this lack of regulation regarding the actual suspension of law and human rights in modern states that the current paper focuses on. Keywords: State of exception, State of emergency, human rights, limitations, derogations, necessity, violence, rule of law, constitutional democracy.

Ref: 067/GRE/15 Assessing the Liveability of the New and Old Parts of Tehran, Municipality Districts 22 and 10 of Tehran Mahmood Jomehpour Department of Social Planning, Faculty of Social Science, Allameh Tabataba'i, University, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract This study is to investigate the livability of urban region using the defined global and local parameters. Based on theoretical studies and expert reviews, livability indicators have been identified. The selected indicators were subjected to field surveys. For this purpose, we began to collect residents’ opinions and analyzed the results using statistical methods. According to the results, the livability in Tehran 22 is desirable. And only some of the indicators are less favorable, that we can take steps using residents’ opinions and the offered suggestions to improve them in the best form. In general it can be said, District 22 of Tehran requires great effort to become an area for living. Comparing livability indicators in the two Districts 22 and 10 as old and new regions shows that, in factors of access to infrastructure and welfare services, such as public transport services, District 10 as the old region enjoys better situation than District 22. While in factors of environmental quality indicators, the new district enjoys higher level of livability. In factors of social indicators such as the security, both the regions enjoy appropriate livability level. Keywords: liveability, liveability indicators, District 22, District 10, municipality of Tehran

Ref: 068/GRE/15 Resilience, Risk and sustainable Development Sadegh Bakhtiari Department of Economics, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (khorasgan) branch, Isfahan, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Economic Development can be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in an existing economy. It involves development of human capital, increasing literacy ratio, improve important infrastructure, improvement of health and safety and other areas that aims at increasing the general welfare of the citizens. The notion of sustainable development encompasses three primary areas, the economic, the social, and the environmental. So, sustainable development can be said rest on three fundamental principles: economic development, social development, and environmental protection. The present paper argues that the two main factors affecting on the three aforementioned areas of sustainable development are, risk and resilience. Development to be sustainable requires considering different risks or in other words it should be resistant to risks. For this purpose evaluating and managing risks are most important elements in achieving and remaining sustainable development. The paper consists of two different parts. Theoretical part of the sustainable development and links between risk, resilience and sustainable development will be discussed at the first part of the paper. In this section it will be explained that risk management should be part of sustainable development policies and practices to tackle existing challenges and seize potential opportunities. Individuals, communities and organisations which are prepared and ready for an abnormal event, considered as more resilient. Understanding the probability and the magnitude of potential threats enables society to make decisions on how best to reduce the probability and/or impact of such threats, to transfer the risk by taking out adequate insurance, or indeed to do nothing and be ready to accept the potential consequences. In the second part of the paper the result of an empirical study on the relation between risk, resilience and some other related components of economic development in Iran as well as some other selected countries in the MENA region will be presented. Keywords: Development, Resilience, Risk, Sustainable Development

Ref: 069/GRE/15 Thermal Performance Assessment of Existing Buildings: A Case Study from Turkey Egemen Kaymaz a , Filiz Senkal Sezer b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Uludag University, Institute of Science and Technology Bursa, Turkey b Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Uludag University, Institute of Science and Technology Bursa, Turkey a Corresponding author: [email protected] a

Abstract As the leading contributor of the socio-economic development in Turkey, the construction industry plays a significant role in energy consumption and energy-related environmental issues and pollution. When aiming to reduce the negative impact of buildings on their occupants and nature, international energy regulations and environmental policies were created to focus more attention on the life cycle effects of design, construction and operation stages. As a result, greater emphasis is given to use clean and renewable sources, integration of activepassive systems in buildings, and energy efficiency of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems to ensure interior comfort conditions. From an environmental sustainability point of view, energy efficiency is mainly associated with thermal performance of building envelope by means of long-term performance and durability, in addition to user requirements such as thermal comfort and indoor air quality issues. Today, numerous investigations are carried out worldwide to determine the thermal performance of newly designed buildings’ envelopes, as well as to improve existing structures in use. These investigations include numerical assessment by computer modelling and simulation, experimental analysis and measurement of buildings, and user satisfaction surveys. Since thermal performance of buildings is now a major concern, architectural studies focusing on optimally performing building envelope solutions have gained momentum in new building projects. According to the Construction Products Directive (CPD) and the Standard Buildings Energy Performance regulations (BEP), buildings must be energy efficient and fulfill performance requirements over an economically reasonable operating life. As part of the sustainable development strategy in the EU integration process, national legislation and regulations such as Energy Efficiency Law, Turkish Thermal insulation requirements for buildings (TS 825), Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings (BEP-TR) and Energy Identity Certificate (EKB) are introduced or adapted to relevant EU directives to improve the energy efficiency of buildings in Turkey. Furthermore, Turkish Green Building Council (CEDBİK) and Sustainable Buildings and Materials Council (SURYAD) are trying to develop a sustainable building assessment model based on local standards and solutions. Though designing with the environmental performance criteria produces good results and buildings are rated and certified by various sustainability assessment tools, limited data exists regarding the thermal performance of building stock in Turkey in terms of energy efficiency and other ecological aspects. Since 2010, new buildings are required to perform thermal standard of TS 825 and have energy identity certificate (EKB). Considering most existing buildings have not met the latest thermal standards, there is a significant energy saving potential in the building stock in Turkey. The aim of this study is to perform annual heat energy demand and savings of an existing building through literature review on energy efficiency and building analysis with computer simulations. The study consists of five main parts: i) literature review, ii) setting up a 3d model and a questionnaire for field investigations and evaluation afterwards, iii) performance assessment of building envelope by a thermal insulation calculation program iv) evaluation of user satisfaction survey, v) proposing an thermally improved external envelope model. A Turkish national energy calculation program (TGUB) has been used to generate data and the input parameters such as annual weather forecast and the physical characteristics of architectural components are determined by using software database. For the case study, an existing 3-storey block, located in a temperate climate zone is selected. The addressed building was completed in 2006, and being used as Industrial Engineering Faculty on Uludag University Bursa Gorukle campus.

The analysis has been carried out in terms of annual heating energy consumption and heat loss and gain through envelope considering U-values of components. Regarding heating and cooling energy expenditure, an operational cost is calculated above the TS 825 standard limits of the energy consumption of the building. A questionnaire including findings from thermal indoor air quality survey is also presented in this paper. The findings of this study include attempts to develop a more robust external envelope in terms of overall thermal performance. The calculation results show that it is possible to increase the thermal performance of building’s envelope and reduce high heating and cooling loads with successful physical renovation. This improved performance also creates a more comfortable environment for occupants by upgrading the living standards. Computed results are given together with an envelope layering alternative. In this way, the study will compare the existing envelope’s thermal performance with a proposed model that meets local regulations and policies and reveals the difference in indoor air quality. By the implementation of the current national standard, it is possible to upgrade existing building’s thermal performance in the use stage. This study objects to provide guidance not only on renovation of existing buildings but also in the early stage of design and planning process for the future projects. Keywords: Computer based evaluation, Energy efficiency, Existing Buildings, Thermal performance, Turkey

Ref: 070/GRE/15 How the Employees’ Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility Make them Happier and Psychologically Stronger Susana Leal a, Arménio Rego b, Miguel Pina Cunha c, Instituto Politécnico de Santarém and CIEQV, Portugal. b Universidade de Aveiro (GOVCOPP) and Business Research Unit (UNIDE-ISCTE, IUL), Portugal. c Nova de Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade Lisboa, Portugal. a Correspondin g authour: [email protected] a

Abstract Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has been studied primarily at the macro level, with few studies taking into account the individual level. Furthermore, there are calls for more investigation on the antecedents of employees’ psychological capital (PsyCap). This study bolsters both areas. The paper shows how the employees’ perceptions of CSR predict their PsyCap both directly and through the mediating roles of positive affect and the sense of meaningful work. Two hundred and seventy-nine employees participate. The study uses structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized model. The findings suggest that both positive affect and the sense of meaningful work partially mediate the relationship between the perceptions of CSR and PsyCap. The study helps to understand the underlying mechanisms linking CSR with outcomes at the individual level. Studying CSR at the individual level is valuable for both academic and practical reasons. Keywords: perceptions of corporate social responsibility; positive affect; psychological capital; sense of meaningful work.

Ref: 071/GRE/15 Madhyasth Darshan (Co-existential Theory) – A Pathway to Sustainable Development Ram Niwas Sharma IASE Deemed Univesrity, Gandhi Vidya Mandir, Sardarshahr, Rajasthan, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Today our globe is facing many challenges due to environmental pollution, paucity of water resources, frequent natural calamities like, eruption of volcanoes, land sliding, depletion of ozone layer, rapid changes in cycle of seasons, global warming, destruction of flora and fauna etc. All these trends portray that homosapians are drifting away from natural order and natural life which is sine-qua-non for sustainable development. Though thinkers, philosophers and scientists have been yearning to quench their thrust for creation of a world order but they could not succeed. To my mind this can be possible by practicing principle of existential harmony which is pregnant with many gems and is a part and parcel of holistic world order based on equity, liberty, justice and dharma and advocates for sustainable use of all the material resources available to the mankind. The propounder of this principle A. Nagraj elucidates that it is existence-rooted human-centric and is an alternative to instability-uncertainty based on matter centric materialism/science and mystic idealism. According to him ‘Existence is in the form of co-existence’. One only needs to understand it and align oneself with it. Energy is recognized and understood in the form of absolute-energy and relative-energy. Work-energy is relative and absolute-energy is eternal. Because of the presence of absolute energy each unit is self-organized within itself and fulfils its harmonious relationship with all other unit/orders. Every human being has desire to live in the harmony with rest of the nature. The principles of existential harmony will serve as a beacon light in all human endeavors and will enable us to understand that best way is to utilize the sources of nature as per our natural needs and give up our wanton desire for exploiting and overpowering nature, for this we have to understand and inculcate the values of existential harmony in our behavior pattern. In this research paper I have tried to explain this philosophy. Keywords: Dharm, Harmony, Madhyasth Darshan, Nyaya, Satya

Ref: 072/GRE/15 A feasibility study for harvesting, bottling and commercialisation of spring water in rural communities. A case study of Gabazi Village in the Eastern Cape a,b,c

Zamaswazi Wendy Nkuna a, Matome Mothetha b, Vusumzi Mema c Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Brummeria Pretoria, South Africa. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Groundwater has been regarded as the most important source of water for many rural areas in South Africa. In these communities, springs are considered a significant resource which has been able to sustain the daily water needs of people for decades. Furthermore, due to an abundance of these sources local municipalities have identified an opportunity to improve quality of life through bottling water for commercialisation purposes from springs in rural communities. While this initiative may have a role in addressing poverty issues as an income generating activity, challenges may arise when the formal water supply schemes are inadequate. This paper therefore looks at the feasibility of harvesting and bottling of water from the identified springs for commercialization purposes in one of the rural villages in the Eastern Cape. The main objectives of the study are therefore to conduct a technical assessment of the springs (hydro-physical and hydro-chemical), specifically looking at the source area, location of the spring eye, understanding the long term impact of spring water harvesting on the surrounding environment, as well as the quality of the spring water in terms of its suitability as drinking water based on SANS 241 guidelines. This is critical especially since the identified sources are also used for drinking water purposes. The paper also discusses the key social issues, the risks as well as the legal and or regulatory requirements associated with spring water harvesting and creating a spring water bottling business especially in the community where springs are used to sustain daily water needs. In concluding, water quality analysis revealed the presence of E.coli, faecal coliforms etc. in all identified springs, requiring treatment methods to be applied. In terms of flow, each spring produced a minimum of 0.07l/s of water or about 6,048l/day, recorded in the winter and about 0.27l/s in the summer. This was found to be technically feasible to sustain a bottling business, provided the sources are used solely for this purpose. Furthermore in terms of legal requirements this figure is acceptable in the specified catchment management area, requiring only an authorization license to be obtained from the relevant authority. The study however recommends for a social mobilization process to be in place to ensure that the community understands the implications of such a project, especially since the springs will have to be solely dedicated to bottling for the business to succeed. In addition, to ensure that such a project is socially acceptable, the relevant water service provider must put more effort in ensuring that the delivery of water services to the community is sustainable. Keywords: Bottling, commercialization, spring, rural communities, water services

Ref: 073/GRE/15 Input of science to the international climate regime Kateryna Holzer World Trade Institute, University of Bern, Switzerland. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract International negotiations for the creation of an international regime to combat the global challenge of climate change are painfully slow and highly contentious. It remains uncertain whether climate diplomats will be able to strike an ambitious and legally binding post-Kyoto climate agreement with participation of all major emitting countries at the Paris summit in December 2015. Given that an important aspect of a successful environmental regime is a constant flow of scientific and technical information with its further processing into decision-making, our article examines input of science to international climate negotiations and the current state of climate science and policy interplay. Building on contemporary theories of science-policy interaction and learning from the experience under other international regimes, our article identifies issues that hamper the effective scientific contribution into climate policymaking. It suggests ways to integrate scientific input into the climate negotiations process more effectively, particularly through improvements in processes and procedures of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), quality of scientific input, credibility of scientific message and public awareness of climate change. Keywords: Climate Science, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Climate Negotiations.

Ref: 074/GRE/15 Corruption and Sustainable Economic Development in Nigeria Gianyu Rasaq Omokeji Department of Sociology, Fountain University, Osogbo, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Most government world over, Nigerian government inclusive are bedeviled by the problem of good governance, the most hit is the precarious problem of corruption, as such most of them records a downward trend in development. There is high level of corrupt practices which have driven many Nigerians below poverty level. People are massively affected through bad and corrupt governance as such it made vague and elusive meaningful development. Corruption is a nationwide phenomenon which has consume the society developmental efforts throughout history (Buhari 2015).Corruption is a moral decadence that has eaten so deep into the fabric of the Nigeria society and as a result has being into difference directions and made a precarious conjuncture. Corruption is a difficult subject to tackle given the fact that it is usually very difficult to find concrete examples to back one up unless on official probe or a court case. Suffice to say, that though part of the woe’s afflicting most countries in the face of development is the none presence of a true democratic government, sincerity of purpose and effective institutions through which grassroots populace could have been empowered and be part of the process of change in regards to the application of cultural values to modern governance and development. Therefore, this study will examine corruption and effects on sustainable economic development in Nigeria. Keywords: Corruption, Development, Good governance, Democracy and Sustainable economic

Ref: 075/GRE/15 Ecotourism development in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) a,b

Mikhail Fedorov a, Mikhail Borokhin b, North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk , Russia. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract This article addresses the problem of the development of ecotourism in terms of the orientation of modern society for a healthy lifestyle, contribution to environmental protection. Ecotourism is one of the most important forms of tourism that involves familiarization with nature, cultural and ethnographic features of the region. In addition, ecotourism promotes physical activity. The article describes the main objects of ecotourism in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Keywords: eco-tourism, active tourism, environmental protection, natural monuments, resource reserves, hiking, kayaking.

Ref: 076/GRE/15 Indoor Environmental Quality Credits In Green Buildings In India Subodhika Vohra a, Meenakshi Mital b Department of Resource Management and Design Application, Lady Irwin College (University of Delhi), India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Indoor environment is a critical component of a green building as a balance has to be achieved by reducing the energy consumption and at the same time providing good indoor air quality. Maintaining good IAQ requires enhanced ventilation, increased consumption of energy and thus higher operating costs. Reducing ventilation rates to save energy increases indoor generated VOCs and small particles by an amount that may pose health risks. To strike a balance between the two, integrated design approach towards IAQ and energy is used in green buildings. The study entitled “Indoor Environmental Quality Credits in Green Buildings in India” focuses on the technologies and strategies used and the catalysts and hindrances associated with achieving IEQ credits under LEED India NC and CS. To make the rating system more adaptable, where the potential planner is able to understand the rating system on an individual level and integrate the knowledge of the technologies and strategies used to attain credits in the rating system into his business as usual activities, the catalysts and hindrances help understand the same. Further for higher adoption of the rating system in India, , new aspects to be included in the rating system and how to make credits easier to attain have been seen. Also in the LEED for India NC/CS rating system there have been India specific changes and such a study is warranted to understand how it has been perceived by the users and take their suggestions for improvement of the rating system. The study was carried out in six buildings which were developed as case studies. Four buildings have been certified under LEED India NC, one under LEED India CS and one is pre certified under LEED India CS. The building’s owner/manager, architect/engineer and sustainability consultant were taken as units of enquiry to elicit information on the technologies and strategies used along with the catalysts and hindrances associated with IEQ category. Further, they also provided information about suggestions to make credits under IEQ category easier to attempt and earn. In addition, ten sustainability consultants who were not part of the buildings selected were contacted to get their views on the catalysts and hindrances associated with IEQ credits as well as suggestions to make credits under IEQ category easier to attempt and earn. On analyzing the strategies and technologies being used in the six buildings, it was seen that there were some strategies and technologies being used by every building like HVAC design as per ASHRAE standards, prohibition of smoking in the building, meeting or exceeding the SMACNA guidelines, using materials with low VOC limits. Some of the strategies and technologies were not adopted by buildings at all. These included using measurement equipment to trigger alarms, using a combination of sidelighting and/or top-lighting to achieve a total day lighting zone that is at least 75% of all the regularly occupied spaces etc. suggesting that they are difficult to implement. The study also revealed the catalysts and hindrances associated with attaining credits under IEQ category. Some of the catalysts were gains in productivity, occupant comfort and wellbeing and improved indoor air quality. Some of the hindrances faced were high implementation cost of technology, amendment in the design of the building and difficultly to coordinate with the MEP, architect and project manager. The study also highlights the suggestions of stakeholders towards making credits under IEQ category easier to attempt and attain. Some of the suggestions were to reduce the threshold value for day lighting from 75% to 50%, exclude individual controls in commercial buildings and restricting CO2 monitoring to AHU level. This study can be used by the policy makers, green building firms and stakeholders involved in preparing the green building guidelines. The study gives a vision for making the guidelines in future easier in terms of IEQ category so that more number of buildings employ the technologies and earn all possible points under the IEQ category. As the indoor environment of any building is crucial in terms of occupant health and productivity, the study shows a way forward to understand the problems faced during the attainment of IEQ credits and ways to reduce these hindrances so that the projects target the highest level of certification by earning all points under the IEQ category thereby accelerating the green building movement. Keywords: Catalysts, Green Buildings, Hindrances, Indoor Environmental Quality, Technologies.

Ref: 077/GRE/15 Political Participation and Women in Public Offices a,b

Ishaku Bitrus Lere a, Dantong Rahila Timothy b Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Plateau State University, Bokkos, Nigeria. b Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The contributions of women in societal development cannot be overemphasized, women in the society constitute about fifty percent of the world`s population. The level of participation of these women folk in public life has been grossly inadequate; it means that we are neglecting about fifty percent development. Thus women supposed to be occupying equal positions with their men counterpart in the public offices but the case is not like that all over the world. Since women are seen as vanguard for societal transformation, they are supposed to be given a pride of place in public offices so that they can also make their own contributions to the realization of the aims and objectives of setting up a state. The enormous role that women perform in the society supposed to be extended to public life. This calls for the involvement of women in political activities since they are seen as partners in progress for the transformation of the society in general. Afterword’s, women participation in political activities has been impeded by some factors which needs to be radically address in order to have equal representation in governance. Most often, women are relegated to the background when it comes to political participation. This is obvious because of some socio-cultural and religious factors which hinder their active participation in politics and other public offices. In the area of political party membership across the globe, women usually constitute a small percentage; this is because of the social, cultural and religious attitudes of different societies against women which most often tend to relegate them to the background. As a consequence, in some of the countries, only few educated men allowed their wives to come out and participate in politics and occupy public offices. A cogent example is found in the northern part of Nigeria ``purdah system`` i.e. house seculation of women is one of the major obstacle to women participation in politics. This is applicable in many other countries of the world. Therefore, this paper intends to look at the extent to which women have participated in politics and public offices. It will traced the historical involvement of women in politics and public offices from pre-colonial, colonial and post colonial era, whether they are making break through or they are retrogressing in terms of political participation and involvement in public offices. The paper will preview the various international, national, regional and local conventions in support of women participation in politics and public offices will be x-rayed to ascertain the extend of the conformity of the various member states to the agreements. The factors impeding women participation in politics and public life will be discussed and the way forward in order to have a society whereby there will be equity, justice and fairness will prevail. The key words are: political participation, women in politics and women in public offices. Keywords: Politics, Participation, Women, Public Office, Development

Ref#: 078/GRE/15 Community Awareness and Adaptation strategy to the Effect of Climate Change in Yobe State, Nigeria Galadima. M. a, and Nandi J. A, b Department of Agric Economics &Extension, Federal University Gashua, Yobe state, Nigeria. b Department of Agric Economics and Rural Sociology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria Corresponding authour: [email protected] a

Abstract This study assessed community awareness and adaptation strategy to effect of climate change in Yobe state, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select 160 respondents in the state. Primary data collected from the respondents included the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as gender, age, marital status, and educational qualification, as well as their climate change awareness and adaptation strategy. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Majority of the respondents in the state have less awareness to climate change and submitted that climate change has affected their socio-economic and agricultural activities in recent years. The effects identified included lesser income, reduced crop yield, shortage of water and biomass for animals due to low rainfall. It was also noticed that, there were frequent dry spells, cold spells, strong winds and thunderstorms. Similarly high temperature causes wilting of crops and diseases while excessive rainfall leads to destruction of farmlands and properties by flooding. The respondents are making efforts to adapt to climate change in various ways such as planting resistant crop varieties, altering planting schedules, planting early maturing varieties and crop diversification. They however lack adequate information on how to adapt. It thus recommended that, adequate information and sensitization from the site of the government and communities should be made available. Hence, appropriate technology as well as inputs should equally be made available in the study area. Keywords: adaptation, community awareness, climate change, Effect, Yobe State.

Ref #: 079/GRE/15 Spatial planning approach: An efficient pattern for accessing territorial sustainable development Case Study: European Spatial Planning a

Mostafa Taleshi a , Sara Bisheii b Geography department, Payam Noor University, Tehran, Iran. b , Payam Noor university, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract: Sustainable development stands for meeting the needs of present generations without jeopardizing the ability of futures generations to meet their own needs. Sustainable development requires improvement in social, economic and environment dimensions of development and shift in approaches using natural source, investment management, technology and institutions and organizations to meet the needs of present and future generations simultaneously. On the other side, spatial planning is a kind of planning dealing with land or territory and to be applied in different levels of national, regional and local. It is worth to know that there is a reciprocal relationship between sustainable development and spatial planning. Spatial planning brings integration in different levels so it is a suitable tool to achieve sustainable development. Spatial planning integrates sectorial policies from different organization and administrations. This articles tries to answer this question that how spatial planning could be effective to achieve sustainable development. In this regard, this article tries to discuss this issue with considering the visions of Europe Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) and Europe Sustainable Development Strategy goals. Keywords: Integration, Spatial Planning, Sustainable Development, Sustainable Spatial Development

Ref: 080/GRE/15 Computer skills, internet attitude and social media use as determinants of information literacy among secondary school students in south-west, Nigeria Akerele Johnson Ayodeji College library, Adeyemi College of Education, Ondo, Ondo State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Background to the Study It is not an overstatement to state that secondary school students should be able to access, evaluate, select, understand and use information effectively, in order to record success in their studies and contribute meaningfully to events/activities at school, home and the community in general. It is in this direction that Ranaweera (2013) observed that students are empowered with critical skills which will help them to become independent lifelong learners when their level of information literacy is on the high side. Information literacy according to Issa and Blessing (2012) is the ability to know when there is need for information, how and where to get the information and using such information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose. It is characterized by the ability to effectively use Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and printed information resources effectively by accessing the needed information efficiently, evaluation of information and its sources, using information appropriately to timely accomplish a task and understanding the ethical and legal implication of use and access to information. Keywords: social media, literacy, internet, secondary school students

Ref: 081/GRE/15 Digitalization: A Step towards sustainable development Sumeet Bhutani a, Yashi Paliwal b Human Resources Department, HCL Technologies, Plot No. 1 & 2, Noida Express Highway, Sector 125, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201301, India. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract In the era of technical advancement, where everything revolves around the “e” world, digitalization has spread its wings over all the spheres of life. The immense use of digital devices and our growing dependency on them clearly states that digitalization is the need of the hour and has great potential to revolutionize the socio-economic growth parameters thus, forming a symbiotic relationship with all inclusive growth and sustainable development. It has become that important instrument which has simplified the functioning and processes in various areas like administration, regulation, planning and operations of the socio-economic domain by ultimately enriching the quality of life. This very feature of the digital age results in sustainable development as when the societies are digitally empowered, they are more Conscious, Connected, Compliant, Collaborative and Content towards their own growth and in return they work in a tandem as responsible resources for nation’s future prospects. This paper therefore aims at showcasing the scope of Digitalization in the current scenario and its role in helping nations globally attain the ideal aim of Inclusive Growth by following the path of sustainability. Also, it proposes a model of “5Cs of Inclusive Sustainable Growth”, which establishes a relationship between Digitalization and Growth. The Globalization of Digitalization has given a great boom to the corporate, financial and administrative sector which has exponentially widened the horizon of services being offered to the society like better technology to access everything at one click, improved facilities in the healthcare and hospitality department and good opportunities in educational sector for the less privileged. In the growing economies, such approach solely aims at providing a common platform to those millions of people who remain grounded within the walls of poverty, illiteracy and unemployment to reach out for any kind of assistance, register their existence and ask for their rights and development and connect with the nation. This digital platform would integrate the urban and the rural worlds together under a common sheath of Sustainable development keeping in close touch with all social aspect and along with this social upliftment, there would be tremendous economic growth leading to a prosperous nation. With this holistic approach, nations would not only be able to offer inclusive growth but give an efficient sustainable and digital life to their people. As a result of which better living conditions, active public participation, dynamic urban framework, clean governance, and transparency in public welfare policies and procedures would be observed which would result in well aware, self-enabled and digitally equipped people who would be good learners, thinkers, reformers, participators and agents of change and growth marching ahead on the path of sustainable development. Keywords: Collaborative, Digitalization, Inclusive growth, Socio-economic, Sustainability.

Ref: 082/GRE/15 Sustainability and Trend Analysis of Climatic Indicators: Bangladesh Perspective a, b

Saeed Ahmed Siddiquee a, Md. Ehsanul Hoque b Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Division, WAVE Foundation, Dhaka, Bangladesh Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The work summarised the trends of 9 indicators. The statistical analysis aimed to observe the trend of seasonal variation and natural hazards through indicators with field survey questionnaire, focus group discussion and participatory action plan development method to analyze the distribution of hazard occurrence and frequency which resulting currently summer, monsoon and winter dominant season with high abnormalities than before. Trend of climate and water level analysed with SAARC meteorological research centre data and community perception results devastating temperature and rainfall condition along with future trend of about annually 3.980C and 5.11% change respectively. Impact of cyclone, drought and flash-flood on people’s livelihood and crop diversification were observed frequent condition with high deterioration. During the year 1980-2010 the annual agricultural trend showed increasing productivity but with two seasonal crops (Rabi and Kharif). Due to unavailability of water people tried approaching to alternate crop cultivation along with cyclone, drought and flood tolerant crops and with seasonal internal migration tendency. Partially, trend of fisheries and livestock decreased rapidly and extensively with higher rate than previous 30 years due to water scarcity and lack of grazing land. On the contrary, trend of livelihood and food security had fallen largely below the poverty level. Keywords: Indicators, Climate Change, Food Security, Natural Hazards, Livelihood.

Ref: 083/GRE/15 Media Commercialisation, Public Interest And Sustainable Development In Nigeria a,b

Dele Odunlami a, Tokunbo Adaja b Department of Mass Communication, Faculty Of Social and Management Sciences, Olabisi Onabanjo University,, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The economics of media production, distribution and consumption makes the issue of commercialization an inevitable reality in the modern society. But the mass media exist essentially as a social institution to provide voice to the populace through a ‘full, truthful, comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s events in a context – that gives meaning’. However, unfolding realities reveal that commercial considerations have vitiated the statutory mandate of the media as the fourth estate of the realm. In Nigeria, like other developing countries, the challenge is how media professionals can balance their desire to break even and successfully navigate the complex and harsh mace of economic realities for an enhanced bottom-line on the one hand and remain committed to the professional demands of their calling for sustainable development on the other. This paper x-rays the emerging issues in the wake of media commercialization in Nigeria and their implications for public interests and sustainable national development with suggestions on the way forward. Keywords: Media Commercialization, Public Interest, Sustainable Development, Agenda-Setting , Hegemony.

Ref: 084/GRE/15

Analysis of Subjective indicators of Quality of life in Makurdi Irene Doosuur Mngutyo a, Grace Awopetu b, Elizabeth Terngu Sugh c Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria b Department of Psychology, Faculty of social sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State,Nigeria c Department of Sociology, Faculty of social science, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Corresponding authour: [email protected] a

Abstract The preliminary stages in the development of human communities are the formation of a correct understanding of people’s needs. However, individual perception of needs is highly subjective and difficult to aggregate. Quality of life measurements are an appropriate means for achieving such an understanding. Hence this study endeavors to measure quality of life in Makurdi using subjective and objective indices as adapted from other researches. A sample of 400 respondents achieved by applying the Taro Yamane formula to Makurdi’s projected population. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to residents of nine wards in Makurdi. Expected findings should indicate areas of gaps in the life experiences of residents and hence linkages between local authorities and citizens for constructive interaction leading to interpretation of and discussions on key issues affecting people’s lives. Keywords: Keywords: Development, Needs, Perception, Quality of life, Urban living

Ref: 085/GRE/15 Decision-making patterns among Iranian family members Seyed Mahdi Etemadifrd Department of Sociology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Participation in the decision-making process is a significant factor for recognizing the sustainable development. People of all ages and of both sexes shall feel the same attachment to contribute an effective sustainable development. Several factors have been proposed to realize the sustainable development in different countries. Family is mentioned to be a determining social institution which plays a vital role in social changes and development. This paper, thus, aims to examine the situation of the family in Iran and its evolutions over four decades. Family changes in the Iranian family have been gradual and continuous in recent decades . Accordingly, the development trends will be explained based on these changes. Among the various aspects of family, the emphasis is put on the quality of the decision-making and its changes in the Iranian family. Traditionally, these were the husbands and fathers who enjoyed the authority to make the important decisions and other family members were bound to comply. Due to the political, economic and social changes over the past four decades and in result of the implementation of several development programs in Iran during the same period, it sounds to meaningfully change. The present paper, then, addresses this main question that how the quality of the decision-making in Iranian families has changed over the past four decades. The answer to this question can demonstrate the quality of family member's participation especially women in the decision-making process and its ups and downs. Methodologically, it is a secondary analysis of the national survey datasets. The major dataset sources include The Future-study Survey (1974), the Cultural Trends and Social Attitudes of Iranians Survey (2004), and a range of other major national and minor various surveys conducted between over three decades to measure and indicate the mentioned changes. The findings suggest that men still have the benefit of priority in decision-making in the family, however, it has been declining. Interestingly and unprecedentedly, it is nor replaced by women’s power to decide, yet, it is the participation of all family members which is desired. The father’s decision-making has been decreased from 72 percent (in 1974) to 33 percent (in 2004), as well as women’s decision-making that has been lessened from 11 percent (in 1974) to 6 percent (in 2004). This emerging family decision-making process has caused a formula, the "collaborative decision-making", in recent surveys to be added, while there is no such option in the primitive similar surveys. Other national surveys also confirm this changing process. It recommends that the participatory approaches are being replaced the polar decision-making system in the family. Then, it seems the grounds for the sustainable development is provided more than any time before since now both sexes have the sense of participation in decisionmaking. Keywords: collaborative decision-making, Iranian family, secondary analysis , social changes, sustainable development

Ref: 086/GRE/15 Sustainability: Minimization of risks in nature using and mass media activity Viacheslav Rudnev Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, RAS, Moscow, Russia Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Modern epoch is a period of high level technological risks, especially in using Nature. Imbalance in the Human Nature - Society system as a result of overexploitation of Nature introduces an element of danger for Human beings (health problems, pollution and depleted resources) and has stimulated human activity in searching for ways to achieve a sustainable development. This fact has assist in better understanding the interactions between biodiversity and social dimensions of nature use. The ‘Agenda 21’, adopted at the United National Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1992) focused attention on the necessity of new solutions for problems of the relationships between Nature and society. Problem of using natural resources has special meaning in this context. Always natural resources have ensure foundation for development of mankind. Now society become anxious the condition of the resources: reduction of stock in non-renewed resources and danger situation on renewable resources. For instance, soils suitable for agriculture are fundamental renewable resources, if managed correct. Soil fertility has provided communities everywhere with opportunities for agriculture to produce a food, during a long time. Intensive longterm exploitation of soils in recent years has led to soil exhaustion to such an extent that in many regions the soil have become non-renewable resources. Since soils are fundamental for the sustainable future of society, this fact has global risks for coming generations. For saving soils as renewable resources mankind needs to change stereotypes of world outlook. It would mean a transition from anthropocentrical brain orientation to an ecocentrical orientation. This task is not easy. The technological civilization has generated among its “citizens” a definite vision of the world as a system in which the priority of values relating to “artificial” surroundings is practically indisputable. Folk heritage in Nature using, especially farmers traditions in Nature exploitation, based not only on the technologies “friendly” to Nature, but also (and first of all) on the perception that soil (earth) is the Mother. Mankind’s transition from outlook system oriented anthropocentrically to a nature-preserving model, based on ideas of “ecological ethics” looks especially complex, directly connected with the problem of formation of a new culture. Actually, global ecological crisis, ecological problems take priority very quickly and the transition to a new model of thinking promises to be accelerated. In this context, creation a special education programs (and TV films), active collaboration with mass media, for the elaboration of a new model of outlook is quite important and actual for modern society direct towards a process of Sustainable Development. In this paper, I will focus attention on the problem of collaboration between mass media and scholars who are working in searching for ways to solve modern problems in the human-nature-society system in the context of Sustainability. Keywords: Mass media, Nature using, Overexploitation, Risks, Sustainability

Ref: 087/GRE/15 An Explanatory Analysis of Facebook’s Effect on Social Cohesion a,b

Hamid Abdollahyan a, Mahin Sheikh Ansari b Department of Communication, Faulty of Social Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract The objective of this paper is to examine whether Iranian Facebook users are affected by Facebook and whether Facebook usage affects social cohesion. It should also be added that Facebook is a social medium (Stanfield, 2008 and Cary, 2012) with more than 1.35 billion monthly active members in the world in 2014, that reached to 1.44 billion in April 2015. Moreover, in terms of visiting factor it is now the second most-visited website in the Internet. Based on the latest statistics, there are 45 million Internet users in Iran. By comparing Facebook users with Internet users in various countries, one can reach the approximate rate of 40% of Iranian Internet users who can be considered as Facebook members. Accordingly, the total amount of Iranian Facebook users with a 40% basis should be about 17 to 18 million who are mostly young. As a result, it is necessary to research the influence of using Facebook on youngsters’ relationships. This article, as a result, evaluates the influence of using Facebook on social cohesion. Methodologically, this study is a mixed cross-sectional one which has used online and offline survey to prepare quantitative data for analytical purposes. It has also used interview, collaborative observation, and direct observation to gather qualitative data. Analysis unit of the Internet users were 16 to 36 years old, giving a sample size of 2046 individuals in the survey's method. Some of results of the quantitative data show that Facebook improves weak relationships, increasing the bridging social capital along with users’ social tolerance. As the intensity of using Facebook increases, users’ social cohesion increases as well and the average social cohesion of Facebook users becomes more than that of those who are not a member of the website. In addition, the results of qualitative data show that Facebook users interact with each other about social and political events and have more access to the information than those who are not Facebook users. All in all, it can be said that by improving and mending weak connections of Iranian users, Facebook can increase social cohesion in the country. Keywords: bonding social capital, bridging social capital, Facebook, social cohesion, social tolerance.

Ref: 088/GRE/15 System Design of Recycle Management Using AHP and TOPSIS in Buyukcekmece Municipality Volkan Cakir a, Ahmet Pirlanta b Department of Industrial Engineering, Arel University, Istanbul, Turkey. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Local governments are researching efficient and sustainable solutions to the problem of increasing amount of solid waste. Recycling is proposed as one of these solutions considering increasing environmental concerns. Recycling operation system starts with separating recyclable waste at household level. Though an efficient recycling system's success largely depends on the participation rate of inhabitants. Büyükçekmece is a district and municipality in the suburbs of Istanbul, Turkey on the Sea of Marmara coast of the European side, western part of the city. It is largely an industrial area with a population of 380,000. Although Büyükçekmece is a non-large district of İstanbul in terms of the amount of population, the population is growing in the summer months. Department of Environmental Protection and Control of Büyükçekmece Municipality conducts activities for air pollution measurement, noise control and environmental impact assessment. In addition to these activities, office engages in recycling activities of vegetable wastes, packaging wastes, batteries, electronic wastes, plastics, glass and paper. Recycling activities at the municipality are handled by a private companies. Currently these recycling activities and operations are carried out in an unsystematic way. This recycling activity is irregular though awareness level of the inhabitant is extremely low. In this research, three alternative recycle collection methods are evaluated on three different locations. Alternatives are evaluated using AHP and TOPSIS methodologies. First important factors for a successful application of recycling were identified by AHP methodology. In AHP application, three main criteria are identified as economic factors, social factors and operational factors. There exists ten sub-criteria in the AHP tree. AHP surveys are filled out with project partner company managers, municipality engineers and administrators. After that TOPSIS methodology is used while comparing and ranking alternative recycle collection methods. After selecting the application sites application started with handing out recycling flyers, brochures of information about the study. Next a survey is prepared in order to understand the inhabitants’ perception of recycling and demographics. Application lasted for three weeks starting with collecting survey papers and distribution of recycling bags to the residents periodically. During that period observations are made by the regional partners such as trash collector, site administrators as well as project team. Keywords: recycle management, Büyükçekmece, AHP, TOPSIS, solid waste management

Ref: 089/GRE/15 Causal Attributions for Poverty in Italy: What do People Think about Impoverishment a, b

Maurizio Norcia a, Antonella Rissotto b Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche via San Martino della battaglia, 44 – 00185 – Roma (Italia). Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract What do people think about impoverishment? Has the poor to be blamed? Are community or society mainly responsible for his condition? Or Bad Luck? This paper analyses the causal attributions for poverty in order to better understand people's viewpoint. According to literature, we can detect three main attributions, depending on explaining poverty as ascribable to individual, external-tangible or fatalistic factors. The data analyzed refer to a research which has been carried out in 2012, in Italy, and has involved around 1000 participants. A Principal Component Analysis has allowed to ‘weed-out’ the items by identifying three main components. Following analyses have showed significant relations between attributions and factors like sex, age, education level and economic condition. Keywords: causal attributions for poverty, explanations about poverty, poverty, social perception

Ref: 090/GRE/15 Organizational diagnoses based on green management model: A case study of an Iranian pipe and equipment company in steel industry a,b

Mehrnoush Dowlat Madani a, Jalal Haghighat Monfared b Department of Industrial Management, Faculty of Management, Islamic Azad University Tehran Central Branch, Tehran, Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Because of increasing environmental pollution by various industries and consequently the incidence of global protests, Green management tries to keep a stable relationship between the enablers and the success of an organization, also it plays an important role having better environment friendly industry and it is one of the prominent methods for reducing future issues surrounding our planet. Green management is a new managerial strategy approach for developing the organization Enablers (leadership– policy and strategy – corporate partner – corporate resource – processing), sustainable business success (financial - social and environmental results) that helps to naturalize behaviors and the functions associated with learning and creativity and innovation to become Industrial competitiveness. In Iran, Green Management Association was formed with the aim of improving and integrating all of the organization’s criteria and is trying to achieve the five main index and consequently enhance the environmental, social and economic results. It should be noted that the "Green Management Award" in the UN-affiliated organization called the "Energy Globe" has been registered and has a universal validity. The present study is diagnosed according to Green Management Award model for identification of improvement plans in the case study of the Sadid pipe and equipment company in steel industry that has been conducted by the researcher during 2010 to 2011. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts from a steel industry. One of the main objectives of the survey is to investigate whether the firm is in good conditions in terms of green management perspective and the preliminary results of our survey indicate that the company received 344.6 points out 1000 points, which means the present conditions of the firm is quite unfavorable. The study is divided in to two parts; quantity and quality. In the first phase through quantity analysis, while reviewing the current models used in diagnoses, enumerating the necessary reasons to implement green management in organizations and by using the Green management’s check list, the validity and the reliability of this study has been proved. In the next phase via quality analysis, by forming a group of experts on corporate executives and some experts in the fields, the quantitative results of the different parts of company in research with an organizational diagnoses approach were obtained. The first, evidence of the existing diagnoses in enablers was found, consequently in the triple’s results in the field of sustainable success and the main activity of company were identified. After that the condition causing these symptoms and evidences separately were obtained, and the list of the most common causes of each complication in internal different areas of Sadid pipe and Equipment Company were analyzed, examined and presented. There are many reasons describing the present conditions of the firm such as the lack of an integrated responsibility, weak management support and involvement, shortage of financial support, etc. The study also provides some guidelines for having better green management outcomes, which sets better accounting procedures for evaluating of project’s cost/benefit and sufficient financial support for projects to improve the Environmental, Social and Economic results of company. Keywords: Diagnoses, Enablers, Environmental results, Green management, Sustainable success

Ref: 091/GRE/15 Georeferentiation and Social Science: Better Ways to Detect Vulnerability a, b, c

Maurizio Norcia a, Antonella Rissotto b, Elisa Colì c Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche via San Martino della battaglia, 44 – 00185 – Roma (Italia) Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract This paper is about using georeferenced information in Social Science. Despite the fact that geospatial framework is a central factor in analysing data from sociology, psychology, anthropology and economics, its potential contribution has been substantially ignored. In the last years, the reconciliation between GIS techniques and Social Science is occurring, mainly because of improvements in software to manage these data. The paper arises from CLARA project, an Italian national project on risk assessment and management in the field of natural disasters, and describes the theoretical and technical steps aimed at georeferencing specific data on a geographical map. The paper highlights three kinds of pros: information on a map are more quickly readable and relations among them stand out more easily; georeferenced data bring back complexity to the object studied, because they allow a multidimensional, contextual and integrated reading of it; multidisciplinarity is also an opportunity for encounter among scholars and technicians and promotes the acquisition of different perspective by them. Finally, the paper discusses several advantages for interventions and policies. Keywords: georeferenced data, vulnerability, frail categories, risk

Ref #: 092/GRE/15 Spatial analysis of common diseases of women in metropolis Case Study: Tehran metropolis Mostafa Taleshi a, Fahimeh Shobeirian b Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University, PO BOX 19395-3697, Tehran, I.R of Iran. Sustainable Development of Geographical Environment Excellence, Shahid Beheshti University, Iran b Urban Planning , Department of Geography, Payam-e Noor University , PO BOX 19395-3697 Tehran, I.R of Iran. Corresponding authour: [email protected] a

Abstract The rapid development of urbanization in recent decades in many developing countries, especially in the National Metropolis Damages provided for citizens. One of the most important of these injuries, diseases, and spatial distribution of these diseases in urban areas. Spatial analysis of disease citizens and examine how the allocation of health and medical resources, One of the ways to achieve integrated management of urban health in the metropolis is among the developing countries[11]. As one of the major metropolitan cities of Tehran metropolis always has problems and plenty of living and housing is limited .In this study, spatial analysis of common diseases in women are recognized metropolitan Tehran, It is obvious that the condition of women in urban society exerts considerable losses every Plan and modify will help a lot in this matter, To achieve the ultimate objective of urban planning as well as urban areas is considered[3]. The results show that the spatial distribution of gynecological function of sociality-economic conditions and spatial distribution of health facilities is Environmental damage so achieve urban health systems in large cities solve environmental problems on the one hand create the Family health centers, particularly for women and also the very important and critical. Keywords: urban health, women's diseases, spatial analysis, metropolis, Tehran

Ref: 093/GRE/15 International Cooperation Mechanisms on Regional Water Governance. Integrated Management Plans of Water Resources for Areas Under Severe Hydric Stress. Prospective Analysis for Using Desalination Technologies at Regional Scale as A Means for Sustainable Development Rafael M. Plaza University of Chile (U), Law School, Research Directorate, Senior Research Fellow Av. Santa María 0200 Providencia, Santiago, Chile. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract The paper builds upon the diagnosis of water and energy security as challenges for sustainable development within the Pacific Alliance region. It advances that to secure present and future water availability, stable financing and adequate management of water resources, countries should adopt not only individually, but preferably at regional level, common strategies for responsible and sustainable use of water resources, whether research and technology transfer-related or through investing in innovation, development and infrastructure in the water sector. Paying special attention to areas on the planet with physical or economic water scarcity, the study explores viable mechanisms for international and regional cooperation capable to attract foreign direct investment into technology industries and/or water/energy infrastructure in the Pacific Alliance territory, in order to opening markets with trade potential in the fields of desalination, water management and sustainable water treatment in high water-stressed zones. Keywords: Desalination; International cooperation; International Trade; Pacific Alliance; Water Governance.

Ref #: 094/GRE/15 Influence of thinning on a spruce stand (Picea abies L., H. Karst.) from the eastern boundary of Hills of Bucovina. Piticar Michaiel Alexander Faculty of Forestry , University of Ștefan cel Mare, Suceava, Romania. Corresponding authour: [email protected] The research work conducted while the influence of the intensity controlled cutting on biometric characteristics and stability of a spruce stand located at the eastern limit of Hills of Bucovina, Romania. The study was based on an experiment of “Forest Research and Management Institute” Câmpulung Moldovenesc, in the period 1974-2004. For this study we received ICAS database, with inventories made available after each intervention ( years- 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989, 2004 ). Personal contribution to the work consisted in making an inventory in 2011, and archive data processing and interpretation of ICAS and those obtained in the field. For ICAS experiment used eight experimental areas that were performed on three scales of intensity thinning ( normal, moderate, strong ). After conducting the data collection phase ( 2011 ), we identified the total destruction of three experimental areas due to downfall and tears caused by wind and snow. In two of the three areas destroyed was practiced thinning of strong intensity and the intensity provided for the third area was normal. The strong intensity is that most influent widening were spruce stand. Thus the average diameter growth recorded an increase until reaching a density of 0.7 in the strong and normal surfaces, not recommended draws strength from its lower values. However long-term index decreased to 0.7 density in normal and strong areas they control forces and weakened the stability of stand, leading ultimately to dismantle them. The increase in height, the best effects were observed in the strong area. After the downfalls from 2004, the area in which the thinning of moderate intensity practiced reacted best in terms of structural stability. Volume tree indicates the best development environment on the strong intensity, followed by moderate version. In conclusion, it can be said that the stand performed well until 1989, as the strong version that the intensity of extraction by volume to 19.7% responded best in terms of biometrics. In the long run the stand-structuring in areas suffered thinning travelled with strong intensity, and even normal. This positioning is owed and stands in the direction of prevailing winds. For the stand studied, moderate thinning was the best option, given tot the position which confers a certain vulnerability. For the future, studies of the influence of thinning faction stands should be continued to determine values and types of thinning intensities, to capture the characteristics of each stand, thus obtaining maximum results in terms of high quality timber, and especially increasing production, incresed stability to the action of disturbances ( wind, snow ). Acknowledgment This paper has been financially supported within the project entitled „SOCERT. Knowledge society, dynamism through research”, contract number POSDRU/159/1.5/S/132406. This project is co-financed by European Social Fund through Sectoral Operational Programme for Human Resources Development 2007-2013. Investing in people!” Keywords: biometric characteristics, density index, stability stands, slenderness factor, thinning intensity.

Ref: 095/GRE/15 Earthquake Risk Management - An exploratory research in Ferrara City a,b,c

Elisa Colì a, Antonella Rissotto b, Maurizio Norcia c Institute of Cognitive Science and Technology – Italian National Research Council, Italy. Corresponding authour: [email protected]

Abstract Risk management is part of the risk analysis process, including both “risk assessment” and “risk management”. It is performed to ensure that risk is maintained within an acceptable level to avoid any serious adverse effect to the public and environment by selecting the most suitable alternative (Tesfamariam, Sadiq, Najjaran, 2010). Risk management involves three public policies that are risk identification, risk reduction and disaster management (Cardona, 2004). These different public policies involve different social actors and as a consequence imply different disciplinary approaches, values, interests and strategies. Therefore, risk management inevitably requires an understanding of how disaster is managed, in terms of different stakeholders involved and processes activated. These aspects are particularly important in the case of seismic risk, a phenomena characterized by complexity and uncertainty (Vahdat, 2015), elements that make more difficult the identification of a generalized seismic risk management model. Since 1900 in Italy there were 30 earthquakes with a 5.8 or major magnitude, some of which were catastrophic (Rovida et al., 2011). The research presented aimed at identifying the network of stakeholders involved in the management of the earthquake that affected the city of Ferrara (Emilia Romagna) on May 2012. In particular, we studied this network from a structural and functional point of view, in order to highlight its strengths and weaknesses. This research was part of the largest research project CLARA “CLoud plAtform and smart underground imaging for natural Risk Assessment”, funded by Italian Ministry of Education, Universities, and Research (MIUR), whose main object was to mitigate the effects of landslides and earthquakes, affecting some Italian towns, by acquiring knowledge related to the environment. The risk management network was studied starting from legislative and technical documents (such as the Piano Intercomunale di Protezione Civile), integrated with in-depth interviews with stakeholders who have a key role in this network. The network is characterized by different levels of activation (national, regional, provincial and municipal), depending on the seriousness of the event. In the case of a-type event, each municipality intervenes with his own resources. In the case of b-type events, the level of intervention is extended to provincial and regional level. In the case of the c-type events the level of the network become national. From a structural and functional point of view, however, the risk management network activated during the earthquake of 2012, is a very complex and articulated system. Indeed, many actors, structures and services, each one with its own roles and functions, have intervened in the management of the emergency as stated by law. In particular, among the operating units, there were Fire fighters, Armed Forces, Police, State Forestry, the Italian Red Cross, national organizations of volunteers, the Department of Civil Protection. Among the decision units there were, instead, the Emilia Romagna Region, the Local Authorities and the companies of public and private services. For the first time the different actors have constantly communicated and interacted with each other, in order to ensure a connection between the different intervention levels and an adequate assistance to the population. The analysis of the risk management network, activated during the earthquake in Ferrara, has highlighted that the existence of a model for seismic risk management is an essential, but not sufficient tool for the emergency management. This model need to be dynamic and flexible, that are key features for dealing with events, like earthquakes, which by their nature are difficult to be predicted (Stewart & Bostrom, 2002). The flexibility represented one of the strengths of the Ferrara risk management network, allowing a fast communication between different stakeholders and a better efficiency of the intervention. The intervention model should also be integrated by a clear definition and a shared knowledge of tasks, roles and functions of different stakeholders, whose scarcity represented one of the main weaknesses of the seismic management network in Ferrara. Work practices, aimed at the promotion between different stakeholders of the network of shared languages and shared working methods, should be promoted too. Keywords: public policies, risk management, risk assessment, emergency management

Ref: 096/GRE/15 Delivering Sustainable Low-income Housing in Uganda, Challenges and Opportunities Arman Hashemi a, Heather Cruickshank b Centre for Sustainable Development, Department of Engineering , University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street , Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK.. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract While the developed world is adapting to the consequences of climate changes, global warming will negatively affect the quality of life and economic growth in developing countries. The low-income populations from low and medium Human Development Index (HDI) countries would suffer even more from climate changes because of their vulnerable living conditions and the lack of appropriate and adequate infrastructure. Unlike the rich countries who have the resources to invest and respond to such changes, adaptation in developing countries, and particularly in the poorest ones, is left to the individuals as a matter of “self-help”. This situation will considerably affect the living standards and health and wellbeing of low-income people the majority of whom live in substandard slums and informal settlements. Particular attention should therefore be paid to the low-income housing conditions not only to address the environmental concerns but also to improve the living standards and health and wellbeing of low-income populations. The work presented here is a part of an on-going EPSRC funded research programme “Energy and Low Income Tropical Housing” which intends to identify and develop energy efficient methods for delivering lowincome housing in tropical countries namely Uganda, Tanzania, Thailand and China. This paper reviews the Ugandan housing conditions in order to identify the opportunities and challenges for delivering sustainable energy efficient low-income housing in Uganda. The available literature are reviewed and site visits and surveys are carried out to collect primary data and photographic evidence to support the discussions. The outcomes of the literature review along with the surveys are used to identify the critical factors which affect the Ugandan housing conditions and short-, mid- and long-term plans and policies are recommended as the conclusion of this study. Urbanisation; slums; housing costs, types and sizes; construction methods and materials; embodied energy and renewable energy sources are some of the areas which have been reviewed and discussed in detail. The findings reveal some critical areas such as informal settlement, overcrowding and access to housing facilities which require immediate attention. The research findings also highlight embodied energy as the key areas of improvement for reducing CO2 emissions and environmental impacts of low-income housing sector in Uganda.

Figure 1: Construction methods and materials in Uganda. Keywords: East Africa, Low-income, Sustainable Housing, Tropical, Uganda.

Ref: 097/GRE/15 Innovative solutions to determine the extent of contamination by toxic residues, heavy metals and pesticides in products of plant origin - significant impact in food security and sustainable agriculture Laura Olariu a, Veronica Drumea b , Luiza Mariana Craciun c a,b,c S.C. Biotehnos S.A., Otopeni, ILFOV, Romania. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract In the context of intensive agriculture, when most farmers want to produce high, non-perishable crops in short time, it is particularly important to monitor the level of contaminants. Official statistics show that it cannot be directly correlated the agricultural production technologies with the level of contaminants (ex.: organic products are not necessary free of residues, those obtained in rural houses are not safer than those provided by extensive crops, etc). The most cases of exceeding the permitted levels of pesticides are caused by non-compliance with recommendations included in agricultural technologies. Although pesticides impact on human health is a controversial subject, they are still indispensable for technologised agriculture on large areas. Therefore, residues may be present in vegetal products, their maximum limit being strictly regulated. These residues may occur in products as a result of agricultural treatments, but also because of the persistence of some of the products previously used (ex. Organochlorine pesticides, which in large part are out of use). The current problem to be solved is the follow of the effects of these treatments (accumulation of residues) and the main approach is to develop methods that allow the detection of contaminants at very low limits. The contamination sources could be easily detected at vegetal crops monitored from the seeding to harvest, and the final product has a good traceability. But the other plants, for example medicinal herbs harvested from spontaneous flora, need a more precise control of contaminants. This screening is very important due to the use of medicinal plants by vulnerable segments of population: elderly, pregnant women, children. Although the tendency is to judge a product harvested from the spontaneous flora as "natural", there are still many suspicions concerning the presence in soil of very contaminants pesticides (such as PCBs, DDT and its derivatives, lindane and other chlorinated compounds), as well as the fluctuant composition of active principles in plants. Therefore, pesticides or heavy metals are more likely to get, even uncontrolled, in food or treatments with plants products. In order to improve this problem approach, the researchers from Biotehnos developped, validated and applied an analytical algorithm to quantify the contaminants from vegetal raw material, with direct impact on pharmaceutical, dermatocosmetic and food industry. The optimized analysis methods for the pesticides level quantification are multi-residues, and have been validated for different product categories: high water content, i.e. fruits and vegetables with high water content, high acidity category – i.e. citrus fruits, low water and high starch content – i.e. cereals, and difficult/ complex matrices – i.e. herbs and spices. 100 analytes could be identified by GC-MS and 47 analytes by LC-MS-MS into a single run. in Regarding the heavy metals quantification, the technique used was the atomic absorption spectrometry, with graphite furnace and quantification by standard addition method. he ISO IEC: 17025 accreditation of the laboratory for the contaminants analyzes was one of the consequences of the research work, certifying the test results through the implementation of quality management. As production workflow improvement solutions, the methods application have a significant impact for the contamination assessment, both for the raw plant material (herbs), and the finished products (extracts) obtained from them. The lists of analyzed contaminants largely covers the market requirements and include the most used pesticide in various product categories (ex.: Acetamiprid, insecticide widely used in vegetable gardens or fruit growing, methylthiophanate,a broad-spectrum action fungicide used in most cultures, cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos, synergistic insecticides mainly used in orchards and vegetable gardens). As well as, in accordance with official regulations, we have been concerned about persistent contaminants (organochlorine compounds or heavy metals), which most often uncontrolled end up in the food chain.

The appropriateness of these studies is also confirmed by the fact that the European Union aims implementing the EC Regulation 24/2004, which refers to the quality conditions for placing on the market of the traditional herbal products. The vegetable matrices quality control is significantly improved, respecting the European Pharmacopoeia Regulation – contaminants chapter and the European Regulation EC 396/2005. Our tests reveals pesticides (under the admitted concentration) in “bio” vegetal products, unspecific residues in spices (ex. Chlorpiriphos in thyme) or Pb residues near the maximum doses in Hedera helix harvested from spontaneous flora. The problem will persists until the international regulations will decide to be more specific in the control of pesticides residues for the food safety and efficient analysis techniques will be developed all over the world. The research was conducted as part of the project POS CCE 546 / 2013. Keywords: GC-MS, heavy metals, LC-MS-MS, pesticides, toxic residues

Ref: 098/GRE/15 Small is beautiful and bountiful. Bangladesh from a “basket case” to a “sustainable development model” ? Masudur Rahman University of Nordland, 8049 Bodo, Norway. Corresponding authour: [email protected] Abstract Development experience of post-independent Bangladesh is a mixed one. Its political culture seemingly appears to be a dysfunctional democracy, yet, on socio-economic performances, its achievements are better than its neighboring countries. Its annual economic growth rate is lower than India, but, it has been surprisingly good at improving the lives of the rural poor. The obvious question is, despite a comparatively lower annual growth rate, and dysfunctional democracy, how the original “development basket case” has managed a disproportionate poverty reduction for its amount of growth? This paper seeks the answer in its social organization of the economy with a strong rural connection on two major dimensions: a. increased agricultural production; and b. small scale business activities with microcredit. The combined effects of both these rural economic activities are the increased income of rural household, increased enrolment in educational institutions of the rural poor, female students in particular empowering women. The positive role of microcredit is recognized however, as the findings suggest, the concept of microcredit is not a panacea for macroeconomic growth. Microcredit made real contributions to the welfare of the poorest of the poor, the rural women, through providing possible means by which they gained control of their economic life. This achievement, in turn, exerted pressure for social change that included education, empowerment, participation etc. Theoretical discussion, includes a reassessment of the concept of social capital. It is suggested that the concept should be oriented to broader power structures and structures of network relations. Keywords: Adaptability; Agricultural sustainability; Bangladesh; Microcredit; Social Networks

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International Conference on Sustainable Development 2015 Jakarta, Indonesia. December 01-03, 2015 Event Location Hotel Ciputra Jakarta Jalan Letnan Jenderal S. Parman, Jakarta Barat 11470 DKI Jakarta , Indonesia.

The International Conference on Sustainable Development 2015 Indonesia is jointly presented by International Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Law (ICIRL), Centre for Research in Social Justice and Policy (CRSJP) at Laurentian University and Ontario International Development Agency (OIDA) in Canada Faculty of Economics, Trisakti University, Jakarta, Indonesia and Indonesian Business School (STIEBI), Jakarta, Indonesia.

ISSN 1923-6670 OIDA Publications Institute of International Development Studies Ontario International Development Agency 364 Moffatt Pond Crt Ontario, K2J 0C7 Canada.