Advanced Scales and Chords - NORDISC Music & Text

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Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 1, General .... APPLICATION OF SCALES TO CHORDS . ...... relationship between chords in a scale.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 1, General Introduction

Advanced Scales and Chords Table of Contents GENERAL INTRODUCTION ......................................................................... 4 FLASHCARDS .............................................................................................. 5 THE LEARNING GAME ..................................................................................................................................5 PLAYING THE NOTES ...................................................................................................................................5

INTERVALS .................................................................................................. 9 BASIC INTERVALS.......................................................................................................................................10 ALTERED INTERVALS .................................................................................................................................11

ADVANCED SCALES ................................................................................. 12 THE PENTATONIC SCALES........................................................................................................................12 DIMINISHED HANDS....................................................................................................................................13 WHOLE-TONE HAND ..................................................................................................................................14 CHURCH MODES IN ALL KEYS ..................................................................................................................15 ARTIFICIAL CHURCH MODES ....................................................................................................................16

APPLICATION OF SCALES TO CHORDS ................................................. 18 CHORD THEORY........................................................................................ 20 REHEARSING THE CHORDS......................................................................................................................20 ROCK AND JAZZ TERMINOLOGY ..............................................................................................................20 FUNCTIONAL HARMONY / DIATONIC TRIADS .........................................................................................21 SEVENTH CHORDS (4 PARTS) ..................................................................................................................22 SIXTH CHORDS (4 / 5 PARTS)....................................................................................................................23 SUS CHORDS ..............................................................................................................................................23 CHORDS WITH ADDED NOTES .................................................................................................................24 CHORDS WITH BASS NOTE.......................................................................................................................24 EXTENDED CHORDS ..................................................................................................................................25 NINTH CHORDS (5 PARTS) ........................................................................................................................26 DOUBLE-ALTERED CHORDS .....................................................................................................................27 ELEVENTH CHORDS (6 PARTS) ................................................................................................................27 THIRTEENTH CHORDS (7 PARTS) ............................................................................................................28 STACKED CHORDS .....................................................................................................................................29 POLYCHORDS .............................................................................................................................................29

CHORD DICTIONARY ................................................................................ 30 STANDARD CHORDS ..................................................................................................................................31 EXTENDED CHORDS, 7 ..............................................................................................................................32 EXTENDED CHORDS, 9 ..............................................................................................................................33 EXTENDED CHORDS, 11 ............................................................................................................................34 EXTENDED CHORDS, 6 ..............................................................................................................................35

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 2, General Introduction

EXTENDED CHORDS, (B5) .........................................................................................................................36 NEUTRAL CHORDS, + .................................................................................................................................37 NEUTRAL CHORDS, DIM ............................................................................................................................38 NEUTRAL CHORDS, SUS ...........................................................................................................................39 MOVABLE CHORDS, ADVANCED JAZZ .....................................................................................................40 THE BARRE CHORD ...................................................................................................................................41

INDEX SCALES AND CHORDS ................................................................. 42

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 3, General Introduction

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ Volume 2 – The Electric Bass ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS 4 of 7 Documents ISBN 87-88619-70-2 nd st 2 Edition, 1 Issue Summer 2001 Produced in Denmark

Digital Books™ is a trademark of NORDISC Music & Text, Ryparken 6, 1. th., Copenhagen 2100 Kbh. Ø www.nordisc-music.com/ [email protected] Text, notes and musical examples: © Copyright H.W. Gade 2001 Illustrations, layout and concept, original text © Copyright H.W. Gade 1984-85/2001 All rights reserved. Copying or reproduction in full/in extension not allowed. No public hire of the material allowed without the written permission of the publishing house.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 4, General Introduction

General Introduction This chapter of the Electric Bass deals with some heavy theoretical stuff. It is divided into Scales (Flashcards, Intervals, Advanced Scales) and Chords (Chord Theory, Chord Dictionary). Flashcards and Intervals are obligatory for all bass players, no matter what style they play - Jazz, Rock, Salsa, Reggae or High Life. The Advanced Scales chapter is primarily targeted at jazz musicians. The Chord Theory is obligatory for all bass players, containing lots of examples of guitar chords, as you will have to be able to play rather professionally on a guitar in order to understand the bass and its role in the orchestra – regard the Chord Dictionary chapter as a mini course in advanced rhythm guitar playing.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 5, Flashcards

Flashcards Flashcards are widespread memory games used by students in disciplines as mathematics, language and music alike. You have a set of card covering a certain subject, in our case the names of the notes of the fretboard for each string. The idea is to learn the positions and names by heart in order to play fluently across the whole neck. THE LEARNING GAME The Fretboard Quiz Game consists of twelve cards, each representing a step within an octave on one string, for example E root to E first octave on the E-string. The cards are included in this book. Print out the front back (question) and the results page (answer) and glue them together, laminate them and cut the 12 cards out with a pair of scissors. In the learning period, always keep the twelve cards in your pocket or bag. When you have a spare moment, e.g. riding in a bus or standing in a queue, produce a card and list the fret name of the selected flashcard for each string on the fretboard, e.g. from the G-string down to the Bstring. When you get more experienced, you may simply ask yourself a random fret number, listing all the names on all strings. Finally, when you have a solid grip on the first octave, you must add the second octave, which happens to have the same names as the first octave, only placed 12 frets higher.

PLAYING THE NOTES It is equally important to play the notes on the bass as learning it by heart. The position on the fretboard should be connected to the name in your brain as second nature. Rehearse the names physically on the bass 30min a day, while playing the game at least 10 minutes a day in your pauses or spare time.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 6, Flashcards

Fig. 1 Flashcard Templates

 Front of Flashcard (questions) All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fret #1

Fret #2

Fret #3

Fret #4

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fret #5

Fret #6

Fret #7

Fret #8

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fretboard Quiz

Fret #9

Fret #10

Fret #11

Fret #12

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

© Digital Books™

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 7, Flashcards

(Fig. 2 Flashcard Templates, continued)

 Back of Flashcard (answers) Notes on Fret 1

Notes on Fret 2

Notes on Fret 3

Notes on Fret 4

String

String

String

String

G D A E B

Up

Down

G# D# A# F C

Ab Eb Bb F C

G D A E B

Up

Down

A E B F# C#

A E B Gb Db

G D A E B

Up

Down

A# F C G D

Bb F C G D

G D A E B

Up

Down

B F# C# G# D#

B Gb Db Ab Eb

Notes on Fret 5

Notes on Fret 6

Notes on Fret 7

Notes on Fret 8

String

String

String

String

G D A E B

Up

Down

C G D A E

C G D A E

G D A E B

Up

Down

C# G# D# A# F

Db Ab Eb Bb F

G D A E B

Up

Down

D A E B F#

D A E B Gb

G D A E B

Up

Down

D# A# F C G

Eb Bb F C G

Notes on Fret 9

Notes on Fret 10 Notes on Fret 11 Notes on Fret 12

String

String

G D A E B

Up

Down

E B F# C# G#

E B Gb Db Ab

G D A E B

Up

Down

F C G D A

F C G D A

String G D A E B

Up

Down

F# C# G# D# A#

Gb Db Ab Eb Bb

String G D A E B

Up

Down

G D A E B

G D A E B

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 8, Flashcards

Ask the Professor!™ Q: What is Tablature??? A: The tablature is a 500 years old alternative notation system for stringed instruments like basses and guitars. Opposite to the prevailing music notation, tablature uses the strings with numbers (in the renaissance: letters) to show the individual notes, their pitch and their exact placing on the guitar. This is can be a great advantage for the player, but it can limit your fantasy, as traditional notation does not tell you which string and fret to play, for example an E note, leaving it up to own your talent and style. For transcription of famous solos etc though, the tablature is a must. After 20 year in obscurity, the tablature is now (year 2001) very common among young guitarists – but do not forget to learn the traditional notes too!

1 Strings, sometimes with letters 2 TAB “clef”, sometimes omitted 3 Meter The example in traditional notation

4 Fret numbers (chord) 5 Rests, sometimes omitted 6 Note stem, sometimes omitted

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 9, Intervals

Intervals The building bricks of all scales and chords are named Intervals. You can read more about Interval theory in the All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ/1 Music Theory, chapter Harmony. In this book, you will find a number of ways to employ the intervals on the bass. As usual, it is important to rehearse the theoretical stuff in real life, i.e. with your fingers, so try to play the intervals immediately after reading about them. The distance between 2 frets (marks on the neck on a fretless bass) is half a note step. Each octave is divided into 12 steps.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 10, Intervals

BASIC INTERVALS Fig. 3 Basic Intervals

#

Name

Description

Distance in Frets

1

Prime

0 steps

0 frets

b2

Minor Second

Half step

1 fret

2

Major Second

1 whole step

2 frets

b3

Minor Third

1 whole Step + Half Step

3 frets

3

Major Third

2 whole Steps

4 frets

4

Perfect Fourth

2 whole Steps + 1 Half Step

5 frets

#4

Augmented Fourth

3 whole Steps

6 frets

b5

Diminished Fifth (Tritonus) *)

3 whole Steps

6 frets

5

Perfect Fifth

3 whole Steps + 1 Half Step

7 frets

b6

Minor Sixth

4 whole Steps

8 frets

6

Major Sixth

4 whole Steps + 1 Half Step

9 frets

b7

Minor Seventh

5 whole Steps

10 frets

7

Major Seventh

5 whole Steps + 1 Half Step

11 frets

8

Octave

6 whole Steps

12 frets

*)

*)

Enharmonic Notes, see All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ/1 Music Theory

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 11, Intervals

ALTERED INTERVALS In jazz, the intervals are often “altered”, i.e. diminished or augmented. Learn the names by heart and do not be confused by the somewhat misleading naming convention, which is a parallel to the illogical functional harmonic system in Jazz (I, II, III etc.). Fig. 4 Altered Intervals Name

Original Interval

Frets

New Interval

Frets

Diminished Minor

Major

Second (2)

2

Diminished Second

1

Minor Third (b3)

3

Diminished Minor Third

2

Fourth (4)

5

Diminished Fourth

4

Fifth (5)

7

Diminished Fifth

5

Minor Sixth (b6)

9

Diminished Minor Sixth

8

Minor Seventh (b7)

10

Diminished Minor Seventh

9

Second (2)

2

Diminished Second

1

Major Third (3)

3

Diminished Major Third

3

Fourth (4)

5

Diminished Fourth

4

Fifth (5)

7

Diminished Fifth

5

Major Sixth (b6)

9

Diminished Major Sixth

9

Major Seventh (b7)

10

Diminished Major Seventh

11

Second (2)

2

Augmented Second

3

Minor Third (b3)

3

Augmented Minor Third

4

Fourth (4)

5

Augmented Fourth

5

Fifth (5)

7

Augmented Fifth

6

Minor Sixth (b6)

9

Augmented Minor Sixth

10

Minor Seventh (b7)

10

Augmented Minor Seventh

11

Second (2)

2

Augmented Second

3

Major Third (3)

3

Augmented Major Third

4

Fourth (4)

5

Augmented Fourth

6

Fifth (5)

7

Augmented Fifth

8

Major Sixth (b6)

9

Augmented Major Sixth

10

Major Seventh (b7)

10

Augmented Major Seventh

12

Augmented Minor

Major

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 12, Advanced Scales

Advanced Scales In the All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ/1 Music Theory, you can find the theoretical basis of scales. In this section, we will work with the advanced scales used in Jazz music. THE PENTATONIC SCALES A pentatonic scale is a neutral scale, and should not be classified as a major or minor scale due to lack of the active scale degrees (the fourth and Seventh scale steps in a major scale). Nonetheless, many teachers and music books use an artificial and incorrect major/minor system for the neutral pentatonic scales, so, not to confuse you, the same terminology is used in this chapter as well. Fig. 5 C Major Pentatonic Scale

The Major Pentatonic Scale is similar to the Major Blues without a Fourth and Seventh.

Fig. 6 E Minor Pentatonic Scale

The Minor Pentatonic Scale is identical to the Original Pentatonic Scale:

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 13, Advanced Scales

DIMINISHED HANDS All Diminished scales are based on stacked minor thirds. In jazz, you distinguish between Diminished Half Step and Whole Step Scales. Fig. 7 Diminished Half Step Scale

Fig. 8 Diminished Whole Step Scale

Fig. 9 Diminished Hand

Diminished scales are symmetrical, parallel scales. In reality, only three keys exist, C, C# and D each divided into 4 stacked minor thirds.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 14, Advanced Scales

WHOLE-TONE HAND The whole-tone scale (“Debussy Scale”) is a neutral, symmetric scale. Only two keys exist, C and C#. Fig. 10 Whole-tone Scale

Fig. 11 Whole-tone Hand Whole-tone Scale

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 15, Advanced Scales

CHURCH MODES IN ALL KEYS The church modes consist of a Base Key (major) and the 7 modes placed on the scale steps. The following table shows how to find the modes in all the 12 major keys. Fig. 12 Church Modes in All Keys Key

Ionian

Dorian

Phrycian

Lydian

Base

MAJOR

C

C

Dm

Em

F

Db

Db

Ebm

Fm

D

D

Em

Eb

Eb

E

Mixolydian

Aolean

Locrian

MINOR

MODAL

G

Am

Bdim

Gb

Ab

Bbm

Cdim

F#m

G

A

Bm

C#dim

Fm

Gm

Ab

Bb

Cm

Ddim

E

F#m

G#m

A

B

C#m

D#dim

F

F

Gm

Am

Bb

C

Dm

Edim

F#

F#

G#m

A#m

B

C#

D#m

E#dim

G

G

Am

Bm

C

D

Em

F#dim

Ab

Ab

Bbm

Cm

Db

Eb

Fm

Gdim

A

A

Bm

C#m

D

E

F#m

G#dim

Bb

Bb

Cm

Dm

Eb

F

Gm

Adim

B

B

C#m

D#m

E

F#

G#m

A#dim

MODAL

NOTE The modes are named with a “pseudo” key, in “Major”, “Minor” or “Diminished”. The names are only guidelines, as for example a D minor Dorian, is not a normal minor but a church mode, which happens to look a bit like a minor scale.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 16, Advanced Scales

ARTIFICIAL CHURCH MODES

JAZZ Although not really authentic Church Modes, the inventive jazz musicians have experimented with artificial “modes” based on for example a Melodic Minor Scale. Here is what the table for these artificial Church Modes looks like. The most common artificial church modes in jazz are marked with lime green. Fig. 13 Artificial Church Modes based on Melodic Minor in All Keys Key

Aolean

Locrian #2

Ionean

Dorian

Locrian, Super

Lydian Aug.

Locrian, Super

Base

Minor

MODAL

Major

Cm

Cm

Ddim

Eb

Fm

Gdim

A

Bdim

C#m

C#m

D#dim

E

F#m

G#dim

A#

Cdim

Dm

Dm

Edim

F

Gm

Adim

B

C#dim

Ebm

Ebm

Fdim

Gb

Abm

Bbdim

B#

Ddim

Em

Em

F#dim

G

Am

Bdim

C#

D#dim

Fm

Fm

Gdim

Ab

Bbm

Cdim

D

Edim

F#m

F#m

G#dim

A

Bm

C#dim

D#

E#dim

Gm

Gm

Adim

Bb

Cm

Ddim

E

F#dim

G#m

G#m

A#dim

B

C#m

D#dim

E#

Gdim

Am

Am

Bdim

C

Dm

Edim

F#

G#dim

Bbm

Bbm

Cdim

Db

Ebm

Fdim

G

Adim

Bm

Bm

C#dim

D

Em

F#dim

G#

A#dim

MODAL

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 17, Advanced Scales

Fig. 14 Locrian #2 Mode

Locrian #2 Mode is used for playing over minor chords with flattened fifths.

Fig. 15 Diminished Whole-tone Mode / Altered Scale

Super Locrian Mode (Altered Scale) This mode is also called the altered scale, and this name is used in the section Application of Scales to Chords.

Fig. 16 Lydian Augmented Mode

Lydian Augmented Mode is used over major chords with augmented fifth.

Fig. 17 Lydian Dominant Mode

A variation of the above artificial mode is the Lydian Dominant Mode used over dominant chords.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 18, Application of Scales to Chords

Application of Scales to Chords This section is the advanced part of the Leading notes section in Chapter 3, Playing in the Band. Here you find a table with suggestions of some possible choices of scale types for various chord types. Please note that most of the chord types have alternative scale types for Jazz and Rock. This is very important, as the choice of scale type is the decision whether to play in rock or jazz style.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 19, Application of Scales to Chords

Fig. 18 Scale Types for Various Chord Types (Suggestions only)

Chord Type

Suggested Scale Type

Major triad, maj7, maj6, maj6+9, maj9 (when the chord is the tonic, I maj, in a major key)

ROCK Major JAZZ Major scale, major pentatonic

Major triad, maj7, any major chord with #11 added (when the chord is subdominant, IV maj in a major key)

ROCK Lydian JAZZ Lydian mode, major pentatonic a major second above the root

Maj9, maj6+9 (except I maj in a major key)

ROCK Major JAZZ Major pentatonic a perfect fifth above the root

Maj7#5 (+(maj7))

ROCK Lydian JAZZ Lydian augmented mode

Minor triad, m7, m9, m6, (when the chord is the tonic, I min, in a minor key)

ROCK Natural Minor JAZZ Minor scale, minor pentatonic (= major pentatonic a minor third above the root), Aeolian mode

Minor triad, m7, m9, m11, m7sus4 (when the chord is II min (SDm) in a major key, or IV min (SDm) in a minor key)

ROCK Dorian mode JAZZ Dorian mode, major pentatonic a major second below the root

Minor triad, m7, m9, (when the chord is III min (Dm) in a major key, or V min (Dm) in a minor key)

ROCK Phrygian mode JAZZ Minor pentatonic (= major pentatonic a minor third above the root), Phrygian mode

Any minor chord with b5

ROCK Dim scale scale JAZZ Locrian #2 mode, (”usual ” locrian mode can be used if the b9 is omitted)

m(maj7)

ROCK / JAZZ Harmonic minor scale

Dominant seventh, dominant ninth, dominant thirteenth

ROCK Mixolydian mode, blues scale JAZZ Mixolydian mode, major pentatonic, major pentatonic a minor second below the root, blues scale, melodic minor scale, Lydian dominant mode

Altered dominant chord with b9 or #9 ((-9)(-10))

ROCK Blues scale JAZZ Diminished half-step scale, altered scale

Altered dominant chord with b5 or #5 ( +)

ROCK Lydian mode (b5) or whole note scale (+) JAZZ Whole-tone scale, altered scale (chords with b5/#11 can be played over with the Lydian dominant mode)

Double-altered dominant chord with b9/#9 ((-9-10)) and b5/#5 (+(#11))

ROCK Blues scale or Lydian augmented mode JAZZ Altered scale, major pentatonic a diminished fifth above the root

Dominant 11, dominant 9sus4 (sus9)

ROCK Mixolydian mode or blues scale JAZZ Major pentatonic a perfect fourth above the root

Diminished 7 (dim7)

ROCK / JAZZ Diminished whole-step scale

You can of course choose to play in only one scale all through tune, but this tends to sound a little boring if you do it all the time. Country and Folk Music tends to use the standard scale all the time, but both Rock and Jazz have always used lots of strange scales to the chords. It is up to you and your personal style.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 20, Chord Theory

Chord Theory The basic Chord form is the Triad. It consists of three notes played at the same time. Extended chords are triads with one or more added “colour” notes. See All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /1 Music Theory, Harmony for all the details of Chord Types, Functional Harmony, Modal and Sound Aspects in chords. Fig. 19 The Six Basic Triad Types

REHEARSING THE CHORDS When you rehearse the chords on the bass and the guitar, you must learn the typical sound of the chord (Sound Aspect) as well as its “mechanics”, i.e. the typical colour notes and interval structure of each chord. This knowledge is essential for being able to recognize the chords by ear and to construct a powerful, yet clear bass to all kinds of chord, even the heavily extended ones. On guitar, the chords can be played as either open or movable/barre chords, similar to the open hands and the movable hands in Chapter 2, Bass Technique. The bassist is supposed to handle the guitar at a very high technical level, so it is very important to rehearse all the chords intensely for a period of maybe one year before you can rely on your own ability to recognize the chord structures and play the best possible bass to the chords. ROCK AND JAZZ TERMINOLOGY The use of Chord and Functional Harmony terminology differs greatly between rock and jazz. To view the many different systems, please see All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ /1 Music Theory, Harmony. In books written by jazz players, Roman numerals are used for Chord functions (American tradition). The rock version of the function symbols is added after the numeral. (D(m) = Dominant SD(m) = Subdominant DD = Double Dominant m = Parallel Minor). The green colour is also used for stating different chord symbols in rock.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 21, Chord Theory

FUNCTIONAL HARMONY / DIATONIC TRIADS In the All Aspects of ROCK & JAZZ 1 / Music Theory, you will find a comprehensive chapter of Harmony, including the complicated theory on Functional Harmony, i.e. the functional relationship between chords in a scale. In the next two figures, you can find examples of a major and a minor scale. Fig. 20 Diatonic Triads in D Major

American System I major II minor III minor IV major V major VI minor VII diminished

Rock System T (Tonic) SDm (Subdominant parallel minor) Dm (Dominant parallel minor) SD (subdominant) D (dominant) Tm (Tonic parallel minor) -

Fig. 21 Diatonic Triads in D Minor

American System I minor II diminished III major IV minor V minor VI major VII major

Rock System Tm (Tonic parallel minor) T (Tonic) SDm (Subdominant parallel minor) Dm (Dominant parallel minor) Sd (Subdominant) D (Dominant)

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 22, Chord Theory

SEVENTH CHORDS (4 PARTS) Fig. 22 Seventh Chords in D Major

Seventh Chord Types Major 7, minor 7, dominant 7 and minor 7 (b5) (m(b5)7). Function Seventh Chord Names Imaj7 (T maj7), IImi7 (SDm 7), IIImi7 (Dm 7), IVmaj7 (SD maj7), V7 (D 7), VImi7 (Tm 7), VIImi7(b5).

Jazz The ten seventh chord main types Major 7 (maj7)

Root, major third, perfect fifth, major seventh.

Minor 7 (m7)

Root, minor third, perfect fifth, minor seventh.

Dominant 7 (7)

Root, major third, perfect fifth, minor seventh.

Diminished 7 (dim)

Root, minor third, diminished fifth, diminished seventh.

Minor/major 7 (m(maj7))

Root, minor third, perfect fifth, major seventh.

Major 7 (#5) (+(maj7))

Root, major third, augmented fifth, major seventh.

Major 7 (b5) ((b5)maj7)

Root, major third, diminished fifth, major seventh.

Dominant 7 (#5) (+7)

Root, major third, augmented fifth, minor seventh.

Dominant 7 (b5) ((b5)7)

Root, major third, diminished fifth, minor seventh.

Minor 7 (b5) (dim)

(or half diminished chord) root, minor third, diminished fifth, minor seventh.

Fig. 23 The Ten Seventh Chords

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 23, Chord Theory

SIXTH CHORDS (4 / 5 PARTS) The sixth chord is the most common coloured chord, beside the seventh chords. It was also the first extended chord in the 1800-ies, in the beginning regarded as a sharply dissonant chord. The sixth note is the same in both the major and minor versions of the chord despite the fact the minor scale sixth should be half a note lower than the major sixth. This chord, also called a Naples Chord, has a very long tradition in classical music. It was extremely popular in early jazz and even Beatles has used it a lot on their early records. Fig. 24 Sixth Chords

SUS CHORDS Suspended chords (sus) are neutral, working well in either major or minor. Traditionally, it is used for cadences, resolving into a major chord (the suspended note, usually a fourth down to a major third). In modern rock music, the suspended chords are often used as a background chords, sometimes mixed with eleventh chords. This way, the gender of the scales are blurred, making way for both blues, modal and major scales. Typical examples of suspended chords can be found in the music of Nirvana. Normally the suspended chords are simply called sus, but in jazz there are two types of suspension, sus4 and sus2. The latter should rather be called diminished (dim3 for example) as we are talking about a major third lowered to a second, musical expressions can be illogic). The two types can actually be seen as two different chords depending on the context either having the root in the bottom or at the top (fifth note). Fig. 25 Sus Chords

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 24, Chord Theory

CHORDS WITH ADDED NOTES If you want to add a specific colour to a chord, for example a ninth, without the normal seventh, you write (add 9). You could of course also use (add #11) or (add 13), but for historical reasons, the (add 9) chord is by far the most common “added chord”. You may choose to add dissonant colours, too, for example C(add G#) or E(add F), which I frequently do myself. See also the comments under Minor 9 chords. Fig. 26 (add 9) Chord

CHORDS WITH BASS NOTE If the songwriter wants a specific bass note, he/she can place a special bass box with the desired note under the chord symbol. Fig. 27 Chord with Bass Note

D7 C

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 25, Chord Theory

EXTENDED CHORDS Extended chords are very common in all modern music, rock, jazz, pop, soul etc. Before 1970, extended chords were mostly played by advanced jazz musicians, but the fusion of rock and jazz in 1970’ies meant a liberation for the somehow stagnated use of chord in rock and soul, and nowadays you will find event the most complex extended chords in many songs on the radio or on MTV. A couple of explanations are needed to understand the construction of extended chords. An extended chord is a triad with one or more extra colour notes. As the triad chord uses the 1st, 3rd and 5th note in the scale, the “extended” notes uses higher number, for example 9th instead of the 2nd interval, in order to provide a logical, transparent construction of the extensions. In real life, though, you can place the 9th and all other colour notes where you want, using 2nd / 9th depending on the circumstances. The extended high scale steps are named: 9th Major (9), minor (b9) ((-9))or augmented (#9) ((-10)). 11th Perfect (11) or augmented (#11). 13th Major (13) or minor (b13).

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 26, Chord Theory

NINTH CHORDS (5 PARTS) The major ninth chords are the first step into the Jazz sound, but it is also widely used in pop. Fig. 28 Major Ninth Chords with Major Seven

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

Fig. 29 Minor Ninth Chords

NOTE In the rock tradition, the m9 chord does not have a minor seventh, it is traditionally played as a minor chord with a ninth added. The m9 chord understood as the 7 and 9 is written m7+9 in rock. Fig. 30 Ninth Chords with Minor Seven

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 27, Chord Theory

DOUBLE-ALTERED CHORDS

Jazz Double-altered chords are dominant chords with altered fifth and ninth. These strongly coloured dominant chords are typical for modern jazz. Fig. 31 Double Altered Chord (m9(5) (m(b5)7+9))

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

ELEVENTH CHORDS (6 PARTS) Eleventh Chords are typical for jazz and normally not used in standard rock (except for the famous A11 chord that starts “A Hard day’s Night” with the Beatles). Fig. 32 Eleventh Chords

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

The eleventh chords and higher are so complex that they tend to be “muddy” and dissonant. To lighten up the sound, the musicians traditionally leave out one or two notes, focussing on the chord’s peculiar sound, in this case the eleventh note (or Fourth note) colliding sharply with the major third with the mild minor seventh to cool of the dissonance.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 28, Chord Theory

THIRTEENTH CHORDS (7 PARTS) The thirteenth chords are usually played as a reduced chord. There is a long tradition for playing a 6+7 chord instead of the thirteenth chord, thus making the chord easy to play on the guitar. The clash between the sixth and the minor seventh sounds like the upper thirteenth note clashing against the minor seventh note of the full sixteenth. Fig. 33 Thirteenth Chords

NOTE the second line of chords follows the rock tradition

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 29, Chord Theory

STACKED CHORDS

JAZZ Chords build on triads are not the only chords in the world. In the experimental music of the last century (especially the new classical music and the advanced jazz), the composers used some new types of chords, based on fourth and fifth, the so-called Stacked Chords. Even more advanced chords as the polychords are very common in modern jazz and classical music. Stacked Chords are used intensely in the jazz wind section, especially in combinations of saxophones and trumpets / cornets. TIP The bass to a stacked chord can be any of the notes in the chord, as the stacked chord itself is neutral.

POLYCHORDS

JAZZ Polychords are one, two or more triads stacked upon each other. For obvious reasons, it is much easier for a piano player than for a guitar player to use these chords, but if you stick to the simple variants, it is possible, although you have to reduce the number of notes in the chords. Bm C

or

Bm/C Some typical jazz polychords: C/D Em / Am Cm7 / Bb C7 / D C7 / F# C7 / A

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 30, Chord Dictionary

Chord Dictionary The classical way of representing the chords in a simple graphic form is the chord box. This tool, used since the early 1920’ies, is closely related to the Tablature, but opposite to the dynamic note-like form of the tablature, the chord box is static. The following tables show examples of how to produce a chord in different positions on the fretboard. There are two main types of chord boxes, the open chords and the movable chords. The latter is the most common in rock and jazz, while the open chords (except for the golden chords™) mostly belong to folk music and classical guitar music. The chords are grouped into Standard, Extended, Neutral and Advanced chords. NOTE Chords marked with golden background are classic open chords. The golden chords™ should be learned by heart before you learn any other chord forms!!!

Ask the Professor!™ Q: What is a Chord Box??? A: The Chord Box is a schematic drawing of the strings and frets, where the placing of the fingers is marked with black circles.

Fret Number In case of movable chords, the basic fret number is shown to the left of the chord box. 1 Finger markers 2 Fret 0 = open chord 3 Open string

4 Muted string 5 Barre 6 Mini barre

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 31, Chord Dictionary

STANDARD CHORDS Scale

Major

C

C#/Db

4

Minor

6

3

3

4

4

7 2

4

D

D#/Eb

9

3

4

6

6

6

6

E

5

6

F

1

1

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

G

G#/Ab

4

A

5

A#/Bb

1

1

1

B

2

2

2

1

6

1

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 32, Chord Dictionary

EXTENDED CHORDS, 7 Scale

maj7

C

C#/Db

4

m7

m(maj7)

m7(b5)

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

D

D#/Eb

m7+9

5

6

6

6

6

6

1

1

1

1

E

F

F#/Gb

2

2

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

A

A#/Bb

1

1

1

1

1

B

2

2

2

2

2

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 33, Chord Dictionary

EXTENDED CHORDS, 9 Scale

maj9

m9

(add 9)

7(b9) / -9

7(#9) / -10

2

2

3

C

3

8

C#/Db

4

9

9

3

D

5

10

10

4

4

D#/Eb

6

11

11

5

5

0

6

E

F

1

1

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

4

4

A

5

5

5

5

5

A#/Bb

1

6

6

6

6

B

2

7

7

0

0

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 34, Chord Dictionary

EXTENDED CHORDS, 11 Scale

11

7(#11)

m11

C

3

2

3

C#/Db

4

3

4

D

5

4

5

D#/Eb

6

5

6

7

6

7

F

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

A

0

5

5

E

A#/Bb

1

6

1

B

2

0

2

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 35, Chord Dictionary

EXTENDED CHORDS, 6 Scale

6+7

C

3

C#/Db

4

D

D#/Eb

6+9

6+maj7

2

3

3

4

5

4

5

6

5

6

F

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

E

A

5

A#/Bb

1

6

1

B

2

0

2

NOTE The 6+7 chord is normally used as substitute for the 7-notes 13 chord, which cannot be played on a 6-string guitar. See the last Chord Box table for some other “fake” 13 chords.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 36, Chord Dictionary

EXTENDED CHORDS, (b5) Scale

(b5)

7(b5)

maj7(b5)

C

3

3

3

C#/Db

4

4

4

5

5

D

D#/Eb

6

6

6

E

7

7

7

F

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

A

5

A#/Bb

1

1

1

B

2

2

2

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 37, Chord Dictionary

NEUTRAL CHORDS, + Scale

+ / #5

C

C#/Db

7(#5) / +7

+(maj7)

8

4

9

1

6

6

3

D

D#/Eb

E

4

F

8

1

5

F#/Gb

9

2

6

G

3

3

7

G#/Ab

4

4

8

A#/Bb

1

1

1

B

2

2

2

A

Dear student: Please note that some of these chords can very difficult to play in the start! The problem is not your fingers, but the chord.

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 38, Chord Dictionary

NEUTRAL CHORDS, DIM Scale

dim

dim7

C

2

2

C#/Db

3

3

D

4

4

D#/Eb

5

5

F

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

G

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

A

5

5

A#/Bb

6

1

B

7

2

E

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 39, Chord Dictionary

NEUTRAL CHORDS, SUS Scale

sus4

sus2

sus7

C

3

3

3

C#/Db

4

4

4

6

6

6

F

1

1

1

F#/Gb

2

2

2

G

3

3

3

G#/Ab

4

4

4

A#/Bb

1

1

1

B

2

2

2

D

D#/Eb

E

A

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 40, Chord Dictionary

MOVABLE CHORDS, ADVANCED JAZZ 7 Variations 7(#5/b9)

7(#5/#9)

7(b5/b9)

7(b5/#9)

maj7 Variation maj7(#11)

13 Chords

13

13

13(#11)

m13

This was only the beginning! The chord boxes in this chapter are only a few examples of the thousands of possible chord variations. But the examples actually provide you with a whole range of classical open chords and several movable forms, which can be used and varied endlessly. On the WEB and in your music store, you can find many advanced books, with for example different tunings and modal chords. So you see – this was only an appetizer!

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 41, Chord Dictionary

THE BARRE CHORD The principles of movable chords Folk music guitarists play with open string chords most of the time. When the folk guitarist has to play in a strange anti-guitar key like Eb or Bb, the poor guy needs to change the fret base to another starting point. An ancient device called the capo does the trick mechanically. But what about the poor rock and jazz players? We use a finger instead! By covering all six strings with the 1st finger on one of the frets, you have three fingers left to reconstruct many of the open chords only in another key. The classic barre fingering covers all the strings, but small 2, 3 or 4 string barre fingerings are also used to compensate for the lack of 6-7 fingers! With the barre fingering, you are able to play in all keys on an instrument born in the E, A, G and D keys. Base Chords All barre chords are intimately connected to the open chords they simulate. The barre chords can be classified according to “base” chords like this: -

Base E and Base A are the standard barre bases. They include both major, minor and various extended chord forms.

-

Other barre bases could be Base D, Base C or Base G, but the C and G bases are not normal in rock. Base D is maybe new to even advanced rock players, although it is used in jazz playing. So why not try the D major, minor and 7 chord, and listen to the new interesting sounds of your guitar!

Having learned the basics of finger technique, scales and chords, you are now ready for some real life bass exercises. Don’t forget to rehearse minimum 1 hour a day on the bass and to rehearse your guitar playing. Both instruments are important for your musical development. And now for the fun stuff!

Home

Chapter 4, ADVANCED SCALES AND CHORDS, Page 42, Index Scales and Chords

Index Scales and Chords 1 -10, 19, 25 13(#11), 40 1st, 41

6 6+7, 35 6+9, 35 6+maj7, 35

7 7(#11), 34 7(#5), 37 7(#5/#9), 40 7(#5/b9), 40 7(#9), 33 7(b5), 36 7(b5/#9), 40 7(b5/b9), 40 7(b9), 33 7th, 12

9 -9, 19

A A#, 7, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 Ab, 7, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 Aeolian, 19 Altered, 11, 17, 19, 27 Augmented, 10, 17

B Barre, 30, 41 Blues, 12, 19

C Chord, 19, 20, 24, 27, 30, 35, 41

D Diatonic, 21 Dim, 19 Diminished, 10, 13, 17, 19, 22 Dm, 19, 21, 22 Dominant, 17, 19, 20, 21, 22 Double, 19, 20, 27 Double-altered, 19

E Eleventh, 27 Extended, 25, 30, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36

F Finger, 30 Flashcard, 6, 7 Fretboard, 5, 6

H

N Natural, 19 Ninth, 26

O Octave, 10

P Pentatonic, 12 Perfect fifth, 10 Perfect fourth, 10 Phrygian, 19 Polychords, 29

R Root, 22

S Sd, 21 Seventh, 22 Sixth, 23 Stacked, 29 Subdominant, 20, 21 Sus, 23

Hand, 14

L Locrian, 17, 19 Lydian, 17, 19

M Maj7, 19 Maj7#5, 19 Major, 10, 12, 19, 21, 22, 31 Minor, 10, 12, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 31 Mixolydian, 19

T TAB, 8 Tablature, 8, 30 Thirteenth, 28 Tonic, 21

V Variation, 40 Variations, 40