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Naukar - literally bonded servant; used here in the sense of servitude,. Section 144 - of the Indian Penal Code imposes dusk to dawn curfew on the areas where  ...
social habits of working hard, their endurance, ignorance and honesty, they appear to be excellent cannon-fodder for t h e expansion of capitalism. Y e t t h e fact r e m a i n s t h a t t h e y c a n p u t up h e r o i c r e s i s t a n c e a n d win s i g n i f i c a n t v i c t o r i e s through t h e i r s e l f - o r g a n i z a t i o n in t h e f a c e of overwhelming odds. As we have seen, in t h e course of t h e struggle at M K ) p , t h e contract laborers had to overcome a double isolation: t h e isolation of d i f f e r e n t groups of workers, b o t h c u l t u r a l a n d s p a t i a l ; a n d t h e i r isolation, as a whole, from o r g a n i z e d labor a n d t h e union movement in t h e c o u n t r y , S e l f o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e a d a p t a t i o n of old c u l t u r a l forms to n e w p o l i t i c a l purposes w e r e c r u c i a l e l e m e n t s in t h e s u c c e s s of t h e t e n d a y s t r i k e , I t is i m p o r t a n t n o t t o u n d e r e s t i m a t e e i t h e r t h e m a g n i t u d e or t h e n o v e l t y of t h i s achievment, e s p e c i a l l y as i t could provide t h e i n s p i r a t i o n ( a n d h a s a l r e a d y d o n e in o n e case) for a f r e s h round of s t r u g g l e s by c o n t r a c t l a b o r e r s in t h e n e a r f u t u r e , T h e y c o u l d become t h e vanguard of t h e movement for t h e i r own s e p a r a t e state (see n o t e below) c o r r e c t i n g its p r e s e n t c h a u v i n i s t i c b i a s a n d giving it a new r a d i c a l c h a r a c t e r a n d orientation.

- Bihar, Orissa, Bengal a n d Madhya Pradesh, T h e population of t h i s r e g i o n is approximately 4 0 million, w i t h 27 t r i b e s making u p t h e majority of t h e population. The demand for a separate state was first formulated by t h e Jharkhand p a r t y in 1955.

Note: J h a r k h a n d is a n area s p r e a d o u t o v e r f o u r states

GLOSSARY

ASP - Assistant Superintendant of Police, DSP - Deputy Superintendant of Police. G h e r a o - l i t e r a l l y to surround; in p o l i t i c a l t e r m s i t refers to a 'lock-in', Jawans - literally youth; equivalent to a GI in t h e American context, N a u k a r - l i t e r a l l y bonded s e r v a n t ; used h e r e in t h e s e n s e of s e r v i t u d e , S e c t i o n 144 of t h e Indian P e n a l C o d e imposes dusk to dawn c u r f e w o n t h e areas w h e r e it is i n force, and prohibits any gathering of more than four people, under penalty of detention.

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7 he Gnlre was foundcd in 1'177 to and expand the dcvclopmcnr training ihdt hr, been undertaken 81 L'niversity College Swansca for over twenty years This development training hrr passed through many phases froni the immediate preindependence nccd to upgrade middle level civil w v m t s to thc ptescnr need to provide mole spcrulirr training to University v v l l and rcnior officirls from the gownmcnt, para-urtrl and privatc sectors. The w ~ uaspects l of development plutning uc given emphasis in aur courses. M .Sc.in Epidemiology 6 Heal& Plurnbq M.b.& R q i o ~ Devdopmrot d ?bob# M.b.b SocW Seelor Ptandn# u d Maa4cmnI M.&. in SocW b n b # M.k.i.Applkarbna of [email protected] I.Developia# uem continue

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Diploma L Developmemi POW aod s0ci.l P l u o L g Diploma h SocU Policy rod Admbirtratkn

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3-mooth Shon Courrc m P)urorng Services for Lbr Ofiendcr in the Community 3-monrb Short C o m c EnviroomrDtd h p . C f

baJy8is

3-month Short Course Innovations M

Social Work 3-month Short Course

Decentralization and Participation The Ccntrc has 8 permanent full-time strflof fihctn, all of whom havr over-

m s planning, rdvimry m d rcrcrrch rxpricnce Teaching rctivrticr includr an undcrgrrdurrr programme in dcvclopmcnr studio (the third such course in Britain) and there i s Ifull prograinme ofapplied research, with 10 doclarrl crndidrles Advisory r~siyrncc,10 counirics or inirrnrrianal orgmitor~onr,IS also given. Further information r h o u ~courses in thr Gntrc may k ohtuDcd from

' h e Admimaioos Secretary (NW, G n u c for Developmeat Studies, University Collc8e of S w a a u a , S W ~ ~ USA2 I , 8 PP, Grear Britab.

Manipur Male literacy (percentage/number) Female literacy -doPercentage/number of workers % to total population Males (main activity only) Females Percentage to total workers: (i) Cultivators M1eS FmIes (ii) Agricultural Laborers MleS Fmles (iii) Other workers b1eS Fmles

East District

46.0 19.5 34.57 45.3 1 23.62

249,383 103,707 370,863 245,435 125,428

45.7 22.1 48.65 45.87 51.52

67.57 68.06 64.93 3.65 3.53 3.88 29.35 28.41 31.19

248,480 167,038 81,443 13,525 8,662 4,863 109,097 69,974 39,123

85.41 25,858 71.12 10,313 98.54 15,545 0.36 108 0.53 76 0.20 32 14.23 4,209 28.35 4,101 1.26 198

FmUy Welfare Steri 1 izat ion Vasectany mtary IUD Insertion

2,130 1,611 519 1,167

Population of Manipur According to Sex Hill-Valley Comparison

BULLETIN OF CONCERNED ASIAN SCHOLARS

ASIA! INTRODUCTORY OFFER! One year for $15 Articles and reviews on topics that matter-ial and economic change, imperialism and revolution from China to Indonesia, from India to Japan. Subscriptions: $20 Free index of back issues. BCAS, Box R, Berthoud, CO 80513

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14,451 6,769 30,275 14,500 15,775

27 27 Nil Ni 1

[email protected]~uE on e CUBAN REFUGEE MOVEMENT

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