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Oct 14, 2016 - life if they are validated by readers. McKechnie, Ross .... fundamental life tasks” (p. 46). Appraisal .... Enchantment; Lust; Sensitivity (6). Sadness.

Affective Taxomonies of the Reading Experience: Using User-Generated Reviews for Readers' Advisory Louise F. Spiteri School of Information Management Dalhousie University. Halifax, NS [email protected]

Jen Pecoskie Independent Researcher London, ON CANADA [email protected]

premise that “direct interpersonal contact is the best way to give service and encourage future interactions” (Hollands & Trott, 2006, p. 206). Readers’ advisors often employ various tools as part of their advisory work, such as professional texts or databases, ranked reading lists, library catalogues, and professional reviews, but also informal sources such as corporate bookselling portals (e.g., Amazon) or ‘word of mouth’ social interactions. Theory within RA looks at finding methods of communicating about books and titles; Joyce Saricks (2005) offers the appeal factors, which are based on how users perceive the feel of a book, specifically characterization, timeframe or setting, atmosphere, storyline, and pacing, whereas Dali (2014) calls for expansion of RA language to also encompass the reading experience, that is, why readers read.

ABSTRACT

This paper examines affect in the reading experience to help both readers’ advisors and readers as they work to suggest books to readers and choose books for their individual context. Using Grounded Theory analysis of 536 user-generated reviews from 831 bibliographic records of a selection of fiction titles (n=22) in Canadian public libraries whose catalogues allow for the inclusion of user content were analyzed for affective content. The content of the reviews was coded into three categories, Emotions, Tones, and Associations and taxonomies were developed. Emotions are represented by 9 basic categories, and 44 unique emotions, Tones by 11 basic categories and 141 unique tones, and Associations by 7 basic categories and 31 unique associations. Affective access points can serve as an important addition to the bibliographic records for works of fiction and it is suggested that the derived taxonomies could be used as facets by which to narrow the results of a search for readers’ advisory efforts in public libraries.

Research on pleasure reading examines the reading experience (see, for example, Ross 1999), but little of this research has examined the affective aspects of reading in detail (McKechnie, Ross, & Rothbauer, 2007; Ross, 1998; 1999; Pejtersen & Austin, 1984). Affect is defined as “an inner disposition or feeling, rather than an external manifestation or action” (Oxford English Dictionary, 2016). Beard and Thi-Beard (2008) and Dali (2014) suggest that contemporary RA is limited by its emphasis on the book, rather than the practice of reading, and its excessive focus on the book as an object. Dali believes RA interactions should focus more why people read, rather than what they read; further, appeal elements only make sense and come to life if they are validated by readers. McKechnie, Ross, and Rothbauer (2007) suggest that readers' advisory tools, of which the library catalogue is a part, should incorporate the affective dimensions of relational aspects of reading into interface design and navigational strategies.

Keywords

Reading experience, readers’ advisory, taxonomies, affect, user-generated content, public libraries, online catalogues. INTRODUCTION

In the public library context, readers’ advisory (RA), being that library-specific service in which “the entire point … is to reach readers” (Wyatt, 2007, p. 30) and to provide the right book in the hands of the user at the right time, is a central and longstanding core of the profession. While many readers will conduct their own advisory work indirectly, including using features of the library catalogues to help their search, RA is often a face-to-face discussion initiated by a reader, or proactive librarian, based on the

This study examines the affective aspects of reading on library users as expressed in user-generated reviews found in public library catalogues. Focusing on understanding affect in the reading experience will help both readers’ advisors and readers as they work to suggest books to readers and choose books for their individual context.

Copyright is retained by the authors. ASIST 2016, October 14-18, 2016, Copenhagen, Denmark.

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empowerment, passion” (p. 482). Dali’s suggests that appeal must consider the reader’s situation, mood, and needs (Dali, 2013, p. 483). Stover (2009) offers that “bibliosocial networking sites are getting the vocabulary of appeal out there to readers” (p. 246), and Naik (2012) points to how readers in GoodReads readership communities use appeal terms in an organic manner; this offers opportunity to broaden the definition of RA as informal advisory roles that can be undertaken successfully by other readers.

Overall, affect is an umbrella term with a subset of feelings within, including emotions, tones, and associations, as defined in WordNet: 

Emotions pertain to affect, i.e., “the subject aspect of feeling or emotion” (Princeton University, 2016).



Tones pertain to “the quality of something (an act or a piece of writing) that reveals the attitudes and presuppositions of the author” (Princeton University, 2016). Tones tend to evoke reactions such as laughter, fear, horror, and are thus related to affect in that the tone of a book can evoke a feeling or emotion. So, a book with a frightening tone can cause the reader to experience the emotion of fear.



Trott (2008) has long advocated for libraries to make their catalogues more useful to readers by incorporating data from corporate bookselling sites or allowing readers to tag and comment about books read. In their survey of search tactics for fiction in public libraries, Mikkonen & Vakkari (2012) found that “[c]urrent library systems can be considered somewhat static as they do not adapt to meet the needs of different readers” (p. 222), and that faceted search interfaces are a strategy that could help. Similarly, Šauperl’s (2013) discussion of fiction description indicates that genre characteristics and positive and negatives reviews are essential to bolster the information in subject description provided by librarians.

Associations pertain to “the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination” (Princeton University, 2016). For example, a reader’s association with motherhood can impact her emotional response to the book about children.

LITERATURE REVIEW RA

Historically, RA focused on aspects related to the story or the book (Saricks, 2005). Little to no historical RA literature considers the affective aspects of the “studies on fiction readers have tended to focus on the cognitive aspects of book selection while overlooking affect” (Ooi & Liew, 2011, p. 753).

Classifying affect

As this paper looks at the affective aspects of the reading experience, it is necessary to examine the literature around emotion, tone, and associations to better understand this theme, especially related to taxonomy construction.

An advocate of having users’ reading responses form part of RA appeal vocabularies, Wyatt (2007) suggests classifying books by feeling rather than subject. Saarti (1999) distinguishes two elements found in fictional works, the factual and the imaginative. Caplinger (2003) believes that standardizing RA terms to have better defined appeal terminology is a “subjective territory” and “a daunting challenge, but one that is also extremely exciting for its potential to open a new avenue of communication with library patrons” (p. 288). In a similar vein, Beard and ThiBeard (2008) advocate for focusing on why people read and to revise RA strategies to take this reasoning into account. When discussing appeal, Dali (2014) found “readers do not differentiate between intangible/abstract (e.g., mood, atmosphere, tone) and concrete/objective (e.g., genre, subject) characteristics of books” (pp. 39-40).

Descartes was one of the earliest scientists to introduce a categorization of emotion (Parrot, 2010). Scherer (2005) characterizes responses to the question “What is an emotion?” as “thorny” (p. 696). Rosch (1973) introduced conceptually basic categories or prototype categories, which are abstract categories of which representative images can be formed. Fehr and Russell (1984) built from this example as they examined the emotion taxonomy with basic level emotion categories. From these a variety of approaches has been proposed that divide emotional categories into subsets. While Shaver et al. (1987) offered a prototypical categorization of only five basic emotions, namely those categories that children first learn, these basic emotions have been subdivided as fuzzy sets with subordinate levels of emotion. Others move from the prototype manner of thinking. Ekman (1999) argued for emotional categories as special biological properties, where “emotions evolved for their adaptive value in dealing with fundamental life tasks” (p. 46). Appraisal theorists, however, look to cause as a method of distinguishing emotion (Moors, 2013; Moors, Ellsworth, Scherer, & Frijda, 2013). Jarymowicz and Imbir (2015) posit a taxonomy of emotions as related to the diversity of their causes rather than the variety of feelings.

Studies indicate that emotional experiences are useful to convey in a readers’ advisory capacity, especially as related to online tools. In their investigation of fiction access points in library catalogues, RA databases, and online bookstores Adkins and Bossaller (2007) found the emotional experience produced by the book was better covered by the reviews included in the online bookstores and NoveList than by the subject headings in library catalogues. Dali (2013) investigated appeal in RA publications and tools, and found that RA sources did not stop at book characteristics, but “alluded to appeal beyond the book, such as inspiration,

Theoretical models of affect and emotion have been developed to better describe these systems of

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categorization. Both Russell (1980) and Plutchik (1980) offer dimensional models distinguishing between basic and complex emotions. Scherer (2005) developed the Component Process Model, which gave rise to the Geneva Emotion Wheel (http://www.affective-sciences.org/gew).

the results by a specific types of emotions, such as sadness, joy, and so forth), or through interactions with readers’ advisory staff. METHODOLOGY

The dataset was obtained from libraries selected using the Canadian Public Libraries Gateway, http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/gateway/s22200-e.html, which provided a listing of all public libraries in Canada of all types and sizes. The entire population of Canadian public libraries (n=43) using BiblioCommons (n=33), SirsiDynix (n=3), and Encore (n=7) systems (the social discovery platforms used most frequently) was included. From the final set of librarylocated bibliographic records (n=831), the bibliographic records for 22 unique adult fiction titles were examined in the 43 social discovery platforms. The 22 titles were selected from a variety of shortlists and winning lists of major literary prizes. In total, 631 reviews were extracted from the base sample of 831 records from January-March 2013; once duplicate reviews were removed, the final set of reviews was 536.

Hancock, Landrigan, and Silver (2007) question the presence of emotional tone in text-based computer mediated exchanges and if they support emotional exchange. Their research found participants developed strategies to adapt their emotional expression to the textbased communication environment (Hancock, Landrigan, & Silver, 2007). Oatley (1994) builds a taxonomy from literary criticism and psychological perspectives as he considers the readers’ experience. He discusses the importance of readers’ identifying with a narrative world and experiencing emotion through associations and identification, two overlapping aspects of his taxonomy. Oatley (1994) indicates that, “In art an emotion in the present is mediated by reliving an emotion from the past” (p. 63) and further, that readers can take on characteristics of fictional characters. This study will contribute to the corpus of literature on affect and the reading experience and on the taxonomies of affect, specifically, relating to emotions, tones, and associations in the context of the reading experience.

Grounded Theory was used to provide a more in-depth analysis of the user reviews (Corbin & Strauss, 2014; Hollan, Hutchins, & Kirsh, 2000; Hsieh & Shannon, 2005; Walker & Myrick, 2006). This study uses a deductive approach, whereby the content of the reviews was coded into three pre-determined categories, Emotions, Tones, and Associations, as these categories featured prominently in the findings of the Pecoskie, Spiteri, and Tarulli (2014) study. “The deductive approach is appropriate when the objective of the study is to test existing theory or retest existing data in a new context” (Choo & Lee, 2014).

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In their analysis of user-generated content in public library catalogues, Pecoskie, Spiteri, and Tarulli (2014) found that user tags place a greater emphasis on the topic of a work, or what could be called the subject of the work, and that Library of Congress subject headings emphasize the genres of the work, which does not provide specific information about the work’s content. User reviews place a heavy emphasis on more affective aspects of a work, such as the readability of a book and its tone or mood; the study, did not, however, analyze in-depth the nature of these affective access points. The goal of this study is to explore affect further by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the affective content expressed in reader reviews contained in the bibliographic records of a selection of fiction titles in Canadian public libraries whose catalogues allow for the inclusion of user content. Specifically, this study examines the following questions:

One of the co-authors and a research assistant independently coded the 536 user reviews, assigning a colour per code as it related to one of the three categories of affect: Red for Emotions; blue for Tones; and green for Associations. The second co-author, who was not involved in the first round of analysis, independently coded the reviews according to the three categories, and subsequently assessed the three sets of categorical analyses of user reviews, examining them for overlap, clarity, exclusivity, and relevance. Taxonomies for Emotions, Tones, and Associations were created by examining all concepts coded in the relevant colours and sorting the terms into superordinate basic-level categories. A basic level category (e.g., a Basic Emotion) is the highest level in the hierarchy of categories that is preferred by humans in learning and association tasks. Basic categories are associated most closely in cognitive psychology with the work of Eleanor Rosch’s Prototype Theory (Rosch, 1973). So, for example, the Basic emotion of Anger contains subordinate emotions such as annoyance, displeasure, and frustration.

 What emotions are discussed as part of the reader’s reading experience?  What tones did the reading experience elicit for the reader?  What associations to external factors do readers make as part of their reading experience? The end goal of this analysis is to create useful taxonomies of emotions, moods, and associations that could be used to assist readers as they narrow the focus of their searches for works of fiction, either through facets supplied by the social discovery system layer on a library catalogue (e.g., narrow 3

The taxonomies for Emotions and Associations were derived from an analysis of extant taxonomies in the fields of social psychology, cognitive science, and behavioural science (Baddely, 2004; Baldoni, Baroglio, Patti, & Rena, 2012; Cowie & Cornelius, 2003; Fehr & Russell, 1984; Francisco, Gervas & Peinado, 2012; Manier & Hirst, 2008; Mastin, 2010; Parrott, 2010; Plutchik, 1980; Scherer, 2005; Shaver, Schwartz, Kirson, O'Connor, 1987; Squire, 1992, 2004; Storm & Storm, 1987). The taxonomy for Tones created by the authors in the first phase of this study (Pecoskie, Tarulli, & Spiteri, 2014) was used.

Table 1 shows the taxonomy for emotions represented in the 536 user-generated reviews. The basic emotion Sadness has the highest number of unique emotions (9), followed by Fear and Love (6), Anger (5), Engagement, Happiness, and Surprise (4), and finally Disgust (2). Four unique emotions did not fit clearly into any basic emotion, and were thus treated as Uncategorized.

Captivation; Curiosity; Engagement; Reflection (4)

Sadness

Apathy; Boredom; Depression; Disaffection; Disappointment

Surprise

Astonishment; Bemusement; Disbelief; Surprise (4)

Uncategorized

Caution; Gratitude; Patience; Perseverance (4) 44 unique emotions

Basic Emotion

Reviews

Engagement

168 (26%)

Happiness

154 (23.69%)

Sadness

148 (22.76%)

Fear

55 (8.46%)

Surprise

38 (5.84%)

Anger

28 (4.3%)

Love

21 (3.23%)

Uncategorized

21 (3.23%)

Disgust

17 (2.61%)

Total

1633

What tones are discussed as part of the reader’s reading experience?

Table 3 shows the taxonomy of tones represented in the 536 user-generated reviews. The top five basic tones with respect to number of unique sub-tones are Imaginative (21), Frightening (19), Conventional and Realistic (16), and Dramatic (14). The basic tone of Humourous has the smallest number of sub-tones at 4. The large variety of subtones in some of these categories reflects the variety of terms employed in the reviews, rather than the importance or validity of the basic tone. In the case of Humourous, for

Related Unique Emotions

Engagement

Admiration; Attraction; Empathy; Enchantment; Lust; Sensitivity (6)

Table 2: Number of basic emotions represented by user reviews

Taxonomy of Emotions

Disgust; Dislike (2)

Love

Table 2 shows the total number of basic emotions represented by the 536 user-generated reviews assigned to the titles. Engagement (26%), Happiness (23.69%) and Sadness (22.76%) are distributed relatively evenly across the records, with Love (3.23%), Uncategorized (3.23%), and Disgust (2.61%) occurring the least frequently.

Of the 831 bibliographic records examined for the 22 titles, 678 (30.82%) contained 536 unique user reviews. The bulk of the reviews originated from the BiblioCommons libraries, although these numbers were not equal across each BiblioCommons library, which suggests that while user content is shared among institutions, it is not equitably uploaded to each library, or that the host library has a choice from where the content originates. On average, 28.73 unique reviews were assigned to each title. There was a vast range in the number of user-contributed reviews for the titles; Grace Williams says it out loud contained only one unique review, whereas Room contained 210. No reviews were provided in any of the catalogues for A man melting. For the 21 remaining titles, 141 unique emotions were assigned, for a total of 650 occurrences across the 43 library catalogues.

Disgust

Anticipation; Excitement; Joy; Pleasure (4)

Table 1: Taxonomy of Emotions

What emotions are discussed as part of the reader’s reading experience?

Anger; Annoyance; Displeasure; Entrapment; Frustration (5)

Happiness

9 basic emotions

FINDINGS

Anger

Confusion; Difficulty; Disorientation; Fear; Stress; Uncertainty (6)

Lassitude; Sadness; Shame; Wistfulness (9)

Credibility of the analysis was maintained through prolonged engagement with the dataset at all stages, and by all researchers. Further, coding comparisons conducted by one researcher independent of the primary analysis ensured that the integrity of the deductive analysis was based on the principles of Grounded Theory. Finally, in the comparative analysis, memo writing as a method of undertaking the final analysis and discussion between researchers allowed for codes to be revisited at multiple intervals.

Basic Emotions

Fear

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Table 3: Taxonomy of Tones

example, the reviews were very consistent in the use of the small set of four terms (sub-tones) to describe this category while, perhaps not surprisingly, and perhaps fittingly, many different terms were used to describe the tone Imaginative.

Table 4 shows the total number of basic tones represented in the 536 user-generated reviews assigned to the titles. None of the 11 basic tones dominates the findings: Realistic appears the most frequently (22.77%), followed by Imaginative (16.76%), Frightening (13.12%), and Dramatic (11.29%). Optimistic (2.91%) and Cerebral (2.18%) occur the least frequently.

Taxonomy of Tones Basic Tones Cerebral

Charming

Complex

Conventional

Dramatic

Frightening

Related Tones Dignified, Erudite, Formal, Insightful, Intelligent, Lofty, Philosophical, Profound, Reflective (9)

Basic Tone Realistic

125 (22.77%)

Beautiful, Charming, Elegant, Enchanting, Engaging, Entertaining, Haunting, Lush, Pleasurable, Sensitive; Sympathetic, Tender, Touching (13)

Imaginative

92 (16.76%)

Frightening

72 (13.12%)

Dramatic

62 (11.29%)

Complex, Controversial, Fragmented, Labyrinthine, Nuanced, Picaresque, Psychological, Rambling, Subtle, Wordy (10)

Charming

49 (8.93%)

Humourous

35 (6.38%)

Sad

34 (6.19%)

Bland, Clichéd, Comfortable, Contrived, Familiar, Formulaic, Insipid, Juvenile, Light, Maudlin, Melodramatic, Onedimensional, Repetitive; Slow, Stereotypical, Unrealistic (16)

Conventional

29 (5.28%)

Complex

23 (4.19%)

Optimistic

16 (2.91%)

Cerebral

12 (2.18%)

Dramatic, Emotional, Exciting; Fascinating, Heartfelt, Intriguing, Moving, Nostalgic, Powerful, Sensational, Surprising, Suspenseful, Thrilling, Zesty (14)

Total

549

Dark humour, Humourous, Ironical, Satirical (4)

Imaginative

Adventurous, Allegorical, Creative, Descriptive, Eccentric, Edgy, Evocative, Fantastical, Imaginative, Innovative, Lyrical, Magical, Mysterious, Mythical, Poetic, Original, Spare, Stylish, Surreal, Unique, Wistful (21)

Optimistic

Assured, Hopeful, Innocent, Inspirational, Optimistic, Respectful, Triumphant, Uplifting (8)

Realistic

Abrupt, Authentic, Character-driven, Cohesive, Coming of age, Compelling, Gritty, Historical, Honest, Lucid, Poignant, Precise, Prosaic, Readable, Realistic, Resonant (16)

Sad

11 basic tones

Table 4: Number of basic tones represented by user reviews What associations are discussed as part of the reader’s reading experience?

Angst-ridden, Chilling, Claustrophobic, Cruel, Daunting, Disturbing, Gory, Graphic, Gruesome, Harsh, Horrifying, Perverse, Psychopathic, Revolting, Scary, Uncomfortable, Unnerving, Violent, Volatile (19)

Humourous

Reviews

Table 5 shows the taxonomy of associations represented in the 536 user-generated reviews. The basic associations of Agents and Objects dominate the taxonomy, with 10 and 9 unique associations respectively. As will be shown in Table 6, associations were discussed the least frequently of the three basic categories in the user reviews, and presented fewer variations in language used; Events and Periods tended to refer to relatively objective concepts, such as named periods, historical events, and so forth, that could be expressed more consistently via the same codes or terms. Historical periods and specific events often appeared in the bibliographic record via specific Library of Congress Headings. This level of specificity was not included in the taxonomy, as (a), it would not be consistent with the level used in the other two taxonomies, and (b) the specific headings could be found in the 6XX subject heading field in the bibliographic record. Taxonomy of Associations Basic Association

Barren, Bleak, Dark, Depressing, Desolate, Devastating, Grim, Heavy, Melancholic, Painful, Sad (11)

Agents

141 unique tones

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Derived Associations Actors, authors, children, corporations, directors, fictitious characters, generations, government, persons, reviewers (10)

Activities

Games, Travel (2)

Events

Historical events, recent events (2)

Experiences

Childhood, memory, motherhood (3)

Periods

Periods (1)

Places

Geographical locations, libraries, schools, settings (4)

Objects

Books, movies, music, nationalities, pets, social media, songs, today’s world, television shows (9)

7 basic associations

help them decide whether this is an item they would enjoy reading. Given the research on reading choices and mood (Ross & Chelton, 2001), these questions are essential: Does the work match or meet their emotional needs? Does the work represent an emotional state that readers want to avoid? Does the work represent an emotional state that the readers want to reach? Let us look at this more closely through the lens of one title, Room, which generated the largest number of user reviews (210). The Library of Congress (LC) Headings assigned to this title across the 43 library catalogues are:

31 unique associations

 Kidnapping-Fiction

Table 5: Taxonomy of Associations

 Boys-Fiction

Table 6 shows the total number of basic associations represented in the 536 user-generated reviews assigned to the titles. Associations with Objects dominate the list, with 58 occurrences (43.93%), followed by Agents (40.15%). The remaining five categories of association appear infrequently, with Periods showing the least occurrence at 0.76%.

 Psychopaths-Fiction  Escapes-Fiction  Mother and Child-Fiction  Psychological Fiction  Large print books

Basic Association

Reviews

 Suspense fiction

Objects

58 (43.93%)

 Canadian fiction

Agents

53 (40.15%)

 Prisoners-Fiction

Experiences

29 (21.97%)

 Imagination-Fiction  Large type books

Places

6

(4.55%)

Events

3

(2.27%)

Activities

2

(1.52%)

Periods

1

(0.76%)

Total

While the LC headings are perfectly fine in their own right, and describe the overall content of the book in a neutral manner, they do not express the emotional impact of the book. In the traditional MARC bibliographic record, it is difficult to capture these affective access points, since the 6XX subject fields focus on the content of the work (e.g., location, period, topic, etc.). Information about the affective aspects of a book might be found in the 5XX note fields if a summary of the work is included, normally quoted directly from the work itself, and if this summary describes these emotions. Another challenge with book summaries is that they represent the point of view of the publisher, whose intent is to market and promote the book; the emotions described in the summary might not reflect accurately, or comprehensively, those of the community of readers.

132

Table 6: Number of basic associations represented by user reviews DISCUSSION

In this section, illustrative examples are drawn from the title Room, since it generated the largest number of unique reviews, as well as the most varied number of affective categories. Emotions

The presence of 141 unique emotions, which occurred 650 times in the 536 user-generated reviews, serves as a strong indicator of the importance of affect in readers’ interactions with the books they read. The diversity with which users express their emotional states in the reviews points to the impact of user-generated metadata on the richness of the bibliographic record. As discussed previously, the MARC bibliographic records do not capture the emotional impact of the works. The MARC record provides only the barebones description of the content of the work; the user reviews provide the added richness and nuances of the work that can help provide other readers with a greater understanding of the work and, perhaps more importantly,

Tones

As explained previously, Tone expresses the readers’ perception of the intent of the book. People may have a set idea of the tone of a work they would like to read, based on a variety of factors, such as the wish to match their existing mood (e.g., I am sad), past experiences with books with a particular tone, an emotional state they would like to achieve (e.g., I need cheering up), and so forth. The tone of a work can be related to its genre; for example, fantasy genres are likely to exhibit the Imaginative tone, comedies the Humourous tone, and horror books the Frightening tone. The tone of a work could elicit certain emotional 6

reactions in its readers; thus, for example, a person reading a Humourous book could experience Happiness. The tones for Room are not expressed clearly in the LC headings assigned to this title (see above): The closest match would be the genre headings Suspense fiction and Psychological Fiction, which could perhaps reference the Frightening tone, but none of the remaining tones. Once again, it is possible that publisher book summaries in the 5XX MARC field might contain information pertaining to tone, but the same caveats apply as in our discussion of emotion access points.

RA staff could use these taxonomies to assist readers in selecting items to read, or to generate suggested reading lists that correspond to these taxonomies (e.g., books that are imaginative and cerebral). These taxonomies can help readers define more clearly their reading experience and why they enjoy (or not) reading certain works. The ability to express these experiences can open up possibilities for reading referrals, both from other readers, as well as RA staff, and to help provide the right book in the hands of the user at the right time. REFERENCES

Adkins, D., & Bossaller, J. E. (2007). Fiction access points across computer-mediated book information sources: A comparison of online bookstores, reader advisory databases, and public library catalogs. Library & Information Science Research , 29, 354-368.

Associations

Associations express how readers associate a book with related concepts, such as other books, personal experiences and situations, other authors, and so forth. Knowledge of these associations can be very helpful in assisting readers to find related titles they can read. The associations are not expressed clearly in the LC headings assigned to this title (see above): The closest matches would be the headings Boys-Fiction, and Mother and Child-Fiction; the latter correlates to the unique associations of Motherhood and Children. While the categories Emotions and Tones both reflect personal choices on the part of the reader, this is even truer of Associations, which are so dependent on the readers’ associations. So, for example, readers are more likely to agree on the Humourous tone of a book, and this tone is more likely to result in the emotion of Happiness; on the other hand, individual reader associations might lack a similar level of shared understanding or response. As such, while associations are important, expressing them in a catalogue via, say, facets could be difficult, since the broad association of Agents, for example, might be too general to serve much use versus, for example, the broad emotion Happiness, or the broad tone Humourous.

Baddely, A. D. (2004). The psychology of memory. In A. D. Baddeley, M. Kope lman, & B. A. Wilson (Eds.), The essential handbook of memory disorders for clinicians (pp. 1-13). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons. Baldoni, M., Baroglio, C., Patti, V., & Rena, P. (2012). From tags to emotions: Ontology-driven sentiment analysis in the social semantic web. Intelligenza Artificiale, 6(1), 41-54. Beard, D., & Thi-Beard, K. V. (2008). Rethinking the book: New theories for readers’ advisory. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 47(4), 331-335. Caplinger, V. A. (2013). In the eye of the beholder: Readers’ advisory from a cataloging perspective. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 52(4), 287-290. Choo, J. Y., & Lee, E.-H. (2014). Reducing confusion about grounded theory and qualitative content analysis: Similarities and differences. The Qualitative Report, 19(64), 1-20. Retrieved from http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR19/cho64.pdf

CONCLUSION

Our analysis of the 536 user-generated reviews revealed that readers expressed a rich variety of affective access points for the 22 fiction titles examined. Specifically, Emotions are represented by 9 basic categories, and 44 unique emotions, Tones by 11 basic categories and 141 unique tones, and Associations by 7 basic categories and 31 unique associations. The 6XX subject access fields in the MARC records are used primarily to describe the content and format of works of fiction, namely, names of people, places, corporate bodies, or meetings, chronological period, topic, and genre. Reading experience, however, cannot be expressed well in the MARC record, which is why affective access points can serve as an important addition to the bibliographic records for works of fiction. The derived taxonomies for Emotions, Tones, and Associations could be used in the catalogue’s discovery layer as facets by which to narrow the results of a search, e.g., narrow the results by books that are humourous and surprising, or omit books that are frightening or sad. The broader categories could be used as suggested placeholders for users who wish to add tags to fiction titles (e.g., what Emotions did this book evoke?).

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2014). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. Cowie, R., & Cornelius, R. R. (2003). Describing the emotional states that are expressed in speech. Speech Communication, 40(1), 5-32. Dali, K. (2013). Hearing stories, not keywords: Teaching contextual readers’ advisory. Reference Services Review, 41(3), 474-502 . Dali, K. (2014). From book appeal to reading appeal: Redefining the concept of appeal in readers’ advisory. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 84(1), 22–48. Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition and Emotion , 6(3/4), 169-200.

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