American Psychological Association 6th Edition

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Mesopotamian secrets of pottery in 1500s encrypted recipe for pottery glaze then Al-Kindi, ... In the late 1500s, Mary of Scots used nomenclature cipher to plot a.


F M Spencer June 2018

2 History of Cryptography Cryptography is a study of hidden messages or secret communications. Cryptography is a process of translating protected messages customized to prevent comprehension by the wrong recipients. Creators of cryptic messages use a variety of techniques to code including letter substitutions, symbols, algorithms, and mathematical models. Primary goals of cryptography are to decipher the codes and reveal the messages. Cryptography dates to early Egyptian rulers and continues to evolve along with developing technologies. Cryptanalysis is the procedure of exposing codes and words which have become more complicated as the intricacy of cryptography increased (McDonald, 2011). Cryptography is the study and use of encrypted messages. Encryption is encoding to hide messages with has transformed from simpler to more complex forms along with the developments in technology and current communication platforms. Internet of things (IoT) has become ubiquitous, which mandates the need for advanced and intricate encryptions to secure communications over the internet. The information age today is dynamic and rapidly transforming to almost all users having access to data. Therefore, protection has become a mandatory requisite.

Historical Evolution

Egyptians started cryptography in 1900s BC as hieroglyphs for unknown reasons followed by Mesopotamian secrets of pottery in 1500s encrypted recipe for pottery glaze then Al-Kindi, an Arab philosopher, extensively researched cryptography, ciphers, and code-breaking (cbaron12, 2016). Al-Kindi made cryptography a common phenomenon for hiding messages in codes and ciphers. In the mid-1400s, Leon Battista Alberti founded the Western Cryptography as a Cipher Wheel which expedited encryption and decryption (cbaorn12, 2016). In the late 1500s, Mary of Scots used nomenclature cipher to plot a failed assassination attempt, which leads to the use of cipher going mainstream for hiding messages (Singh, 1999). Ciphers and codes continued and were used extensively for confidential communications. Then came machines to decode such as the invention of Charles Babbage in mid-1800s to decode Vigenere’s Autokey Cipher for overcoming enemies, Gilbert Vernam’s original indestructible invention teleprinter cipher, and Arthur Scherbius’ Enigma Machines in early 1900s (cbaron12, 2016). Besides engineers, leaders, and army generals, coding trickled into other sectors. In the early 1940s, Edgar Allan Poe better known for his poetry, became the mastermind in decryption, US Navy broke down the Japanese Navy Cryptography to evade attacks, and the British invented Colossus, first digital computer for cryptanalysis (cbaron12, 2016). Later cryptography encompassed composite ciphers, keys, and multi-dimensional codes. Timeline from the 1950s to 2000s (cbaron, 2016) of cryptography follows: • In the early 1950s: Reino Hayhanen, a Soviet spy, communicated with the complex VIC cipher • In the 1970s: National Institute of Standards and Technology published the Data Encryption Standard (DES), followed by a Diffie-Hellman key exchange • In the early 1990s: Phil Zimmerman created Pretty Good Privacy to validate digital signatures as well as encrypt and decrypt internet emails; and • In the early 2000s: Belgian Cryptographers created Advanced Encryption Standards as a postscript to DES.

Adaptation to Evolving Technologies

Cryptography, as discussed previously, matched technological developments. From handwritten codes to digital signatures, cryptography continues to advance together with evolving technologies. In the 1800s, machines decoded followed by the 1900s first digital computer, Colossus for cryptanalysis, then came the emergence of quantum cryptography for the Internet of Things (Sharbaf, 2011). Earlier encrypting messages encompassed letter substitutions and symbols, while the current encryption techniques derive from mathematical models. DNA cryptography, invented in the 1970s, progressed in later decades to explore DNA characteristics and reactions (Xiao, Lu, Qin, & Lai, 2006). Extensive use of teleprocessing in the mid to late 1970s directed the emergence of new cryptographic classifications to diminish dispersion

3 of the secure key as well as an increase of written signatures (Diffie & Hellman, 1976). Later cryptography matched the technological evolution of its respective times.

Figure 1: Steganography Model (Jain 2012) Steganography, refuge via anonymity, was the use of the picture, audio, and video files as a medium while now it includes web pages, communication protocols, data streams, and other mediums (McDonald, 2011). Figure 1 above illustrates the basic Steganography model for securing communications. With the rise of social networks, transparent cryptography emerged as socialkeys as well as Visual cryptography for safe distribution of images in open media (Chettri, 2014). Literature from 2009 mention the complicated Elliptic Curve Cryptography in Figure 2 below and quantum computing in Figure 3 (McDonald, 2009). While current literature widely discusses Elliptic Curve with distinctions. Elliptic Curve Cryptography plus variants appear as the necessary implementation to maintain data integrity due to extensive networks (Patil & Devmane, 2018).

Figure 2: Elliptical Curve Diffie-Hellman (tsb-author, 2017)

Figure 3: Quantum Cryptography (Thorlabs, 2018)

Figure 4: Position-based Quantum Cryptography (Schaffer, 2018) Cryptography’s future adaptation to evolving technologies will include cryptography that is symmetric, hybrid, and position-based with location privacy as in Figure 4 above (Kamboj, Bala, & Luthra,

4 2018). Since in earlier times, only select individuals had authority to know private keys, the scrambling message was sufficient for the military and political communications. Later, more individuals and organizations widely used cryptography making it more ubiquitous. Depending on the next technological revolution, cryptography will also transform to match as the need for privacy, and confidential prevails now and in the future.

Encryption in the 1930s vs. in 1970s

Encryption is the encoding of information to hide messages during transmittals. Encryption is the use of codes, substitutions, symbols, and algorithms to encode communications. Over the years, encryption has evolved as illustrated below: • In the 1930s, encryption or encoding of radio transmissions gained widespread acceptance with the German Enigma machine for confidential communications between countries during wars. • In the 1940s, one-time pads had message-length keys of random bits strings with sender and receiver having the copy of the key only for single use and were ineffective if used again (Landau, 2000). • From mechanical keys to computerized keys were established in the 1950s (Moerke, 1999). • In the 1960s, image encryption was introduced with Arnold Cat Map by Vladimir Arnold (Jolfaei & Mirghadri, 2010). • In the 1970s computers spread widely, so the need for matching cryptography became a necessity. Cipher Lucifer, the invention of IBM in the 1970s, was used as a template to design the NIST Data Encryption Standard in the late 1990s (, 2018). Expansion of businesses mandated more security and updated encryption methods as the previous versions were no longer valid. The last private key substituted with the scrambled (one-way trapdoor function) public key customized to each operator with unique unscrambling mechanisms using secret key Rivest, Shamir, And Adelman “RSA” with integers (Kobiltz, 2009).

The transition from Mechanical to Digital: Methods/ Technologies

As discussed previously, mechanical cryptography transformed into computerized then to digital along with the technological evolutions. Coding became more complex and lengthy with difficult scrambling, randomness, and algorithms. From simple letter substitutions and symbols to RSA unscrambling mechanisms to elliptical and location-based cryptography, each following format was more complicated than its predecessors. Since adversaries continued to intercept confidential communications successfully, it became even more necessary to device more elaborate codes and algorithms to discourage revealing messages. Private to scrambled public keys for added security as well as algorithms of the same length as the messages matched the developments of technologies, the intelligence of interceptors and receivers. With global networked communications and operations, cryptography and encryption have metamorphosed into well-designed codes and ciphers which are far from the previous ciphers. Quantum computers will introduce a new level of cryptography and encryption to sustain confidentiality during transmissions in the connected world.

Impact on Modern Communications

Modern communications mandate even more secure systems as transactions are online at the global scale. The Internet is the primary conduit for conveying financial, military, social, and operational information. Different sectors have customized analysis according to their respective network of consumers such as: • Shoppers are mostly online with Amazon’s expansive networks and offer, making mail-order and virtual shopping systems more rampant. Since more shoppers are online now, secure online transactions are mandatory for business and customer sustainability. For retail, five-level scale

5 scrutiny starts from entry, adoption, refinement, infusion, and ends with transformation as all levels are critical in marketing and shaping consumer experiences (Lau & Lee, 2017). • Internet banking is the new frontier in financial transactions which can be conducted anywhere without physically going to the banks. Internet banking must have secure hybrid architecture model with Hyperelliptic curve cryptosystems and efficient performance of encryption and decryption with crucial 80-bit size (Ganesan, 2009). From internet to mobile banking for efficient and faster financial services, encryption is more complicated and includes multiple authentications, digital signatures, as well as WPKI technology (Nie & Hu, 2008). • Critical infrastructure protection is fundamental to nations and its people’s wellbeing. Critical infrastructure encompasses transportation, water and waste management, electricity, health, defense, land, financial, as well as other economic assets spanning physical and cyberspace. With critical infrastructure operations going online by SMART systems, confidentiality of communication of these IoTs has become imperative. CP_ABSC Ciphertext-Policy AttributeBased Encryption is a signcryption structure to protect smart grids’ multicast communications entailing access control, authentication, and data encryption for message security and confidentiality (Hu et al., 2018). • Communication via social networks has multi-factor authentication encryptions requiring identity confirmations of sender and receiver devices before message transmittals (Lester & Carey, 2018). Conclusion Cryptography as a study of encryption of encoding messages started a long time ago and continued to evolve with its respective era technologies. Cyberworld mandates more secure communication venues, therefore, more intricate encryption methodologies. Secure communications are rare now in the connected world, but not impossible if adequate encryption is applied to messages during transmissions. From mechanical to digital to cloud cryptography will continue to transform even in the future.

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Moerke, K. A. (1999). Free Speech to a Machine--Encryption Software Source Code Is Not Constitutionally Protected Speech under the First Amendment. Minn. L. Rev., 84, 1007. Nie, J., & Hu, X. (2008, December). Mobile banking information security and protection methods. In Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2008 International Conference on (Vol. 3, pp. 587590). IEEE. Patil, S., & Devmane, V. (2018). A review on Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Variant. Schaffer, C. (2018). Retrieved from Sharbaf, M. S. (2011, November). Quantum cryptography: An emerging technology in network security. In Technologies for Homeland Security (HST), 2011 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 1319). IEEE. Singh, S. (1999). The code book: the evolution of secrecy from Mary, Queen of Scots, to quantum cryptography. Doubleday. (2018). Retrieved from

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