an overview

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Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart. Eremie, M.D. and Ubulom, W.J. (2016) Review of Psychoanalytic Approach to. Counselling. Journal of Innovative Psychology and ...



AN OVERVIEW OF PSYSCHOTHERAPY BY D. MAXWELL .D. EREMIE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATIONS, RIVERS STATE UNIVERSITY OF SICNECE AND TECHNOLOGY An appropriate beginning of this discussion of is to define the term psychotherapy to the readers for clarification of purpose and scope. What is Psychotherapy? There several definitions of psychotherapy, as there are several systems of psychotherapy. Each system of psychotherapy tends to define the term suitable to their theoretical orientation of practice of practice and assumptions of human psychotherapy disorder. Norcross (1990, p218) defined psychotherapy as “the informed intentional application of clinical methods and psychotherapy principles for the purpose of assisting people o modify their behavious, cognitions, emotions, the participants deem desirable”. Psychotherapy is mostly practiced in hospital setting – on inpatient and out-patient basis. Psychotherapy requires a long term with 20 to 40 sessions in 6 months to 2 years period. While, shot term covers 8 to 12 sessions, making several months. Psychotherapy is usually conducted for individual therapy and group therapy. Individual psychotherapy, patients have one-on-one session with the attending therapist. While, group therapy consists of two or more people. In most cases mental health problems are better treated in a group setting, where several patients will have the opportunity to share with other patients with similar problems, and learn how other have successfully dealt or coped with the problems. WHY DO PEOPLE CHOOSE PSYCHOTHERAPY People enter psychotherapy with several reasons and different goals. Nevertheless, people engage in v for expectations of change. Here are few common reason that people engage in psychotherapy: -

To learn and understand how to cope better with deep and persistent challenges and problems. To talk and listen to somebody who is supportive in addressing his or her precipitating life problems. To reflect feelings, emotions, ad experiences with a supportive listener (therapist).

THE SYSTEMS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY There are several systems of psychotherapy. The following selected theories are presented in this overview. They are as follows: psychoanalytic therapy, Adlerian therapy, Existential therapy, Person-Centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, Transactional analysis, Behaviour therapy, Rational emotive behavior therapy and Reality therapy. Psychoanalytic Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. To make the unconscious conscious. To reconstruct the basic personality. To assist patients in reliving earlier experiences and work through repressed conflicts, as to have insight. The key techniques are interpretation; dreams analysis, free association,




Adlerian Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. Therapist assists patients to cultivate social interest correcting fault assumptions and mistaken goals. The key techniques are encouragement confrontation, therapeutic contracts, paradoxical intentions (Dreikur, 1969). Existential Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. To help patients see that they are free and become aware of their possibilities. To challenge patients to recognize that they are responsible for their pathology. To identify factors that block freedom. Techniques should include, imagery or awareness exercises, confrontation. Personal Centered Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. Therapist encourages patient’s self exploration in terms of openness to self, others, strive self actualization, focus on here and now. Techniques should include, reflection of patient’s feelings and emotions, use of empathy and positive regard to self and others, active/passive listening, and encouraging congruence (Rogers, 1961, Rogers, 1951; Eremie and Ubulom, Gestalt Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. Therapist emphasizes, on patient’s immediacy of experience, making choice in the now, to resolve the past, growing up mentally, shedding neuroses. Techniques include use of dream work, empty chair, confrontation, making the rounds, exaggeration, and frustration actions. Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. Therapist helps patients live more rational and productive lives. Teaches patients the ABCDE or REBT. Therapist stresses elimination of oughts, should, must. Elimination of self-defeating habits. Techniques include – Therapist uses teaching and disputing patient’s negative emotions (Ellis and Dryden, 1987; Eremie and Ubolum, 2016). Transactional Analysis: Therapeutic content and techniques. Therapist is optimistic that patient can change. Each individual is composed of three interacting ego states of Parent, Adult, Child (PAC). Therapist stresses importance of interpersonal integration and analysis of transactions, games scripts for individual health and growth. Techniques of the therapist include emphasis on treatment contracts, interrogation, specification, confrontation and script analysis (Berne, 1964). Bahaviour Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. The therapist is active and directive and functions as a teacher or trainer in helping patients learn more effective behavour. A therapist focuses on overt behavior and develops specific treatment plans. He encourages Systematic desensitization, relaxation methods reinforcement, modeling, cognitive restructuring and social skills training. Reality Therapy: Therapeutic content and techniques. The basic focus is on what patients are doing and how to get them to evaluate whether their present ways are working for them. Techniques are active, directive and didactic. 10


Berne, E. (1964). Game People Play. New York: Grove Press. Corey, G. (1991). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. California: Broos/Cole Publishing Company. Dreikur, R. (1969). Group psychotherapy from the point of view of Adlerian Psychology. In H.M. Ruitenbeck (Ed.), Group therapy today: Sttkes Methods, and techniques. New York: Aldine-Atherton Ellis, A., and Dryden, W. (1987). The Practice of Rational Emotive Therapy. Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Stuart. Eremie, M.D. and Ubulom, W.J. (2016) Review of Psychoanalytic Approach to Counselling. Journal of Innovative Psychology and Social Development, 4(2),22-25.

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