animal physiology, reproduction and health

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sweet edible red fleshy pulp testing like watermelon (16). Materials and .... Performance and Nutrient Digestibility of Weaned Rabbits Fed Forages Supplemented with ...... Ngeh J. T., Wanyama J., Nuwanyakpa M. and Django S. (2001).
Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, REPRODUCTION AND HEALTH

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APH 001: Semen traits of cadmium exposed rabbit bucks administered methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera fruit Ansa, A. A. and Imasuen, J. A† Department of Animal Science, University of Benin, Benin City. Nigeria. Corresponding author’s E-mail:basicimage4u; Telephone: +2348038864473, 08073604853



Abstract This study was aimed to evaluate the semen characteristics of cadmium (Cd) exposed rabbit bucks treated with methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) fruit. To achieve this, a total of 45 rabbit bucks aged between 32-34 weeks and weighing between 1.41-1.43 kg was used. The rabbit bucks were assigned to 5 treatments groups (control, Cd-only, Cd + 300 mg MEPD, Cd + 600 mg MEPD and Cd + 900 mg MEPD) in a Completely Randomized Design. The rabbits were dosed with 3 mg CdCl2 /kg feed for 7 days followed by MEPD for 56 days after every 72 hours before the commencement of semen collection. The results showed that Cd significantly affected (P < 0.05) all the evaluated semen characteristics which includes semen volume: 1.17, 0.40, 0.51, 0.63, 0.49 ml; motility: 74.48, 20.25, 79.00, 66.97, 80.46 %; libido: 12.51, 23.19, 13.07, 11.69, 10.90 sec; concentration: 251.70, 22.50, 111.70, 119.20, 201.20 x106/mm3; total ejaculate: 294.40, 9.50, 58.60, 81.40, 96.80 x106/mm3; viability: 72.00, 55.00, 72.00, 73.00, 75.33 %; and morphology: 70.33, 64.67, 71.00, 70.00, 73.33 % for control, Cd-only, Cd + 300 mg MEPD, Cd + 600 mg MEPD and Cd + 900 mg MEPD respectively. Treatment with MEPD significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the deleterious effect caused by Cd. In conclusion, cadmium drastically affected semen characteristics of rabbit bucks and treatment with MEPD alleviated the deleterious effect of cadmium on the experimental rabbit bucks. Keywords: semen characteristics, cadmium, Phoenix dactylifera, rabbit bucks.

Introduction Environmental contamination has been reported to threaten animal health and limits productivity (1). Potentially toxic metal pollution in the environment has given rise to growing concerns from scientists, and a considerable amount of researches have been done all over the world ( 2,3, 4). The impact of toxic metals contamination on animals result in serious economic losses, thus, there is an increasing concern about environmental pollutants emanating into the livestock production systems. Cadmium is an important environmental pollutant because it is widely used in industries, and it is present in a number of agricultural products. It is found in pigments, nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, plastics, cigarettes, and some fertilizers, as well as food and water via environmental pollution. The general population is exposed to cadmium via contaminants found in drinking water and food (5), it is non-biodegradable and has a long biological half-life. Cadmium damages the testes of many mammals (6, 3). Cadmium exposure is likely the result of a complex network of causes including induction of oxidative stress, modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of DNA repair enzymes (7). Cadmium-induced testicular oxidative stress is mediated through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), elevated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and altered antioxidant enzymes, which can ultimately result in male infertility (8). 225

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Sequel to this, there has been increasing demand for the use of plant products in enhancing male fertility and management of some physiological disorders. This is due to low cost, easy availability and lesser side effects of organic medicinal products compared to their synthetic counterpart. Hence, plant material are continuously scrutinized and explored for their beneficial effects. A larger number of these tropical plants and their extract have shown beneficial therapeutic effects including fertility enhancing compounds, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-microbial and aphrodisiac. In view of the concerns on male animal infertility in our livestock industry, the scope of the biologic actions of this commonly used botanical remedy needs to be assessed. Among the promising medicinal plants, Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm) is a tropical and subtropical tree belonging to the Palmae family. Date fruit pulp is reported to be rich in phytochemicals like phenolics, sterols, carotenoids, anthocyanins, procyanidins, and flavonoids (9). Given these inherent phyto-constituents, date is claimed to have potential role to protect cellular damage caused by oxidative stress generated by free radicals production in the biological system (10). In the light of the foregoing, this study is designed to evaluate the potentials of Phoenix dactylifera fruit extracts in protecting against the toxic effect of cadmium on the reproductive system of rabbit bucks. Materials and Methods Location of Study The experiment was carried out at the Rabbitary Unit of the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Benin, Benin City. The University of Benin is in Ugbowo and Ugbowo is situated in Ovia-North, Edo State, Nigeria. Procurement of Phoenix dactylifera fruits Phoenix dactylifera fruits was sourced from Nigerian Institute for Oil Palm Research (NIFOR) Benin City, Edo State. The acquired fruits was authenticated by a botanist, split, air-dried, finely ground with the aid of an electric blender and stored in an air tight container. Preparation of fruit extracts The ground Phoenix dactylifera fruits was weighed and extraction was carried out with 99 % methanol in a soxhlet apparatus. The extract obtained was concentrated by recovery of methanol. The solvent was recovered using Rotary Vacuum Evaporator and the concentrated extract was preserved in an airtight bottle. Experimental materials and management A total of forty-five (45) composite rabbit bucks aged 32 - 34 weeks was used for this study. The rabbits was managed intensively in a hutch. They were quarantined for 2 weeks during which they were treated with Ivomec® injection for the control of haemoparasite, internal and external parasites. The rabbits were allowed ad libitum access to water and feed (commercial growers’ diet). Experimental design

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The treatment protocols consisted of 5 groups: group 1 (the control group), group 2 (3 mg of CdCl2/kg feed/day for 7 days, group 3 (CdCl2/kg feed/day for 7 days + 300 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) fruits for 56 days), group 4 (CdCl2/kg feed/day for 7 days + 600 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) fruits for 56 days) and group 5 (CdCl2/kg feed/day for 7 days + 900 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) fruits for 56 days). Each treatment group was replicated three times with three bucks constituting a replicate in a Completely Randomized Design. The statistical linear model for this experiment will be: Yij = µ + αi + εij Where: Yij

=

Individual observation

µ

=

Overall mean

αi

=

Effect of treatment

εij

=

Error term

Data Collection and Evaluation Semen collection: Two weeks prior to semen collection, the rabbit bucks were trained to serve an Artificial Vagina (AV) using a teaser rabbit doe. On the 57th d following the administration of the experimental diets, the 18 bucks used in this study were placed on a semen collection schedule of twice per week. One ejaculate was collected from each rabbit buck once between 08:00 to 13:00 h (local time) on Mondays and Thursdays for 3 consecutive weeks. The rabbit doe was taken to the buck’s cage and the doe was held in position for service. When the male attempted to mount, the AV was strategically placed below the belly of the doe in such a way that the penis of the male was introduced into the AV. The temperature of the inner liner rubber sleeve of the AV was adjusted to 40-42°C at the time of semen collection. Lubrication of the inner sleeve was performed using glycerine. Estimation of semen traits: Semen evaluation involved the estimation of both microscopic and macroscopic indices. Ejaculate volume was read-off directly in millimeters from a calibrated glass collection tube attached to the AV. Progressive sperm motility percentage score was subjectively assessed in a drop of fresh semen on a warm glass slide covered with a warm cover slip and examined using a microscope at x40 magnification. The number of spermatozoa that were motile and the nature of such motility were noted, out of a population of 20 sperm cells in a unit area. The sperm motility was then determined by calculating the motile spermatozoa (forward progression) per unit area, and expressed in percentage. The counts obtained of the motile sperm cells were multiplied by 5, to obtain the percentage sperm motility. Sperm cell concentration (×10 6/mm3) was determined using a haemocytometer at a dilution of 1 in 100 in a solution of 45 ml normal saline and 5 ml formalin. Total sperm (×106/mm3 per ejaculate) was determined by multiplying the semen ejaculate volume by the sperm cell concentration. Morphological examination of the semen was done by performing different counts of the morphologically normal and abnormal sperm cell types on 227

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eosin/nigrosin stained preparations. Libido was estimated by observing the reaction time (seconds) which elapsed between exposure of a buck to a doe and the first copulation (serving the AV). Statistical Analysis The data generated was subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure of GenStat 12th edition at 5 % probability level. Occurrence of significant means was separated using Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) of the same statistical software (11). Results and Discussion Table 1:

Semen characteristics of rabbits administered methanolic extract Phoenix dactilifera fruit

Parameters

Control

Cd

Cd + 300 MEPD

Cd + 600 MEPD

Cd + 900 MEPD

SEM

Volume (ml)

1.17a

0.40b

0.51b

0.63b

0.49b

0.17

Motility (%)

74.48a

20.25b

79.00a

66.97a

80.46a

9.26

Libido (sec)

12.51b

23.19a

13.07b

11.69b

10.90b

3.10

Concentration (×106/mm3)

251.70a

22.50c

111.70bc

119.20bc

201.20ab

29.60

Total ejaculate (×106/mm3)

294.40a

9.50b

58.60b

81.40b

96.80b

44.00

Viability (%)

72.00a

55.00b

72.00a

73.00a

75.33a

3.93

Morphology (%)

70.33a

64.67b

71.00a

70.00a

73.33a

1.48

a,b

Means bearing different letters of superscript within the same row differ significantly (P < 0.05)

The results presented on Table 1 indicate that the dose of 3 mg/kg of cadmium chloride in feed can cause alterations in macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of ejaculates of rabbit buck. This conclusion was reached based on the examination of certain indices of the ejaculate which constitutes the commonest criteria used for semen quality evaluation. These characteristics were volume of ejaculate, sperm motility, sperm concentration, sperm viability, presence of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa and libido. This result agrees with previous study by Acharya et al. (6) who reported that the testis is extremely sensitive to Cadmium (Cd) toxicity and that in vivo acute exposure to Cd caused germ cell loss, testicular edema, hemorrhage, necrosis and sterility in several mammalian species (e.g. rodents, rabbit, dog calf, stallion). A possible explanation to the poor quality semen characteristics observed in this study following the ingestion of Cd may have been the generation of ROS which could have induced oxidative stress in the experimental rabbit bucks. It has been well established that testicular oxidative stress is commonly induced under different normal and/or pathophysiological conditions, leading to male infertility, illustrating the importance of Cd as an inducer of oxidative stress (12,13). 228

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Interestingly, the therapeutic intervention of methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera (MEPD) fruit on Cd treated rabbit bucks effectively reversed the deleterious effect of Cd, by improving the semen characteristics. The effect of MEPD might be due to the presence of gonadotropin-like substances or steroidal components that helped improve male fertility (14). It has been previously documented by Bahmanpour et al. (15) that Phoenix dactylifera (date) contain estradiol and flavonoids that increase sperm health, thus improving male reproductive activity. In a similar work, Phoenix dactylifera potentials were also assessed by Saddiq and Bawazir (16) by examining the effects of the extracts on testicular dysfunction induced by Cd which has gonadotoxic and spermiotoxic potential. They observed positive improvement in sperm characteristics as well as in testicular morphology on date extract fed group. The major endogenous antioxidant scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) indicates that quercetin, a bioactive flavonoid component of Phoenix dactylifera, has free radical scavenging properties that exerts a synergistic action with Cd in increasing the expression of a stress protein, metallothionein, that offers protection against Cd toxicity and oxidative stress (17,18). A more recent study reported also that quercetin could protect spermatogonial cells from oxidative damage caused by reproductive toxicants (19,20). Quercetin, via its antioxidant activities does this by blocking the production of intracellular peroxide, the occurrence of DNA ladders and the production of hypodiploid cells induced by H2O2 (21). The antioxidant properties of MEPD may therefore be responsible for its beneficial role in ameliorating the effects of cadmium on semen characteristics in these findings. Conclusion The present findings suggest that the methanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera fruits can ameliorate the toxic effect of cadmium to the testis by restoring semen quality.

References 1. Galadima, A., Garba, Z. N., Leke, L., Almustapha, M. N. and Adam, I. K (2011) Domestic Water Pollution among Local Communities in Nigeria - Causes and Consequences. European. Journal of Scientific Research. 52(4): 592-603. 2. Shi, J., Wang, H., Xu, J., Wu, J., Liu, X., Zhu, H. and Yu, C. (2007). Spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils: a case study of Changxing, China. Environmental Geology. 52(1): 1– 10. 3. Amara, S., Abdelmelek, H., Garrel, C., Guiraud, P., Douki, T., Ravanat, J. L., Favier, A., Sakly, M. and Ben Rhouma, K. (2008). Preventive effect if zinc against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the rat testis. J Reprod Dev 129-134 4. Suruchi and Pankaj Khanna (2011). Assessment of heavy metal contamination in different vegetables grown in and around urban areas. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 5: 162-179. 5. ATSDR. (2008). Agency for toxic substances and disease registry. U.S. Department of health and human services; Atlanta, GA: Cadmium toxicity- Case studies in environmental medicine. 6. Acharya, U. R., Mishra, M., Patro, J. and Panda, M. K. (2008). Effect of vitamins C and E on spermatogenesis in mice exposed to cadmium. Reprod Toxicol 25:84-88 229

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7. Obianime A. W. and Roberts, I. (2009). Antioxidants, cadmium-induced toxicity, serum biochemical and the histological abnormalities of the kidney and testes of the male Wistar rats. Niger J Physiol Sci 24:177-185 8. Bu, T., Mi, Y., Zeng, W. and Zhang, C. (2011). Protective effect of quercetin on cadmiuminduced oxidative toxicity on germ cells in male mice. Anat Rec (Hoboken) 294:520-526 9. Al-Daihan, S. and Bhat, R. S. (2012). Antibacterial activities of extracts of leaf, fruit, seed and bark of Phoenix dactylifera. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 11(42): 10021-10025. 10. Saafi, E. B., Louedi, M., Elfeki, A., Zakhama, A., Najjar, M. F., Hammami, M., and Achour, L. (2011). Protective effect of date palm fruit extract (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on dimethoate induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Exp. Toxicol. Pathol. 65(5): 433-441. 11. Duncan, D. B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics. 11: 1-42. 12. Tremellen, K. (2008). Oxidative stress and male infertility: A clinical perspective. Hum. Reprod. Update, 14:243-258 13. Turner, T. T. and Lysiak, J. J. (2008). Oxidative stress: A common factor in testicular dysfunction. J. Androl., 29:488-498 14. El-kott, A. F., Sayed, A. A., El-Sayad, S. M., and Abdoulrahman, M. H. (2014). The pharmaceutical efferct of date palm fruit extract (Phoenix dactylifera L.) against amitrazinduced infertility in male rats. Advances in Life Science and Technology. 22; 14-26. 15. Bahmanpour, S. T., Talaei, Z., Vojdani, M. R., Panjehshahin, A., Poostpasand, S., Zareei, S. and Ghaeminia, M. (2006). Effect of Phoenix dactylifera pollen on sperm parameters and reproductive system of adult male rats. Iran J Med Sci 31:208-212 16. Saddiq, A. A. and Bawazir, A. E. (2010). Antimicrobial Activity of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Pits Extracts and Its Role in Reducing the Side Effect of Methyl Prednisolone on Some Neurotransmitter Content in the Brain, Hormone Testosterone in Adulthood. Proc. 4th Int. Date Palm Conference, Acta Hort., 882: 665-690. 17. Kara, H., Karatas, F., Canatan, H. and Servi, K. (2005). Effects of exogenous metallothionein on acute cadmium toxicity in rats. Biol Trace Elem Res. 104: 223–232. 18. Morales, A. I., Vicente-Sanchez, C., Jerkic, M., Santiago, J. M., Sanchez-Gonzalez, P. D., Perez-Barriocanal, F. and Lopez-Novoa, J. M. (2006). Effect of quercetin on metallothionein, nitric oxide synthases and cyclooxygenase-2 expression on experimental chronic cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 210: 128–135. 19. Mi, Y, Zhang, C, Li, C., Taneda, S., Watanabe, G., Suzuki, A. K. and Taya, K. (2010) Quercetin attenuates oxidative damage induced by treatment of embryonic chicken spermatogonial cells with 4-nitro-3-phenylphenol in diesel exhaust particles. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 74:934-938 20. Kalender, Y., Kaya, S., Durak, D., Uzun, F. G. and Demir, F. (2012). Protective effects of catechin and quercetin on antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and testis-histoarchitecture induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 33:141-148 21. Chow, J. M., Shen, S. C., Huan, S. K., Lin, H. Y. and Chen, Y. C. (2005). Quercetin, but not rutin and quercitrin, prevention of H2O2-induced apoptosis via anti-oxidant activity and heme oxygenase 1 gene expression in macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol 69:1839-1851

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APH 002:

Supplementary Doses of Zinc: Effects on Male Rabbit Hormonal Levels. Ogbu, O. A. C. and Ezeokoli, N. C. Department of Animal Health and Production Technology, Federal Polytechnic Oko Anambra State, Nigeria. Corresponding author; [email protected]

Abstract This study was conducted to assess the effect of supplementing Zinc at different levels on the hormonal levels of male rabbits. Thirty two male rabbits aged about two months were used for the experiment. The rabbits were randomly assigned into four experimental diets each supplemented with Zinc at 0ppm/kg (control), 50 ppm/kg, 100 ppm/kg and 150ppm/kg of feed designated as Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4. The feeding trial lasted for eighty-four days in a completely randomized design. Blood samples were collected from individual rabbit’s ear using sterile syringe and needle and were subjected to hormonal assay. The samples were analysed for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and interstial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH). The results showed that the FSH level of zinc increased. Its level was highest in T4 (3.9 x 10-3) and T3 (3.9 x10-3) as against T2 (4.0 x 10-3) and T1 (4.3 x 10-3). However, there were no significant (P0.05)

different. The study on electrolyte of rabbit is presented on Table 2 and all the parameters showed significant (P0.05) different.

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Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that the administration of 6.0iµ dose of pergonal would improve the sperm production in rabbits without any negative effect on haematology and electrolytes of rabbi References 1 Salako, A.E., Ijadunola, T.O., and Agbesola, Y.O. (2007). Haemoglobin Polymorphism in Nig. Indigenous small Ruminant populaton Preliminary Investigation; African J. of Biotechnology, 6(27): 2636-2638. 2

Ehebha, E.T.E., Isidhome, C.E., Omokhaye, S.O. and Ariona, M.B. (2009). Effects of Breeds, on the growth performance of weaned pigs fed Brewers dried growing diets Trop Anim Health Prod. 41(7):1577-81.

3

Herbert, U., Iheukwumere, F.C., Iloje, M.U. Ogundu, U.E., Okoli, I.C. and Umuesiobi, D.O. (2005). Effect of FSH+Llt treatment and concentrate supplementation on hormonal profile and embrayo generation in West African Dwarf does. Proceedings of 38th Annual conference of the Agricultural Society of Nigeria (ASN) Lafia, Nigeria.

4

Iheukwumere, F.C., Abu, H., E.C. Ndubuisi and U.N. Egu (2008). Haematology, Serum Testosterone and Spermatogenesis in Rabbit Bucks Treated with Human menopausal Gonadotrophin (Pergonal).

5

Turffrey, A.A. (1995). Laboratory Animals In: A.A., Tuffrey (ed). An introduction for Experiments, John Wilkey and Sons Ltd. England.

6

Lamb, G.N. (1991). Manual of Veterinary Laboratory Technique, CIBA-GEIGY. Kenya.

7

Nowshari, M.A., Beekers, J.F. and Holtz, W. (1995). Superovulation of goats with purified FSH supplemented with Defined Amounts of PLH. Theriogenology, 43, 797-802.

8

Barker, F.J. and Silverton, R.F. (1995. Introduction to Medical Laboratory Technology 6 th Ed. Butterworth, England.

9

Steel, R.G.D and Torrie, J. H. (1980). Principles and Procedures of Statistics MC Graw-Hill Book Co. New York, NY.

10

Obi, I.U. (1990). Statistical Method of Detecting Differences between treatment Means 2 nd Ed., Snaap Press, Enugu, Nigeria,

11

Mitruka, B.M. and Rawnsley, H. (1977). In Clinical biochemical and haematological reference values in normal experimental animals, Masson Pub. U.S.A. In. N.Y. 106-112.

12

Sokumbi, O.A. and Egbunike, G.N. (2000). Physiological of Growing Rabbits to Neen Azadrachta indica) leaf meal based diets. Haematology and Serum Biochemistry. Trop. Anim. Prod. Invest., 3: 81-87.

13

Brown, A.C. (2007). Chemistry of food composition Understanding food properties and preparation, 3rd Ed. Wordsworth Publishing Co. United States pp.46-49.

14

Allele, S.E. and Mays, A.(1999). The Merck’s Veterinary Manual, 8th ed. Merck and Co. Inc, White House Station. N.J

15

Iheukwumere, F.C. and Okoli, I.C. (2002). Preliminary Study on Raw Napoleona Imperalis as Feed Ingredient on Performance and Blood Chemistry of Weaner Rabbits. Tropical Animal Production Investigation 4” 113-119. 330

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APH 026: Effect

of Ethnoveterinary Practces on Ruminant in Ibarapa,Oyo State in Derived Savanna Zone of Nigeria.

*Alalade, J.A., *Okeniyi, G., ¶Akinlade, J.A.,* Muraina, T. O.,*Emiola,C.B. and *Adaramola, K. A *. Department of Animal Health and Production, Oyo State College of Agriculture and Technology, P.M.B. 10, Igbo Ora. Oyo State. ¶ . Department of Animal Production and Health, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P.M.B.4000,Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Nigeria.

Abstract Effect of Ethno veterinary practices on ruminant in Ibarapa zone Oyo State was investigated. Ibarapa zone comprises of three Local Government areas: Ibarapa North, Ibarapa Central and Ibarapa East. A well structure questionnaire was administered randomly to 50% farmers sampled in each local government. The questionnaire sought information on common ruminant ailments as well as the respective ethno veterinary practices used to control them. Information on methods used to prepare the medicine and the form in which it is administered was also collected. Eighty two percent (82%) of the farmers regarded ethno veterinary medicine as very useful in the provision of primary healthcare for the animals. A wide array of tradition remedies and their preparation methods were documented. This shows that farmers have alternative ways of ensuring the safety of livestock which can be used together with conventional methods to ensure livestock health.

Keywords: Ethno veterinary practices, Ruminant animal and Medicine

*Corresponding author: [email protected] Introduction Ethno-veterinary medicine (EVM) is a scientific term for traditional animal health care that encompasses the knowledge, skills, methods, practices and belief about animal health care found among community members. According to (1) EVM is the community based local or indigenous knowledge and methods of caring for, healing and managing livestock. (2) argues that EVM is the only option for most of village ruminant farmer in Africa, because there are hardly enough veterinarians in African rural areas. Most of the developing countries including Nigeria rely wholly or partly on traditional herbal medicine for treatment and control of animal and human diseases (3). The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock (4). Therefore, we need to document the scattered knowledge of ethno veterinary practices used for maintaining the health and curing diseases of livestock and pet animals. Materials and Methods Study Area The study area was Ibarapa zone in Oyo State which comprises of three local governments, Ibarapa North, Ibarapa Central and Ibarapa East. Ibarapa East is located along 40 44’ South and latitude 8022’North, Ibarapa 331

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central located along 3030’ South and 7015’East and Ibarapa North located 3020’East and 9010’North (5). Ibarapa was identified earlier as one of the most important crop livestock producing area in Oyo State. Sampling Procedure and Data Collection Primary data were used for this study through the use of well structured questionnaire. Out of 80 livestock producers with >25 animals each.50 were selected as respondents base on proximity to the each local government area those respondents were not clustered in a location. All individual who were asked to participate agreed to do so. We subsequently design a check list questionnaire to obtain information on major diseases and health problems prevalent on each farm as well as health management measures, source and preparation of traditional drug use to treat such disease condition. The questionnaire were back up with personal interview and visit during which respondent were asked for detail description of disease and symptom to aid identification. Data Analysis The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics tools with the use of SAS,(6) to generate frequently distribution and percentage tables. Results and discussion Table 1 shows the effect of ethno veterinary practices on ruminant in Ibarapa, Oyo State in derived Savanna zone of Nigeria. Mange is one of skin diseases to ruminant animal which commonly appear during the rainy season. The diseases cause significant losses and waste to sheep and goat industry, economic losses result from reduction in the amount of meat and quality of wool/fiber produced. The local farmers observed the major signs and symptoms of diseases attach were rubbing of the body against the wall, ruffled fur, falling of hair white scaly skin and information of scab. The local farmer treated their animal with skin problems by traditional method by use of mixed of engine oil, kerosene, sulphur and battery carbon which they found easy to prepare, cheap and affordable. This result was in line with (7) reported that mange is a common skin disease which can be treated with mixture of engine oil, kerosene and battery carbon and rubbed with the infected animal body. Streptothricosis (dermatophilosis) this is a skin disease of cattle especially prevalent in young animal. It is of economic importance because of the damage to the hide, loss of condition in chronically affected animal and occasional death. The symptom for this skin disease (dermatophilosis) were skin lesions, mostly on the back, shoulder and hindquarters around the ears a raw bleeding surface, beneath the crusts, a seriously affected animal is emaciated and weak. Animal contacted with (dermatophilosis) can be locally treated with herb. Pound 1kg each of the bark of Khaya anthoteca and Psorospermum febrifugum and add one handful of limestone powder. Roast 0.5kg of Ricinus communis seeds and grind them to powdered and add butter to make a paste. Apply the paste on the affected area daily for 3-7 days depending on the severity of the infection. News crusts may appear but will fall off. New hair will grow on the treated within 2weekss. Similar application was observed by (8) Bloat is the name given to the condition when the animal has too much gas and fluid in its stomach. Bloat is a life-threatening problem. The signs observe for the animal experience bloat are: the abdomen is large on the left side, the animal stop eating and chewing cud, difficult breathing, also protrusion of the tongue and extension of the head. Animal can experience bloat through eating fresh succulent pastures. The bloated can be treated with drench 4 litres of fresh milk to adult cattle and 2 litres to small ruminant. Second option is by drenching 1-2 litres of red palm oil to the ruminant animal. The animal will recover within 1-3 hours. This is 332

Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

locally practice and generally acceptable to all farmers when there is no Atropine injection around to inject to the animal. Snake bite: the snake bites are poisonous to the affected animal. The sign will be; animal may run away on being bitten, stop grazing, restless and lacks coordination, inability to move, paralysis, swelling at the site of the snake bite. Sweating, foaming from the mouth, protruding tongue, difficult breathing and bleeding after being bitten by some snake if care is not take can lead to death. The treatment goes in two ways through herbal solution. Press the black stone on a wound cause by a snake bite, and it will stick to the wound. The stone will fall off after a few hours or a day. After it falls, soak the stone in milk over night and clean it with water. Press it to the wound again, then all poison has been removed from the area of the snake bite. Secondly using grind or pound and soak the leaves of Mucuna pruriens (1kg), Aspilla Africans (1kg), Emilia coccinea (1kg) in water (5 litres) After thoroughly mixing, filter the solution and drench twice a day over a days. Use the residue to apply on the area of the snake bite. Similar method mention above was in line with (8). Conclusion and Recommendation This study assesses the use of ethnoveterinary practice (EVPS) in the treatment of ruminant animal disease in rural community of Ibarapa zone of Oyo State Nigeria. Based on the findings, this study concludes that ethnoveterinary practices is cheap and affordable for rural farmers and can enhance good health and productivity of livestock. Where there is no access to conventional medicine, ethnoveterinary is useful. Most of the livestock in Nigeria are infected with varieties of diseases for ruminant animal. References 1. Misra, K.K and Kumar, K.A., (2004) Ethno veterinary practices among the Konia Reddi of East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh. Study of Tribes and Tribal, 2(1):37-44. 2. Gueye, E.F., (1999). Ethno veterinary medicine against disease in Africa villages. World Poultry Science Journal, 35:187-198. 3. Sofowora, A., (1993). Medical Plants and Traditional medicine in Africa. John Wiley and Sons, New York, Pp 102. 4. Sri balaji. N., Vikrama., Chakravarthi, P., (2010). Ethnoveterinary practices in India – A Review. Vet. World, 3(12): 549-551. 5. Sanusi, W.A (2011). Effects of poverty on participation in nonfarm activity in Ibarapa Local Government area of Oyo state Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Apiculture Research Training 182.pp 86 – 95. 6. SAS (2003). Statistical Analytical System. User’s guide statistics, version 9,SAS Institute, New Caroline 7. Adedeji, O. S and Aiyedun, J. O (2013). Ethnoveterinary Practices in the treatment of skin disease (Mange) in small ruminants in Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Issues and Agriculture in Developing Countries, Vol. 5, No. 1, Pp 51-5, 2013 8. Ngeh J. T., Wanyama J., Nuwanyakpa M. and Django S. (2001). Ethnoveterinary Medicine, a practical approach to the treatment of cattle diseases in Sub–Saharan Africa. Ibadan: University Press

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Table 1: Effect of ethnoveterinary practices in ruminant animal Disease Symptom Treatment Mange

Streptothricosis (dermatophilosis)

Bloat

Snake bite

Preparation and administration

Rubbing of the body against the wall, ruffled fur, failing of hair, scaly skin and formation or scab Skin lesion, mostly on the back shoulder and hind quarter around the era, a raw bleeding surface beneath the crusts, a seriously affected animal is emaciated and weak.

Use of engine oil, kerosene, sulphur and battery carbon

The abdomen is large on the left side, the animal stops eating and chewing and difficult breathing. Protrusion of the tongue and extension of the head.

Fresh milk (4 litres) Red palm oil (1-2 litres)

Drench 4 litres of fresh milk to adult cattle and 2 litres to calves. The animal will recover within 1-3 hours. Drench 2 litres of palm oil to animal. After 30mins to 1hour animal will recovered.

Swelling at the site of the snake bite sweating foaming from the mouth, protruding tongue, hard difficult breathing inability to move, paralysis

Black stone 2-3cm in diameter. Milk – 500ml Water – 0.5 litre

Press the black stone on a wound caused by a snake bite and it will stick to the wound. The stone will fall off after a few hours or a day. After it fall off, soak the stone in milk overnight and clean it with water.

Khaya anthotece 1kg Psorospermum febrifugum 1kg, Ricinus communis Limestone – handful Butter 2kg

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Mixture should used top rub the animal body at least twice Pound 1kg each of the bark od Khaya anthotece and Psorospermum febrifugum and add one handful of limestone powder Roast 0.5kg of Ricinus communis seed and grind them to powder. Mix powder and add butter to make a paste.

Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

APH 027:

Thyroxine concentration in heat stressed growing rabbits ameliorated with baobab fruit pulp meal (BFPM)

+

Anoh K. U., * Barje, P. P., *Erakpotobor, G. I., +Akpa, G. N. and *Abdullahi I. +

Department of Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Shika [email protected]

*

Abstract The study was designed to evaluate thyroxine hormone concentration in heat stressed growing rabbits administered with BFPM. A total of thirty (30) weaned rabbits were used. The rabbits were randomly allotted into five experimental treatment groups, with six (6) rabbits per treatment in a completely randomize design. The animals were fed diets containing graded levels [0.0% (Control), 2.5%, 3.5%, 4.5% and 5.5%] of BFPM. Microclimate parameters of ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) of the rabbitry were taken daily from February through June. The values were used to calculate temperature-humidity index (THI). Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the ear vein at 10.00 h from four animals chosen randomly from each group of rabbits respectively before, and at the end of the experiment and thyroxine hormone levels were evaluated. It was found that initial thyroxine levels were low compared to those obtained at the end of the experiment. Final thyroxine levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) across the treatments, and 2.5% and 3.5% BFPM recorded the highest values compared to 4.5% and 5.5%. It was concluded that BFPM improved thyroxine level up to 3.5%. Key words: Heat stress, amelioration, and hormones Introduction It appears that the rabbits, bred for high growth rate and meat yield in optimal environments, are not able to fully express their genetic potential when reared in hot climate. It is considered that animals are under heat stress when there is an imbalance between heat production within the body and heat loss. During heat stress, feed intake and general body metabolism is slowed down. Thyroxine is one hormone that triggers body metabolism and can also be a good indicator for determining the levels of heat stress in an animal’s body [1, 2]. The thyroid secretes two major hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, commonly called T4 and T3, respectively. Both of these hormones profoundly increase the metabolic rate of the body. Triiodothyronine is about four times as potent as thyroxine, but it is present in the blood in much smaller quantities and persists for a much shorter time than thyroxine does [1]. Because thyroid hormone increases the quantities of many bodily enzymes and because vitamins are essential parts of some of the enzymes or coenzymes, thyroid hormone causes increased need for vitamins. Therefore, a relative vitamin deficiency can occur when excess thyroid hormone is secreted, unless at the same time increased quantities of vitamins are made available. Baobab fruit pulp is reported to have a high content of vitamin C. One source reports that the content of vitamin C in the baobab fruit is 1690 mg/kg, compared with 1060 mg/kg for fresh hot pepper [3]. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid is been reported to be a powerful antioxidant and extremely important in human nutrition [4]. Vitamin C consumption has been shown to increase growth rate and reduces thermoregulatory parameters of heat stressed rabbits. 335

Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

This study was design to evaluate the thyroxine concentration in heat stressed growing rabbits ameliorated with baobab fruit pulp meal. Materials and Methods Study Location This study was carried out at the Rabbit unit of National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI) Shika, Zaria about 220 KM from Abuja the capital of Nigeria. Zaria has an average rain fall of 1100mm which starts from late April and early May to mid-October and an average temperature of 37oC and average relative humidity of 75% [5]. Experimental Animals and Diet A total of thirty (30) weaned rabbits of mixed sex were used in this study. The study was carried out during the hot period in Zaria (March – June). The rabbits were divided into 5 groups of 6 rabbits per group. The groups were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 experimental treatment- groups in a completely randomized design. The treatment groups consisted of: Control (Water without anti-stress), Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3), solution with feed respectively, Feed- Vitamin C, and BFPM as additives respectively (designated T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively). The water was offered ad libitum but changed daily in morning. All rabbits were fed the same concentrate feed. All recommended managerial practices were dully observed. Meteorological Data of Rabbit Microclimate The microclimate (ambient temperature and relative humidity values) within the rabbit house were recorded twice daily at 08:00 h and 15.00 h during the study period using a digital thermometer (Cocet, ShenzhenGuangdong, China). The data collected was used to compute the temperature humidity index (THI), an indicator of the thermal comfort level of the rabbits. The THI was calculated using the modified formula for the rabbit by [6] as follows: THI = t - [(0.31 – 0.31 x RH) (t – 14.4)] Where RH = relative humidity /100. t = ambient temperature. The values of THI obtained were compared to that classified for tropical regions as shown below: < 27.8 = Absence of heat stress, 27.8 - 28.9 = Moderate heat stress, 28.9 – 30 = Severe heat stress and above 30 = Very severe heat stress. Determination of Thyroxine (T4) Concentration Blood samples (5 ml) were collected through the ear vein, randomly selected from the treatment groups, from each group of rabbits, respectively into a bottle without anticoagulant and allowed to clot. The blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rounds/minute for 15 minutes. The serum harvested was stored at -10oC until analyzed for T4. T4 concentration was determined using ELISA kits (Liaison® T4 Byk-Sangtec Diagnostica, Dietzenbach, Germany). Statistical Analysis Data obtained from all the experiments were subjected to analysis of variance, using the General Liner Model Procedure of [7]. Significant differences among treatment means were separated using the pair wise difference (Pdiff) in the SAS package. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant.

Results and Discussions The average THI of 28.74oC during the experimental period indicated that the rabbit house was thermally stressful and may have adverse effects on the rabbits [6]. Overall data obtained indicated that THI in the afternoon was higher by 1.24 % than THI in the morning. Initial thyroxine levels were low compared to those obtained at the end of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, thyroxine levels increased across the treatments, and 2.5 and 3.5% BFPM significantly (P99.9%) against ticks in the larva development stage on the host at the time of treatment. Ivermectin has been reported to provide 99.0% control of all parasitic stages of R. (B.) microplus infested on host animals at the time of treatment (5). Even though some investigators have reported that the concentration of ivermectin in sera of cattle that provides antiparasitic activity is unclear (7), have reported a level of 5–8 ppb of an endectocide in the sera of cattle to be the threshold level at which control of feeding ticks can be expected. Results of this study suggest that ivermectin levels in the sera of treated cattle increased quickly after treatment, producing lethal effect as early as 4th day post treatment. These results demonstrated that in comparison to ticks recovered from untreated cattle, tick numbers from treated cattle were significantly reduced. In another study (3) conducted with LA formulations, which included the same formulation used in the present study, showed reductions of >90% occurred in tick counts and reproductive capacity for 116–129 d following a single treatment. A study conducted with the traditional 1% formulation of doramectin against R. (B.) microplus at 200 m g/kg provided similar results (98% control) to this study at 14 day post- treatment (6). Conclusion Regarding potential use of ivermectin in the control of ticks, these results clearly indicated that the efficacy against ticks on the host at the time of treatment made it a highly suitable candidate for use. The material was highly effective (>99%) against ticks infested on animals within the first 14 day after treatment. 344

Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

References

1.

Walker A.R., Bouattour A., Camicas J.-L., Estrada-Pena A., Horak I.G., Latif, A.A., Pegram R.G. and Preston P.M. (2003). Ticks of Domestic Animals in Africa: a Guide to Identification of Species. Bioscience Reports, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

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Jongejan F, Uilenberg G (2004). The global importance of ticks. Parasitol., 129: S3–S14.

3.

Carvalho, L.A., Bridi, A.A., Cramer, L.G., Langholff, W.K., 1999. Efficacy of an ivermectin LAI formulation against B. microplus.In: Abstracts of the 17th Internatl. Conf. of the World Assoc. Advancement of Vet. Parasitol., Copenhagen, Denmark, August 15–19, 1999.

4.

Davey, R.B., Miller, J.A., George, J.E., Klavons, J.A., 2007. Efficacy of a single doramectin injection against adult female Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the final stages of engorgement before detachment. J. Med. Entomol. 44, 277–282.

5.

Davey, R.B., Miller, J.A., George, J.E., Miller, R.J., 2005. Therapeutic and persistent efficacy of a single injection treatment of ivermectin and moxidectin against Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) on infested cattle. Exp. Appl. Acarol. 35, 117–129.

6.

George, J.E., Davey, R.B., 2004. Therapeutic and persistent efficacy of a single application of doramectin applied either as a pour-on or injection to cattle infested with Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 41, 402–407.

7.

Lifschitz, A., Virkel, G., Ballent, M., Sallovitz, J., Imperiale, F., Pis, A., Lanusse, C., 2007. Ivermectin (3.15%) long-acting formulations in cattle: absorption pattern and pharmacokinetic considerations. Vet. Parasitol. 147, 303–310.

8.

Mekonnen S (1998). Ticks and tick born diseases and control strategies in Ethiopia Agricultural Research Council. Hoechst (Germany) OIE regional collaborating centre pp. 441-446.

9.

Singh, S., Chhabra, M.B., 1992. Comparative acaricidal efficacy of coumaphos fenvalerate against some common livestock ticks. Ind. Vet. J. 16, 94–100.

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Proc. 21st Ann. Con. Animal Science Association of Nigeria 18 – 22, 2016/ Port Harcourt

APH 030:

Thermoregulation of Rouen ducks during road transportation and the effects of antioxidants administration

Ndazo Salka Minka1*, Fatima B. Hassan1; Abubakar A Adeiza1, Joseph Olusegun Ayo2 1

College of Agriculture and Animal Science, P.M.B. 2134. Division of Agricultural Colleges, Ahmadu Bello University, Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, Mando-Kaduna, Nigeria 2 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria

Abstract The ameliorating effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid (AA) and vitamin E (VE) on colonic temperature (CT) of transported Rouen ducks were investigated during the hot-dry conditions. 75 ducks divided in 4 groups of 15 ducks served as subject. One hour before transportation group one (AA) ducks were orally administered with 0.5 mg/kg body weight of AA, group 2 (VE) were given 200 mg/kg body weight of VE, while group 3 (melatonin) were given 0.5 mg/kg body weight of melatonin. Control and sedentary ducks were given equivalent of distilled water. The result of CT showed that handling, loading and start of the journey significantly (p