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This implies that the Malaysian public is against such behavior which is a practice that is also against their ... (Guru, 2013). Consequently, users .... gambar tengah berjimak je ... SD. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. -jilat perabis. - Post la gambar berjunub. - Kenapa la post gambar ni. .... http://www.kpopmap.com/top-10-korean-celebrities-.

The 6th International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities 4-6 April 2017, Malaysia

Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective Siti Shareena Mohd Saharuddin, Aziyah Abu Bakar Ph.D, Zarihan Shamsudin Ph.D Affiliation name1 [email protected] Abstract: This study carried out to determine the reactions of the Malaysian public towards the posted image of a celebrity couple on Instagram. A total of 400 men and women of different age, race and religion were randomly selected to be the respondents of this study whose purpose was to see how the Malaysian public manifested their rejection when they were shown the posted image of the chosen celebrity couple. In the era of new technology of today, people use social media as a means to tell the world about their lifestyle. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and average. The findings of the study reveal that the respondents reacted negatively towards the image indicating their rejection rather than acceptance of this kind of openness. This implies that the Malaysian public is against such behavior which is a practice that is also against their norms and tradition hence, one should not be so free to disclose what does in one’s own privacy. Keywords: celebrity couple, privacy, negative response, negative words

Introduction become the main means of communication. Currently, there are many new social media that can be used such as Ryze.com, Friendster, Xanga, Orkut, MySpace, Facebook, Bebo, Hi5, Mixi, and many more that are launched from time to time. In fact, social media become wider with the emergence of Friendster, MySpace, and Facebook (Ezaleila, 2011).

The term ‘social media’ refers to the websites and applications that provide the internet users with opportunities to share information and to participate in social networking. As a result, people are now able to share information as well as communicate with one another via social media (Darmawan, 2014). In other words, netizens are not only able to start new relationships but also maintain their long-term ones (Tong, Van Der Heide, Langwell, & Walther, 2008) and at the same time share activities, interests, and social information (Albrechtslund, 2008).

It was the introduction of the Facebook that was launched in February 2004 by Mark Zukerberg that made social media become the current most popular means of connecting people and sharing information (Fikri, 2015). Facebook has many special functions, some of which enable its users to create their own personal account, add on other accounts, update photos and comments, and join in groups of similar interests in their university, school even workplace. (Edosomwan, 2011). MySpace, on the other hand, was introduced in 2006. It gained popularity for short blogging and was very much favored by celebrities back then (Jasra, 2010). Then came the Instagram which has the second highest number of users after Facebook. In 2015, however, Instagram had 400 million users defeating Twitter which only had 320

Since social media have become part of many people’s lives, the effect of these new innovations on them is apparent in news articles (Pfeiffer, 2010). There has been a consistent growth in the utilization of web-based social media for sharing different types of client created substance, for example, news, images, videos and recordings, made public within a bounding system (Danah, 2007). Mobile technologies, the Internet, and online networking have become a social phenomenon among young adults between the ages 18 and 29 (Lenhart, Purcell, Smith, & Zickuhr, 2010) so much so they have 1

Aziyah / Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective

million of them (Guest, 2016). Hipsters or Instagram users prefer this type of social media because they find it easier to upload, edit, and share photographs with other members. Unlike in Facebook, Instagram does not bother their users with advertisements (Guru, 2013). Consequently, users tend to make posts that not only invade their own but also other people’s privacy. Thus, they openly boast, and brag about themselves or dishonor, defame, and criticize whoever they fancy (Dunya, 2016). Unfortunately, many of those who are guilty of the former are celebrities for it has become a trend among them to use the Instagram to show off what they have, market themselves, and interact with their fans. This present study has chosen the image posted on Instagram by a Malaysian actress whose name is Rozita Che Wan. She is a very well-known celebrity and has more than 2 million followers in Malaysia who admire her for her clothing, other accessories, and the beautiful scenery that she uses as the backgrounds of her pictures. Her popularity on the Instagram has led her to be selected to host a reality show entitled ‘The House’ by Astro (News Straits Time, 2017). As such, it is the objective of this study to find out how the members of the Malaysian public react to the earlier mentioned selected image of Rozita Che Wan which she posted on the Instagram and the negative words they use to refer to her image. Literature review Instagram is a social medium that allows its users or hipsters to share their photographs online for free. It enables them to upload, edit and share their photographs with other members. Besides that, users can also put a title or caption above or below the picture. Many users find this activity fun. The photographs posted in Instagram can even be viewed in Facebook, Tumblr, Twitter, and Posterous. In fact, they are connected to a user's foursquare account by tagging the photo location (Lux, 2011). The most special feature of Instagram created by Lux is the apps that has 11 difference filters that can be used to improve photographs and videos so much so even the most boring photographs or videos can look

amazing and beautiful. Besides that, Lux has come out with Instagram that has social use. Like any other social networks, Instagram is based around having friends or followers. The Instagram profile account shows the number of photos that have been uploaded, the number of followers the account has and the number of people the user follows. When people follow someone their posted photographs will automatically be shown on the stream or timeline. The only thing for that someone to do with the photographs in Instagram is to post LIKE and COMMENT about them. On the other hand, the comments usually show the perception and attitude of the person towards what he sees in the photographs or videos. What the above mentioned feature of the Instagram is able to do has not gone unnoticed by the many people especially celebrities. The latter are deeply mindful of the effect on their online media accounts and the number of interactions and the connections they could make (Ward, 2016). CelebsNow online magazine had compiled all the photographs of David Beckam kissing his wife, Victoria since 2008 until now. Many fans of this couple think that they are very romantic and voted them to be the sweetest couple of the year. Their posts have inspired others to form similar relationship (Gornall, 2015). Likewise, the photograph of Park Shinhye received a huge number of likes and comments after she posted on the Instagram the image of her boyfriend leaning his head on her shoulder. Her fans posted positive comments because they love to see that particular photograph (Kpopmap, 2016). On the contrary, the situation in Malaysia is very different. Many celebrity couples had been criticized by the public because of the images they posted on the Instagram. One of them was Asyraf Sinclair, the actor of "Gol and Gincu” who was kissed by his wife after he was announced as the winner of an award. Unfortunately, he was criticized and accused by the public of mortifying Muslims (Noraniza, 2015). Although there was a legally sanctioned contract of a marriage between them, this did not give them the right to post photograph of such intimacy to be viewed by the public.

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Aziyah / Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective

In another case which took place in 2016, Awal Ashaari shared a photograph of him tenderly kissing his wife Scha Al-Yahya which was also chided by the public for the same reason that such behavior was not acceptable of a Muslim (Bella, 2016). A few months after that, Rozita Che Wan or otherwise known as Che Ta posted the photograph of herself passionately kissing her husband on a beach in Greece on the Instagram. She too was rebuked by the Malaysian public. They denigrated her for being an attention seeker who desecrated Islam. They adjured her and her husband to keep their private life undisclosed for they were Muslims and therefore, should abide by its way of life (Utusan Online, 2016). It is obviously that different communities around the world react distinctly to the above discussed behavior. Malaysia was chosen because of the curiosity to see the kind of expressions that the members of its public frequently use when they post their comments on such photographs on the Instagram. Methods This current study was qualitative one as it was carried out through observations by logging on Instagram accounts and stalking the selected celebrity couple. This procedure was deemed suitable for this study because it was one of the ways to guarantee that the data collected would be accurate. The photograph chosen was that which was posted on the Instagram by Rozieta Che Wan showing her kissing her husband on a beach in Greece. 10 minutes after the photograph was posted, more than one thousand comments were received from Malaysians throughout the country. Most of the comments were negative despite Rozieta Che Wan’s fans defending her saying that it was alright to do so because they were already married to one another (Bulletin Malaysia 2016). Data collection in this study, therefore, involved tracking down all updated or new comments that appeared in the comment space. However, only negative expressions posted were collected which were later categorized into obscenity, profanity and indecency. Table 1 shows the three categories that the negative expressions had been divided into, namely Obscenity, 3

Profanity and Indecency. The choice of category into which each expression was placed was made by the researchers based on their consensus of their own perceptions of its connotation. Table 1 below shows that there are 9 items listed under Obscenity, 11 items under Profanity and 10 items under Indecency Table 1: Categories of Negative Expressions and Their Examples Obscenity Post gambar berjunub

la

Profanity

Indecency

- Anda bawa imej islam ke public, so biar org respect kita as muslim

-makin gedik

- Haram la mata org lain pandang

- kesian xde life rupanya sampai nak tarik perhatian org lain

-tak senonoh

-jilat perabis - Ohh dah halal, lepas ni boleh la buat video 18sx lepasni,asalkan dah halal - Jom cium berjemaah,,, ohh sedap Pernah dengar ustaz cakap nak "romen ke nak main lidah ke tak kisah tp simpan sendiri. - Baik post gambar tengah berjimak je - Kenapa la post gambar ni. Pakai bikini la kak baru sesuai dengan adegan ni. Pastu bagi zain nyusu. nakalnyee che ta -

Ecah

ada

- Murahnya maruah, dah nak usia nenek dh che ta, Hari Kiamat dah nak dekat Astagfirullahalazim. - Memang dah sah suami isteri tapi tuhan tak suruh kau bercium mcm ni - Please respect our culture and religion. mana rasa tak perlu x payah la post. simpan sendiri. - Berpelukan suami isteri di khlayak ramai pun haram - Apa tanggapan orang Greece, maybe dia cakap muslim people are just like us. - Adab sis adab, rasa baru je lepas pergi umrah, berubahla selagi

-cover2 sikit oii

la

-makin cetek akal tengok rasa geli...tua2 pun - takpe lah hang nak kiss sana tapi toksah post sini. Tak manis.. Walaupun Che ta bukan kat Malaysia. - tanamkan sifat malu dalam diri. Tunjukkan contoh yang boleh

Aziyah / Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective

potensi "adik"

dapat

sempat - Manusia zaman

dibanggakan akhir

- Sebagai sesama islam menegur sesama sendiri.

Makin popular makin lupa diri.

and 66.5% are females. It is also shows that there are more female respondents than male ones. Table 3: The Respondents in Terms of Race No

Race

Percentage (%)

1

Malay

95.3

After completing the first procedure discussed above, the categorized data were fed into a Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) so that descriptive statistics could be utilized to find frequencies and percentages to determine which category of negative expressions was the most used by the Malaysian public when they responded to the photograph on the Instagram selected for this study.

2

Chinese

4.5

3

Indian

0.3

As for the sample, negative expressions were obtained directly from Malaysian public’s Instagram accounts. Therefore, the respondents are Malaysians who have Instagram accounts, specifically those 400 who posted their comments in response to the posted image of the selected celebrity couple. Observations were made by checking the comments daily from 3rd October 2016 to 8th October 2016. Nonetheless, out of the 400 respondents only those who posted negative comments about the photograph were selected while the rest who did not do so were not selected because they did not fulfill the requirement of this research.

Obscenity

Table 3 shows the racial composition of the respondents. It is found that Malays make up 95.3% of the respondents, followed by 4.5% Chinese and 0.3 of Indians.

Table 4 shows that the obscene word that has highest mean, that is 2.03 (SD= 1.01077) is to "jilat perabis" while the one that has lowest mean, that is 1.9725 (SD= 016374) is Ohh dah halal, lepas ni boleh la buat video 18sx lepasni, asalkan dah halal.”

Table 4: The Items for Obscenity

No

Items

Mean

SD

1.

-jilat perabis

2.03

1.01077

2.

- Post la gambar berjunub

1.995

0.076

1.995

0.07062

Findings Respondents’ Profile Table 2: The Respondents in terms of Gender No

Gender

Percentage (%)

1

Male

33.5

3.

4. 2

Female

66.5 5.

Table 2 shows that the percentages of respondents. There are 400 respondents of which 33.5% are males

6.

- Kenapa la post gambar ni. Pakai bikini la kak baru sesuai dengan adegan ni. Pastu bagi zain nyusu.

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Aziyah / Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective

7. 8.

- Jom cium berjemaah,,, ohh sedap

1.99

0.09962

- nakalnyee che ta

1.9939

0.7773

- Ecah ada potensi dapat "adik"

1.9939

0.7773

4. 5.

- Murahnya maruah, dah nak usia nenek dh che ta, Hari Kiamat dah nak dekat - Manusia akhir zaman

9.

6. - Baik post gambar tengah berjimak je - Pernah dengar ustaz cakap nak "romen ke nak main lidah ke tak kisah tp simpan sendiri.

1.9875

0.11124 7.

1.985

0.1217 8.

9. - Ohh dah halal, lepas ni boleh la buat video 18sx lepasni,asalk an dah halal

1.9725

0.16374

- Anda bawa imej islam ke public, so biar org respect kita as muslim - Please respect our culture and religion. mana rasa tak perlu x payah la post. simpan sendiri.

Table 5 below shows the word that receives the highest mean in this category, that is 2.0325 (SD= 1.00945) is "Astagfirullahalazim" while the one that obtains the lowest mean, that is 1.94 (SD=0.23778) is "Sebagai sesama islam menegur sesama sendiri"

1.9775

0.14849

1.97

0.17080

1.965

0.18401

1.965

0.18401

1.96

0.1962

1.9525

0.21297

1.9425

0.23309

1.94

0.23778

- Adab sis adab, rasa baru je lepas pergi umrah, berubahla selagi sempat - Haram la mata org lain pandang

Profanity

0.12175

- Memang dah sah suami isteri tapi tuhan tak suruh kau bercium mcm ni

10. 11.

1.985

- Berpelukan suami isteri di khlayak ramai pun haram - Sebagai sesama islam menegur sesama sendiri.

. Table 5: The Items for Profanity No

Items

Mean

SD

1.

- Astagfirullahalazim.

2.0325

1.00945

2.

- Apa tanggapan orang Greece, maybe dia cakap muslim people are just like us

1.9875

0.11124

3.

5

Indecency Table 6 shows the items listed under indecency with their means and SDs. There are 4 items with the same highest mean, that is 1.99 (SD= 0.9962). The 4 items are "makin gedik', "makin cetek akal", "Tak manis. Walaupun Che ta bukan kat Malaysia", and "Makin popular makin lupa diri. The item with the lowest mean, that is 1.92 (SD= 0.27163), is "tanamkan sifat

Aziyah / Celebrity Couple’s Posted Image on Instagram: A Negative Malaysian Perspective

malu dalam diri. Tunjukkan contoh yang boleh dibanggakan".

Table 6: The Items for Indecency

No

Items

Mean

SD

1.

-makin gedik

1.99

0.9962

2.

-makin cetek akal

1.99

0.9962

3.

Tak manis.. Walaupun Che ta bukan kat Malaysia.

1.99

0.9962

Makin pouplar makin lupa diri.

1.99

0.9962

1.985

0.1217

1.9825

0.13129

4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

- kesian xde life rupanya sampai nak tarik perhatian org lain tengok geli...tua2 pun

rasa

-cover2 la sikit oii

Since Malaysia is an Islamic country, the behaviors of an individual need to mirror the Islamic culture such as keeping intimacy of one’s marriage in the privacy of his home, not exposing too much of oneself so as to invite defamation and involving oneself in an act of indecency. Everyone is entitled to have their own opinion therefore, one should be aware of social as well as religious taboos when they are on social media. This implies that the Malaysian public is against such behavior which is against their social and religious norms and traditions hence, one should not be so free to disclose what does in one’s own privacy.

References 1.9725

0.16374

1.945

0.22827

-tak senonoh

1.9425

0.23309

- tanamkan sifat malu dalam diri. Tunjukkan contoh yang boleh dibanggakan

1.92

0.27163

- takpe lah hang nak kiss sana tapi toksah post sini.

perception of the image posted by the selected celebrity couple on their Instagram. What is obvious here is that as modern technologies become more sophisticated many people feel they are at liberty to do anything and everything without taking responsibility for their actions. Currently, social media are able to move very fast in disseminating any kind of information to the public and they also allow their users to give their opinions and comments based on their own perceptions.

Conclusion The choices of negative expressions used by respondents were made based on the individual’s

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