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Research Journal of Information Technology

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ISSN 1815-7432 DOI: 10.3923/rjit.2016.39.46

Research Article Application of Geographic Information System Technology in Controlling Pipeline Vandalism of Oil and Gas Industry 1

Dalhatu Aliyu Sani, 4 Baharin Bin Ahmad

2

Himan

Shahabi,

1

Bakhtyar

Ali Ahmad, 3Shilan Mirmokrigharehveran and

1

Department of Geoinformatics, Faculty of Geo Information and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Iran 3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran 4 Department of Geoinformation, Faculty of Geoinformation and Real Estate, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Malaysia 2

Abstract Nigeria is among the top ten nations of the world that is endowed and blessed with oil and gas. However, the oil and gas industry has contributed a lot in generating revenue to the country but unfortunately that has not impacted much to the social and structural developments of the people in Nigeria. Level of poverty increased which led to high rates of crime and criminal behaviors like petroleum pipeline vandalism that is common in the oil communities in delta state of Nigeria. This type of crime is mostly committed by the jobless youth who are looking for alternative means to success. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential use of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a strategic tool for oil and gas industry for controlling pipeline vandalization in the oil communities of Oviri in delta state of Nigeria. The analysis used includes hotspot analysis, kernel density analysis and proximity analysis. The results of this study proven that GIS can be used as a strategic tool for oil and gas industry as well as it can be a useful tool for decision makers to plan, control and monitor the pipeline vandalism in Nigeria.

Key words: Criminal behaviors, vandalism of oil, GIS, controlling pipeline Received: December 02, 2015

Accepted: January 01, 2016

Published: March 15, 2016

Citation: Dalhatu Aliyu Sani, Himan Shahabi, Bakhtyar Ali Ahmad, Shilan Mirmokrigharehveran and Baharin Bin Ahmad, 2016. Application of geographic information system technology in controlling pipeline vandalism of oil and gas industry. Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8: 39-46. Corresponding Author: Himan Shahabi, Department of Geomorphology, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran Tel: +989186658739 Copyright: © 2016 Dalhatu Aliyu Sani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the creative commons attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Competing Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interest exists. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its supporting information files.

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016 MATERIALS AND METHODS

INTRODUCTION The oil and gas industry is an extremely important

Study area: Nigerian is a West African and federated country,

segment of the world economy. This industry is a major

comprising of 30 states and plus Abuja as federal capital

source of income for many countries of the world such

territory and round the country they are 774 local

as Saudi Arabia, Russia, China, Iraq Kuwait, Nigeria etc

governments (Toulmin, 2009). Nigerian is the most populous

(Witter et al., 2014). However, the safety of oil and gas

black man nation in the world and has a population of over

infrastructure from

vandalization events is critical to

140 million people 2006 census, figures records (Bamgbose,

quality, healthy and safe environment (Smallwood, 2012).

2009). It landmass covers 932,769 km2 and the country is

The persistent growth in population and the associated

bounded to the west by Benin republic, to its North Niger and

urban explosion, most of the petroleum pipelines carrying

Chad republic, west via republic of Cameroon and to the

products are

South by Atlantic Ocean. It gained its independent from

presently

passing

through city centers

the Great Britain (United Kingdom) in 1st October, 1960.

(Onuoha, 2009).

The study area is in Delta State of Nigeria as illustrated in

In Nigeria, over the past decades, the pipelines with their

Fig. 1.

associated rights of way have suffered sequences of acts of vandalism, to the level that the nigerian government have

Delta State is one of the states in Nigeria, derived its name

think of the possibility of burying the pipelines 12 m beneath

from delta as a feature of the river Niger. The state was carved

the surface of the earth, where they will be no or less

out from former Bendel State in the year 1991. The state

vulnerable (Chika-Amanze and Edomaruse, 2007). Vandalism

has 25 numbers of local government areas. Its capital city is

is classically defined as when an individual knowingly causes

called Asaba, while, Warri is known as the biggest commercial

critical physical damage to a construction or its contents

nerves city in the state.

(Vardi and Weitz, 2003). Vandalism is according or governed by state laws, which differs by state. Some states have distinct

Date used: The primary data used in this research is derived

statutes that deal particularly with vandalism to certain

from an existing data i.e., Google Earth and petroleum pipeline

possessions, which include autos, cemeteries, otherwise

map and it components obtained from Nigerian National

school property (Moser, 1992).

Petroleum Cooperation. The method adopted in this study is

The technology probably GIS is the best solution as GIS is

qualitative study where literatures were reviewed through

a computer system comprises of hardware and software,

the archival records, newsletters, journals, books, official

designed to permit users to obtain, process, analyze and

documents and maps that include topographic map, land use

retrieve large volume of

and related

map and existing pipeline map. The maps were processed in

attribute data collected from several sources (Shahabi et al.,

a GIS environment using Arc GIS 10.2 software. Utilization of

2014). However, GIS can be used as a strategic tool for control

GIS tools for strategic applications in the downstream

and proper management of such problems (Shahabi et al.,

sector of oil and gas industry (especially in controlling

2015). It is therefore necessary to develop a strategy for

vandalism) will be demonstrated. The evaluation will be

controlling the activities of vandals and vandalization, the

based on descriptive statistics as well as spatial and

complexity of this task requires mapping and analyses of

attribute query. The design of the research process is guided

the vandalism in the study area. The use of GIS as a strategic

by the choice of research strategy, which involves how data

tool to tackle this problem is offered in this study. Based on

for the study is to be collected and analyzed as shown in

the above problem, the main research

Fig. 2.

referenced

data

question to be

answered by this study is to how can GIS be used as a

The data used for the purpose of the study are mainly

strategic tool for controlling pipeline vandalism in oil and

secondary sources obtained from existing sources as shown in

gas industry. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate

Table 1. The petroleum pipeline map of Nigeria comprises

the potential use of GIS as a strategic tool for oil and gas

of deports, refineries, pumping stations and pipeline was

industry for controlling pipeline vandalism. The scope of the

vectorised using AutoCAD software, Vandalism Locations

study is limited to Oviri Court oil communities of delta

coordinates were collected using GPS so as to the locations of

state part of niger delta in South region of Nigeria, as a case

the vandalisms in the study area, the image data was derived

study.

from the Google to show the study area. 40

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016 N

Africa

Delta state , Nigeria

IKA Nigeria

Sapele Itsekiri

Ukwuani Urhobo land Warri Isoko

Atlantic ocean Ijaw 0

24

Phase 3 data processing analysis

Phase 2 data preparation

Phase 1 research formulation

Fig. 1: Geographical position of study area

Preliminary study

Problem statements

Aims and objective

Physical data

Data collection

Data base design

Data base implementation

Data collections and scheme

Data processing and analysis Proximity analysis Buffer Near Select bylocation Spatial joint

Bar chart/pie chart Results

Hot spot analysis Kernel density

Conclusions and recommendations

Fig. 2: Flowchart methodology of study area

41

analysis Hyperlink

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016 N Lake chad

Gasau

Maiduguri

Kano Biu

R. Niger [6”] Kaduna S” 72 km

Minna

10”

6”

12” 168 km

Jos

12” 299 km

Ilori n

Ibadan Ore

Altas Cove

Makurd 8” 180 km

12” 107 km

Oregha creek Wam

Bight of Benin

S” 170 km

Auchi Benin city

Yola

R. Benue

Suleja

Mosimi Apapa/ satelit

Gombe

8” 765 km

Destination depots

i Source depot-brid Refinery and depot

Enugu 12”

Aba

LEGEND

Distributon depot

{12”} 156 km

Booster Pipeline

Oloibdi

Calabar

Olarilca Port Harcourt

Fig. 3: Existing petroleum pipelines network in Nigeria (Sonibare and Akeredolu, 2006) Table 1: Data used for the purpose of this study Data type

Data

Source

Secondary

From existing data

From some organizations within Nigeria

Vector:- Deports, refineries, pumping stations and pipeline

Soured from NNPC, Digitizing and georefrencing using Google Earth

Raster:-

Georefrencing by obtaining GCPs from Google Earth

Google Earth Image of the study area Photograph of the vandalism location and the actors

The secondary data used involved the existing Petroleum

For this study, the analysis was carried out using GIS Analysis

Pipeline map of Nigeria sourced from Nigerian National

tool includes, hot spot analysis, kernel analysis, proximity

Petroleum Cooperation (NNPC) which the pipeline crossing

analysis (buffer analysis, select by location and near analysis)

the study area was extracted (vector and raster data). Figure 3

in the study area was developed by the used of ArcGIS 10.2

shows the existing petroleum pipelines network in Nigeria.

and the discussion of the entire results of the study.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Evaluation of hot spot analysis in number of vandalism incidents: For the study area (Oviri) of vandalism, hot spot

The skills for processing and presentation of data for the

analysis has been done. However, numbers of incidents are

motive of geospatial analysis need good knowledge of GIS

used as input field and number of actors was use as

tools, functionalities and their capabilities for data evaluation

self-potential field (weight). However, the results on which

without error or error free and standardized in terms of quality.

point is hot spot and cold spot, is according to p-value (cold 42

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016

0 Hotspot 2 Score

N W

110 220

E S

-1.563950 -1.563949- -0.074189 -0.074188-0.655703 0.655704-1.004060

440

660

Meters 880 Locational area

Pipeline Road Building Boundary

Fig. 4: Hot spot map for vandalism in Oviri spot) and z-value (hot spot) when z-value is negative number

to the study areas (Oviri) the 50 m buffer is backed by

is cold spot and positive is hot spot as shown in Fig. 4.

the Nigerian petroleum pipeline Right Of Way (ROW) is 50 m in terms of their width. Figure 6 shows the 50 m

Evaluation of kernel density analysis in number of

buffer zones of pipeline and vandalism locations in the study

vandalism incidents: Kernel density mapping is among of the

area.

most common and known methods of describing hotspots for crime and as well as crash data, because it facts smooth and

Evaluation of distance analysis by spatial join in vandalism

incessant risk targets in the study area. Kernel density has

and pipeline location: Spatial join was used to show the

been used for vandalism incidents in the study area. In

nearest facilities according to distance like hospital, police

population field number of incidents was used according to

station, fire station within the study area from vandalism or

maps point with high density have the high number of

pipeline buffer. The analysis can be used for emergency cases

incidents. Figure 5 displayed four locations of vandalism, the

like fire explosion caused by vandalism. Figure 7 shows the

points with high density have purple color in the middle of the

nearest fertilities include, (a) Fire station, (b) Hospital and (c)

point.

Police station in the Oviri area.

Evaluation of buffer analysis in vandalism and pipeline

was used to analyse crime incidents of vandalism by showing

location: Buffer analysis and multiple ring buffer analysis its

the hotspots of vandalism, pattern and trends of incidents of

use to create area features at stated or specify distance or

vandalism as well as density of the incidents and proximity of

numerous specified distance around the chosen input

the settlements to the incidents points in order to control the

features. In this study 50 m buffer was created for vandalism

petroleum pipeline vandalism in the study areas (Oviri) in delta

point layer and also pipeline polyline layer these was done

state of Nigeria.

The results from this analysis shows how GIS technology

43

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016

0

120

240

720

Legend

Locatinal area

Kernel 0-0.000712298

Pipeline

N

0.000712298-0.002374323

Road W

Meters 960

0.002374325-0.004273786

E

0.004273786-0.006291962

Boundary

0.006291962-0.008310139

S

Building

0.008310139-0.01050639 0.01030639-0.012643283 0.012643283-0.015136325

Fig. 5: Kernel analysis for vandalism in Oviri area

0

110

220

440

660

Meters 880 Locational area

Legend

N W

E S

Vandalism

Bufferpipeline

Pipeline

Buffer vandalism

Road

Building Boundry

Fig. 6: Buffer analysis of 50 m for vandalism and pipeline in Oviri area

44

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016 (a) Map of nearest fire station from vandalism in

Locational area

Legend

0

125

250

500

Meters 1,000

750

Vandalism Hospital Pipeline Road Bufferpipeline Buffer vandalism Building Boundry

(b)

Map of nearest hospital from vandalism in oviri Locational area

Legend

0

125

250

500

Meters 1,000

750

Vandalism Hospital Pipeline Road Bufferpipeline Buffer vandalism Building Boundry

(c) Map of nearest police station from vandalism in oviri

Locational area

Legend

0

125 250

500

750

Meters 1,000

Vandalism Police station Pipeline Road Bufferpipeline Buffer vandalism Building Boundry

Fig. 7(a-c): Distance analysis by spatial join in vandalism and pipeline location in Oviri Area (a) Nearest fire station, (b) Nearest hospital and (c) Nearest police station answering the laid down objectives which included related literature were reviewed on the activities of oil and gas industry, vandalism and GIS application in controlling pipeline vandalism as well as GIS analysis conducted in the study area

CONCLUSION Conclusively, the study investigated the uses of GIS as a strategic tool for controlling petroleum pipeline vandalism by 45

Res. J. Inform. Technol., 8 (1-2): 39-46, 2016 Moser, G., 1992. What is vandalism? Toward a psychosocial definition and its implications. Vandalism: Res. Prev. Soc. Policy, 28: 20-33. Onuoha, F.C., 2009. Why the poor pay with their lives: Oil pipeline vandalisation, fires and human security in Nigeria. Disasters, 33: 369-389. Shahabi, H., S. Keihanfard, B.B. Ahmad and M.J.T. Amiri, 2014. Evaluating Boolean, AHP and WLC methods for the selection of waste landfill sites using GIS and satellite images. Environ. Earth Sci., 71: 4221-4233. Shahabi, H., M. Hashim and B.B. Ahmad, 2015. Remote sensing and GIS-based landslide susceptibility mapping using frequency ratio, logistic regression and fuzzy logic methods at the central Zab basin, Iran. Environ. Earth Sci. 10.1007/s12665-015-4028-0 Smallwood, J.J., 2012. Health, safety and environmental implications in Nigeria's oil and gas industry. Ph.D. Thesis, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Sonibare, J.A. and F.A. Akeredolu, 2006. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations. Energy Policy, 34: 743-753. Toulmin, C., 2009. Securing land and property rights in sub-Saharan Africa: The role of local institutions. Land Use Policy, 26: 10-19. Vardi, Y. and E. Weitz, 2003. Misbehavior in Organizations: Theory, Research and Management. Psychology Press, USA. Witter, R.Z., L. Tenney, S. Clark and L.S. Newman, 2014. Occupational exposures in the oil and gas extraction industry: State of the science and research recommendations. Am. J. Ind. Med., 57: 847-856.

comprises of hotspot, kernel density analysis and buffer analysis. The GIS application in controlling petroleum pipeline vandalism in oil and gas industry of the study area (oil communities) of delta state has come up with lots of lessons which include, ability of GIS tool to develop database showing all the layers used for the study from logical to physical database design. Another advantage is handling bulky dataset in the form of in both spatial and attributes data. Furthermore, GIS tools demonstrated how crime like vandalism can be analyzed by the use of various of it tools like hotspots analysis, kernel density analysis and buffer analysis were also used to show the photographs of the hottest spot locations of vandalism incidents in the study area. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was conducted as a part of Research University Grant (Q.J130000.2527.12H65) by Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM). The authors would like to acknowledge anonymous reviewer and editor for their helpful comments on the previous version of the manuscript. REFERENCES Bamgbose, J.A., 2009. Falsification of population census data in a heterogeneous Nigerian state: The fourth republic example. Afr. J. Polit. Sci. Int. Relat., 3: 311-319. Chika-Amanze, N. and C. Edomaruse, 2007. Nigeria: Vandalismfederal government opts for underground pipelines. This Day, 13 October, 2007.

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