Approaching a Culturally Responsive Pedagogical

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Reka Bentul Kurikulum m-Pembelajaran Sekolah Menengah: Teknik Delphi. Regional. Conference on ... 1-24. http://www.ied.edu.hk/cca/apjae/Vol10_No2.pdf ... Persidangan Antarabangsa Minoriti dan Majoriti: Bahasa, Budaya dan Identiti.

Approaching a Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Module Through the Delphi Technique Siti Zuraida Maaruf, Akmal Ahamed Kamal, Noor Farhani Othman Univesiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia Voviana Zulkifli (Independent Researcher) Abstract The lack of research references in the approach of a culturally responsive pedagogy in arts education at the global level as well as the lack of research at the local level has paved the way for the need to conduct a more comprehensive study in the field. It is timely to focus and establish a research in the application of theory in the teaching and learning practices at schools. It was concluded that there is prospect for harmonious multi-cultural setting in the educational environment and beyond. Additionally, students are able to develop conflict-avoidance skills and adapt to the values of other cultures. Therefore, it is essential to perform a needs analysis if such environment may be developed in the school setting and specifically through the teaching and learning of visual arts. Twenty-four expert panels in the field to involved in the development of Visual Art Education (VAE) culturally responsive pedagogical module for secondary school. It was identified some components received consistent feedbacks and concensus level among the panel experts with some suggested included for future development. Introduction This research aims to develop a pedagogical module that is culturally responsive for the teaching and learning in the Visual Arts Education classrooms for upper secondary students in Malaysia. The module is developed based on the knowledge towards culture, students’ manifestations with diversed cultures, and multiethnic students’ references with engagements in creating relevant and effective learning processes for them. In studies performed by Rasool and Curtis (2000); Gollnick and Chinn (2009), the researchers settled for and emphasized that a pedagogical approach that is culturally responsive is essential in classrooms of multi-ethnic with diversed cultures. Research into culturally responsive pedagogical approach in arts education is still lacking and in need of more in depth studies. Consequently, the lack of research references in the approach of a culturally responsive pedagogy in arts education globally and the lack of research at the local level has paved the way for the need to conduct a more comprehensive study in the field. Hence, it is most appropriate for a study on the development of a culturally responsive Visual Art Education module at the secondary level be conducted to aid teachers to integrate and to implement a multicultural education in the teaching and learning practices at schools with the aim of enhancing students’ knowledge and awareness regarding the elements of art and culture from the respective cultures. It is also hoped that from the development of culturally responsive pedagogical module for the Visual Art Education at secondary level, students’ would develop more interest and improve their academic achievements while becoming more responsive towards their own culture and those of others. Background of the Research To date, the research of multicultural education that broaches into the field of specific curriculum such as language and arts education is gaining momentum globally that it influences other researchers to dwell into the field. The study of multicultural education in Malaysia is also receiving more attention from academicians. However, majority of the researches conducted are set towards theoretical analyses and general perspective either at the school level or at the level of institution of higher learning. In his research, Samsudin (2010) used comics as a teaching aid material in Malay language subject which saw the integration of a multicultural education element. Likewise with the research performed by Ahmad Ali, Zahara and Abdul Razaq (2010) pertaining to the effectiveness of a multicultural approach in the national integration of history subject. Badrul Isa (2006) had included to consider the issue of multicultural education within the the context of Visual Art education in Malaysia but once again, the consideration that he put forth was limited to theoretical analysis and general perspective only. Therefore, it is timley to focus and establish a research in the application of theory in the teaching and learning practices at schools. Research Problem With the rise of concerns on national integration and harmony in most major media with more becoming apparent in the social media, issues that stirred the harmony of multi-cultural setting in Malaysia needs to be addressed accordingly and the school is seen as one of the places that could have this topic being addressed as delicately as possible. Malaysia is still in need of curriculum progression with regard to culturally responsive content and teaching approaches. With the current state concerns over national unity and integration, the academics and policy makers need to step up in developing a social envtironment that espouses multi-

cultural environment if they wish to embrace culturally responsive teaching and learning (Awang, Maros, & Ibrahim, 2012). Numerous reseaches have been performed in the Malaysian setting only at the surface level on culturally responsive teaching and learning. However, more current researches have been performed at a specific level internationally which motivated for the present research to be performed. Thus, the present paper will discuss the development of a Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Module for Visual Art Education at the secondary school level. It is hoped that with the development of the CRP Module in visual arts learning teachers and students would have the opportunity to uncover the values and arts belonging to other cultures. Essentially, such opportunity should be able to provide both teachers and students a colligiate multi-cultural setting and experiences. From the research performed on university students by Awang, Maros, and Ibrahim (2012), they concluded that there is prospect for harmonious multi-cultural setting in the educational environment and beyond. They also identified that students are able to develop conflict-avoidance skills and adapt to the values of other cultures. Therefore, it is essential to perform a needs analysis if such environment may be developed in the school setting and specifically through the teaching and learning of visual arts. Research Objective This research aims to identify the appropriate components which may be representing the identified cultures and arts which are essential in achieving the objectives of the study. Such cultures include traditional craft from the Chinese, Indian and Malay communities so that they could be included in the Visual Art Education (VAE) culturally responsive pedagogical module for secondary school students in Malaysia. Research Questions The present study will try to fulfil the following research question: i) What components are appropriate and suitable to be included in the Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Module for Visual Art Education at the secondary school level? ii) What components are appropriate and suitable to be practiced in the VAE classrooms? Cuturally Responsive Pedagogical Curriculum Teachers are critical in mediating the social and academic curriculum which in many cases; however, need to meet the requirements of the policies as developed by the educational authorities with regard to formal school setting. Culturally responsive teaching could bridge differences that exist within a school environment and in a closer context – the classroom setting. In a much earlier study with very interesting analysis, LadsonBillings (1995) observed how both teachers and students bemoaned the curriculum which was supposed to ecourage culturally responsive teaching and learning. From the observations made during the study, the teachers adapted most of the suggested method and teaching aids to suit their classroom environment and students cultural background setting much to the chagrin of the researcher who thought the teachers method was out of line from the curriculum outline. Nevertheless, teaching and learning took place positively and actively. When discussed more intimately with the participants, the researcher reported that the teachers and students developed more critical understanding towards their personal with those of others’ cultural values, beliefs, history, and perceptions. A culturally responsive pedogical module could also be the binding factor between dominant and nondominant students’ ethnic backgrounds especially when discussing areas of demographic and cultural elements. It was put forth by Aceves and Orosco (2014) that culturally responsive teaching would encourage critical multicultural awareness among teachers which could be extended to students and subsequently would encourage both teachers and students to review their cultural values, beliefs, and perceptions. Conscious efforts and discussions would ensue when they gradually develop understanding and appreciation not only of their own cultural values but those of others, too. Essentially, the teaching and learning of a culturally responsive Visual Art Education require considerations of components that would meet the needs of students who are culturally diversed and in need of a facelift from yesteryears approaches (Reif & Grant: 2010).Therefore, from the literature review of previous works, it would be a good strategy to first perform a needs analysis on suitable cultural elements to be included in the development of the present Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Module for Visual Arts Education for secondary schools in Malaysia which is a country that is made up of multi-ethnics. Methodology The present research utilizes the Design and Develop method as suggested by Richey and Klein (2007) focusing on the processes of developing a module which is appropriate in the teaching of Visual Arts Education (VAE) at upper secondary level. The present study will discuss the Design and Develop stage in the development of the Culturally Responsive Pedagogical Module for VAE.

Research Participants Twenty-four experts in identified areas were identified and selected to participate in the study. They include those who are currently attached to local universities teaching various specified field of studies. These experts include those from the learning technology, visual arts education, teacher traning, educational psychology, educational sociology, and curriculum development. Another panel include secondary school teachers who are teaching the VAE subject. These experts were selected using the purposive sampling method to meet the needs to of research objectives. Correspondence with the panel experts include the use of email and official letters. Table 1.1 Matrix Study – Design and Development Total (N) Sampling Method

Participants Domain Experts (SME)

24 persons (N)

Professor and Lecturers in School of Learning Technology at local University Professor and Lecturers in Visual Art Education field at local university

Purposive Sampling

Research Method Delphi Technique Modification

4 persons

11 persons

Lecturer in Visual Art field, Institute of Teacher Education

1 person

Lecturers in Educational Psychology

3 persons

Lecturer in Educational Sociology

1 person

Visual Art Education curriculum drafters, Curriculum development Centre

1 person

Teachers specialist in Visual Art Education

3 person

Findings Analysis of Delphi Modification Findings – Round Two The Delphi questionnaires modification for round two was administered by the researchers for thirty days. The process include administering the questionnaires and consent forms on a face-to-face basis with the use of e-mail for some. Findings on the components which are suitable and appropriate to be included in the module are tabulated in the following tables. They are categorised according to the identified three major ethnics in Malaysia which are Chinese, Indian, and Malay. Table 1.2: Components of Traditional Crafts among Chinese in Malaysia Components of Traditional Crafts Tanglong / Traditional Games Embroidery Jewelry Accessories for Women Chinese Calligraphy Ceramics/Potter Weaving Tekat (Traditional hand-embroidery) Carving Webbing Additional suggestion by the experts : Dragon Dance Traditional Clothing

Percentage (%) 100 95.8 79.2 91.7 91.7 83.3 95.8 79.2 79.1

Med

Mode

4 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3

4 3 3 3 4 3 2 3 3

Interquartile Range 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

Consensus Value High High High High High High No Consensus High High

Table 1.2 demonstrated that the panels gave their highest approval for the suggested Chinese traditional craft components with 79.1% to 100% consensus values with the interquartile range at 1 and 2 (8 in high consensus and 1 no consensus) for all the tested items. On a more interesting note the expert panel has recommended the inclusion of two new components which are significantly interesting in the Chinese culture; they are the dragon dance and traditional clothing. Table 1.3: Components of Traditional Crafts among Indians in Malaysia Components of Traditional Crafts

Percentage (%)

Med

Mode

Interquartile Range

Consensus Value

91.7 87.5 83.3 87.5 79.2 83.4 75.0 79.2 66.7

Weaving Ceramics/Pottery Webbing Tie & Dye Kolam (floor art) Embroidery Henna painting Jewelry Accessories for Women Indian calligraphy

3 3 3 4 3.5 3 4 3.5 3

3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4

1 1 1 1 1 0 2 1 2

High High High High High High No consensus High No consensus

Based on Table 1.3 for the Indian traditional crafts, it is visible that all the items obtained approval within the range of 66.7% to 91.7% with interquartile range between 0 to 2 (7 high consensus and 2 no consensus) for all the tested items. Table 1.4: Components of Traditional Crafts among Malays in Malaysia Components of Traditional Crafts Tekat Weaving Batik Carving Ceramics/Pottery Webbing WAU Traditional Games Embroidery Khat Calligraphy

Percentage (%) 100 100 100 100 100 100 95.8 95.8 95.8

Med

Mode

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

Interquartile Range 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1

Consensus Value High High High High High High High High High

Additional suggestion by the experts : Traditional Clothing Traditional Games

Table 1.4 further illustrated that all the suggested components for Malays crafts received very high approval between 95.8% and 100%. The interquartile range obtained is between 0 to 1 (High consensus) for all the tested items. It is also worthy to note that there is also further suggestion for the Malay culture components to be given additional items similar to the Chinese culture previously mentioned, which are traditional clothings and games. Summary of Delphi Modification - Round Two Table 1.5: Summary of Delphi Modification Round Two Components

Chinese components of traditional crafts Indians components of Traditional crafts Malays components of Traditional carfts Total

High Consensus (IQR: 0-1.01) 8

Moderate Consensus (IQR: 1.01-1.99) 0

No Consensus (IQR:2.00 ke atas) 1

Total

7

0

2

9

9

0

0

9

24 (88.8%)

0 (0%)

3 (0.81%)

27 (100%)

9

The summary displayed in Table 1.5 revealed that the suggested cultural craft components received various degrees of approval from the panel experts. Analysis of the findings revealed that 88.8% of the components (24 components) are in the interquartile range of 0.00-1.00 depicting high agreement among the experts and 0.81% components (3 components) are in the interquartile range of 2.00 and above indicating that the experts could not lend their consensus on the items. Analysis of Delphi Modification Findings - Round Three After having a completed process of collection and data analysis in the Delphi modification round two, the researchers once again administered the questionnaire of Delphi modification round three with the same 24 panel experts. This raw data collection took about another one month to be completed. The process of administering the questionnaires and consent forms were collected via e-mail and face-to-face meetings. The researchers used the Wilcoxon mathed-pairs signed-ranked test to define the consistency level of views among the panel experts. This method has been used by several other studies such as Zaharah Hussein (2008), Ahmad Sobri Shuib (2009), and Norlidah Alias (2010) and produced satisfying results.

Only items which were tested in round two of the analysis will be included in round three. The items which were suggested by the experts in prior analysis are opted out at this stage. Data or Wilcoxon test value is represented by Z and statistic data were tested between the value of 0 until -1.99. Data will show no significant changes against items in second and third round if value of Z in the range of 0 until -1.99. However, if the tailed value in the second and third round produced more than -2.00, it proved that the views and consent provided by the panel experts were inconsistent. The Wilcoxon value also demonstrated that there are changes in the experts’ consent with regard to significant items. Furhter analysis of findings from round three of the Delphi modification analysis are organized within similar themes from round two. Table 1.6: Components of Traditional Crafts among Chinese in Malaysia Components of traditional crafts Taditional Games / Tanglong Embroidery Jewelry Accessories for Women Chinese calligraphy Ceramic/ Pottery Weaving Tekat Carving Webbing Dragon dance Clothing for Chinese New Year celebration

Percentage (%)

Med

Mode

Interquar tile Range

Consensus Value

Z

100

4

4

1

High

95.8 79.2

3 3

3 3

1 1

High High

-0.577 0.000

Yes Yes

95.8

4

4

1

High

-0.707

Yes

95.8 83.3 66.6 66.6 87.5 87.5 95.8

4 3 3 3 3 3 3

4 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

High High High High High High High

-1.000 -1.342 -1.581 -0.447 -0.743 -

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes -

-1.000

There is no Significant different between round two and three Yes

Table 1.6 demonstrated that all items tested for the Chinese traditional craft components which were tested and analysed obtained significant consensus level between 66.6% to absolute consensus level with the interquartile range of 1 (high consensus). More significantly, the Chinese traditional lantern craft obtained a conclusive consensus from the panel experts to be included in the module. Table 1.7: Components of Traditional Crafts among Indians in Malaysia Components of traditional crafts Weaving Ceramics/ Pottery Webbing Tie & Dye Kolam (floor art) Embroidery Henna painting Jewelry Accessories for Women Indian Calligraphy

Percentage (%)

Med

Mode

Interquar tile Range

Consensus Value

Z

91.7 95.8

3 3

3 3

0 1

High High

-2.236 -0.447

There is no Significant different between round two and three No Yes

91.7 91.7 95.8

3 4 4

3 4 4

0 1 1

High High High

-0.378 -0.447 -1.725

Yes Yes Yes

87.5 79.1 79.2

3 3.5 4

3 4 4

1 1 1

High High High

-0.812 0.000 -1.732

Yes Yes Yes

75.0

3

4

2

No consensus

-1.134

Yes

From Table 1.7, it is visible that all items which were tested and analysed for the Indian crafts received very significant consensus values between 75% to 95.8% with the interquartile range between 0 to 1 representing high consensus values. Meanwhile, the Wilcoxon test produced the range between 0.00 to -1.732 for eight tested items indicating that the experts provided consistent feedbacks between round two and three. The items tested include ceramic, pottery, webbing, tie and dye, kolam (floor art), embroidery, henna painting, jewelry and accessories for women, and Indian calligraphy. Nevertheless, one item was reported to obtained inconsistent feedback with the Wilcoxon test value at -2.236. Table 1.7 also demonstrated that the most suitable Indian cultural content to be included in the art module are traditional ceramic/pottery and embroidery with very significant value of 95.8%.

Table 1.8: Components of Traditional Crafts among Malays in Malaysia Components of traditional crafts

Percentage (%)

Med

Mode

Interquartile Range

Consensus Value

Z

Tekat Weaving Batik Carving Ceramic/ Pottery Webbing WAU Traditional games Embroidery Khat Calligraphy Traditional Clothing Traditional Games

100 100 100 100 100

4 4 4 4 4

4 4 4 4 4

0 0 0 0 0

High High High High High

-1.000 0.000 -1.000 0 -1.000

There is no Significant different between round two and three Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

100 95.8

4 4

4 4

1 0

High High

0 -1.000

Yes Yes

95.8 100

4 4

4 4

1 1

High High

-0.577 -0.577

Yes Yes

91.6

4

4

1

High

-

-

95.8

4

4

1

High

-

-

Table 1.8 further illustrated that items tested and analysed for the Malay craft components produced very significant approval level with 91.6% to absolute consensus and further reflected with the interquartile range between 0 to 1 (high consensus). The Wilcoxon test also indicated that the panel experts provided consistent feedbacks from round two. Details from the table also indicated the most appropriate Malay traditional craft components to be include in the module are tekat, weaving, batik painting, carving, ceramic/pottery, embroidery, and khat. Table 1.9 : Summary of Delphi Consensus for Components of Traditional Craft based on the races Chinese 1.Tanglong Traditional Game (100%) 2.Embroidery (95.8%) 3.Chinese Calligraphy (95.8%) 4.Ceramic/Pottery (95.8%) 5.Webbing (87.5%) 6.Dragon dance (87.5%) 7.Traditional Clothes (95.8%)

Indians 1.Weaving (91.7%) 2.Ceramic/Pottery(95.8%) 3.Webbing (91.7%) 4.Indian Tie & Dye (91.7%) 5.Column (95.8%) 6.Embroidery (87.5%)

Malays 1.Tekat (100%) 2.Weaving (100%) 3.Batik (100%) 4.Carving (100%) 5.Ceramic/Pottery (100%) 6.Webbing (100%) 7. WAU Traditional Game (95.8%) 8.Embroidery (95.8%) 9. Khat Calligraphy (100%) 10.Traditional Clothing (91.6%) 11.Traditional Games (95.8%)

Conclusion and Discussion Overall, it is apparent from the Delphi Modification analysis that the panel experts provided positive feedbacks and very significant consensus in the choices of traditional craft components to be included in the Cultrually Responsive Pedagogical Module for Visual Art Education at the secondary school. This is further topped with the experts’ consistent feedbacks and consensus level when further tested. It was also evident that the experts considered some traditional crafts are ‘a must have’ in the module such as the tanglong or Chinese lantern, Indian embroidery, and the Malay hand embroidery famously known as tekat. The experts’ feedbacks provided an evident glimpse of positive culturally responsive elements for the traditional craft components according to the ethnics domain. This is in sync with findings from Nichols (2010) suggesting that teachers would use certain cultural art component in their classroom practices and would encourage students to replicate the art productions in attempts of injecting various cultural elements in the classroom. Importantly, Bianchi (2011) believed that such activities are valuable in the development culturally tolerant classrooms while encouraging students and teachers to be critical when considering culturally responsive education. Subsequently, teachers may also provide added knowledge to students from their teaching and classroom activities such as the historical elements, art production processes, and critical analysis of art elemental details from other cultures (Nichols, 2010). Further researches may include the study on suitable teaching aids to be used in the classroom activities. Thorough observations would be critical to identify appropriate approaches and technologies that VAE teachers could take up while using the teaching aids. It has been suggested by Bianchih (2011) that real crafts objects would be effective for various reasons. Subesequently, students may be able to

develop the understanding towards other cutlures and encourage discussions not only with their teachers but also with their compatriots either from the same ethnic or that of others. References Aceves, T. C., & Orosco, M. J. (2014). Culturally responsive teaching. Collaboration for Effective Educator, Development, Retrieved from: http://ceedar.education.ufl.edu/tools/innovation-configurations/ Ahmad Ali, Zahara Dan Abdul Razaq (2010) keberkesanan pendekatan berasaskan kepelbagaian budaya terhadap integrasi nasional dalam mata pelajaran sejarah. Prosiding Seminar Penyelidikan Siswazah Ukm Jilid 3, Fakulti Pendidikan: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Ahmad Sobri, S. (2010). Reka Bentul Kurikulum m-Pembelajaran Sekolah Menengah: Teknik Delphi. Regional Conference on Knowledge in ICT. Ayers-Arnone, R. M (2012). Culturally relevant teaching in the art classroom. PhD (Doctor of Philosophy) thesis, University of Iowa, 2012. Retrieved from: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/2816. Badrul Isa (2006) Multicuralism in Art Education: A Malaysian Percpective. Retrieved12November2009.http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.phpURL_ID=29639&URL_DO=DO _TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html Bianchi, J. (2011). Intercultural Identities: Addressing the Global Dimension through Art Education. International Journal of Art and Design Education 30(2). 271-291Cheo, C. & Millan, K. J (2012). Mapping Research in Visual Arts Education in Singapore. Asia Pacific Journal for Art Education Vol. 10/2. 1-24. http://www.ied.edu.hk/cca/apjae/Vol10_No2.pdf Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But That’s Just Good Teaching! The Case for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. Theory Into Practice 34 (3), 159 – 165. Gollnick, D. M., & Chinn, P. C. (2009). Multicultural education in a pluralistic society (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Norlidah, A. (2010). Pembangunan Modul Pedagogi Berasaskan Teknologi dan Gaya Pembelajaran FelderSilverman Kurikulum Fizik Sekolah Menengah. Kuala Lumpur: Unpublished Thesis Universiti Malaya. Nichols, L.K (2010). Assessing Multicultural Art Education – What approaches are currently being used in Virginia Public High Schools? Tesis Sarjana yang tidak diterbitkan. Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia: USA. Richey & Klein. (2007). Design and Development Research: method, strategies and issues. London: Erlbaum. Reif, N. & Grant, L (2010). Culturally responsive classrooms through art integration. Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education 5 (1), 100 – 115. http://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/jpme/vol5/iss1/11 Rasool, J. A & Curtis A. C. (2000) Multicultural Education in Middle and Secondary Classrooms: Meeting the Challenge of Diversity nd Change. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning: United Stated of America. Samsudin Suhaili (2010). Pendidikan Pelbagai Budaya: Komik Mat Som Sebagai Bahan Bantu Mengajar. Kertas Pembentangan. Persidangan Antarabangsa Minoriti dan Majoriti: Bahasa, Budaya dan Identiti. 23-24 November 2010, Kuching, Sarawak. http://www.mymla.org/icmm2010 Zaharah Hussin (2008). Pembinaan kandungan kurikulum Pendidikan Akhlak untuk latihan Perguruan Pendidikan Islam. Tesis Ijazah Doktor Falsafah yang tidak diterbitkan, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor.

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