AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science

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Computer Science. 1 (2012) 30-34. 2nd World Conference on Information Technology (WCIT-2011). Correlation between aggression and cell phone application ...

AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science 1 (2012) 30-34

2nd World Conference on Information Technology (WCIT-2011)

Correlation between aggression and cell phone application in Iran d

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c Haniyeh Kalantari D.a , Sasan Maleki b, Nasrin Abbasi , Zohreh Saadati S. , e Tahereh Karimi a

Lecturer, Malayer University,Malayer, Iran Lecturer, Malayer University,Malayer, Iran c BA in Educational Technology, Malayer University,Malayer, Iran d BA in Educational Technology, Malayer University, Malayer,Iran e BA in Educational Technology, Malayer University,Malayer, Iran b

Abstract Problem Statement: Cell phones are among the most popular technologies whit various applications. Despite their advantages, they leave some disadvantages on behaviour. This study surveys the harmful effect of cell phones on aggression. Samples were chosen randomly from among the high school students of Malayer, Iran. Samples were 180 students (90 males and 90 females). They completed aggression questionnaire (AQ) with an Alpha score ranging between 0/72 - 0/80 for reliability. Its validity was certified by the experts. In conclusions the study reveals that using cell phones makes students relationship more aggressive significantly in 2 scales of AQ (anger and physiologic aggression), but not in verbal aggression and hating (the other 2 scales of AQ). Therefore, we recommend cell phones to be used just in necessity. Due to the harmful effects, Parents are not recommended provide their young children with cell phone. There is a necessity for more research in this ground. Keywords: Aggression, Cell phone disadvantages, Mobile effects Selection and peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Hafize Keser. ©2012 Academic World Education & Research Center. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction A prosperous society needs happy citizens. Modern technologies such as cell phones, satellites and internet create an easy life, too. But, extensive use of these technologies may generate some social and health

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* ADDRESS FOR CORRESPONDENCE: Haniyeh, Kalantari D.Lecturer, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran E-mail address: [email protected]& [email protected]/ Tel.: +0098-912-559-38-32

Haniyeh Kalantari D./ AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science (2012) ) 30-34

problems.TV can damage the eye-sight, in the same way cell phone waves may cause some health problems. [1] These hassles leading to stop in the progress of a community. Recognition of multidirectional effects of these technologies will bring proper guidance for their implementation. Aggression is a sort of behavior which disturbs the mental health and negatively affects the friendly relationships. [2] It shows itself in social life and threatened the safety of life if not controlled. In some views, it is believed that aggression is inherent [3] while other views suggest that it is learned from the surrounding environment. [4] But, considering different effects of new technologies in our life, perhaps one of the roots of today aggression must be explored in the wrong ways of using technologies as cell phones. 1.1. Aggression Aggression described as a set of abnormal behaviors which, sometimes, hurts the others. It may happen in the form of literal, physical, or offensive behavior to the others rights. Some psychologists believe aggression is inherent and the others are opposed with them. [2] They argue that aggression is not natural. If it is inherent, all people must be aggressive with the same happenings and words; whereas, a word that makes a person aggressive may have no effect on the other one. Even animals learn aggressive and hostile behavior from their parents. The extra chromosome responsible for a bigger shape in human is not a reason for aggression necessarily and in many items, pint-sized people are aggressive very likely. [4] Apart from source, aggression is caused by the following factors. Factors of aggression consist of: Familial factors: forms of aggression in family include corporal punishment, mental aggressions such as insult, humiliation, ridicule and creating limitation in communications. [6] Environmental factors: different cultures have different ways for aggressive behavior based on their past experiences and cultural instructions. Based on the culture in which they grow up, people learn how to manifest the aggression behavior. Personality factors: psychologists define two personality types: A & B. In group A people are intensively competitive, hasty, peevish, and remonstrative and have shown more child and spouse sadisms than people in type B. People in type B have features contrary to the people in type A. [7] 1.2. Cell phone Technology The cell phone or cellular phone in its full appellation, a device that as recently as 1990 was an oddity, has long since reached ubiquity. Market saturation in the usual developed countries of North America and Europe approached or surpassed 100 percent at the turn of the century, meaning that some countries have more cell phone than people. But this new medium is more than the latest plaything of the prosperous. The cell phone is too important for developing countries. For many in the word, the cell phone brings flowering of opportunity, with the century of technology finally making drastic improvements to their daily lives. [7] Few technologies have impacted society as significantly as wireless phone, often referred to as the cell phone or mobile phone. This device has changed how individuals communicate and connect with others throughout the world. Aside from being able to make phone calls anywhere and anytime, wireless technology has ushered in profound social changes that permeate businesses, commerce, medicine, and education. [8] But this technology is not always so welcome. [7] Some studies have shown that the increasing diffusion of cell phone have come with problem such as network congestion, Service inefficiencies, rising costs, and increase taxes. Also, a significant relationship was

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Haniyeh Kalantari D./ AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science (2012) ) 30-34

found exist socioeconomic status and cell phone usage. [8] It is important to recognize all consequences of implementation of this technology that may be even mentally or physically. Microwaves, that are a type of electromagnetic wave, can pass through the Earth’s atmosphere and are used to send information to and from satellites and within mobile phone networks. When an electromagnetic wave (radiation) hits a material, it can be:  Reflected, like light in a mirror;  Absorbed, like heat absorbed by a black surface;  Transmitted, or passed on, like light passing through glass. It has seen that the shorter the wavelength, the more energetic the wave. This can produce hazards, and we must take precautions to prevent these hazards from causing us harm. [9] There are some wavelengths of different technologies in the following:  

FM radio: 88 - 108 MHz. Television - several different bands between 54 and 220 MHz. (Television carries more information than radio does--pictures plus sound-- and so needs broader bands for each channel)  Mobile phones: 824 - 849 MHz  Global Positioning System: 1.2 -1.6 GHz  The microwave band is used less formally for wavelengths of cm down to mm, or frequencies up to 10s or 100s of GHz. The microwave band is used for radar and long distance trunk telephone communications.[11] Damage that may occur by these waves is cautionary for us. These damages may be mental or physical. Our generation are in danger and we must prevent it. 2. Method This research is descriptive. High school student s in Malayer, Iran were its society. Samples were 180students (90 male and 90 female) that were chosen randomly. This number would be sufficient for descriptive researches. [10] They answered to the aggression questionnaire. This questionnaire has 4 scales: anger, physiologic aggression, verbal aggression, and hating. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated via Alpha score and was 0/72 - 0/80and its validity was certified by experts. There were some questions about number of received and sent messages and received and dialed calls and their achievement mean. After gathering questionnaire, answers analyzed via SPSS software, one way ANOVA and results were extracted. 3. Results Three levels of using cell phones (low, normal, & high) compared with each other for answering to this question: "if the use of cell phone has effect on aggression scales?" The results from data analyzing is shown in the following table:

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Haniyeh Kalantari D./ AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science (2012) ) 30-34

Table 1.Using of cell phone impacts on aggression scales Scales of aggression physiologic aggression

Between Groups Within Groups

verbal aggression

2

Mean Square 318.682

162 164 2

35.770

1928.931 1976.703 391.239

162 164 2

11.907

Total Between Groups

4547.064 4938.303 252.839

162 164 2

126.420

Within Groups

6756.397

162

41.706

Total

7009.236

164

Total Between Groups Within Groups

hating

df

5794.673 6432.036 47.772

Total Between Groups Within Groups

anger

Sum of Squares 637.364

23.886

195.619

F 8.909

Sig. .000

2.006

.138

6.969

.001

3.031

.051

28.068

As it is evident from table 1, the difference levels of cell phone usage is significant (p>0/05) in three scales (physiologic aggression, anger, &hating). It means that the high level use of cell phones lead to high levels of physiologic aggression, anger&hating, while the same result does not obtain for the verbal aggression. 4. Conclusion and Recommendation Our immediate surrounding can be polluted or disturbed by the telecommunication waves, cell phone vibration, voice of the ringing tone, and repeated calls. This pollution will affect our health. According to the findings, the more we use the cell phone, the more we face physiologic aggression, anger, &hating. But we do not face the verbal aggression. Perhaps, the verbal aggression is under the influence of culture, experience, and levels of socializing. Thus, it can be controlled more than the other scales. Finally, Technology is to make our lives more comfortable and make us happy. But, sometimes the damages are more than the benefits resulting in irrecoverable impacts. We need to control the use of technology for a more satisfactory and comfortable experience of life.

References [1] Millei, Z., Griffiths, T. G., Parkes, R. J.Re-theorizing discipline in education: problems, politics, &possibilities, DieDeucscheNationalbibliothek: Network,(2010). [2] Karimi, Y. Social Psychology, Payamenoor university press: Tehran, (1994). [3] Akbari, A. Youths and Youngsters Difficulties, Savalan: Tehran,(2002). [4] Navvabinejad, SH. Children normal & abnormal behaviours and prevention & treatment methods, Angomaneoliyavamorabiyan: Tehran, (1993). [5] Ahmadi, h. Social psychology, Shiraz university press: Shiraz, (2007). [6] Azarbiganee, M. and a group of associates,Social psychology in Islamic sources, Zeytoon press: Tehran, (2003). [7] Klemens, G. The cellphone: the history and technology of the gadget that changed the world, McFarland, (2010). [8] Ezenezi, E. R.Impact of Cell phone Technology on Users, Xlibris Corporation, (2011). [9] James,what are the uses and hazards of waves that form the Electromagnetic Spectrum, http://www.antonineeducation.co.uk/index.htm, (2011). [10] Delavr, A. Research Methods in Psychology & Education, Tehran, Virayesh, (2006).

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Haniyeh Kalantari D./ AWERProcedia Information Technology & Computer Science (2012) ) 30-34 [11] Wolfe, J. The electromagnetic spectrum From Physclips: Physics with animations and film.School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. (2002).

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