Beech Forests

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Strictly protected beech forests are found in the cores of some National Parks such Olympos National. Park, Pindos National Park, Rodopi National Park (Fig. 3).

Hans D. Knapp and Andreas Fichtner (Eds.)

Beech Forests Joint Natural Heritage of Europe (2)

BfN-Skripten 327 2012

BfN-Skripten 327, 141-164, Bonn-Bad Godesberg

The importance and conservation values of beech forests in Greece - case study of an ancient beech forest in the NATURA area ‘Koula - Haidou’ in Xanthi, N. Greece KONSTANTINOS SPANOS, NlKOLAOS GRIGORIAD1S, IOANNIS MELIADIS, DlONYSIOS GAITAN1S and Sa v v a s G r ig o r ia d is

Abstract The present work provides an overview of beech forests in Greece and a case study of an ancient beech forest. Information on natural distribution of beech, ecology of beech, taxonomy and genetics is also provided. Importance of beech at present and in the former times and information on silviculture, regeneration and forest management are also highlighted. General information on health status, gen­ eral conditions and threats to beech and its genetic resources, and indications of recent climatic im­ pacts on beech forests is provided. Further particularities of beech ecosystems and sustainable silvicul­ ture are also discussed. The case study of an ancient forest in N. Greece is structurally analysed and studied. Finally, concluding remarks are given and conservation measures and strategy for beech for­ ests in Greece are proposed. Keywords: taxonomy, ecology, silviculture, wood production, forest management, adaptation, case study, beech conservation.

Natural distribution and taxonomy of beech The mountains of Greece are well known for their rich flora and high biodiversity (DAFIS 1973, STRID 1989, DlMOPOULOS & BERGMEIER 1998, DlMOPOULOS et al. 2005, FADY-WELTERLEN 2005). In Greece, beech ecosystems are very dispersed on the high mountains (Fig. 1), growing on variety of sites and harbor a rich biodiversity. Beech forests represent about 10.02% (336.600 Ha) of the total high forests of Greece and most of them (around 80 %) are state forests (MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE 1992, 2000; SPANOS 2010). Beech grows in the mountains of N, NW, and E Greece, on Pindos Moun­ tain range up to the Mountain Oxia in the central part of the country (MOULOPOULOS 1961, 1965). Altitudinally, it grows from 180 m a.s.l (Kentavros Mountain - Xanthi) up to 1,600-2,000 m a.s.l. (mountains of Pindos, Olympus and Oxia). The beech forests in Greece have been evaluated systemat­ ically by MOULOPOULOS 1961, 1965 and DAFIS 1973, 1990. According to MOULOPOULOS (1961, 1965), beech forests (in Greece) are composed of Fagus sylvatica, Fagus moesiaca and Fagus orientalis. Horizontally, Fagus sylvatica is mainly distributed in the central and western mountainous parts of the country, Fagus orientalis in the forests of the eastern parts and Fagus moesiaca in almost all beech forests. Vertically, Fagus orientalis is found on lower altitudes (180-1,000 m a.s.l.), Fagus sylvatica in the higher and colder parts (up to 1,100-2,000 m a.s.l.) whereas Fagus moesiaca in all altitudinal range of beech (DAFIS 1973, 1990). Past studies (MOULOPOULOS 1961, 1965) have shown that Fagus orientalis is better adapted to relatively drier conditions whereas Fagus sylvatica prefers colder environments. It has been suggested that Fagus moesiaca is a hybrid (x Fagus moesiaca) of Fagus sylvatica and Fagus orientalis or represents populations of Fagus sylvatica adapted to interme­ diate site conditions (MOULOPOULOS 1965). Other studies (e.g. G0MORY et al. 1999) have suggested that populations of the putative taxon of Fagus moesiaca from the Balkan Peninsula seem to form an independent group. In recent studies (based on morphological and molecular variation) and Flora books (e.g. STRID 1989, STRID & KIT 1991) the two species are considered as subspecies of the cluster species Fagus sylvatica (e.g. Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica and Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis).

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F ig . 1. Map showing distribution of beech in Greece.

Beech is considered as a cold resistant species in Greece, it requires rich and humid soils, high air humidity and average mild climate close to Atlantic conditions. The climate where beech grows be­ longs to the mountainous supra-Mediterranean climate, characterised by high annual precipitation, with high relative humidity and short dry periods (DAFIS 1969, ATHANASIADIS 1985, 1986, ANON. 1991, 1996, SPANOS et al. 1998, LARSSON 2001). Beech forests belong to the sub-zone Fagion moesiacae (beech forests) of the Fagetalia (mixed beech-fir and mountainous supra-Mediterranean conifers) forest vegetation zone (Fig. 2).

F ig . 2. Diagram showing the beech-fir forest vegetation zone (Fagetalia) (D afis 1973, ATHANASIADIS 1985).

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Importance of beech now and in former times Beech forests produce valuable technical, industrial and fuel wood. Before 1970's, beech forests have been used by local people for fuel wood and technical wood, grazing of domestic animals, mushroom, nut collection and hunting. Due to the past over-exploitation many beech stands have been degraded or converted into coppice forests. At the present time, most of beech forests are under sustainable forest management (most of them converted into high forests), and are considered of high value while serv­ ing their multiple-purpose role (wood production, non wood products, water quality, ecosystem func­ tions, rare/vulnerable taxa conservation). Additionally, some beech forests are part of national parks (e.g. Olympus Mt., Pindos Mt.) while most of them share a part in most of NATURA areas (see An­ nex I, Fig. 3), and therefore are of high conservation value. Beech forests are considered highly im­ portant, the stands in good sites are sufficiently productive and the wood is more valuable of that of conifers in such cases. Furthermore, beech stands are the most valuable for water quality production and provide high social services (e.g. recreation, aesthetics, hunting).

Ecology of beech (climate, site/sea level, soils), mixture with other species Phytosociological studies for the beech forests of Chalkidiki, Pieria Mt., Ossa Mt., Pilion Mt. and cen­ tral Pindos mountain range have distinguished beech forests into six (6) phyto-sociological units cor­ responding to six site quality types which have been classified into three groups as following (DAFIS 1969): 1) Site types I & Π: beech shows the maximum productive capacity. However, regeneration in this site type is suppressed due to the intense ground vegetation. To enhance and help natural regen­ eration, a series of shelter wood cuttings on large areas (for even-aged stand structure) or in small groups expanded (for uneven-aged stands) is recommended. 2) Site types III & IV: in these types, beech shows sufficient productivity. Natural regeneration develops relatively well because of the re­ duced competition of the ground vegetation. 3) Site types V & VI: these types are mainly occurring on the hills and drier slopes. Beech stands here show small productivity and low timber quality. In such sites the introduction of less demanding conifers (e.g. Finns sylvestris, P. nigra) at a proportion of 6080 % is recommended. The chorological significance of beech forests in Greece is reflected by many species of boreal, central European and temperate distribution, some of which are just reaching the southernmost limits in Greece (e.g. Luzula hizuloides, Paris qnadrifolia, Millinm effusum, Corallorhiza trifida) (DlMOPOULOS & BERGMEIER 1998, DlMOPOULOS et al. 2005). According to synchronological (geographical) pattern of beech forests the following groups/types can be distinguished: (a) western types (N, C and S Pindos), (b) eastern types (EC and NC Greece), (c) northern types (Vamous to Rodopi), and (d) north­ eastern types of F. sylvatica ssp. orientalis (E. Rodopi). Occurence of taxa at their southernmost dis­ tribution limits are often vulnerable and may require effective conservation {in situ) within beech for­ ests (MEDAIL & QUEZEL 1997, DlMOPOULOS & BERGMEIER 1998; SPANOS & FEEST 2007). In Greece, beech forest soil contained the highest N content in comparison to conifers and many other broad-leaved species (KAVVADIAS et al. 2001, MlCHOPOULOS., BALOUTSOS & ECONOMOU 2007) thus making beech and important species for soil improvement.

Phytosociology - Beech forest types in Greece The main forest types of beech in Greece are the following (for description and more details see Ap­ pendix 1): 1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum (NATURA 2000:9110; CORINE: 91:41.11) This type includes the following sub-categories: at Middle-European hilly beech forests b) Middle-European mountain beech forests

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2) Beech forests with Hex and Taxus (NATURA 2000:9120; CORINE: 91:41.12) These beech forests show various deviations/forms as following: a) Sub-Atlantic beech-oak forests of the plains and the hilly zone with Ilex ciquifolium. b) Supra-Atlantic beech-oak forests of the plains and the hilly zone with Ilex and Taxus, rich in epi­ phytes. c) Pure beech forests or acidophilic beech-fir forests of the mountainous zone with Ilex aquifoliurn in the understorey.

3) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum (the most frequently found beech forest type in Greece) (NATURA 2000:9130; CORINE: 91:41.13) This type includes the following sub-categories: a) Middle - European neutrophilous beech forests of the hilly area b) Calciphilous beech - Melica forests cl Neutrophilous beech - Melica forests (Melico - Fagetumj 4) Sub-alpine beech forests with Acer and Rumex arifolius (NATURA 2000:9140; CORINE: 91:41.11) 5) Beech forests on Calcareous substrate (Cephalanthero-Fagion) (NATURA 2000:9150; CORINE: 91:41.16) 6) Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis (NATURA 2000:9270; CORINE: 91:41.1A X 42.17) 7) Beech forests with Quercusfrainetto (NATURA 2000:9280 CORINE: 91:41.IB)

Silviculture, regeneration and forest management Cultivation (thinning and tending): B eech stands require continuous intensive silvicultural treatm ent (e.g. rem oving bad form ed and less grow ing individuals w hile focusing on the best trees) (DAFIS 1969, BASIOTIS 1972, DAFIS 1990; SPANOS 2010).

Cultivation treatments may involve: - Tending of new growth - Thinning of dense growth - Cultivation of young stands (young stems) Treatment of degraded stands: Uneven-aged beech stands with many gaps, often heavily degraded, must be rehabilitated quickly, and converted into mixed (seed originated), usually in age classes of even aged stands. In such cases graz­ ing is prohibited, gaps are planted with appropriate tree species (depending upon site conditions beech, oak, pine, spruce, maple), the mature groups of beech are regenerated and existing new growth and young stands are thinned, while favoring various other noble hardwoods. Natural regeneration Beech is highly tolerant to shading, the most tolerant of all broadleaved species in Greece - thus mak­ ing beech the climax species in beech-favorable environments (e,g. northern slopes in high altitudes with deep, rich and humid soils). Natural regeneration of beech should be directed to result in: (a) uneven aged stands mixed with coni­ fers, oaks or noble hardwoods, and (b) pure even-aged stands or stands of mixed age-classes.

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Regeneration methods (usually applied in high forests) 1) Regeneration using shelter wood cuttings in strips parallel to stand edge lines, 2) Regeneration in small groups of uneven aged stands, 3) Regeneration without strict rules of spatial planning (degraded stands).

The conservation status of beech forests in Greece The ancient civilisation and the historical periods that shaped the geographical area of Greece in gen­ eral did not favor the saving of ‘virgin forests’. The existence of untouched natural reserves is rare and very strict in area size and this is mainly due to their geographical isolation (difficult to reach moun­ tainous areas), such as many NATURA areas e.g. Rodopi Mt. and Voras Mt., in the northern borders of the country (GRIGORIADIS & PETERMANN 1995).The natural values and the rarity of species grown in these areas forced the Forest Service to exclude these areas from conventional forest exploitation and put them under the protective status through the Forest Low (1996). In particular, the case of preserved/protective Nature Monuments designate ‘isolated trees or tree stands with particular botanical, ecological, aesthetic, historical or cultural value’. The first case of declaration of a forest ecosystem under the protective status was Olympus Mt. as Olympus National Forest’ in the year of 1938 (ΦΕΚ 248/A/1938). From that time many changes have been made in the national, international and Europe­ an environmental policy and in the field of protection-declaration/desigmation with the most important of that of the establishment of the European Network of NATURA 2000 (Natura 2000). The new push that came through the last legal regulations for the Natural Environment has led the European coun­ tries to re-determining of the terms of protection and management inside of a common (European) framework. The description and monitoring of the protected areas was the primary priority of the above network (Habitats Quide 92/43/EE). Nowadays, all beech forests are sustainably managed by the Forest Service and according to National Forest Law. The conservation status of beech forests is reasonably good since almost all beech forests are under a protection scheme (e.g. NATURA - 2000, NATIONAL PARKS, SPAs, CITES) (Fig. 3). Strictly protected beech forests are found in the cores of some National Parks such Olympos National Park, Pindos National Park, Rodopi National Park (Fig. 3). It is hard to discuss about primeval beech forests in Greece for the reasons mentioned above. However, ancient and old growth beech forest can be found in several areas under protection (NATURA - 2000, NATIONAL PARKS. SPAs). The next step is to collect information on such beech forests, make inventories, map them, collect field data and do research studies. And the next important step (for the Country and for Europe) is to establish of a National Network of ancient and old growth Beech Forests and in the near future to link to the EU­ ROPEAN BEECH FORESTS NETWORK - NATURAL HERITAGE OF EUROPE. An example of ancient/old growth forest is described and analysed in the following section.

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Fig. 3. NATURA and SPA areas where beech is found (arrow shows the case study area).

The case study of beech forest in the NATURA area ‘Koula - Haidou’ in Xanthi (N. Greece) The purpose of this work is the study and structural analysis if the old growth beech forest of the 'Pro­ tected Nature Monument’ of Koula-Haidou of Xanthi (N. Greece) (Fig. 3 & 4). More specifically, this work aims to study those biometric parameters of the Monument that differentiate it from the sur­ rounding conventional/managed forest.

Description o f the study area The Nature Monument forest of Xanthi Prefecture belongs to the broader natural forest of Xanthi and it is known as ‘forest of Tsichla - Haidou’ (Fig. 4). Due to the naturalness characteristics of this par­ ticular beech forest, with a size of only 18 Ha (stands 52δ, 52ε and 52στ) of the above mentioned forest complex, it has been proposed and declared by the Ministry of Agriculture as “Protective Nature Monument” (decision no. 200995/7950/1979, ΦΕΚ 121 T. Δ' of 21-2-80). The surrounding large for­ est, size of 3,209 Ha, consist a part of the European Network NATURA 2000 with the code “Haidu Koula and surrounding picks) (GR1120003), and together with other forested areas all together make the ‘RODOPI MOUNTAIN-RANGE NATIONAL PARK’ (Common Ministerial Decision ΦΕΚ 445/2-10-2009) (GRIGORIADIS & KMETOVA 2006).

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Fig. 4. The ‘National Park’ of the Greek part of Rodopi Mountain range, part of which consist the area (Site) of the NATURA 2000 network with the code “Haidu - Koula and surrounding picks) (GR1120003) (left); part of the forest vegetation map showing the area of the Protective Nature Monument forest (forest stands 52δ,52ε,52στ) (right).

According to the meteorological data (Table 1) of the neighboring area of the Virgin Forest of Frakto Dramas, the mean annual temperature is 6.4°C and the annual rainfall 1,186 mm. The relatively nor­ mal distribution of the precipitation (in the year) depicts the continental climate with middle-European influence without the presence of a dry-thermal period (Fig. 5), a characteristic parameter of the Medi­ terranean climate of the lower altitudes of the mountain Rodopi.

Months Fig. 5. Ombrothermic diagram of the broader study area.

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Table 1. Meteorological data of the neighboring area of the Virgin Forest o f Frakto Dramas (altitude 1,385μ.).

Month January February March April May June July August September October November December Year

Mean maximum temperature (°C) -0.9 0.8 4.0 9.2 14.4 17.2 19.6 20.6 17.0 11.1 6.9 1.2 10.0

Mean minimum temperature (°C) -5.5 -4.7 -2.4 2.0 6.4 9.3 10.4 11.2 7.6 3.3 0.1 -3.6 2.9

Mean tem­ perature (°C) -3.2 -2.0 0.8 5.6 10.4 13.3 15.0 15.9 12.3 7.2 3.5 -1.2 6.4

Mean mintly rainfall (mm) 115 121 83 85 104 118 77 53 62 80 133 156 1,186

The morphology of the area (mountainous) and the climatic conditions resemble middle-European conditions that in general, favor the establishment and growth of the forest. The altitudinal range is 1,500-1,745 m (pick Dichala) and the general exposure is western changing in some cases (NW, N). The prevailing bedrock is (siliceous origin) is the ryolith, which gives light sandy-clay soils, deep in the lower slopes and medium deep in the upper slopes and ridges. In the particular study, soils samples (3) were taken and analysed. The soil characterized as loamy-sandy, light with pH 4.4 - 4.8 (acid soil) and with high organic content. The vegetation zone belongs to the Beech-Fir zone, locally with the presence of fir (x Abies borissi regis) and Scots pine (Finns silvestris). In the higher picks of the area (Dichala 1,745 m and Gyfitokastro 1,827 m) the 5-needle Balkan pine (Pinuspence Griseb.) is found.

Experimental work In order to study this Nature Monument forest - the first time after incorporating into the protective status - four (4) experimental circular plots (EP) were established covering an area of 0.1 Ha (GRIGORIAD1S 1992). Inside of each plot, after marking of all trees with overbark diameter at breast height (DBH) bigger than 8 cm, all tree diameters and heights were measured and as well as the related coor­ dinates from the plot center, and the 4 crown radius (N, E, S, W) of each tree (Fig. 6).

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S a m p le p to r 1 0 0 0 m·’

I: In v e n to r y o n b u * h la y e r 2 5 0 ftv

a: Emnslonforburstk 50 lrvfWv1
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N /H a N /H a 1 3 Beech

a Fir

1

I

1 cOvDTjrviOcoi£)TTp^ococD^T0.7 - only in trees of small diameters, which show an upwards trend to reach the overstorey (searching for light).

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HEIGHT (m) HE IG H T/D B H INDEX

DBH (cm )

Fig. 11. Diagramme showing the change/trend of overbark diameter at breast height (DBH) and height (H) (left); the ratio H/DBH in the Nature Monument beech forest of ‘Koula - Haidou’ (right).

The protective Nature Monument of beech forest ‘Koula - Haidou’ in Xanthi (N. Greece) is an important natural reserve of beech forest in Greece due to its small size and the ecological/silvicultural characteristics studied for the first time since its declaration as protective area. Its survival is mainly due to the geographical isolation of this area (N. Greece - close to the borders with Bulgaria) and to historical reasons (war zone). Today the forest has been included in the national and European protective status (Protected Monument of Nature and Site of Community Interest- SCI) of the Network NATURA 2000, however, without the particular management based on management plan and without the existence of a buffer zone. From the structural data analysis it was shown that the studied forest is significantly different from the surrounding (managed) forest, as demonstrated by the accumulation of growing stock, higher values (%) of deadwood (standing and lying) and other characteristics, as has been also reported for neighboring forests of Drama area (GRIGORIADIS, PETERMANN & GRIGORIADIS 2009). Additionally, under specific stathmological conditions (e.g. humid spots) the fir appears with the trend to mixed type of Abieti-Fagetum. The preserved monument of Nature of the Koula - Haidou beech forest (in Xanthi - N. Greece) is an important natural reserve for Greece contributing to the protection of forest biodiversity.

Conclusion remarks - Conservation measures and Strategy Global climate change may cause changes of the present distribution of beech in Greece (e.g. move­ ment upwards in higher altitudes) and replacing parts of the beech area by other species (e.g. oak, fir, pine). However, the following evolutionary forces should be considered when sustainable forest man­ agement and adaptive silviculture are applied to face climate change: a. Evolutionary forces 1. Selection - is the only force causing adaptive evolution by acting on the adaptive traits 2. Mutations - Mutations are a source of novel genetic variation, and possibly adaptive - muta­ tions are of high importance to maintain and increase adaptive potential of the species in the long term. 3. Gene flow - gene flow refers to the movement of genes through the dispersal of pollen and seeds 4. Genetic drift - refers to the random change in allele frequency as genes transmitted from one generation to the next b. 1. 2. 3.

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Population size The effective population size Ne is a fundamental parameter for conservation biology. In large populations, stochastic genetic factors are negligible. In small populations (quite often in beech stands in Greece), the effect of genetic factors are strong.

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c. Threats to a population or the species Deterministic factors (they are related to anthropogenic activities) 1. Deforestation 2. Exploitation 3. Fragmentation 4. Demographic and habitat alterations 5. Envrironmental deterioration (including global climate change - in such case a population can either evolve or migrate) 6. Transfer and domestication. Stochastic factors (affect populations - particularly when small size) 1. Demographic stochasticity - due to variation in the survival and reproduction success of in­ dividuals (in such cases we have to secure natural regeneration of beech in seed years) 2. Environmental stochasticity- refers to unpredictable fluctuations in rainfall, temperature, competitors, pathogens/herbivors affecting birth and death rates. 3. Natural catastrophs - include fires, floods, extreme climate hazards (e.g. frost, draught, storms). 4. Genetic stochasticity - inbreeding depression, loss of genetic diversity, accumulation of deleterious mutations (has strong effects on very small and isolated beech forests and par­ ticularly when outside gene flow is absent). To face effects of stochasticity factors, the only way is to increase population size (in this case plant­ ing with appropriate genetic material would help). d. Sustainable silviculture 1. Climate projections predict warmer and drier conditions to come over the next few decades for the Mediterranean basin. 2. Climatic change will affect the spatial distribution of plant communities, causing a shift in vegetation patterns 3. The interaction between climatic and soil factors - drought related - demonstrates that drought is a complex edaphic-climatic factor. Both components contribute to limiting the distribution of Fagus. Actions to be taken: 1. Forest management - ‘"close-to-nature forestry” - keep canopy as much as close (>0.8) 2. It is based on the natural regeneration - provides better adaptability and sustainability (particu­ larly in the Balkans and around Mediterranean) and low price regeneration. 3. When not possible to apply natural regeneration, afforestation with suitable provenances (the most close to the local) should be applied. 4. Types of fellings - most appropriate in beech forests are shelterwood and group-selection fellings (sometimes their combination). 5. Clear cuts in beech forests are strongly not recommended. e. Conservation of beech genetic resources 1. in situ conservation of beech forest genetic resources a) Virgin forests/Primeval forests, b) Special Protected areas (SPAs) c) National parks and reserves d) NATURA - 2000 areas e) Natural and semi-natural forests. 2. Ex situ gene conservation area of Fagus sylvatica - seed collections in the main seed Store (State Forest Sendee - Athens). 3. Area managed for seed production of European beech - 3 registered seed stands (N. Greece). 4. Recommendations for in situ and ex situ gene conservation of Fagus sylvatica in Greece: a) further measures and actions should be taken for conservation of beech genetic resources, 153

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b) select and use of most appropriate provenances to face climate change. European Conservation Strategy 1. Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe (Strasbourg, 1990; Helsinki, 1993; Lisbon 1998; Vienna, 2003; Warsaw, 2007) and especially the following resolutions: a) S2 - Conservation of Forest genetic resources, b) PI2 - General Guidelines for Conservation of the Biodiversity of European Forests, c) V4 - Conserving and Enhancing Forest Biological Diversity in Europe. 2. EUFORGEN networks - Temperate Oaks and Beech 3. COST E52 Action - Evaluation of Beech Genetic Resources for Sustainable Forestry 4. Beech Forests - Joint Natural Heritage of Europe, Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Germany.

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GRIGORIADIS, N. & PETERMANN J. (1995): «Die Walder zwischen Nestos und bulgarischen Grenzen».

Forstarchiv 66: 240-246. GRIGORIADIS, N., & KMETOVA E. (2006): Rhodope Mountains: The Green Belt between Greece and

Bulgaria. The Green Belt of Europe from Vision to Reality. IUCN. BfN, European Green belt. 137-143 pp. GRIGORIADIS N., PETERMANN J. &. GRIGORIADIS S. (2009): Towards harmonization of silviculture and protection in Elatia forest, Greece. 52nd IAVS International Symposium, Crete (Greece) May 30th-4th June 2009. KAVVADIAS, V., ALIFRAGIS, D., TSIONTSIS, A., BROFA,S G. & STAMATELOS, G. (2001): Litterfall, litter accumulation and litter decomposition rates in four forest ecosystems in northern Greece. Forest Ecology and Management 144: 113-127. LARSSON T.B. (2001): Biodiverity Evaluation Tools for European Forests. Ecological Bulletins 50, 237 pp. MEDAIL, F. & QUEZEL, P. (1997): Hot-spots analysis for conservation of plant biodiversity in the Mediterranean basin. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 84(1): 112- 127. MlCHOPOULOS P., BALOUTSOS G. & ECONOMOU A. (2007): Nitrogen cycling in a mature mountain­ ous beech forest. Silva Fennica42(l): 5-17. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (1992): Results of First National Inventory of Forests, 134 pp. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE (2000): Criteria and indicators for the sustainable forest managemnent in Greece, 101 pp. (Hellenic with English summary). MINISTRY of En v ir o n m e n t a l (1999): Technical Guide Cartography. Network NATURA 2000. Thessaloniki, p. 181. (in Hellenic). MOULOPOULOS C. (1961): Classes of Applied Silviculture. Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, School of Agriculture and Forestry, Thessaloniki, pp. 109-129 (in Hellenic ). MOULOPOULOS C. (1965): The beech forests of Greece - Part A: The beech species and their distribu­ tion in Greece. Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Scientific Annals of School of Agriculture and Forestry, Thessaloniki, 88 pp (in Hellenic with English summary). SPANOS, K.A., TRAKOLIS, D., SPANOS, I. & MALAMIDIS G. (1998): Classification of forest vegetation in Greece. BEAR Technical Report no. 3., Avww.algonet.se/-bear. SPANOS, K.A. & FEEST, A. (2007): A review of the assessment of biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Management of Environmental Quality 18(4): 475-486. SPANOS K.A. (ed.) (2010): Beech Genetic Resources for Sustainable Forestry in Europe. Proceedings of the workshop and MC Meeting of the COST Action E52. 'Evaluation of Beech Genetic Re­ sources for Sustainable Forestry', Thessaloniki, May 5-7, 2009, NAGREF-Forest Research Insti­ tute, 133 pp. STRID, A. (1989): Mountain Flora of Greece, 1. Athenaeoum Press, Newcastle. STRID, A. & KlT, T. (1991): Mountain Flora of Greece, 2. Edinburg University Press.

Authors: Dr. Konstantinos Spanos, Dr. Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Dr. Ioannis Meliadis, Dionysios Gaitanis & Savvas Grigoriadis National Agricultural Research Foundation (NAGREF) Forest Research Institute 57006 Vassilika, Thessaloniki / Greece [email protected], [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

155

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

Appendix 1. Natura areas with beech (pure or mixed) (Dafis et al. 1997).

Area name 1.

MITSIKELI Mt.

2.

LAKMOS Mt. (PERISTERI)

3.

METSO VO AREA (ANILIO - KATARA)

NATURA Code (Geogr. Inform.) GR2130008 Long: 20° 54 Latit: 39° 43 Mean altit: 1340 m GR2130007 Long: 21° 07 Latit: 39° 41 Mean altit: 1700 m GR2130006 Long:21° 11 Latit:39° 47 Mean altit: 13 60 m

4.

CENTRAL PART OF ZAGORI

GR2130004 Long:20° 54 Latit:39° 52 Mean altit: 1265m

5.

ORAIOKASTRO, LAKE OF DELVINAKl, MEROPH FOREST AND VALEY OF GORMOS

GR2130003 Long:20° 28 Latit:39° 58 Mean altit:400m

6.

PICKS OF SMOLIKAS Mt.

GR2130002 Long:20° 55 Latit:40° 06 Mean altit: 1200m

7.

NATIONAL PARK VIKOS - AOOS

GR2130001 Long:20° 49 Latit:40° 00 Mean altit: 1488m

Forest Types

Protection Status

1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis

NATIONAL I) Game refuge

1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Ouercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis 2) Beech forests Luzu­ lo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 4) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

NATIONAL I) Game refuge

-

INTERNATIONAL III) SPA

INTERNATIONAL III) SPA

NATIONAL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL III) SPA

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) National Park II) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

8.

VALEY ACHELOOU

GR2110003 Long:210 23 Latit:39° 18 Mean altit:725m

9.

ANTICHASIA Mt. METEORA

10.

ATHAMANON Mt. (TZOUMERKA)

11.

KERKETIO Mt. (KOZIAKAS)

GR1440002 Long:21° 32 Latit:39° 35 Mean altit: 1000m

12.

ASPROPOTAMOS

GR1440001 Long:21° 16 Latit:39° 39 Mean altit: 1502m

13.

14.

PILIO Mt.

GR1440003 Long:21° 35 Latit:39° 45 Mean altit:500m GR2110002 Long:21° 09 Latit:39° 26 Mean altit: 1698m

GR1430001 Long:23° 02 Latit:39° 27 Mean altit:750m

KARLA - MAVROV O U N IKEFALOVR1SO VELESTINO

GR1420004 Long:22° 49 Latit:39° 37 Mean altit:600m

15.

RECREATION FO­ REST OSSAS

GR1420003 Long:22° 41 Latit:39° 48 Mean altit:700m

16.

KATO OLYMPUS

GR1420001 Long:22° 25 Latit:39° 55 Mean altit: 800m

17.

AGRAFA

GR1410002 Long:21° 36 Latit:39° 15 Mean altit: 1500m

1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

1) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

1) Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis 2) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

1) Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-F agetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzu­ lo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests of Asperulo-F agetum 2) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA INTERNATIONAL LEVEL ^International heritage NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge Π) Hunting zone INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge II) Hunting zone INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL III) SPA NATIONAL I) Recreation forest II) Hunting zone INTERNATIONAL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA



157

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

18.

LAKE TAVROPOU AREA

GR1410001 Long:210 47 Latit:39° 20 Mean altit: 1400m

19.

VERNON Mt. - PICK VITSI

20.

LAKES CHIMADITIDA - ZACHARI

GR1340006 Long:21° 26 Latit:40° 40 Mean altit: 1500m GR1340005 Long:21° 33 Latit:40° 37 Mean altit:850m

21.

VARNOUDA Mt.

22.

NATIONAL PARK OF PRESPES

GR1340003 Long:21° 12 Latit:40° 52 Mean altit: 1700m

GR1340001 Long:21° 05 Latit:40° 46 Mean altit: 1000m

23.

PORTA Mt.

GR1330004 Long:21° 57 Latit:40° 05 Mean altit:650m

24.

PICKS OF SINIATSIKO Mt.

GR 1330002 Long:21° 33 Latit:40° 26 Mean altit: 1200m

Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum l)Beech forests - Quer­ cus frainetto

1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 3) Sub-alpine beech forests with Acer and Rumex arifolius 1) Sub-alpine beech forests with Acer and Rumex arifolius 2) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 4) Beech forests Quercus frainetto

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA

-

NATIONAL I) National Park II) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL I) Ramsar II) Biogenetic re­ serve III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

25.

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

VOURINO Mt. (MESIANO NERO)

PICKS OF GRAMOS Mt.

NATIONAL PARK PINDOS (VALIA KALDA) BROADER AREA

NATIONAL PARK PINDOS

VASILITSA

STRATONIKON Mt.

GR1330001 Long:21° 40 Latit:40° 11 Mean altit:800m

GR1320002 Long:20° 50 Latit:40° 21 Mean altit: 1000m

GR1310003 Long:21° 08 Latit:39° 54 Mean altit: 1590m

GR1310002 Long:21° 08 Latit:39° 54 Mean altit: 1590m

GR1310001 Long:21° 07 Latit:40° 04 Mean altit: 1100m

GR1270005 Long:23° 47 Latit:40° 33 Mean altit:400m

1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) 1) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 4) Beech forests Quercus ffainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) 1) Beech forests Asperulo-F agetum 3) Sub-alpine beech forests with Acer and Rumex arifolius 4) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 5) Beech forests Quercus ffainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) 1) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis

1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-F agetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis

1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 1) Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus ffainetto

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Nature monu­ ment II) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) Biogenetic reser­ ve II) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) National Park II) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) Ramsar II) Biogenetic re­ serve III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) National Park II) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) Biogenetic reser­ ve II) SPA

-

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge

159

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

31.

CHERSONISOS ATHO

GR1270003 Long:24° 13 Latit:40° 16 Mean altit: 800m

32.

CHOLOMONTAS Mt.

GR1270001 Long:23° 30 Latit:40° 27 Mean altit:600m

33.

VRODOU - LAILIAS Mt.

GR1260007 Long:23° 50 Latit:41° 16 Mean altit: 1000m

34.

KERDILIA Mt.

35.

PICKS OF ORVILOS Mt.

GR1260006 Long:23° 40 Latit:40° 48 Mean altit:750m GR1260005 Long:23° 37 Latit:41° 23 Mean altit: 1700m GR1260004 Long:23° 50 Latit:410 14 Mean altit: 1500m

36.

PICKS OF MENIKIO Mt. - KOUSKOURAS Mt.

37.

LAKE KERKINI KROUSIA - PICKS OF BELES Mt.

38.

160

NATIONAL PARK OLYMPUS

GR1260001 Long:23° 05 Latit:41° 15 Mean altit:200m

GR1250005 Long:22° 24 Latit:40° 04 Mean altit:2000m

1)Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus 2) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech forests - Abies borisii-regis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 1) Hellenic beech forests with Abies borisii-regis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) 1) Beech forests Asperulo-F agetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 4) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus 2) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) World Heritage II) SPA

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Nature Monu­ ment II) Hunting zone NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge

_ NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL III) SPA NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) Game refuge INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) Ramsar III) SPA

NATIONAL LEV­ EL I) National Park INTERNATIONAL LEVEL I) Biogenetic reser­ ve III) SPA

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

39.

TITAROS Mt.

GR1250003 Long:22° 11 Latit:40° 10 Mean altit: 1300m

40.

PIERIA Mt.

GR1250002 Long:22° 12 Latit:40° 15 Mean altit: 1200m

41.

OLYMPUS Mt.

GR1250001 Long:22° 25 Latit:40° 08 Mean altit: 1600m

42.

PAIKO Mt.

GR1240003 Long:22° 18 Latit:41° 01 Mean altit:800m

43.

TZENA Mt.

GR1240002 Long: 22° 12 Latit: 41° 06 Mean altit: 1100 m

1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests AsperI) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests AsperI) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus 4) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 5) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Calciphilous beech NATIONAL LEV­ EL forests (CephalantheroFagion) I) National Park 2) Beech forests AsperII) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests withINTERNATIONAL Ilex and Taxus LEVEL 4) Hellenic beech for­ I) Biogenetic re­ ests - Abies borisiiserve regis III) SPA 5) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests AsperI) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 3) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 4) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests of NATIONAL Luzulo-Fagetum I) Game refuge 2) Beech forests with Ilex and Taxus INTERNATIONAL I) SPA 3) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 4) Calciphilous beech forests (CephalantheroFagion) 5) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisii-

regis 6) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto

161

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

44.

PICKS OF VORAS Mt.

GR1240001 Long:21° 55 Latit:40° 58 Mean altit: 1600m

45.

VERMIO Mt.

GR1210001 Long:22° 05 Latit:40° 35 Mean altit: 1300m

46.

PICKS OF PAGEO Mt.

GR1150005 Long:24° 05 Latit:40° 55 Mean altit: 1500m

47.

LIMNIA Mt.

GR1150004 Long:24° 29 Latit:41° 09 Mean altit:850m

48.

VIRGIN FOREST OF CENTRAL RODOPI

GR1140007 Long:24° 30 Latit:41° 32 Mean altit: 1560m

162

1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests withI) Nature Monu­ ment Ilex and Taxus 3) Beech forests AsperII) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 4) Calciphilous beech INTERNATIONAL forests (CephalantheroLEVEL Fagion) II) Biogenetic re­ 5) Hellenic beech for­ serve ests - Abies borisiiIII) SPA regis 6) Sub-alpine beech forests with Acer and Rumex arifolius 7) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1)Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests withI) Game Breeding Ilex and Taxus II) Game refuge 3) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum 4) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 5) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests AsperI) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests - Abies borisiiregis 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Δάση οξυάς με Quer­ cus frainetto 1) Beech forests Luzulo- NATIONAL LEV­ Fagetum EL 2) Beech forests AsperI) Game refuge ulo-Fagetum II) Nature Monu­ ment INTERNATIONAL LEVEL II) Biogenetic re­ serve III) SPA

South European Mountain Beech Forest Region

49.

PICKS OF FALAKRO Mt.

GR1140004 Long:24° 05 Latit:41° 17 Mean altit: 1600m

50.

ELATIA AREA

GR1140003 Long:24° 17 Latit:41° 31 Mean altit: 1300m

51.

RODOPI (BIRCH)

52.

FRACTO FOREST

GR1140002 Long:24° 07 Latit:41° 29 Mean altit: 1137m GR1140001 Long:24° 30 Latit:41° 32 Mean altit: 1600 m

53.

CHAIDOU Mt. KOULA AND PICKS

GR1120003 Long:24° 48 Latit:41° 20 Mean altit: 1400m

54.

TRIS BRYSES

GR1110003 Long: 26° 01 Latit: 41° 08 Mean altit: 650 m

1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum 3) Hellenic beech for­ ests with Abies borisiiregis 4) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1)Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests Asper­ ulo-Fagetum 3) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto 1) Beech forests LuzuloFagetum 2) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto NATIONAL 1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum I) Game refuge II) Nature Monu­ 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-F agetum ment INTERNATIONAL II) Biogenetic re­ serve III) SPA NATIONAL 1) Beech forests of I) Game refuge Luzulo-Fagetum II) Nature Monu­ 2) Beech forests of Asperulo-Fagetum ment INTERNATIONAL 3) Hellenic beech for­ II) Biogenetic Re­ ests with Abies borisiiregis serve 4) Beech forests with Quercus frainetto NATIONAL 1) Beech forests of Luzulo-Fagetum I) Game Breeding 2) Beech forests with Π) Game refuge Quercus frainetto

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