Biodiversity in 2010 - National Biodiversity Data Centre

4 downloads 0 Views 6MB Size Report
A checklist and census catalogue of British and Irish bryophytes updated 2008. Middlewich,. Cheshire: British Bryological Society. Number of bryophyte species:.

Biodiversity in 2010 State of Knowledge

Ireland’s Biodiversity in 2010: State of Knowledge Editors: Úna FitzPatrick, Eugenie Regan and Liam Lysaght Citation: FitzPatrick, Ú., Regan, E. and Lysaght, L. (editors)(2010) Ireland’s Biodiversity in 2010: State of Knowledge. National Biodiversity Data Centre, Waterford. © National Biodiversity Data Centre 2010 ISBN 978-1-906304-15-7

Contents Foreword

1

Introduction

3

Habitats (non-marine)

7

Vegetation

8

Fungi

9

Lichens

11

Bryophytes

12

Algae

13

Vascular plants

15

Non-insect invertebrates

17

Insects

21

Tunicates & lancelets

24

Marine fishes

25

Freshwater fishes

27

Amphibians & reptiles

29

Birds

31

Land mammals

33

Bats

34

Marine mammals

35

References

36

Appendix

41

The National Biodiversity Data Centre is an initiative of the Heritage Council and is operated under a service level agreement by Compass Informatics. The Centre is funded by the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government.

Foreword Dr Liam Lysaght

Ireland, along with its EU partners, agreed to ‘Halt biodiversity loss by 2010’. Before we can halt biodiversity loss, we need to have some understanding of what that biodiversity resource is. As a contribution to this target, and to mark International Year of Biodiversity 2010, the National Biodiversity Data Centre set out to produce an overview of the state of knowledge on Ireland’s biodiversity. The scope of this task relates only to knowledge on what species and habitats occur in Ireland, how they are distributed, and how their range and/or populations are changing. Ecosystem function and conservation management are outside the remit of the Centre thus are not addressed in this document. The Centre hosted a two day meeting in Waterford on 26 & 27 August 2010 entitled Biodiversity Knowledge Quest. Leading national experts presented an overview of the state of knowledge on different aspects of Ireland’s biodiversity. Each overview was based on the following questions: • Is there a published checklist? • Have basic surveys been carried out? • Is there a national database? • Has a National conservation assessment been completed? • Are there monitoring systems in place? • Are there capacity building requirements? • Are there other knowledge gaps? These summaries have been brought together in two documents, and provide an important overview of the state of knowledge on Ireland’s biological diversity in 2010: • Fitzpatrick, Ú., Regan, E. and Lysaght, L. (editors), 2010. Ireland’s Biodiversity in 2010: State of Knowledge. National Biodiversity Data Centre, Waterford • National Biodiversity Data Centre, 2010. Ireland’s Biodiversity in 2010: Knowledge Gaps. National Biodiversity Data Centre, Waterford Top to bottom: Chafer beetle (L. Lysaght) Grey seal (E.W. Delaney) Bracket fungus (D. Heaphy)

1

This State of Knowledge document is the first inventory of the principal sources of biodiversity data in the Republic of Ireland. The information herein will be made available online at the National Biodiversity Data Centre’s website www.biodiversityireland.ie, and will be added to and kept up to date as the knowledge base expands over the coming years. Building the knowledge base on Ireland’s biological diversity is important as the goods and services provided by biodiversity are estimated to contribute a minimum of €2.6 billion per annum to the Irish economy. This natural capital is the foundation upon which our agriculture, forestry, fisheries and tourism sector depends and is vital for sustaining vital societal services such as clean water, productive soil and clean air. As the Irish economy seeks ways to revitalise itself, gaining a greater understanding of Ireland’s biodiversity and protecting Ireland’s natural capital should be one of the building blocks of that recovery. This document is laid out in sections following taxonomic grouping with an overview introduction by Dr Don Cotton. Each section follows the same format; Irish checklist, number of species, primary sources of distribution data, National conservation assessment, and monitoring or repeat surveys in place. This layout allows the reader to compare the state of knowledge of different groups. The Gaps document expands on this by highlighting those areas with knowledge gaps that could be addressed within the next ten years.

Acknowledgements Many people were involved in the compilation of this document. Their advice and support are much appreciated. They are: Paul Connolly (Marine Institute), Mark Holmes (Natural History Museum), Ian O’Connor (Galway-Mayo Institute of Technology), Eamonn Kelly (Department of Environment, Heritage & Local Government), Julia Nunn (Centre for Environmental Data and Recording), Cliona O’Brien (Heritage Council), Deirdre Lynn (National Parks and Wildlife Service). Thanks to Nigel Monaghan (Natural History Museum), Mick O’Toole (Marine Institute), Alan Lauder (BirdWatch Ireland), Louise Scally (National Platform for Biodiversity Research) and Colette O’Flynn (National Biodiversity Data Centre) for chairing sessions during the Knowledge Quest event.

2

Introduction Dr Don Cotton

Introduction to the state of Ireland’s biodiversity In the global effort to protect the planet’s biodiversity it might seem that Ireland is an insignificant piece of land and marine continental shelf. However, we have a moral and legal responsibility to protect our biodiversity. As a developed nation we should also play a leadership role in this endeavour. Ireland does not support a particularly rich biological diversity due to its recent glacial history coupled with the geographical position. But there are some special habitats, and there are unique species and genetic variations within species in need of protection.

Ecosystem and habitat diversity It is widely accepted by specialists working on diverse taxonomic groups that habitat and ecosystem protection is paramount to the conservation of species and genetic diversity. Describing the range of habitats is one of the most difficult yet important aspects of biodiversity. The publication of “A Guide to Habitats in Ireland” (Fossitt, 2000) was a great milestone, but the time is now right for it to be revised and extended. The involvement of people such as invertebrate ecologists and lichenologists is now needed to add descriptions of the micro-habitats that are crucial to the existence of their organisms. A modified system will make it easier for recorders to standardise habitat data that should accompany every biological record. A wide range of surveys have been carried out in Ireland over the last few years which concentrated upon special habitats that are uncommon or rare in the rest of Europe. Several surveys are on-going but attention is now being given to sub-marine habitats which occupy ten times the area of the terrestrial environment. Reports from these surveys are mostly unpublished, they are often very long and detailed and are consequently not used as widely as they deserve. A review that summarises the main findings of these reports would be a most valuable publication. Top to bottom: Connemara (S. Waldron) Irish hare (E.W. Delaney) Large carder bee (J. Breen)

3

Species diversity Knowledge of which species are found in Ireland has depended upon there being people with expertise in the taxa. In common with other countries there is an imbalance in the state of our knowledge because organisms that are larger, more attractive and terrestrial, tend to be the best studied and have good identification works. For convenience one can divide our knowledge of species diversity in Ireland into three categories : (a) Taxa that have regularly up-dated species lists and we know their geographical distributions and population trends There are very few vascular plants waiting to be added to the Irish list that stands at just over 1000 native species with another 1075 ‘alien’ species recorded. Not only that but we know their geographical distributions quite well and work is progressing on studies of sub-species and hybrids. A Red Data Book was published over 20 years ago but with all of the new information available an up-date version is now considered overdue. Vertebrates are also very thoroughly studied and it is generally possible to give an account of the distribution and ecology for about 550 species that includes all but the marine fish. There are organisations dedicated to specific groups within the vertebrates which has resulted in recent distribution maps, atlases and updated red lists. There are repeat distribution and abundance surveys in place for many of these groups of species some of which are reviewed on a cyclic basis. It is notable that larger and more attractive invertebrates have also received special attention. The butterflies have been studied for many years but this interest has now spread to the macro-moths and is beginning to filter down to the micro-moths. This means that 1,454 species in Order Lepidoptera are receiving enough attention that distribution maps and patterns of abundance can now be discerned. Proportion of species known from Ireland divided into five major catagories 4

The 34 Irish species of dragonflies and damselflies (Order Odonata) have also had maps produced and habitat information has been gathered. The Mollusca have been a very collectable group for many years and consequently there are good species lists for marine littoral, terrestrial, and freshwater species. There are also atlases and on-going studies as well as published Red Lists for the molluscs.

The proportions of species by threat category for each of the taxonomic groups that have been Red Listed in Ireland using the IUCN methodology.

It is important to say that people studying all of the above taxa would point out that their group of organisms is still under-studied and there is so much more to do! (b) Taxa for which there are species lists and a limited knowledge of their distribution, but little else Organisms in this category generally have species lists and publications because they are championed by a small number of enthusiastic individuals, often by amateur naturalists and sometimes by just one person. Some of these groups contain thousands of species and this emphasises the difference between our knowledge of these organisms in comparison with the large, more appealing groups. During the last 10 years things have been moving quite quickly for some of these taxa, for example previously there were only species lists and vicecounty records for most of the lichens, bryophytes and spiders but due to intensive efforts these organisms are probably now well enough known to have Red Lists compiled.

5

(c) Taxa for which even basic species lists are lacking In common with most other countries there are some taxa that have hardly been studied. The enormity of the task can be comprehended when the algal list stands at 1,054 documented species but there is an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 species; or the fungal list that stands at 5,500 species but there is an estimated 9,000 species. Invertebrate taxa are a huge mixture of unrelated groups of animals, many of which haven’t been studied in Ireland in recent times, if at all. This would be particularly true of marine animals and some soil organisms. For example, the tiny nematode worms could account for thousands of species.

Genetic diversity Ireland, being geographically isolated, is a candidate for genetic drift and the evolution of unique subspecies and varieties. A few are already well known but undoubteldly more will be described in the future. Talk about genetic variety is regarded by some observers as premature when there are many groups for which basic lists of species don’t exist.

Invasive species Ireland with its low species diversity and empty niches is particularly vulnerable to the arrival and the rapid, uncontrolled spread of invasive species. The collection and collation of data on such species is now routinely done and serves as an early warning system to try and prevent further invasions. There is also an issue around whether non-invasive alien species should be regarded as contributing to biodiversity.

Concluding remark In any final analysis, it is important that the data collected is put to good use. Making lists and producing reports is just a first step but action is needed which results in the protection of habitats and species if Ireland’s biodiversity is to be conserved. Heliophilus species (L. Lysaght) 6

Habitats

(non-marine)

Dr Julie Fossitt | National Parks and Wildlife Service

Irish checklist: • Fossitt, J.A. (2000) A Guide to Habitats in Ireland. The Heritage Council, Kilkenny. • Habitats Directive Annex I habitats (1992; subsequent modifications). See European Commission (2007) Interpretation manual of European Union habitats EUR 27, European Commission, DG Environment.

Number of habitats: 117 habitats at level 3 (Fossitt, 2000) 59 Annex I habitats in Ireland, 16 of which are or can be priority habitats.

Primary sources of habitat data: • See Appendix for a list of key surveys (note this is not an exhaustive list).

National conservation assessment: Assessment of Annex I habitats in Ireland: The state of EU protected habitats and species in Ireland (2008) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Other habitats have not been assessed at the national level.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • Annex I habitats are monitored by the National Parks and Wildlife Service (see Appendix).

Top to bottom: Marram. Inis Oirr. (C. O’Rourke) Green alga. (C. O’Rourke) Kidney vetch (L. Lysaght)

7

Vegetation Dr Úna FitzPatrick | National Biodiversity Data Centre

Irish vegetation classification system: No complete Irish vegetation classification system. Account of Irish vegetation types: White, J. & Doyle, G., 1982. The vegetation of Ireland: a catalogue raisonnee. Studies on Irish Vegetation (ed. J. White), pp. 289–368. Royal Dublin Society, Dublin, Eire.

Number of vegetation classes: Unknown

Primary sources of vegetation data: A National Vegetation Database is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre. This database contains collated information on 22,000+ relevés from the Republic of Ireland. Information on the national vegetation database, including all data sources is available at http://nationalvegetationdatabase. biodiversityireland.ie

National conservation assessment: No

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: Annex I habitats are monitored by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. For some of these habitats this includes sample monitoring of vegetation The percentage distribution of relevés in the National (see Appendix) Vegetation Database by broad habitat type (October 2010).  Mixed relevé source refers to surveys that contain relevés from a range of habitat types.

8

Fungi Maria Cullen1 & Howard Fox2 | University of Limerick1; National Botanic Gardens2

Irish checklist: No complete Irish checklist. • Legon, N.W., Henrici, A., Roberts, P.J., Spooner, B.M. & Watling, R., 2005. Checklist of the British and Irish Basidiomycota. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. • Henderson, D.M., 2000. A Checklist of the Rust Fungi of the British Isles.  British Mycological Society, Cambridge, England, UK. • Fox, H., 2001. Census catalogue of the lichenicolous fungi of Ireland (~150 species). National Botanic Gardens, Dublin.

Number of fungi species: Approximately 5,500 known species (estimated at 9,000)

Primary sources of distribution data: There is no national fungal database, although there are many sources of distribution data: • The Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI) maintained by the British Mycological Society, contains Irish records made by UK and Irish recorders. • National Herbarium, National Botanic Gardens, Dublin. • Muskett & Malone (1978-1985) Catalogue of Irish fungi I-VI, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. • The Northern Irish Fungus Group (http://www.nifg.org.uk/species/atlas.htm) • Outside the FRDBI, there are individuals with significant private databases (more than 2000 records): M Cullen & H Fox (3,500+ records); D. Mitchel (3,000+ records), R. McHugh (2,000+ records).

Top to bottom: Chanterelle mushroom (A. Malcolm) Boletus reticulatus (L. Lysaght) Bracket fungus (D. Heaphy)

9

A bibliography of fungal work in Ireland was published in 2008: Mangan, A., 2008. A bibliography of mycology and plant pathology in Ireland, 1976 to 2000. Glasra 4: 119 – 188.

Irish records from the Fungal Records Database of Britain and Ireland (FRDBI) are held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: No

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • Edible and biodiversity plot studies (Maria Cullen 2007-2009, University of Limerick). • Waxcap surveys in counties W. Dongeal, W. Mayo, W. Cork & Clare (David Mitchell 2006-2009).

Fly agaric (shutterstock.com) 10

Lichens Dr Mike Simms | National Museums Northern Ireland

Irish checklist: Seaward, M.R.D., 2010. Census Catalogue of Irish Lichens (3rd Edition). National Museums Northern Ireland, Belfast.

Number of lichen species: 1,134

Primary sources of distribution data: A national database LichenIreland (2005-2010) has been compiled by the Centre for Environmental Data and Recording (CEDaR) as part of a project funded by the National Parks and Wildlife Service and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency: http://www.habitas.org.uk/lichenireland/

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – Cladonia subgenus Clanina listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. No National conservation assessment of other species

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: No *Note – Lichens have been considered separately to other fungi. Top to bottom: Pseudocyphellaria crocata (M. Simms) Woodland lichens (Shutterstock.com) Xanthoria candelaria (Shutterstock.com)

11

Bryophytes Nick Hodgetts1 & Dr Neil Lockhart2 | British Bryological Society1; National Parks and Wildlife Service2

Irish checklist: Hill, M.O., Blackstock, T.H., Long, D.G. & Rothero, G.P., 2008. A checklist and census catalogue of British and Irish bryophytes updated 2008. Middlewich, Cheshire: British Bryological Society.

Number of bryophyte species: 797 (inclusive of 13 probable alien species)

Primary sources of distribution data: A national database has been compiled by the National Parks and Wildlife Service. It has been agreed that a copy of this database will be held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Petalophyllum ralfsii, Leucobryum glaucum, Sphagnum species, and Lycopodium (and related genera) are listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. Lockhart, N.D., Hodgetts, N.G. and Holyoak, D.T. (in prep, due 2011) Rare and Threatened Bryophytes of Ireland - including a Red List and catalogue of Important Bryophyte Areas. National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: Rare & threatened bryophyte conservation and monitoring (2008-2011). The moss species under investigation include Bryum uliginosum, Catoscopium nigritum, Ditrichum cornubicum, Hamatocaulis vernicosus and Paludella squarrosa. The liverwort species include Petalophyllum ralfsii, Cephaloziella nicholsonii, Cephaloziella massalongi, Leiocolea gillmanii and Leiocolea rutheana var. rutheana. This is collaborative project between NPWS Research, Botany Department, Trinity College Dublin, and the National Botanic Gardens.

Top to bottom: Sphagnum (shutterstock.com) Bryum sp. (C. Campbell) Sphagnum cf warnstorfii II (C. Campbell)

12

Algae Prof Michael D. Guiry | NUI Galway

Irish checklist: No complete Irish checklist. Of the 53 described classes of algae that potentially occur in Ireland, only 12 have been comprehensively checklisted, and these are mostly marine. The desmids are the only freshwater group (part of the Zygnemophyceae) that has been comprehensively catalogued. National checklists are available for seaweeds (green algae belonging to the Chlorophyceae, Bryopsidophyceae, Ulvophyceae, some Chlorophyceae, some Trebouxiophyceae; red algae belonging to the Stylonematophyceae, Compsopogonophyceae, Bangiophyceae and Florideophyceae; and brown algae belonging to the Phaeophyceae). A desmid list has been completed and will be published shortly. A checklist of Characeae is available for the British Isles. • Bryant, J.A., Stewart, N.F. & Stace, C.A., 2002. A checklist of Characeae of the British Isles. Watsonia 24: 203-208. • Guiry, M.D., 1979. A consensus and bibliography of Irish Seaweeds. Bibliotheca Phycologica 44: 1-287 [513 species]. • John, D.M., Williamson, D.M. & Guiry, M.D., in prep. A catalogue of the desmids (Streptophycophyta, Zygnematophyceae, Zygnematales) of Ireland. Occasional Papers from the National Botanical Gardens [541 species]

Number of algal species: 1,079 known species (estimated at between 3,000 and 5,000)

Top to bottom: Ascophyllum nodosum, a keystone species in the west of Ireland (M. Guiry) Fucus vesiculosus. Carraroe, Co. Galway (M. Guiry)

Class Cyanophyceae Characeae Xanthophyceae Phaeophyceae Compsopogonophyceae Bangiophyceae Florideophyceae Ulvophyceae Trebouxiophyceae Chlorophyceae Bryopsidophyceae Zygnematophyceae Total

13

Phylum Cyanophycophyta Charophyta Heterokontophycophyta Heterokontophycophyta Rhodophycophyta Rhodophycophyta Rhodophycophyta Chlorophycophyta Chlorophycophyta Chlorophycophyta Chlorophycophyta Streptophycophyta

No. of species 26 25 10 147 8 6 230 15 3 58 10 541 1,079

Literature sources Guiry 1979 (marine only) Stewart & Church 1992 Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) Guiry 1979 (marine only) John, Williamson & Guiry in prep.

Primary sources of distribution data: • A national database of seaweeds in Ireland has been established by NUI Galway in collaboration with the British Phycological Society. • John, D.M., Williamson, D.M. & Guiry, M.D., in prep. A catalogue of the desmids (Streptophycophyta, Zygnematophyceae, Zygnematales) of Ireland. Occasional Papers from the National Botanical Gardens. A copy of the national database of seaweeds in Ireland is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – Lithothamnion corallioides and Phymatolithon calcareum listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. Ireland Red List: Red, green and brown Seaweeds (in prep, due 2011) National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland. Stewart, N.F. & Church, J.M.1992. Red Data Books of Britain and Ireland: Stoneworts. The Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, UK.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: No

Estimated species diversity of Irish algae

14

Vascular plants Dr Matthew Jebb | National Botanic Gardens

Irish checklist: Checklist developed by the National Botanic Gardens and published on its website at http://www.botanicgardens.ie/herb/census/lists.htm

Number of vascular plant species: 2,328

Primary sources of distribution data: • Botanical Society of the British Isles: hectad and tetrad databases: http://www.bsbimaps.org.uk/atlas/main.php • National Botanic Gardens: herbarium & research databases • National Biodiversity Data Centre: plant data held within the National Vegetation Database • National Parks and Wildlife Service: rare and threatened plant database • Environmental Protection Agency: Q value database & funded research Data is currently being centrally collated by the National Biodiversity Data Centre.

National conservation assessment: • Article 17 reporting – 3 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. • T.G.F. Curtis and H.N. McGough, 1988. The Irish Red Data Book: 1. Vascular Plants. Wildlife Service Ireland, The Stationery Office, Dublin. Top to bottom: Marsh orchid (L. Lysaght) Bluebell (L. Lysaght) Dandelion (L. Lysaght)

15

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • Rare plant surveys (National Parks and Wildlife Service, 1990s, 2000s) • BSBI Local Change Project: 1987-1988 (Rich, T.C.G., Beesley, S. & Goodwillie, R. 2001. Changes in the vascular plant flora of Ireland between pre-1960 and 1987-1988: the BSBI Monitoring Scheme. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 26: 333-350). 264 systematically selected tetrads were surveyed in Ireland in 1987-88. This survey has not been repeated since.

The number of native and alien vascular plant species in Ireland. *Apomictic species reproduce asexually, and while they maintain distinctions from other apomicts, will have smaller differences than is normal between species of most genera (e.g. Rubus species). Archeophytes are alien species that became established in Ireland before ad 1500, whereas neophytes were introduced post this date.

Top to bottom: Blackthorn in flower (L. Lysaght) Navelwort (L. Lysaght)

16

Non-insect invertebrates Prof Tom Bolger1, Dr Brendan O’Connor2, Dr Bernard Picton3, & Dr Eugenie Regan4 University College Dublin1; AQUAFACT International Services Ltd.2; National Museums Northern Ireland3; National Biodiversity Data Centre4

Irish checklists Phyla present in Class Ireland Protozoa Myxozoa Porifera (sponges) Cnidaria (jellyfish, sea anemones, corals) Ctenophora Mesozoa Platyhelminthes Turbellaria (flatworms) Trematoda

Gnathostomulida (jaw worms) Gastrotricha (hairy backs) Rotifera Kinorhyncha Acanthocephala (spiny-headed worms) Entoprocta Nematoda (roundworms) Nemertea (ribbon worms) Nematomorpha (horsehair worms) Bryozoa Phoronida Brachipoda (lampshells) Mollusca Top to bottom: Common snail (L. Lysaght) Moon jellyfish (shutterstock.com) The by-the-wind-sailor (Tom Doyle)

17

Priapulida Sipuncula (peanut worms) Echiura

No. of species Published Irish (Ferriss et al. 2009) checklists Unknown Unknown 290 302 Stephens, 1905; Jeal & West, 1970† 3 Stephens, 1905 Unknown 130 Southern, 1936 85

Monogenea

30

Cestoda

55

Holland and Kennedy, 1997† Holland and Kennedy, 1997† Holland and Kennedy, 1997†

Unknown 6 306 5 14

Horkan, 1981

4 172 40 3 206 1-3 14

Smyth, 1994†

1,088

Nunn et al., 2002; Anderson, 2005

1 23 7

Phyla present in Ireland Annelida

Class Polychaeta Aphanoneura Oligochaeta Hirudinea

Tardigrada Pogonophora Arthropoda

Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida Pycnogonida

Subphylum Crustacea Subphylum Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilopoda Symphyla Subphylum Hexapoda Collembola Protura Diplura Insecta* Echinodermata Chaetognatha (arrow worms) Hemichordata (acorn worms)

No. of species Published Irish (Ferriss et al. 2009) checklists 404 2 179 Cotton, 1978; Trodd et al., 2005† 32 42 1 Van Helsdingen, 1996; Legg & O’Connor, 1997; 1,109 Luxton, 1998; 20 Kelly et al., 2001; Cawley, 2002; Baker & Bayliss, 2005 3,000** 41 28 3

Foster, 1915

201 5 4

Bolger, 1986; Blackith & Good, 1991

192 15

Nichols, 1902 Rossia macrosoma (B. Picton)

3

*Dealt with in separate section, **3,000 species of crustaceans have been recorded in Ireland to date with an estimated total of 6,000 species (Mark Holmes, pers. comm.), †Only partial checklists for these groups. Note: InvertebrateIreland (www. habitas.org.uk/invertebrateireland/) aims to put online all checklists of Irish invertebrates compiled by acknowledged experts.

18

Non-insect invertebrates

Number of non-insect invertebrate species: 8,000+

Primary sources of distribution data:

Top to bottom: Flatworm (J. Breen) Lithobius pilicornis (T. Barber) Spider (L. Lysaght)

19

Arachnids: The Gibson Spider Collection* Arachnids: The County Distribution of Irish Spiders (Van Helsdingen, 1996) Arachnids: Harvestmen of Ireland* Arachnids: Pseudoscorpions of Ireland* Bryozoa: Freshwater Bryozoa (Smyth, 1994) Bryozoa: Marine Bryozoa (Wyse Jackson, 1991) Centipedes of Ireland* Corals (Deegan, 2004) Crustacea: records held by Mark Holmes, Natural History Museum, Dublin Crustacea: Asellota (Isopoda)(Kavanagh, 2009) Crustacea: Lobster (Tully et al., 2006)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Crustacea: Brown crab (Tully et al., 2006)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Crustacea: Clawed lobster (Nolan, 2004)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Crustacea: Shrimp (Kelly et al., 2008)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Crustacea: Nephrops under water TV surveys (Marine Institute) Flatworms: Planarians (Anderson, 1986) Irish New Zealand Flatworm Database* Jellyfish: EcoJel Project (UCC) Lice: Butler & O’Connor, 1994 Marine flora and fauna (Howson & Picton, 1999) Mollusca: Marine molluscs (Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland) Mollusca: All-Ireland non-Marine Molluscan Database* Mollusca: Scallops (Tully, 2006)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Mollusca: Cockle (Hervas et al., 2008)(Bord Iascaigh Mhara) Mollusca: Cephalopods (Lordan et al., 2001) (Marine Institute) Millipedes of Ireland* Nematoda: Brown et al., 1977 Oligochaetes: Earthworms of Ireland Database* Oligochaetes: Freshwater Oligochaeta (Trodd et al., 2005)

Sponges of Rathlin Island* Ticks: Martyn, 1988 Woodlice (Doogue & Harding, 1982) *Databases held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps.

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – seven species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. Byrne, A., Moorkens, E.A., Anderson, R., Kileen, I.J. and Regan, E.C., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 2 – Non-Marine Molluscs. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland. No national conservation assessment of other species

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: The seven non insect invertebrates listed in the EU Habitats Directive are monitored by the National Parks and Wildlife Service: Austropotamobius pallipes, Geomaculosus maculosus, Margaritifera margaritifera, M. durrovensis, Vertigo angustior, V. geyeri, and V. Moulinsiana. Species richness of Irish non-insect invertebrates

20

Insects Prof Tom Bolger1, Dr Maria Callanan1, Dr Mary Kelly-Quinn1, Dr Brian Nelson2, & Dr Eugenie Regan3 University College Dublin1; National Parks and Wildlife Service2; National Biodiversity Data Centre3

Irish checklists: All Irish insects either have, or are currently being checklisted. Order Archaeognatha Coleoptera Dermaptera Diptera Ephemeroptera Hemiptera Hymenoptera Lepidoptera Mecoptera Megaloptera Neuroptera Odonata Orthoptera Phthiraptera

No. of species 4 2,154 3 3,313 33 770 3,194 1,454 1 2 32 34 12 117

Plecoptera Psocoptera Siphonaptera

20 46 40

Strepsiptera

4

Thysanoptera Thysanura Trichoptera

40 2 147

Literature source Delany, 1954 Anderson et al., 1997; 2005 Good, 1979; Cawley, 1999 Chandler et al,.2008 Kelly-Quinn and Bracken, 2000; Ashe et al., 1998; 2005 O’Connor and Nelson, in press O’Connor et al., 2009 Bond et al., 2006; Bond et al., 2008 King and Halbert, 1910 Ashe et al., 1998 Barnard et al., 1991; O’Connor, 2003 Ashe et al., 2005 Marshall and Haes, 1988; Cawley, 2005 Butler and O’Connor, 1994; Doyle et al., 2004; O’Connor, 2005; O’Connor et al., 2005 Ashe et al., 1998 Smithers et al., 2000 Smiddy and Sleeman, 1993; Sleeman and Smiddy, 1994; Sleeman et al., 1996 Ronayne and O’Connor, 2006; O’Connor and Ronayne, 2007 O’Connor, 2008 Delany, 1954 Ashe et al., 2005

Note: InvertebrateIreland (www. habitas.org.uk/invertebrateireland/) aims to put online all checklists of Irish invertebrates compiled by acknowledged experts.

Number of insect species: 11,422+ (Regan et al., 2010) Top to bottom: Large carder bee (John Breen) Chafer beetle (L. Lysaght) Common blue damselfly (L. Lysaght)

21

Primary sources of distribution data: Beetles: Chrysomelidae and Bruchidae (accessible through NBN Gateway ) Beetles: Click Beetles (records held by Howard Mendel) Beetles: Ground Beetles of Ireland (CEDaR) Beetles: Ladybirds of Ireland (CEDaR) Beetles: Steninae (records held by Jonty Denton) Beetles: Water Beetles of Ireland* Beetles: Weevils (records held by Mike Morris) Butterflies: Irish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme* Butterflies: Butterflies of County Waterford* Butterflies: Irish Wood White Database* Butterflies: Butterfly Ireland survey, Dublin Naturalists’ Field Club Dragonfly Ireland* Ephemeroptera of Ireland* Fleas of Ireland* Flies: Anisopodidae and Thaumaleidae (Diptera: Nematocera) of Ireland* Flies: Chironomids (records held by Declan Murray) Flies: Craneflies of Ireland* Flies: Dixidae (Diptera) of Ireland* Flies: Hoverflies (records held by Martin Speight) Flies: Mosquitoes of Ireland* Flies: Non-biting midges (records held by Peter Langton) Flies: Biting midges (Blue Tongue Vector Surveillance Programme) Flies: Simulidae (Tierney et al., 2005) Hemiptera: Heteroptera (records held by Brian Nelson) Hymenoptera: Bees of Ireland* Hymenoptera: Braconidae (O’Connor et al., 1999) Hymenoptera: BWARS database Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea (O’Connor et al., 2000) Hymenoptera: Diapriinae (O’Connor and Ashe, 1992) Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae (O’Connor et al., 2007) Hymenoptera: Platygastroidea and Proctotrupoidea (O’Connor et al., 2004) Hymenoptera: Sawflies (O’Connor et al., 1997) Microlepidoptera, National Museum of Ireland* MothsIreland Neuroptera of Ireland* Thrips (O’Connor, 2008)

*Databases held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie). 22

Insects

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – 1 species (Marsh fritillary) listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. • FitzPatrick, Ú., Murray, T.E., Byrne, A., Paxton, R.J. and Brown, M.J.F., 2006. Regional Red List of Irish Bees. National Parks and Wildlife Service (Ireland) & Environment & Heritage Service (Northern Ireland). • Foster, G. N., Nelson, B. H. and O Connor, Á., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 1 – Water beetles. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage & Local Government, Dublin, Ireland. • Regan, E.C., Nelson, B., Aldwell, B., Bertrand, C., Bond, K., Harding, J., Nash, D., Nixon, D., Wilson, C.J., 2010. Ireland Red List No. 4 – Butterflies. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland. • A regional red list for dragonflies is in preparation. • No National conservation assessment of other species

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • Irish Butterfly Monitoring Scheme (National Biodiversity Data Centre: http://irishbutterflymonitoringscheme.biodiversityireland.ie) Irish insect species diversity • Water Framework Monitoring Programme (EPA, includes freshwater invertebrates but is not species specific) • Rothamsted Light Trap Network (Moths): currently 4 sites (Dublin Zoo, Wexford Wildfowl Reserve, Fota Wildlife Park and Connemara National Park) • Monitoring of pests in forests (Forest Service)

23

Tunicates & lancelets Dr Eugenie Regan | National Biodiversity Data Centre

Irish checklist: No

Number of species of tunicates and lancelets: Tunicates (Urochordata) = 72, Lancelets (Cephalachordata) = 1 (Ferriss et al. 2009)

Primary sources of distribution data: There is no national tunicates and lancelets database.

National conservation assessment: No

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: No

Top to bottom: Blue bell tunicates (Shutterstock.com) Filter feeding tunicates (Shutterstock.com) Tunicates (Shutterstock.com)

24

Marine fishes Declan Quigley | Sea-Fisheries Protection Authority, Howth, Co Dublin

Irish checklist: No Irish specific-species checklist published since Went & Kennedy (1976). General reviews by Wheeler (1992); Quigley (1996 & 2000), Purcell (1996), Wheeler et al. (2004), Ferriss et al. (2009). Updated draft List of Irish Marine Fishes (Quigley 2010, 563 species).

Number of species of marine fishes: 563+ (a complete checklist is being prepared by D. Quigley and will be available in 2011) • 245 species inshore (200m depth) (321 exclusively offshore)

Primary sources of distribution data: • Comprehensive records held by Declan Quigley for 142+ species (majority published in the Irish Naturalists Journal 1984-2010) • Marine Institute: Acoustic Surveys, Mackerel and Horse Mackerel Egg Surveys, Deepwater Survey, Biological Survey, Anglerfish Survey, Irish Groundfish Survey • Bord Iascaigh Mhara: Bluefin Tuna tagging (Cosgrove et al. 2008) • Database of Elasmobranchs in Irish waters (National Biodiversity Data Centre) • Inland Fisheries Ireland: Water Framework Directive Database - fish in transitional waters (estuaries and lagoons), Marine Sports Fish Tagging Database (elasmobranchs – shark, tope, monkfish, common skate and ray) The database of Elasmobranchs in Irish waters is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps.

Top to bottom: Black goby (Shutterstock.com) Lesser spotted dogfish (Shutterstock.com) Mackerel school (Shutterstock.com)

25

National conservation assessment: Commercial species: Fisheries Science Service 2010. The Stock Book: Annual Review of Fish Stocks in 2010 with management advice for 2011. Marine Institute Galway. King, J., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Roche, W. & Cassidy, D. 2011 Ireland Red List No. 5: Freshwater fish, amphibians and reptiles. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland (includes fish in transitional waters). No National conservation assessment of other species.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: Commercial species: Fisheries Science Service. 2010. The Stock Book: Annual Review of Fish Stocks in 2010 with management advice for 2011. Marine Institute Galway. Fish in transitional waters are monitored through the Water Framework Directive Fish Monitoring Programme, approx 65 species (Inland Fisheries Ireland).

Irish marine fishes species diversity

26

Freshwater fishes Dr Fiona Kelly | Inland Fisheries Ireland

Irish checklist: Went & Kennedy (1976) and Maitland and Campbell (1992).

Number of species of freshwater fish: 29

Primary sources of distribution data: • Water Framework Directive Database http://www.wfdfish.ie/ • Inland Fisheries Ireland http://www.fisheriesireland.ie/ • National Database of freshwater fish in Irish rivers • National Database of freshwater fish in Irish lakes* • Eel Database • Sea Trout Database • National Salmon Tagging Database • Ireland’s Specimen Fish Database • Database held by the Irish Char Conservation Group* • Databases held by Irish angling groups *Databases held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – 8 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin.

Top to bottom: Bream (Inland Fisheries Ireland) Brown trout (Inland Fisheries Ireland) Pike (Shutterstock.com) 27

King, J., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Roche, W. & Cassidy, D. 2011 Ireland Red List No. 5: Fish, amphibians and reptiles. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • Water Framework Directive Fish Monitoring Programme (Inland Fisheries Ireland) • National Lamprey Monitoring Programme 2003 – 2010 (Inland Fisheries Ireland) • National Monitoring Programme for Arctic Char (Inland Fisheries Ireland) • National Eel Monitoring Programme (Inland Fisheries Ireland have responsibility for the programme but the Marine Institute and other organisations are inputting data)

Connemara (Steve Waldren) 28

Amphibians & reptiles Dr Ferdia Marnell | National Parks and Wildlife Service

Irish checklist: No up to date checklist, but a recent list of known Irish amphibians and reptiles in: King, J., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Roche, W. & Cassidy, D. 2011. Ireland Red List No. 5: Fish, amphibians and reptiles. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Number of amphibian and reptile species: 6 (5 native: Common frog, Natterjack toad, Smooth newt, Viviparous lizard, Leatherback turtle; one non-native species: Slow-worm)

Primary sources of distribution data: • National Parks and Wildlife Service: threatened species database • National Lizard Survey (Irish Wildlife Trust) • Irish Frog Survey (Irish Peatland Conservation Council) • CEDaR datasets • Marine Turtles in Irish Waters database (G. King & S. Berrow) • Marine Turtle database held by the Coastal and Marine Resources Centre A copy of the Marine Turtles in Irish Waters database is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Top to bottom: Leatherback nesting in French Guiana (T. Doyle) Smooth newt (L. Lysaght) Common frog (J. Dunleavy)

29

Article 17 reporting – 3 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin.

King, J., Marnell, F., Kingston, N., Rosell, R., Roche, W. & Cassidy, D. 2011. Ireland Red List No. 5: Fish, amphibians and reptiles. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • National frog survey - underway (National Parks and Wildlife Service) • Natterjack toad monitoring programme (National Parks and Wildlife Service)

Viviparous lizard (Shutterstock.com)

30

Birds Stephen Newton | BirdWatch Ireland

Irish checklist: Irish Rare Birds Committee – The Irish List (31st December 2008) http://www.irbc.ie/topbar/categories.php

Number of resident and regular visiting bird species: 457

Primary sources of distribution data:

Hen harrier (Shutterstock.com)

• Bird Atlas 2007-11 (http://www.bto.org/birdatlas/) • Atlas of Breeding Birds of Britain & Ireland: 1968-72* • Atlas of Wintering Birds of Britain & Ireland: 1981/82 – 1983/84* • Second Atlas of Breeding Birds of Britain & Ireland: 1988-91* • BirdTrack( http://www.bto.org/birdtrack/) • Countryside Bird Survey • Irish Wetland Birds Survey ** *Copies of these databases are held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie). ** IWEBS data from 1994-2001 is accessible through Biodiversity Maps.

National conservation assessment: • Lynas, P., Newton, S.F. & Robinson, J.A., 2007. The status of birds in Ireland: an analysis of conservation concern 2008-2013. Irish Birds 8(2) 149-166. • Newton, S., Donaghy, A., Allen, D. & D. Gibbons., 1999. Birds of Conservation Concern in Ireland. Irish Birds 6(3) 333-344.

31

The Birds of Conservation Concern in Ireland. Red List species are of high conservation concern and Amber List species are of medium conservation concern.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Countryside Birds Survey (annual) Garden Bird Survey (annual) Irish Wetland Birds Survey (annual) Whooper & Bewick’s Swans (every 5 years, latest January 2010) Barnacle Geese (every 5 years, latest March 2008) Light-bellied Brent Geese (annual) Non-Estuarine Coastal Waterfowl Survey (NEWS, every 9 years, latest 2006-07) Common Scoter (breeding, not on regular cycle; overdue) Corncrake (annual) Twite (ongoing research & population monitoring) Chough (every 10 years, latest 2002-03) Machair Breeding Waders Shannon Callows Breeding Waders Lambay Ornithological Survey (annual; includes full seabird census every 5 years, latest 2009) Breeding Cormorants (sporadic, latest 2010; east coast colonies counted annually) Breeding Terns (national every 10 years, last 1995, overdue) Roseate Terns (breeding, annual) Little Terns (breeding, east coast only, annual) Breeding Seabirds (full national, every 15 years: 1969-70, 1985-87, 1998-2002) Upland Birds 2002-2004 (Golden Plover, Ring Ouzel) Red Grouse 2005 (pilot), 2007-2009 (national) Waterways Birds (including Kingfisher) 2006-2010 Dipper (long-term monitoring in Cork & Laois-Offaly) Irish Rare Breeding Birds (annual assessments published by the panel) Grey Herons (& Little Egrets: done historically, to be re-launched soon) Barn Owl (ongoing research & population monitoring) Peregrine (every 10 years, latest 2002 Hen Harrier (every 5 years, latest 2010) National Raptor Monitoring Scheme (in development, pilot underway) Great tit (L. Lysaght)

32

Land mammals Dr Paddy Sleaman | University College Cork

Irish checklist: No up to date checklist, but a recent list of known Irish mammals in: Marnell, F., Kingston, N. & Looney, D., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 3: Terrestrial Mammals, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Number of land mammal species: 25

Primary sources of distribution data: • Data is currently being collated and consolidated by the National Biodiversity Data Centre as part of the Atlas of Mammals in Ireland initiative. • Road Kill Survey (Biology.ie http://www.biology.ie/home.php?m=npws) • Badger sett database (Wildlife Unit of Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food) A subcomponent of the badger sett database is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps. biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – 3 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. Marnell, F., Kingston, N. & Looney, D., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 3: Terrestrial Mammals, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: Top to bottom: Red fox (Shutterstock) Feral goat (L. Lysaght) Irish hare (E.W. Delaney)

33

• National Otter Survey (National Parks and Wildlife Service) • National Pine Marten Survey (National Parks and Wildlife Service) • National Hare Survey (National Parks and Wildlife Service) • Ongoing Badger Sett Surveys (Wildlife Unit of Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food)

Bats Dr Niamh Roche1, Daniel Buckley2, & Dr Kate McAney3 Bat Conservation Ireland (BCIreland)1; Centre for Irish Bat Research2; Vincent Wildlife Trust3

Irish checklist: No up to date checklist, but a recent list of known Irish bats in: Marnell, F., Kingston, N. & Looney, D., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 3: Terrestrial Mammals, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Number of bat species: 9

Primary sources of distribution data: • A National Bat Database is compiled and managed by BCIreland (this will include data from the BATLAS 2010 project). A copy of the National Bat Database is held by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps. biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – 9 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin. Marnell, F., Kingston, N. & Looney, D., 2009. Ireland Red List No. 3: Terrestrial Mammals, National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: • National Lesser Horseshoe Bat Monitoring Programme (National Parks and Wildlife Service) • All-Ireland Car-based Monitoring Programme (BCIreland) • All-Ireland Daubenton’s Bat Waterways Survey (BCIreland) • Brown Long-eared Bat Roost Monitoring (currently ROI only, BCIreland)

Top to bottom: Brown long-eared bat (E.W. Delaney) Daubenton’s bat (F. Greenaway) Leisler’s bat (D. Heaphy)

34

Marine mammals Dr Simon Berrow | Irish Whale and Dolphin Group (IWDG)

Irish checklist: No up to date checklist, but a recent list of all known Irish marine mammals in: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin.

Number of marine mammal species: 24 cetaceans + 2 seals

Primary sources of distribution data: • Irish Whale and Dolphin Group: cetaceans • European Seabirds at Sea (maintained by the Joint Nature Conservation Committee): seals and cetaceans • The Coastal and Marine Resources Centre, Cork: seals and cetaceans • National Parks and Wildlife Service: seal data

An All-Ireland Marine Mammals Database is compiled and managed by the National Biodiversity Data Centre and made accessible through Biodiversity Maps (http://maps.biodiversityireland.ie).

National conservation assessment: Article 17 reporting – all 26 species listed in EU Habitats Directive: National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2008. The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. NPWS, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin.

Monitoring or repeat surveys in place: Top to bottom: Bottlenosed dolphin (S. Berrow) Grey seal pup (E.W. Delaney) Humpback whale (P. Whooley)

35

• Land-based monitoring (IWDG under contract to the National Parks and Wildlife Service) • Seal counts (NPWS rangers) • Ferry Surveys (IWDG)

References

Anderson, R. 1986 The land planarians of Ireland (Tricladia: Terricola), a summary of distribution records. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 22: 141-147. Anderson, R. 2005 An Annotated List of the Non-Marine Mollusca of Britain & Ireland, Journal of Conchology, London, 38: 607-638. Anderson, R., Nash, R. and O’Connor, J.P. 1997 Irish Coleoptera. A revised and annotated list. Irish Naturalists’ Journal Special Entomological Supplement. Anderson, R., Nash, R. and O’Connor, J.P. 2005 Checklist of Irish Coleoptera. InvertebrateIreland Online, Ulster Museum, Belfast and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Ashe, P., O’Connor, J.P. and Murray, D.A. 1998 A checklist of Irish Aquatic Insects. Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society Number 3. Ashe, P., O’Connor, J.P. and Murray, D.A. 2005 A checklist of Irish Aquatic Insects. InvertebrateIreland Online, Ulster Museum, Belfast and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Baker, R. A. and Bayliss, R. A. 2005 A review and update of the mesostigmatid and prostigmatid mites of the marine littoral and supralittoral in Ireland based on the work of J. N. Halbert (18721948), including a checklist, revised nomenclature, collecting sites and recent records of mites. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 29: 280-299. Barnard, P.C., O’Connor, J.P. and Speight, M.C.D. 1991 A review of the published distribution data for Irish Neuroptera (Insecta), together with additional records and a checklist of the Irish species. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 14, 109-123. Blackith, R.E. and Good, J.A. 1991 Protura in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 14, 84-89. Bolger, T. 1986 The Collembola of Ireland - a checklist and bibliography. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 86B, 183-218. Bond, K.G.M., Nash, R. and O’Connor, J.P. 2006 An annotated checklist of Irish butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). Irish Biogeographical Society and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Bond, K.G.M., Nash, R. and O’Connor, J.P. 2008 An annotated checklist of Irish butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera). InvertebrateIreland Online, Ulster Museum, Belfast and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Brown, D. J. F., Taylor, C. E., Boag, B., Alphey, T. J. W. and Orton-Williams, K. J. 1977 Provisional atlas of the nematodes of the British Isles: Part 1-3, Longidoridae, Trichodoridae and Criconematidae. Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon, UK. Butler, F. T. and O’Connor, J. P. 1994 A review of Irish Ischnocera and Amblycera (Phthiraptera). Irish Naturalists’ Journal 24: 449-457. Cawley, M. 1999 Forficula lesnei Finot 1887, an earwig (Dermaptera: Forficulidae) new to Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 26, 272-273. Cawley, M. 2002 A review of the Irish harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones). Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 26, 106-137. Cawley, M. 2005 Notes and records on some Irish Orthoptera and Dermaptera. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 29, 300-307. Chandler, P.J., O’Connor, J.P. and Nash, R. 2008 An annotated checklist of the Irish two-winged flies (Diptera). Irish Biogeographical Society and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Cosgrove, R., Stokesbury, M., Browne, D., Boustany, A., Block, B. and Farrell, M. 2008 Bluefin Tuna Tagging in Irish Waters. Fisheries Resource Series, Bord Iascaigh Mhara (Irish Sea Fisheries Board), Dun Laoghaire, Ireland. Vol. 6, 2008. 36

References

Cotton, D.C.F. 1978 A revision of the Irish earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) with the addition of two species. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 19: 257-260. Deegan, B. 2004 Irish Cold-Water Coral Metadata Report. Report to the Marine Institute and Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Delany, M.J. 1954 Thysanura and Diplura. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 1(2), 1-7. Doogue, D. and Harding, P.T. 1982 Distribution atlas of woodlice in Ireland. An Foras Forbartha, Dublin. Doyle, Ú., O’Halloran, J. and Smiddy, P. 2004 Records of the feather lice (Mallophaga) Philopterus cincli Denny and Myrsidea franciscoloi Conci, two species new to Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 27, 440. Ferriss, S. E., Smith K. G., and Inskipp T. P. (eds.) 2009 Irish Biodiversity: a taxonomic inventory of fauna. Irish Wildlife Manuals, No. 38. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of Environment, Heritage and Local Government, Dublin, Ireland. Foster, N.H. 1915 On the distribution of the Symphyla in Ireland as at present known. Irish Naturalist 24: 174. Good, J.A. 1979 The lesser earwig Labia minor L. (Dermaptera: Labiidae) in Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 19, 448. Hervas, A., Tully, O., Hickey, J., O’Keeffe, E. and Kelly, E. 2008 Assessment, Monitoring and Management of the Dundalk Bay and Waterford Estuary Cockle (Cerastoderma edule) Fisheries in 2007. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 7. Holland, C. V. and Kennedy, C. R. 1997 A checklist of parasitic helminth and crustacean species recorded in freshwater fish from Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 97B (3): 225–243. Horkan, J. P. K. 1981 A list of the Rotatoria known to occur in Ireland, with notes on their habitats and distribution. Irish Fisheries Investigations Series A, Number 21. Howson C. M. and Picton B. E. (eds.) 1999 The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and the surrounding seas. Ulster Museum Publication Number 280. Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries of Northern Ireland and Marine Conservation Society. Jeal, F. and West, A. B. 1970 A check list of Siphonophora from Irish waters, with a record of Physophora hydrostatica (Forskal) from the Irish Sea coast. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 16: 338-342. Kavanagh, F. 2009 A catalogue of the Asellota (Crustacea: Isopoda) off the west coast of Ireland and Britain, from 100-500m. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 33: 14-75. Kelly, E., Tully, O., Lehane, B. and Breathnach, S. 2008 The Shrimp (Palaemon serratus P.) Fishery: Analysis of the Resource in 2003-2007. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 8. Kelly, T. C., Sleeman, D. P., Fennessy, G. J., Dillon, A. and Walton, G. A. 2001 The mammal ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea) of Ireland: their distribution and hosts. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 26 (10): 363370. Kelly-Quinn, M. and Bracken, J.J. 2000 The distribution of the Ephemeroptera in Ireland. Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society Number 5. King, J.J.F.X. and Halbert, J.N. 1910 A list of the Neuroptera of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 28B, 29-112. Legg, G. and O’Connor, J. P. 1997 A review of the Irish pseudoscorpions (Arachnida: 37

Pseudoscorpiones). Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 20:105-117. Lordan, C., Warnes, S., Cross, T. and Burnell, G. 2001 The distribution and abundance of cephalopod species caught during demersal trawl surveys west of Ireland and in the Celtic Sea. Irish Fisheries Investigations 8: 1-26. Luxton, M. 1998 The oribatid and parasitiform mites of Ireland, with particular reference to the work of J.N. Halbert (1872-1948). Bulletin Irish biogeographical Society 22, 2-72. Maitland, P.S. and Campbell, R.N. 1992 Freshwater Fishes. Harper Collins, UK. Marshall J.A. and Haes, E.C.M. 1988 Grasshoppers and allied insects of Great Britain and Ireland. Colchester. Harley Books. Martyn, K. P. 1988 Provisional atlas of the ticks (Ixodoidea) of the British Isles. Biological Records Centre NERC, UK. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1978 Catalogue of Irish fungi – I. Gasteromycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 78B: 1-11. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1980 Catalogue of Irish fungi – II Hymenomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 80B: 197-276. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1980 Catalogue of Irish Fungi – III. Teliomycetes. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 80B: 343-366. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1983 Catalogue of Irish fungi – IV Ascomycotina. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 83B: 151-213. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1984 Catalogue of Irish fungi – V. Mastigomycotina and Zygomycotina. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 84B: 83-102. Muskett, A.E. and Malone, J.P. 1985 Catologue of Irish fungi – VI. Deuteromycotina. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 85B: 133-200. Nichols, A. R. 1902 List of Irish Echinoderms. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 24B: 231-267. National Parks and Wildlife Service 2008 The status of EU Protected Habitats and Species in Ireland. National Parks and Wildlife Service, Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government. Dublin, Ireland. Nolan, C. 2004 The Biology and Management of Clawed Lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) in Europe. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 2. Nunn, J. D. Smith, S. M. Picton, B. and McGrath, D. 2002 Checklist and atlas of distribution and bibliography for the marine Mollusca of Ireland. In: Marine Biodiversity in Ireland and adjacent waters. Ulster Museum. Belfast. 171-172. O’Connor, J.P. 2003 Wax flies (Neuroptera: Coniopterygidae) reared from cola nut and marble galls, including Coniopteryx borealis Tjeder new to Ireland. Entomologist’s Gazette 54, 207-209. O’Connor, J.P. 2005 Ricinus fringillae DeGeer (Mallophaga: Amblycera) new to Ireland. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 28, 172. O’Connor, J.P. 2008 A review of Irish thrips (Thysanoptera). Irish Naturalists’ Journal 29, 20-24. O’Connor, J.P. and Ashe, P. 1992 A provisional list of the Irish Diapriinae (Hymenoptera). Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 15 : 68-90. O’Connor, J.P. and Ronayne, C. 2007 Stylops melittae Kirby (Strepsipt, Stylopidae) new to Ireland. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 143, 199.

38

References

O’Connor, J.P. and Nelson, B. in press An annotated checklist of the Irish Hemiptera and small orders. Irish Biogeographical Society and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. O’Connor, J.P., Liston, A.D. and Speight, M.C.D. 1997 A review of the Irish sawflies (Hymenoptera : Symphyta) including a checklist of species. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 20 : 2-99. O’Connor, J.P., Nash, R. and van Achterberg, C. 1999 A catalogue of the Irish Braconidae (Hymenoptera : Ichneumonidae). Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society No. 4. O’Connor, J.P., Nash, R. and Bouček, Z. 2000 A catalogue of the Irish Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society No. 6. O’Connor, J.P., Nash, R., Notton, D.G. and Fergusson, N.D.M. 2004 A catalogue of the Irish Platygastroidea and Proctotrupoidea (Hymenoptera). Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society No. 7. O’Connor, J.P., Sleeman, D.P. and Butler, F.T. 2005 A review of the Irish Anoplura (Insecta: Phthiraptera). Irish Naturalists’ Journal 28, 62-67. O’Connor, J.P., Nash, R. and Fitton, M.G. 2007 A catalogue of the Irish Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Occasional Publication of the Irish Biogeographical Society No. 10. O’Connor, J.P., Nash, R. and Broad, G. 2009 An annotated checklist of the Irish Hymenoptera. Irish Biogeographical Society and National Museum of Ireland, Dublin. Purcell, P. 1996 Biodiversity in Ireland: an inventory of biological diversity on a taxonomic basis. Fauna. Unpublished report to the Heritage Policy Unit, Department of the Arts, Culture and the Gaeltacht. Quigley, D.T.G. 1996 Conservation status of uncommon Irish inshore marine fishes. In: B.F. Keegan & R. O’Connor (Eds) Irish Marine Science 1995. Galway University Press Pp 289-301. Quigley, D.T.G. 2000 Ireland’s Marine Fish Fauna – An Assessment of Biodiversity. In: B.S. Rushton (Ed) Biodiversity – The Irish Dimension. Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. Pp 59-75. Regan, E.C., Nelson, B., McCormack, S., Nash, R. and O’Connor, J.P. 2010 Countdown to 2010 : Can we assess Ireland’s insect species diversity and loss ? Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 110B : 109-117. Ronayne, C. and O’Connor, J.P. 2006 Halictoxenos tumulorum Perkins and H. spencei Nassonov (Strepsipt. Stylopidae) new to Ireland. Entomologist’s Monthly Magazine 142, 92. Sleeman, D.P. and Smiddy, P. 1994 Bat fleas in Ireland: a review. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 24, 444448. Sleeman, D.P., Smiddy, P. and Moore, P. 1996 The fleas of Irish terrestrial mammals: a review. Irish Naturalists’ Journal 25, 237-248. Smiddy, P. and Sleeman, D.P. 1993 Avian fleas in Ireland: a review of their distribution and hosts. Irish Birds 5, 55-60. Smithers, C.N., O’Connor, J.P. and Peters, J.V. 2000 A list of Irish Psocoptera (Insecta) (Booklice, Barklice, Psocids). Irish Naturalists’ Journal 26, 228-235. Smyth, T. 1994 The distribution of freshwater Bryozoa in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 17: 9-22. Southern, R. 1936 Turbellaria of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 43:B, 43-72.

39

Stephens, J. 1905 A list of the Irish Coelenterata, including the Ctenophora. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 25B: 25-92. Stewart, N.F. and Church, J.M.1992 Red Data Books of Britain and Ireland: Stoneworts. The Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough. Tierney, D., Trodd, W. and Kelly-Quinn, M. 2005 An update on blackfly species (Diptera : Simulidae) and their distributions in Irish freshwater habitats. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 29: 86-126. Trodd, W. R., Kelly-Quinn, M., Sweeney, P. and Quirke, B. 2005 A review of the status and distribution of the free-living freshwater Oligochaeta of Ireland. Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 105B: 59-64. Tully, O. 2006 Monitoring and Assessment of Scallops off the South East Coast of Ireland. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 3. Tully, O., Bell, M. O’Leary, A., McCarthy, A., O’Donovan, V. and Nee, D. 2006 The Lobster (Homarus gammarus L.) Fishery: Analysis of the resource in 2004-2005. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 5. Tully, O., Robinson, M., Cosgrove, R., O’Keeffe, E., Doyle, O. and Lehane, B. 2006 The Brown Crab (Cancer pagurus L.) Fishery: Analysis of the resource in 2004-2005. Fisheries Resource Series, No. 4. Van Helsdingen, P.J. 1996 The County Distribution of Irish Spiders. The Irish Naturalists’ Journal. Special Zoological Supplement. Went, A.E.J. and Kennedy, M. 1976 List of Irish Fishes. Stationery Office, Dublin. Wheeler, A. 1992 A List of the Common and Scientific Names of Fishes of the British Isles. Journal of Fish Biology 41 (Supplement A): 37pp. Wheeler, A.C., Merrett, N.R. and Quigley, D.T.G. 2004 Additional records and notes for Wheeler’s (1992) List of the Common and Scientific Names of Fishes of the British Isles. Journal of Fish Biology 65 (Supplement B). Wyse Jackson, P. N. 1991 Distribution of Irish marine Bryozoa, together with biographical notes relating to the chief researchers in the group. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 14: 129-184.

40

Appendix

Primary data sources for non-marine habitats (J. Fossitt, 2010) NPWS Datasets

Scope/purpose of dataset

Coastal Monitoring Project

2004-2006

Comprehensive baseline monitoring survey of Irish sand dune sites (10 Annex I coastal habitats) – 181 sites

Lagoon Surveys and Database

1996-2006

Comprehensive national inventory and survey of 80 lagoon sites

Saltmarsh Monitoring Project

2006-2009

Baseline monitoring survey of a representative sample of Irish saltmarshes (5 Annex I habitats) – 131 sites

2005

Desk study which identified ~140 ‘potential coastal heath and cliff sites’

2009-ongoing

Baseline monitoring survey of Irish seacliffs (1 Annex I habitat)

1999

Inventory survey of shingle beach sites and their conservation value

National Seacliff Inventory National Seacliff Survey National Shingle Beach Survey Survey of intertidal mudflats and sandflats

2006-2007

Detailed survey of sedimentary and biological facies in representative sites

National Survey of Native Woodlands

2003-2007

Extensive inventory and survey of 1320 woodland sites (1667 relevés) in Ireland (4 Annex I habitats). New woodland classification

National Fen Database – review of available data on springs, fens and flushes

Up to 2006

To consolidate information on the extent and conservation status of Irish springs, fens and flushes based on existing information held by NPWS and other interested parties

Petrifying springs

2010-2013

Survey and conservation assessment of petrifying springs (PhD)

2006

Grassland monitoring of a representative sample of the Annex I priority habitats: 6230 (Species-rich Nardus grasslands) and 6210 (Semi-natural dry grasslands) in Natura 2000 sites

2007-ongoing

Survey of semi-natural grasslands and marsh communities in Roscommon, Offaly (2007); Cork, Waterford (2008); Cavan, Monaghan, Leitrim, Longford (2009) [2143 relevés from 580 sites in 8 counties]; Donegal, Sligo, Dublin and Kildare (2010) (6 Annex I habitats). Scheduled to extend to additional counties

2008

Survey of metalliferous mine waste sites in Ireland which hold areas of the Annex I habitat 6130 (Calaminarian grassland)

Grassland Monitoring Project – sample of Annex I priority habitats

Irish Semi-natural Grassland Survey

Metalliferous Mine Waste Survey National Limestone Pavement Survey Consolidated Turlough Dataset

41

Dates

2008-ongoing Up to 2008

Survey and mapping of the range, extent and condition of limestone pavement in Ireland Documenting the distribution of the national turlough resource – consolidation of existing data

NPWS Datasets Integrated Turlough Study

Dates 2006-ongoing

Scope/purpose of dataset Multidisciplinary project (TCD) integrating hydrological, biological and chemical nutrient data from 22 selected turloughs

Turf Cutting Assessment Projects (raised bogs)

1994-2006

Raised bog restoration/assessment of impacts of turf cutting on designated raised bog sites

Raised Bog Monitoring Project

2004-2005

Monitoring survey of 48 raised bog sites

National Survey of Upland Habitats (12-15 upland habitat complexes)

2008-ongoing

Baseline monitoring survey of Irish upland habitats (over 150m altitude and other continuous open land) (10 Annex I habitats; 12-15 upland complexes)

Ongoing

Data on the condition of lands in commonages. Habitat mosaics are identified within condition assessment units

Commonage Datasets Conservation Planning Habitat Maps for Natura 2000 sites

1995-ongoing

Conservation Assessments Data

2007

Habitat data for conservation planning of SACs / SPAs Datasets used for the 2007 Conservation Assessment under Article 17 of the Habitats Directive, with habitats mapped at 10km grid square level. Data derived from sources varying in quality and currency, and include best expert judgment where necessary. Full details are available in the backing documents which accompany the datasets

Local Authorities / Heritage or Biodiversity Plans Hedgerow surveys (sample surveys of 1km grid squares in the southwest corner of each 10km grid square)

Westmeath, Roscommon, Laois, Offaly, Longford, Kildare, Cavan, Leitrim, Galway, Kerry, Mayo, Donegal, Sligo, Dublin (Fingal, Dublin City) – for links to reports see www.hedgelaying.ie

Whole county surveys of selected habitats or features

Monaghan Fen/Wetland Survey; Sligo Wetlands; Waterford Wetlands (20 sites); Westmeath Fen Survey; Clare Wetlands (Phase 1); Meath Wetlands and Coastal Survey; Laois Eskers; Offaly Eskers …

Part county/city habitat mapping – baseline information, Development Plan and Local Area Plan areas

Carlow, Clare, Cork County, Dun-Laoighre-Rathdown, Galway City, Fingal, Kerry, Laois, Sligo …

42

Other sectors (sample) EPA

Lakes/rivers datasets Pilot survey to establish suitability of a rules-based feature extraction and classification processing methods to provide a habitat mapping solution for a study area (Clare/Galway) in Ireland

Bord na Móna

Habitat surveys of all Bord na Móna lands (ongoing); exploited bog areas

Coillte

Biodiversity surveys of Coillte lands; conifer plantations, other woodlands and open lands

Forest Service (DAFF)

FIPS (Forest Inventory Planning System) – all forested areas. Forest07

Environmental assessments Environmental assessments (no central repository/database)

EISs and supporting reports (e.g. Constraints and Route Section Reports for major road schemes) Appropriate assessments Strategic Environmental Assessments

Other Sources

43

CORINE landcover/biotopes

CORINE Land Cover (CLC) 1990; CLC2000; CLC2006 Based on satellite imagery and standardized nomenclature. Repeat surveys but minimum mapping unit of 25ha

Teagasc

National Landcover Map and National Habitat Indicator Map

BOGLAND Research Programme – UCD under funding from EPA

Derived Irish Peatland Map (Version 2)

Notes:

44

The National Biodiversity Data Centre Beechfield house, Carriganore WIT West Campus, Waterford. Tel. 051 306 240. Email: [email protected] Website: www.biodiversityireland.ie National Biodiversity Data Centre Logo Revison version 3a.1

D E S I G N | M U LT I M E D I A | P H O T O | A U D I O

Thursday 28th January 2009

The National Biodiversity Data Centre is an initiative of the Heritage Council and is operated under a service level agreement by Compass Informatics. The Centre is funded by the Department of the Environment, Heritage and Local Government.