Biotechnological Applications of Lentinus tuberregium ...

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Some of these substances were lentinan, lentin, lectin and eritadenin (A. Yildiz et al 1998). Lentinan is a water soluble polysaccharide formed by β-1,3-glucan ...

EJBS 4 (1) ● December 2010: 28-31

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Biotechnological Applications of Lentinus tuberregium (Fr).; A South Indian Edible Mushroom J. Manjunathan* V. Kaviyarasan Centre for Advanced Studies in Botany University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai-600 025 *Corresponding Author Email: [email protected] ABSTRACT Lentinus tuberregium belongs to the Basideomycotina sub-division and to Agaricaceae family. This fungus has been presented by the literature as a microorganism with potential for food industry, medical application, enzyme production and effluent treatment. The aim of this manuscript was to discuss its biotechnological potential. The great interest in L. tuberregium commercialization is due to its flavor/taste and nutritional and medicinal properties. Antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral compounds have been isolated intracellularly (fruiting body and mycelia) and extracellularly (culture media). Some of these substances were lentinans, lentins, lectins and eritadenins. There are scientific and economic interests in the enzymes produced by Lentinus sp. They have potential for application in paper industry for biopulping, residue treatments and improvement in the digestibility of animal rations and the literature presents lot of works describing application and potential of these enzymes. Many studies have been carried out using Lentinus sp. for the treatment of effluents from industries as olive oil processing, textile and pulp and paper. The potential of this microorganism is unquestionable in some of the most important areas of applied biotechnology. Keywords: Lentinus tuberregium, biotechnology, food, medicinal applications, enzyme production, effluent treatment. INTRODUCTION Lentinus tuberregium belongs to the Basideomycotina sub-division and to the Agaricaceae family. Basideomycotina are known as mushrooms and their taxonomy has been found out by its macro and micro morphology. The species from Agaricaceae family are saprophyte, causing the degradation of wood and lignin/cellulosic matter. Some of them are popular because of their importance in food industry (Agaricus cretáceus, Agaricus silvicole, Clitocybe phyllphilla, Collybia longipes, Collybia radicata, Coprinus comatus, Lepiota gracilenta, Omphalia campanella, Panus torulos, Pleurotus columinus, Pleurotus pometi, Tricholoma georgii, Tricholoma jonides, Tricholoma nudum, Tricholoma personatum and Lentinus edodes) The vegetative cells (haploid septate hypha) of (D.J. Royse 2002) Basideomycotina species develop degrading lignin-cellulosic matter. In special conditions these mycelia differentiate in fruit body (mushroom hat), a reproductive diploid mycelia that produces basidiospores (haploid cells) Basideomycotina are classified as white rot fungi and brown rot fungi, depending on the way that they degrade wood (D.J. Royse 2002). White-rot fungi are able of a simultaneous degradation of all wood components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) while brown-rot fungi degrade only cellulose and hemicellulose. Lignocellulolytic fungus is an adequate denomination for this species (D.J. Royse 2002). Lentinus sp., has been presented in the literature as a microorganism with potential for food industry, medical application, enzyme production and effluent treatment. Some of these studies will be discussed. Lentinus sp., in Food Industry Several Basideomycotina species have been used in food industry. Nowadays, there are about 12,000 species that can be considered eatable. However, only 35 species have been cultivated commercially and about 20 in industrial scale 42. The mushroom cultivation is a world practice that increased a lot in the two last decades. Main species commercially produced are Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus spp.,, Pleurotus spp., Auricularia auricula, Flammulina velutipes and Volvariella volvaceae. Agaricus bisporus is the most cultivated species. Since 1997, Lentinus sp., is the second most cultivated mushroom and has been consumed world-wide. Its mycelia has high content of proteins, carbohydrates, fibers, vitamins, minerals and low content of lipids, specifically cholesterol. Dehydrated mushroom content is, on an average, proteins 23%, carbohydrates 65%, lipids 2% and high mineral contents (R. Mukherjee et al 2004) Lentinus sp can be cultivated by different methodologies and some production stages should be observed for a successful cultivation: strain selection, mycelium maintenance, mycelium production and substrate inoculation (G. Nasim et al 2001). The most traditional cultivation is carried out in wood logs and has been carried out in Japan and China more than 1000 years ago until our days. Brazil has been using eucalyptus logs

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EJBS 4 (1) ● December 2010: 28-31

Manjunathan & Kaviyarasan ● Applications of Lentinus tuberregium

and this practice has been increasing (S. Berne et al 2005). This simple and natural method is very laborious. The wood logs are holed and the basidiospores or mycelia plugs are inserted in these holes. After inoculation the logs are stored by several months for the biomass development and finally for the formation of fruit bodies. This method is still very used because it produces high quality mushrooms (S. Berne et al 2005). One of these consists in using milled wood residues supplemented with nitrogen sources (rice bran, for example). These substrates are mixed and compacted in plastic bags. These bags are sterilized, inoculated with fungi mycelia and stored in dark rooms, control of temperature and humidity is required. The incubation period can range from 30 to 80 days. Fruiting is induced by the reduction of temperature, which is get by diving the bags in a bath of cold water for a period that can range from 12 to 24 hours and then the bags are opened and in a few days the fruit bodies are developed. This new method decreases the production time and increases the production. While in the traditional cultivation the logs needs 8 months to 1 year of cultivation to produce 10-15 kg/100 kg of substrate in the cultivation in milled wood the mushrooms can be harvested in 80 days arriving to a yield of 80 kg/100 kg of substrate (G. Nasim et al 2001). Medicinal utilization of Lentinus spp. Antibiotic, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral compounds have been isolated intracellularly (fruit body and mycelia) and extracellularly (culture media) ( Y.S. Cho et al 2003). Some of these substances were lentinan, lentin, lectin and eritadenin (A. Yildiz et al 1998). Lentinan is a water soluble polysaccharide formed by β-1,3-glucan with ramification β-1,6. Lectin is the denomination that receives a group of proteins chemically associated with carbohydrates. They are widely distributed in plants and cause blood coagulation. (Hirasawa et al. 2005) detected 3 different substances with anti-bacterial activity. Lentin is a protein, isolated from the fruitbodies of Lentinus spp. Eritadenin is a compound that presents activity against cholesterol, its activity was correlated to hepatic metabolism of lipids (S.G. Villas-Bôas et al 2003). Antiviral activity (E. Kalmis et al 2004) studied the influence of lentinan administration in HIV patients concluding that it stimulated the CD4 lymphocytes proliferation of them. (E. Kalmis et al 2004). V. Elisashvili, et al tested substances from culture medium against cell infection of HIV virus. They found a substance, precipitated by ethanol, with great potential. (B. Ghibom et al 2005) studied a fraction (EPS4) obtained from lignin degradation by L. edodes and observed that it presented activity against HIV virus infection. They characterized chemically a water soluble lignin with activity anti-HIV and immune-regulatory and concluded that this lignin presented highly condensed and poly-carboxylated structure resulted from Lentinus spp. metabolic activity. Antitumour activity Much recent research has been carried out on Lentinus spp. extracts and isolated compounds such as polysaccharides, proteins and other substances that possess antineoplastic activities in vitro and in vivo. Various crude extracts of Lentinus spp. have been shown to possess relatively strong antitumour activities. A water extract of Lentinus spp. exhibited the most significant cytotoxicity by inducing apoptosis of human carcinoma cells, when compared to many other mushroom extracts. For some of them, important medicinal properties, including antitumour activities, have been shown. L. tuberregium polysaccharides, extracted from mycelium and fruiting bodies, effectively inhibited solid tumour proliferation in mice. Antitumour effects have also been shown on different human tumour cell lines. Antitumour properties have also been demonstrated for Lentinus spp. proteins, proteoglycans, and DNA. A lectin isolated from Lentinus spp. potently inhibited growth of sarcoma and hepatoma in mice and prolonged their lifespan. Breast cancer and gastric cancer (M. Staji, et al 2006) evaluated the effect of lentinan administration in advanced cases of breast and gastric cancer and observed significant benefits for the patients submitted to the chemotherapy. Less studied polysaccharides as LC 11 (β-1,6-D-glucan with ramifications 1-4) and KS-2 (peptidomannan) also present immune regulatory activity ( V. Elisashvili et al). Lentinus tuberregium as Enzyme Producer There are scientific and economic interests in the enzymes produced by L. tuberregium since they are able to act in lignocellulosic substrates. Preliminary Protein content of L. tuberregium had been worked out by various studies (M.N. Shashirekha et al 2005). These enzymes have potential for application in paper industry as biopulping, residues treatments and improvement in the animal ration digestibility, and the literature presents lot of works describing these enzymes application and potential (S.T. Chang et al 1999). Concluding Remarks The fungus Lentinus spp. has been presented by the literature as a microorganism with potential for food industry, medical application, enzyme production and effluent treatment. Lentinus spp. possess a number of beneficial food industry, enzyme production and effluent treatment, medicinal 29

EJBS 4 (1) ● December 2010: 28-31

Manjunathan & Kaviyarasan ● Applications of Lentinus tuberregium

properties, such as antitumour, immunomodulatory, antigenotoxic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, hypocholesterolaemic, antihypertensive, antihyperglycaemic, antimicrobial and antiviral activities. These activities have been reported for various extracts and isolated compounds, such as polysaccharides, polysaccharide- protein complexes. In particular, polysaccharides appear to be potent antitumour and immunomodulating substances, besides possessing other beneficial activities. The potential of this microorganism is unquestionable in some of the most important areas of applied biotechnology. REFERENCES: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

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