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Blood and Body Fluids Evidence

From an archaeological perspective, numerous resources regarding the retrieval of blood and other types of trace evidence from historic and prehistoric contexts are included in this category. The compiler wishes to reinforce that evidence exposed to the elements, or deposited years prior to discovery may retain significant information capable of impacting the interpretation of a crime scene. Both here and in the sections of DNA Evidence and Stable Isotope Analyses, several citations may be found which should demonstrate for the crime scene investigator that assumptions should never be made that blood and body fluid evidence is completely obliterated from older scenes. Loy and Wood, (1989), is an early example of how blood evidence remained viable over thousands of years. That approximately 9000 year old evidence from Cayonu Tepesi in Turkey was initially realized using one of the most basic presumptive test for blood in most crime scene technicians' tool boxes Hemastix. Again, the section on DNA Evidence contains numerous citations expounding on work such as Loy and Wood. Analyses of prehistoric trace evidence is now common in archaeological and forensic literature. A large part of this section deals with the reconstruction of violent crime scenes based on the shape, size, and position of blood spatter, or blood stain, evidence. Primarily considered at indoor crime scenes, the same type of reconstruction could apply to outdoor scenes but becomes more difficult given the effects of weather, and substrate movement. Works such as those of MacDonnell, (1997); Bevel and Gardner, (2001); and James, Kish, and Sutton, (2003), have served to expose criminal investigators to the stories represented in patterns of what would appear to most of us as bloody Rorshak tests. Those same works and others included in this section should also demonstrate the pitfalls of interpreting blood stain evidence without adequate training, experience, and certification. Probably the the most cross-referenced citations in this section have to do with DNA research; however, the researcher is also directed to sections on Photography, Fingerprint, Ear Print, Lip Print, and Tattoo Evidence, Firearms and Toolmark Evidence, Shoe and Tire Impression Evidence, and General Crime Scene and Death Scene Investigation Topics, for techniques in recording blood pattern evidence and bloody transfers in form of patent and latent prints involving body and clothing segments. This section is divided into the following categories: Blood Stain Identification and Interpretation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Other Blood and Body Fluid Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Blood stains at the scene of a stabbing homicide

Blood Stain Identification and Interpretation Part science, part art, and mostly dependant on empirical research and extensive experience in crime scene reconstruction and analyses, blood stain pattern analysis has become a standard in the reconstruction of violent scenes. Although the principles of fluid dynamics and trigonometry behind blood spatter analysis are straightforward, the contexts of the resultant stains are what require forensic specialists with years of experience in a variety of scenes. Bloodstain characteristics are for the most part related to traumatic injuries. There are obviously natural and accidental sources of patterns but the crime scene investigator is most drawn to those resulting from violence. For the same reason, those who consult this bibliography might be interested in Section III, Taphonomy, sub-sections referencing Trauma. Those sub-sections on Photography as well as Surveying and Mapping contain references of use toward the proper measurement of crime scenes and their features. Because Blood stains do not occur in chronological or spatial vacuums, knowledge of crime scene dynamics are key. For that the reader is directed to General Crime Scene and Death Scene Investigations. Even the sub-section Entomology is related to Blood Stain Pattern Analysis. Fly excrement and insect tracking through blood is often mistaken for blood spatter upon first glance. (1581 citations) Aalders, Maurice C.G. 2010 Detecting, Recognizing and Aging of Bloodstains by Optical Spectroscopic Techniques. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):10-11. Aarts, Mijntje 2012 BPA Examination on Clothing in Light of the 'Right' Question. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):13. Acar, Kemalettin 2011 Turkish Forensic System and Recent Situation of BPA in Turkey. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):11. 2013

Necessity of BPA in Forensic Medicine Residency Education and Practice. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):17.

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Adair, T.W. 1998 False Wave Cast-Off: Considering the Mechanism of Stain Formation. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis News, 14(1):2. (also cited as 14(3):1-8) 1999a

Recognition of Bloodstain Evidence in Historical Denver, Colorado. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis News, December, 15(3):1-3.

1999b

Considering the Target Surface in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: An Unusual Case of Blood Pooling. Journal of Forensic Identification, 49(5):485-493.

2005a

Casting Two-Dimensional Bloody Shoe Prints from Concrete, Fabric, and Human Skin: A Review of Several Methods with Recommendations. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis News, March, 21:4-8.

2005b

Casting Two-Dimensional Bloody Shoe Prints from Concrete, Fabric, and Human Skin: A Review of Several Methods with Recommendations. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 21(1):4-8. http://iabpa.org/march%202005%20news.pdf

2006a

Experimental Detection of Blood Under Painted Surfaces. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, (March), 22(1):12-19. http://iabpa.org/march%202006%20final.pdf

Adair, T.W., R. Gabel, S. Shimamoto, and R. Tewes 2008 A Comparison of the Luminol and Blue Star Blood Reagents in Detecting Blood in Soil Nearly Four Years After Deposition. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 24(4):5-8. http://iabpa.org/december%202008%20final.pdf Adair, T.W., and A.C. Gallardo 1999 Considering the Target Surface in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: An Unusual Case of Blood Pooling. Journal of Forensic Identification, 49(5):485-493. Adair, Thomas W., and Rebecca L. Shaw 2005 Enhancement of Bloodstains on Washed Clothing Using Luminol and LCV Reagents. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis News, 21(4):4-10 http://iabpa.org/december%202005%20news.pdf Adair, T.W., S. Shimamoto, R. Tewes, and R. Gabel 2006 A Comparison of the Luminol and Blue Star Blood Reagents in Detecting Blood in Soil One Years After Deposition. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 22(3):4-7. (also cited as "The Use of Luminol to Detect Blood in Soil One Year After Deposition") http://iabpa.org/september%202006%20news.pdf 2007

A Comparison of the Luminol and Blue Star Blood Reagents in Detecting Blood in Soil One Years After Deposition. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 23(1):14-19. (also cited as "Detecting Blood Patterns in Soil with Luminol Two Years after Deposition") http://iabpa.org/march%202007%20final.pdf

Adam, Craig D. 2012 Fundamental Studies of Bloodstain Formation and Characteristics. Forensic Science International, 219(1-3):76-87. 2013

Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Spreading of Bloodstains on Painted Surfaces. Forensic Science International, 229:66-74.

Adam, J.R., N.R. Lindblad, and C.D. Hendricks 1968 The Collision, Coalescence, and Distribution of Water Droplets. Journal of Applied Physics, 39:5173-5180. Adler, William 1977 Liquid Drop Collisions on Deformable Media. Journal of Materials Science, _(_):1253-1271. Agudelo, J., C. Hynh, and J. Hamlek 2015 Forensic Determination of Bloodstain Age Using a Bioaffinity-based Assay. The Analyst, 140(5):1411-1415. Aikman, Rachel L., and David R. Foran 2008 Nucleic Acid Based Methods for Assessing the Age of Bloodstains. A Presentation before the 60th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, Washington, D.C. Akane, A. 1996 Hydrogen Peroxide Decomposes the Heme Compound in Forensic Specimens and Improves the Efficiency of PCR. Biotechniques, 21(3):392-394.

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Akin, Louis L. 2004 Blood Spatter Interpretation at Crime and Accident Scenes: A Step by Step Guide for Medicolegal Investigators. On Scene Forensics http://www.onsceneforensics.com 2005a

Blood Spatter Interpretation at Crime and Accident Scenes. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 74(2):21-24.

2005b

Interpretation of Blood Spatter for Defense Attorneys and Investigators: Part I. The Champion, May: 26

2005c

A Blood Spatter Primer. Blue Line, 17(9):14-15.

2005d

Blood Spatter Interpretation at Crime Scenes. The Forensic Examiner, Summer:6-10.

2005e

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Akutsu, Tomoko, Kazutoshi Matsumura, Yorika Tanaka, Ken Watanabe, and Koichi Sakurada 2014 Ability of 'OC-Hemocatch S' for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. Japanese Journal of Forensic Science and Technology, 19(2):103-110. Akutsu, Tomoko, Ken Watanabe, Hisayo Fukushima, Yoshihto Fujinami, and Koichi Sakurada 2011 Development of a Systematic Method for Identifying Saliva, Sweat and Urine by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay wth Statherin, Dercidin and Tamm-Horsfall Protein Markers. Japanese Journal of Forensic Science and Technology, 16(1):P1-P11 Akutsu, Tomoko, Ken Watanabe, Hisako Motani, Hirotaro Iwase, et al. 2012 Evaluation of Latex Agglutination Tests for Fibrin-Fibrinogen Degradation Products in the Forensic Identification of Menstrual Blood. Legal Medicine, 14(1):51-54. Albanese, John, and Ronald Montes 2011 Latent Evidence Detection Using a Combination of Near Infrared and High Dynamic Range Photography: An Example Using Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(6):1601-1603. Albrecht, H.O. 1928 Uber die Chemiluminescenz des Aminophthalaurehydrazids. Z Phys Chem (Leipzig), 136:321-330. Allen, Brian 2008 A Canadian Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, pp.23-24. Allard, Kristin L., Paul E. Kish, and Brian J. Gerstring 2010 Evaluating the Validity of Angle of Impact/Incidence Determinations Made from Very Small Bloodstains. A Presentation before the 61st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Denver, Colorado. Allen, John W., and Kelly J. Donaldson 2005 Solving a Triple Homicide with No Bodies. A Presentation before the 90th International Association of Identification International Educational Conference, August 7-12, Dallas, Texas. Allen, J., M.E. Newman, M. Riford, and G.H. Archer 1995 Blood and Plant Residues on Hawaiian Stone Tools from Two Archaeological Sites in Upland Kane'ohe, Ko' Olau Poko District, O'ahu Island, Asian Perspectives, 34:283-302. Allen, R.F. 1975 The Role of Surface Tension in Splashing. J Colloid Interface Sci, 51(2):350-351. Allen, Sharon 1992 Separating Fingerprint Fact from Friction. Law Enforcement Technology, January: Allman, D.S., and C.A. Pounds 1991a Diaminobenzidine: A Simple Safe and Sensitive Method for the Enhancement of Blood Marks at the Scene of Crime and in the Laboratory. CRSE Report 733, Central Research and Support Establishment, UK. 1991b

Detection of Fingerprints on Skin. Forensic Science Review, 3:83-89.

1992

The Specificity of Diaminobenzidine for the Detection of Blood, CRSE Report 771, Central Research and Support Establishment, Home Office Forensic Science Service, Aldermaston, UK.

Allery, J.P., N. Telmon, R. Mieusset, A. Blanc, and D. Rouge 2001 Cytological Detection of Spermatozoa: Comparison of Three Staining Methods. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(2):349-351. Al Na'imi. Khudooma, Zaina Alhattali, Anwar M. Siddiqi, and Mahmoud B. Al Sharairi

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Theoretical Evaluation of the Use of Bloodstain Pooling Method as a Screening Technique. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida.

Alvarez de Toledo, Valero R. 1935 La Reaccion Colorante do la Sangre con el "Leucoverde de Malaquita" o tetrametildiaminotrifenilmetano. Cronica Med, 39:3933139347 Anderson, John Wesley 1991 Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation – The State of the Art. The Colorado Policeman, November/December: 1992

Sherlockian Theories, Lessons from the Greatest Detective Who Ever Lived. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 8(3):3-14.

1993

Capillarity Distortion Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 9(4):11-13.

Anderson, Stacey E., Gerald R. Hobbs, and Clifton P. Bishop 2011 Multivariate Analysis for Estimating the Age of a Bloodstain. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(1):186-193. 2013

Estimating the Age of Bloodstain. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):16.

Anderson, S., B. Howard, G.R. Hobbs, and C.P. Bishop 2005 A Method for Determining the Age of a Bloodstain. Forensic Science International, 148(1):37-45. Anonymous n.d. Introductory Blood Spatter Photography at Crime Scenes. United States Army Criminal Investigation Laboratories, n.d.

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Reconstructing Crime, Blood and Other Bodily Fluids. In FN 19-20 War Department Field Manual: Criminal Investigation, pp.92-93, 202-213.

1987

Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation, Ontario Centre of Forensic Sciences – Biology Section, Identification Canada, April, 10(4):7-10

1991

Bloodspatter Evidence. Indianapolis Marion County Crime Laboratory Bulletin, 9

1997b

A Battle of Blood Spatter Experts and the Shenanigans of a Texas Prosecutor. Scientific Sleuthing Review, Summer

2001

Reading Blood Patterns. The Forensics Revealed Mini-Series Continues with Tina Orr-Munro Looking at How the Interpretation of Blood Spatters at a Violent Crime Scene is Vital to a Successful Investigation. Police Review, 24:26-28.

2003a

Luminol – Footprints in the Dark. PSDB Fingerprint Development and Imaging Programme Update, 6:3

2003b

Bluestar Forensic Validation Study. Centre Hospitalier Universitaire De Nantes, Nantes, France.

2006

Bluestar Forensic Latent Bloodstain Reagent User's Manual. Bluestar, Monte Carlo, Monaco www.Bluestar-forensic.com

2008a

Aqueous Leuco Crystal Violet Technical Information (LV509). Sirchie 2008 Product Catalog www.sirchie.com

2008b

Bluestar False Positives Study Report. April 2008 http://www.bluestar-forensic.com/pdf/en/false_positives_2008_study.pdf

2012

Nanotechnology Might Lead to Better Blood Detection Methods. Forensic Magazine, May 03, 2012 http://www.forensicmag.com/print/5895 (accessed 5/11/2012)

2015

Identification by Blood. As reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, 1(7):4 in1933. Journal of Forensic Identification, 65(4):373-374.

Andrasko, J. 1997 The Estimation of Age of Bloodstains by HPLC Analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 42:601-607. Arany, Szilvia, and Susumu Ohtani 2011 Age Estimation of Bloodstains: A Preliminary Report Based on Aspartic Acid Racemization Rate. Forensic Science International, 212:e36-e39.

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Aronson, Christina Kinsey 2011 Development of Bloody Prints on the Adhesive Side of Duct Tape. Journal of Forensic Identification, 61(3):250-259. Arroyo, Amparo, marta Sanchez, Mariona Palahi, Maria Barbal, et al. 2011 Applicability of an On-Site Test for Its Use in Post-Mortem Blood. Legal Medicine, 13(5):240-244. Arthur, Ravishka M. 2013 The Development of an Element-based Method for the Reliable Identification of Bloodstain Pattern. Unpublished Master's Thesis, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Arthur, Ravishka, R.M. Arthur, K.G. de Bruin, and M.C. Taylor 2015 Do We 'See' What We 'Think'? - An Eye Tracking Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Classification. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):13 Arthur, Ravishka M., Sarah L. Cockerton, Karla G. de Bruin, and Michael C. Taylor 2015 A Novel, Element-based Approach for the Objective Classification of Bloodstain Patterns. Forensic Science International, 257:220-228. Asai, A., M. Shioya, S. Hirasawa, and T. Okazaki 1993 Impact of an Ink Drop on Paper. Journal of Imaging Science Technology, 37(2):205-207. Asicioglu, Faruk 2010 The Development of Blood pattern Analysis Discipline in Turkey – Still in Need of Many Efforts. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(2):31-35. http://iabpa.org/june%202010.pdf Attinger, Daniel, Arian Jafari, Craig Moore, Adam Donaldson, and Howard Stone 2013 Fluid Dynamics Aspects of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Comparative Review and Research Opportunities. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):14. Attinger, Daniel, Zhenguo Li, Pei-Lun Hsieh, and Shih-Fu Chang 2012 Use of Automated Image Analysis Techniques to Determine Impact Velocities in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. A Presentation before the 64th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge, February 20-25, Atlanta, Georgia. Attinger, Daniel, Craig Moore, Adam Donaldson, Arian Jafari, and Howard A. Stone 2013 Fluid Dynamics Topics in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Comparative Review and Research Opportunities. Forensic Science International, 231(1-3):375-396. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2013 Attinger, Daniel, Craig Moore, and Christophe Frankiewicz 2013 Can We Reconstruct the Curved Trajectories of Blood Drops? Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):9. Au, Catherine, Hayley Jackson-Smith, Ignacio Quinones, B.J. Jones, and Barbara Daniel 2011 Wet Powder Suspensions as an Additional Technique for the Enhancement of Bloody Marks. Forensic Science International, 204(1):1318. Aycock, Johnny 2005 A Bloody Mess in Texas. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.24. 2006

Suicide or Accidental Death? Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.16.

Aye, U. Tha 1978 The Reliability of ABO Grouping of Bloodstains Contaminated with Sweat. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 18(3-4):193-195. BackTrack n.d. http://people.physics.carleton.ca/~carter/ Bager, Esben 2008 BPA Used for the First Time in Denmark. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.20. Bailey, James A. 2007 Enhancing Bloody Footwear Impressions: Infrared Photography Compared to Amido Black Treatment. A Presentation before the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 19-24, 2007, San Antonio, Texas.

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Baker, David J., Eileen A. Grimes, and Andrew J. Hopwood 2011 D-Dimer Assays for the Identfication of Menstrual Blood. Forensic Science International, 212:210-214. Baldwin, David P., Daniel S. Zamzow, Stanley J. Bajic, and Ellen Strawsine 2013 Investigation of Impact Spatter and the Effects of Controlled Independent Variables. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):9. Ballou, Sharon L. 2005 Who Shot Whom? Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.24. 2006

A Homeless Homicide. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.16.

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Bancirova, Martina 2012 Black and Green Tea -- Luminol False-Negative Bloodstains Detection. Science & Justice, 52(2):102-105. Bandey, H. 2008 Speculative Application of Protein Stains to Flooring to Enhance Marks in Blood. Fingerprint and Footwear Forensic News, May, Number 24/08:11-15. Barber, Daniel L. 2001 Starlight Bloodhound: Spray and See Evidence. Police, 25(5):12-14 Bargagna, M., and Margaret Pereira 1967 A Study of Absorption-Elution as a Method of Identification of Rhesus Antigens in Dried Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 7(3):123-130. Barksdale, Larry, Amanda Fujikawa, and David O. Carter 2010 Lucilia sericata and Their Effect on the Morphology and Presumptive Chemistry of Medium Impact and Pooled Bloodstain Patterns. A Presentation before the 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Advance Program), February 22-27, Seattle, Washington. Barnes, D. 1998 Intermittant Projected Bloodstains. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 14(2):6-8. Barnes, Mike 2005 Beating Patterns. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.24. Barnett, Peter D. 2005 Bloody Fingerprint: Fresh Blood or Not? Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.26. Barnett, K.G. 1991 The Use of Water Soluble Protein Dye for the Enhancement of Footwear Impressions in Blood on Non-porous Surfaces. ACPO Crime Committee National Conference of Scientific Support Barnett, K.G., R.G. Bone, P.W. Hall, and R.H. Ide 1988 The Use of Water Soluble Protein Dye for the Enhancement of Footwear Impressions in Blood on Non-porous Surfaces, Part 1. Technical Note No. 629, July. Barni, Filippo 2006 Luminol Chemistry and Forensic Application. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.23-24. Barni, F., S.W. Lewis, A. Berti, G.M. Miskelly, and G. Lago 2007 Forensic Application of the Luminol Reaction as a Presumptive Test for Latent Blood Detection. Talanta, 72(3):896-913.

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Barra, Kathleen, Jennifer J. Maldonado, and Virginia M. Maxwell 2013 Raman Spectroscopy as a Non-Destructive Technique to Differentiate Circulatory and Menstrual Blood. A Poster Presentation before the 65th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, 2013, Washington, D.C. Barrison, Dale 2005 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The Discipline Everyone Should Understand. Evidence Technology Magazine, 3(1):12-15. Bartolo, D., et al. 2007 Dynamics of Non-Newtonian Droplets. Physical Review Letters, 99(17):174502. Bartz, H. 2003 Estimating Original Blood Volume: The Development of a New Techn ique Relating Volume and Surface Area. Masters Thesis, Department of Biology, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Bashinski, Jan S., and John E. Davis 1973 A Simple Procedure for ABO Typing of Dried Bloodstains on Fibers by the Absorption-Elution Technique. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 13(3):217-222. Basso, William 2005 Review of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice by S.James, P. Kish, and P. Sutton. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 38(3):179-180. 2006

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – A Canadian Model and the IABPA. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.27.

Bauer, M. 1999 Detection of Epithelial Cells in Dried Blood Stains by Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44:1232-1236. Bauer, M., S. Polzin, and D. Patzelt 2003 Quantification of RNA Degradation by Semi-Quantitative Duplex RT-PCR: A Possible Indicator of the Age of Bloodstains. Forensic Science International, 138:94-103. BaxterM., and Irene White 1984 A Method for the Identification and Typing of the Subtypes of the Gc 1 Allele from Dried Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 24(5):483-488. Beaudoin, A. 2012 Comparison of Ortho-Tolidine and Amido Black for Development of Blood-Based Fingerprints on Skin. Journal of Forensic Identification, 62(6):588-601 Becue, Andy, Sébastien Moret, Christophe Champod, and Pierre Margot 2009 Use of Quantum Dots in Aqueous Solution to Detect Blood Fingermarks on Non-porous Surfaces. Forensic Science International, 191(1):36-41. Behrooz, Nima, Lee Hulse-Smith, and Sanjeev Chandra 2011 An Evaluation of the Underlying Mechanisms of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Error. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(5):1136-1142. Bell, Jeffrey T., and Eric L. Gilkerson 2005 The Enhancement of Bloody Impressions: Adobe Photoshop vs. Chemical vs. Photographic Methodologies. A Presentation before the 90th International Association of Identification International Educational Conference, August 7-12, Dallas, Texas. Benecke, Mark, and Larry Barksdale 2003 Distinction of Bloodstain Patterns from Fly Artifacts. Forensic Science International, 137(2-3):152-159. Benecke, M., L. Barksdale, J. Sundermeier, S. Reibe, and B. Ratcliffe 2000 Forensic Entomology in a Murder Case: Blood Spatter Artifacts Caused by Flies and Determination of Post Mortem Interval (PMI) by Use of Blowfly Maggots. Zoology Anal. Complex Syst., 103(Suppl. III):106. Benecke, Mark, Katrin Heuser, Nadine Brueckmann, Boris Angelow, Mirjam Loeffler, Nadja Hudewenz, Martin Oehmen, Saskia Reibe, Nadine Kuehner, and Simon Reiss 2006 A Glow in the Dark: Luminol Reaction Enhancement with "Fit" from Former Eastern Germany. A Presentation before the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 20-25, Seattle, Washington. Benecke, Mark, Saskia Reibe, Philip von Doetinchem, Petra Boehme, Andreas Scholten, Alexandra Schulz, and Alexandria Gericke 2005 Paradoxical Effects of Surface Structure and Drop Height on Blood Stain Pattern Formation. A Presentation before the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Bentley, Stephen 1998 Presumptive Testing for Blood on a Patent Print Developed with Amido Black. The Print, 14(4):3 www.scafo.org/library/140402.html Bentolila, Alfonso, Sarah Aloush, David Attias, and Michal Levin Elad 2013 The Use of Alginate Cast to Recover Blood Contaminated Fingermarks from Fabrics. A Presentation before the IFRG Meeting, Jerusalem, Israel. Bentolila, Alfonso, Sarah Aloush Reuveny, David Attias, and Michal Levin Elad 2016 Using Alginate Gel Followed by Chemical Enhancement to Recover Blood-Contaminated Fingermarks from Fabrics. Journal of Forensic Identification, 66(1):13-21. Bentsen, R.K., et al. 1996 Post Firing Visualization of Fingerprints on Spent Cartridge Cases. The Print, 12(5):5-9. www.scafo.org/library/120502.html Berdanier, Erin L., and Dan Krane 2014 Effect of Machine Laundering Additives on Human Blood. A Presentation before the 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 17-22, Seattle, Washington Bergeron, Joshua 2003 Development of Bloody Prints on Dark Surfaces with Titanium Dioxide and Methanol. Journal of Forensic Identification, 53(2):149161. Bernd, K., et al. 2002 Backspatter on the Firearm and Hand in Experimental Close-Range Gunshots to the Head. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 23:211-213. Bernstein, Edward G. 2005a Science in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Patern Analysts News, December, 21(4):16-19. http://iabpa.org/december%202005%20news.pdf 2005b

Bloodstain Pattern Related to Clothing in Two Homicides. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.27-28.

Berti, Andrea 2006 BPA in a Microscene Composed Murder Scene. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.23. Berti, Andrea, Silke M.C. Brodbeck, Claudio Colozza, Francesco Maiorino, and Massimiliano Tocca 2008 BPA in Bomb Explosions. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.10. Berti, Andrea, and Eva Sacchi 2012 Case Presentation: BPA in a Cold Case. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):10. Betit, C. 2010

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Case Presentation: The Waynewright Texas Shooting. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):17.

2009b

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of a Presentation given at the 18th Annual Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction International Training Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 11-13, Journal of the Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction, 15(1):19-20.

2010

The Threats Case – San Diego, California. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):11-12.

Bevel, T., and L. Conn 1987 Stop Motion Photography of Bloodstains. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 3:1-13. Bevel, Virgil Thomas, and Ross M. Gardner 1997a Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: With an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (ISBN: 0849381592) 1997b

Fly Spots. In T. Bevel, and R.M. Gardner, editors, Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: With and Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp.166-167.

2002

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: With an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction, Second Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (also cited as published in 2001) (ISBN: 0-8493-0950-6)

2006

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Homicide Cold Case Investigations. In Richard H. Walton, editor, Cold Case Homicides: Practical Investigative Techniques, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, pp.463-476.

2008

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with an Introduction to Crime Scene Reconstruction, Third Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.

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Blankers, Bart and Marjan Sjerps 2015 Bayesian Approach to Interpreting Bloodstain Patterns. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):14 Bless, Bethany L. 2015 Bleeding Out: A Case of Mistaken Homicide. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. Block, Michael, and Michael Gaynor 1997 Case Presentation: "Bloodstains Tell a Different Tale". Abstract, International Association of Identification Meeting, Bluestar® Forensic n.d. Product Information. http://www.bluestar-forensic.com/gb/bluestar.php Blum, L.J., Philippe Esperança, and Stéphanie Rocquef 2006 A New High-Performance Reagent and Procedure for Latent Bloodstain Detection Based on Luminol Chemiluminescence. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 39(3):81-100. Bodziak, W.J. 1996 Use of Leuco-Crystal Violet to Enhance Shoeprints in Blood. Forensic Science International, 82(1):45-52. http://www.bvda.com/EN/prdctinf/LCV_Bodziak.html Bohm, E. 1987 Structural Principles of Hemostatic Processes. Forensic Science International, 33:7-22. Bohm, E., and K.H. Hochkirchen 1983 Ultrastructure of Intravital, Postmortem and Autolysed Fibrin. Forensic Science International, 21:117-127. Boltman, B., T.W. Adair, and L. Brown 2009 Evaluation of Blood Saturation as a Mechanism of Change in Stabbing Defects in Clothing. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 25(4):5-14 http://iabpa.orgdecember%202009%20news.pdf Bond, Nicole I. 2008 Validation of Assumptions Underlying the Angle of Impact Calculation for a Bloodstain and the Development of a Synthetic Blood Substitute. Environmental Science and Research Institute, University of Auckland, Australia 2009

The Effect an Oscillating Blood Drop Has on the Angle of Impact Calculations. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):25.

Bone, Rob 2010 Exploring the Relationship between Finger/Palm Prints and Blood. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(4):10-16. http://iabpa.org/IABPA%20news%20december%202010.pdf Boon, Dennis 2012 A Victim's Revenge: Offender's Bloodstains in Stabbing Incidents. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):18. Bordner, Pam 2004 Where’s the Weapon? Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.11. Bossers, L.C., C. Roux, M. Bell, and A.M. McDonagh 2011 Methods for the Enhancement of Fingermarks in Blood. Forensic Science International, 188:1-17. (also cited as 210(1):1-11) Bouwmeester, Martine, Shermayne Gorré, Crytal Rodriguez, and Marcel de Puit 2011 A Comparsion of Reagents for the Visualization of Blood Prints on Knives with Black Handles. Journal of Forensic Identification, 61(4):353-362. Bou Zeid, W., J. Vincente, and D. Brutin 2013 Influence of Evaporation Rate on Cracks' Formation of a Drying Drop of Whole Blood. Colloid Surface, A 432:139-146. Bowles,S.A. 1985 Effects of New Fingerprinting Techniques on Bloodstains. Identification News, 35(12):

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Boyd, Samantha J., Massimo F. Bertino, Dexian Ye, Lauren S. White, and Sarah J. Seashols 2013 Highly Sensitive Detection of Blood by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(3):753-756. Boyd, Samantha, Massimo F. Bertino, and Sarah J. Seashols 2011 Raman Spectroscopy of Blood Samples for Forensic Appllications. Forensic Science International, 208(1-3):124-128. Boyd, Samantha J., Sarah J. Seashols, and Massimo F. Bertino 2011 The Utility of Raman Spectroscopy of Blood Samples for Forensic Applications. A Presentation before the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, Chicago, Illinois. Boyd, Samantha J., Dexian Ye, Massimo F. Bertino, and Sarah J. Seashols 2012 Application of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy to the Forensic Analysis of Blood. A Presentation before the 64th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge, February 20-25, Atlanta, Georgia. Bradshaw, R., S. Bleay, M. Clench, and S. Francese 2014 Direct Detection of Blood in Fingermarks by MALDI MS Profiling and Imaging. Science and Justice, 54(2):110-117. Brady, M., et al. 1997 Gruesome Science on the Case Radiographic Identification of Unknown Human Remains and Interpreter Experience Level Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation, Introduction to Forensic Science Second Edition. The Financial Post Magazine, March:pp.8-10. Brady, T., J. Tigmo, and G. Graham 2002 Extreme Temperature Effects on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News,18(2):3-20. (also cited as 24(1):3-20) http://iabpa.org/june2002news.pdf Bray, T., N. Stenlake, and S. Armitage 2004 Fluorescein vs. Luminol and Leuco Crystal Violet (LCV) as an Alternative for Bloodstain Detection. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, march 28-April 2, Academy of the New Zealand Forensic Science Society, Wellington, NZ. Bremmer, Rolf 2011 Reflectance Spectroscopy for Recognition and Age Determination of Blood Stains. A Presentation before the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, Chicago, Illinois. Bremmer, R.H., G.J. Edelman, and M.C. Aalders 2012 Spectroscopic Age Determination of Bloodstains. ChemImage http://www.chemiamge.com/news/newsletter/forensic_focus/march2012.aspx Bremmer, Rolf H., Gerda Edelman, Tessa Dijn Vegter, Ted Bijvoets, and Maurice C.G. Aaulders 2011 Remote Spectroscopic Identification of Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(6):1471-1475. Bremmer, Rolf H., Annemarie Nadort, Ton G. van Leeuwen, Martin J.C. van Gemert, and Maurice C.G. Aalders 2011 Age Estimation of Blood Stains by Hemoglobin Derivative Determination Using Reflection Spectroscopy. Forensic Science International, 206:(1-3):166-171. Brinkmann, B., B. Madea, and S.P. Rand 1985 Charakterisierung von Mikroblutspuren, (Characteristics of Micro-Bloodstains). Zeitschrift fur Rechtsmedizin, 94(3):237-244. 1986

Factors Influencing the Morphology of Bloodstain. Beitr Gerichtl Med, 44:67-73.

Brinkmann, B., R. Soder, and M. Brinkmann 1979 Estimating the Age of Bloodstains by Measuring Enzymatic Activities. Forensic Science International, 14:105. Brodbeck, Silke M.C. 2005 The Effects of Anticoagulative Treatment on BPA. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.27. 2006a

Anatomy Related Movement Analysis (ARMA) – Introduction and Application to the Movements of Human Fingers. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.16.

2006b

Anatomy Related Movement Analysis – A New Tool. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.20.

2007

Refelctions Upon Arteries and Veins – A Plea for "Spurt Patterns". International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 23(2):4-14.

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http://iabpa.org/june%202007%20final.pdf 2008a

The Role of Modern Crime Scene Documentation Systems for BPA – Spheron and Laser Scanning. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.12.

2008b

Spheron and Laser Imaging – The Use of Visualization and Measuring for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.13.

2009

The Role of the Shoulder Joint in the Examination of Cast-Off Patterns. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):17.

2011

The Latex Lifting Method for the Recovery of Blood, DNA, and Dermal Ridge Evidence in Arson Cases. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):3-7.

2012

Amylase Negative Inclusions in a Bloodstain Pattern as a Sign of Expirated Blood in a Crime Scene Reconstruction. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):10.

2015

Surface Behaviour in Liquid Latex Lifting - Securing Bloodstains after Arson. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):30

Brooke, H., M.R. Baranowski, J.N. McCutcheon, S.L. Morgan, and M.L. Myrick 2010 Multimode Imaging in the Thermal Infrared for Chemical Contrast Enhancement. Part 3: Visualizing Blood on Fabrics. Anal Chem, 82(20):8427-8431. Brown, Frank, and Andy Mason 2012 Multimedia Support to BPA Recording at Crime Scene Investigations. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):19. Brown, Rosemary E., Roger I. Hawkes, M. Anderson Parker, and Jason H. Byrd 2001 Entomological Alteration of Bloodstain Evidence. in Entomological Evidence: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations. Jason H. Byrd and James L. Castner, editors, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp.353-378.. Brownlie, Alistair R. 1965 Blood and the Blood Groups. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 5(2):124Brutzki, Tara 2003 Case Study: A Blood Spatter pattern Caused by a Vortex Action. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.8. Bucht, Rebecca E., Frani Kammerman, Peter R. De Forest 2008a Blood on Black Using Polarised Light to Enhance Bloodstains on Dark, Dielectric Surfaces. A presentation before the 60th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, Washington, D.C. 2008b

Blood on Black: Using Polarized Light to Enhance Bloodstains on Dark, Dielectric Surfaces. A Presentation before the International Association for Identification's 93rd International Educational Conference, Louisville, Kentucky, August 17-23, 2008.

Buck, Ursula, Beaet Kneubuehl, Silvio Nather, Nicola Albertini, Lars Schimidt and Michael Thali 2008 3D Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – Ballistic Reconstruction of the Trajectories of Blood Drops and Determination of the Centres of origin of the Bloodstains. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.14-15. 2011

3D Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Ballistic Reconstruction of the Trajectories of Blood Drops and Determination of the Centres of Origin of the Bloodstains. Forensic Science International, 206(1-3):22-28.

Budowle, B., J.L. Leggitt, D.A. Defanbaugh, K.M. Keys, and S.F. Malkiewicz 2000 The Presumptive Reagent Fluorescein for the Detection of Dilute Bloodstains and Subsequent STR Typing of Recovered DNA. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(5):1090-1092. Bu-Nam, Son, Lim Si-Keun, Park Jun-Gi, and Jung Sung-Hee n.d. Validation of Novel Latent Bloodstain Detection Kit Hemascein™. A Presentation before the 20th Conference of Korean Society of Forensic Science www.abacusdiagnostics.com/Hemscein_Natl_Inst_of_Sci_Investigation.pdf Bunker, Judith L. 1985 Bloodstain Evidence Manual, Doje’s Press,

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1991a

Documenting and Reconstructing Blood Scenes. A Presentation before the Rocky Mountain Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Advanced Bloodstain Pattern Course, April 22, Jefferson County, Colorado.

1991b

Bloodstains and Patterns – 40 Hour Basic Course Requirements. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 7(3):37.

1998

Identification of Stain and Pattern Characteristics. In Blood Stain Evidence Manual, Volume 3, Doje's Press, Ococee, FL. (also cited as published by Northwestern University Center for Public Safety)

Burdett, P.E. (also spelled as Burdette) 1976 Presumptive Tests for Blood – A Comparative Study, CRE Report, Number 201, October. 1977

A Substitute for Ortho-Tolidine in the Detection of Haptoglobin Phenotypes. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 17(1):33-35.

Burke, Michael Philip, Alex Kirasi Olumbe, and Kenneth Opeskin 1998 Postmortem Extravasation of Blood Potentially Simulating Antemortem Bruising. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 19(1):46-49. Burnett, Bryan R. 1991 Detection of Bone and Bone-Plus-Bullet Particles in Backspatter from Close-Range Shots to the Head. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36(6):1745-1752. (also cited as 1740-1747) 2016

Bloodstain Evidence of Trophy Taking in a Homicide. A Presentation before the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 22-27, Las Vegas, Nevada.

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Calabrese, Deanna, Carrie A. Thomas, and Michael S. Adamowicz 2013 Evolving Strategies to Mitigate the PCR Inhibitory Compounds Found in Carpet Backing. A Poster Presentation before the 65th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, 2013, Washington, D.C. Caldwell, J.P. 2000 ABTS: A Safe Alternative to DAB for the Enhancement of Blood Fingerprints. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(4):785. Caldwell, J.P., W. Henderson, N.D. Kim 2000 ABTS: A Safe Alternative to DAB for the Enhancement of Blood Fingerprints. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(4):785-794. Caldwell, J.P., and N.D. Kim 2002 Extension of the Color Suite Available for Chemical Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47(2):332340. Calhoun, Deborah A. 2003 Commonwealth v. Zachary Witman. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.9.

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Implementing Probabilistic Approaches and Bloodstain Pattern Simulation with AnTRaGoS and BPS. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):41

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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Video Camera and a PC Computer. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 11(2):15-16.

1998

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Computer. S.H. James, editor, In Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

2001a

The Directional Analysis of Bloodstain Patterns. Theory and Experimental Validation. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences Journal, 34(4):173-189.

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The Physics of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Lecture Notes. Chapter 11, Forensic Computing of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario

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Directional Analysis of Bloodstain Patterns with a Computer. In S.H. James, P.E. Kish, and T. Sutton, editors, Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Theory and Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, pp.241-260.

2005c

Further Validation of the BackTrack™ Computer Program for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis - Precision and Accuracy. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analyst News, 21:15-22.

2006

Directional Analysis of Bloodstain Patterns Theory and Directional Analysis. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(2):242-256.

Carter, A.L., Rachel Collins, Serge larocque, and Brian Yamashita 2004 The Directional Analysis of a Bloodstain Pattern Located on a Sloped Ceiling. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.12. Carter, A.L. J. Forsythe-Erman, V. Hawkes, M. Illes, P. Laturnus, G. Lefebvre, C. Stewart, and B. Yamashita 2006 Validation of the BackTrack Suite of Programs for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(2):242-254. Carter, A.L., M. Illes, K. Maloney, A.B. Yamashita, B. Allen, B. Brown, L. Davidson, G. Ellis, J. Gallant, A. Gradkowski, J. Hignell, S. Jory, P.L. Laturnus, C.C. Moore, R. Pembroke, A. Richard, R. Spenard, and C. Stewart 2005 Further Validation of the BackTrack™ Computer Program for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis - Precision and Accuracy. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 21(3):15-22. http://iabpa.org/september%202005%20news.pdf

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Carter, A.L., and Pat Laturnus 1995 A Study of the Use of a Fotoman Digital Camera for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 11(2):17-27. 1999

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Computer. In G. Chakyo and E.D. Gulliver, editors, Forensic Evidence in Canada, Canada Law Book, Aurora, Ontario, pp.443-453.

Carter, Alfred L., and Edward J. Podworny 1989 Computer Modelling of Trajectories of Blood Droplets and Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a PC Computer, A Presentation before the Second Annual International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Training Conference, December, Dallas, Texas. 1991

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis with a Scientific Calculator. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 24(1):37-42.

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The Tangent Method and Spreadsheets Determining Point or Area of Origin in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 23(3):4-14. http://iabpa.org/september%202007%20news.pdf

Chan-Seong, P., M. Jung-Eun, C. Nam-soo, P. Yun-Shin, and C. Nak-Eun 2011 Study on the Substrate Characteristics and the Property Model Effecting on the Blood Pattern. Korean Journal of Forensic Sciences, 12(1/2):20-25. Chapman, L. 2015 Playing Forensic Monopoly. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, January:1-9. Charm, S.E., and G.S. Kurland 1968 Discrepancy in Measuring Blood in Couette, Cone and Plate, and Capillary Tube Viscometers. Journal of Applied Physiology, 25(6):786-789. Charm, S., and G. Kurland 1965 Viscometry of Human Blood for Shear Rates of 0-100,000 sec--1. Nature, 206:617-618. Chatterji, P.K. 1977 A Simplified Mixed Agglutination Technique for ABO Grouping of Dried Bllodstains Using Cellulose Acetate Sheets. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 17(2-3):143-144. Cheatham, Christopher S., and Nathan W. Flach 2003 A national Survey of Police Exposure to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis News, 19(2):4-12. http://iabpa.org/jun2003news.pdf Cheeseman, Rob 1995 Fluorescein as a Suitable Replacement for Luminol as a Latent Blood Detection System. The Print, 11(2):1-2 www.scafo.org/library/110202.html 1999

Direct Sensitivity Comparison of the Fluorescein and Luminol Bloodstain Enhancement Techniques. Journal of Forensic Identification, 49(3):261-268.

2015

Direct Sensitivity Comparison of the Fluorescein and Luminol Bloodstain Enhancement Techniques. As reprinted from, Journal of Forensic Identification, 49(3):261-268, in Journal of Forensic Identification, 65(4):593-599.

Cheeseman, R., and L.A. DiMeo 1995 Fluorescein as a Fieldworthy Latent Bloodstain Detection System. Journal of Forensic Identification, 45(6):631-646. (also cited as Cheeseman, Rob, and George A. Durgin Jr., 1995, Fluorescein as a Latent Bloodstain Detector. Journal of Forensic Identification, 45(6): 631-646.) Cheeseman, R., and R. Tomboc 2001 Fluorescein Technique Performance Study on Bloody Foot Trails. Journal of Forensic Identification, 51(1):16-27. Cheng, L. 1977 Dynamic Spreading of Drops Impacting onto a Solid Surface. Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev, 16(2):192-197. Chernishev, A. 2012 Validation of the Amido Black Method for Developing Fingermarks in Blood in the Latent Fingermarks in Blood in the Latent Fingerprint Lab in the Israel Police. Bachelor of Engineering Thesis, Jerusalem College of Engineering, Jerusalem, Israel. Cheyne, M. 2011 Illuminating Latent Blood: Application Methods, Fixatives, Alternatives and New Formulas for Luminol. Masters Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Chien, S. 1981 Determinants of Blood Viscosity and Red Cell Deformability. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigations, 156:7-12. Ching, Bruce, Michael Golay, and Thomas Johnson 1984 Drop Impacts Upon Liquid Surfaces. Science, 226:535-537. Chisum, W. Jerry 1971 A Rapid Method for Grouping Dried Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 11(3):205-206. 1998

Pitfalls in Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. The CAC News, 4th Quarter: 14-17. http://www.cacnews.org/pdfs/4thq98.pdf

Cho, Yuen, Faye SPringer, Frederic A. Tulleners, and William D. Ristenpart

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2015

Quantitative Bloodstain Analysis: Differentiation of Contact Transfer Patterns Versus Spatter Patterns on Fabric via Microscopic Inspection. Forensic Science International, 249:233-240.

Choi, Yong-Seok, Pat Laturnus, Brian Yamashita,and Jim Killeen 2010 Korea’s Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Training. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(3):3-7. http://iabpa.org/September%202010%20News.pdf Choromański, Kacper 2011 BPA in Poland. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):11. 2013

Developing BPA in Poland. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):15.

2015

Free Software that Can Improve BPA Reports: Typical Crime and Lonely Wolf Cases. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):17

Christman, Daniel V. 1993 The Collection and Preservation of Bloodstain Evidence Found on Sheetrock Surfaces. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 9(1):6-10. 1994

Handwriting on the Wall, Bloodstain Pattern Analyses Can be a Key Signature in Interpreting the Scene of a Crime. Police, 18(11):9091.

1995

A Study to Compare and Contrast Animal and Human Blood Products. A Presentation before the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts and the Association of Crime Scene Reconstruction Joint Training Conference., October 5, Oklahoma City, OK.

1996

A Study to Compare and Contrast Animal Blood to Human Blood Product. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 12(2):10-25.

2015a

Spatters Matter: How Bloodstain Evidence Influenced the Police at the Scene and the Prosecutor and Jury in the Courtroom. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida.

2015b

Mechanism of Injury and Resulting Bloodstains. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):11

Cittadini, Francesca, Gianluca Albertacci, and Vincenzo L. Pascali 2008 Unattended Fatal Hemorrhage Caused by Spontaneous Rupture of a Varicose Vein. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 29(1):92. Clanet, C., et al. 2004 Maximal Deformation of an Impacting Drop. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 517:199-208. Clanton, Jackie A. 2009 Concealment and Detection of Bloodstains Beneath Multiple Coats of Paint. A Poster Presentation before the 61st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Denver, Colorado Clark, Brian S., and Grant D. Graham Sr. 2001 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis After a Fire: Effects of Heat and Flame on Reconstruction and Interpretation. A Paper Presented at the American Academy of Forensic Sciences 53rd Annual Meeting, February 19-24, 2001, Seattle, Washington. Clark, D.H. 1992 Saliva Swabbing, Bite Mark Examination Procedures: Victims and Suspects, in D.H. Clark, editor, Practical Forensic Odontology, Wright, London, UK., pp:135-136. Clark, Kimberly 2006 Differentiating High Velocity Blood Spatter Patterns, Expirated Bloodstains, and Insect Activity. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 22(3):8-20. http://iabpa.org/september%202006%20news.pdf Clements, Wendell W. 1983 Blood Print on Human Skin. Identification News, 33(8): Clift A., and C.M. Lamont 1974 Saliva in Forensic Odontology, Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 14:241-245. Clutter, Susan W., Travis Battiest, and David McGill

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2014

Liquid Latex as a Cleanup Step to Visualize Bloody Shoeprint Evidence at Fire Scenes. Journal of Forensic Identification, 64(3):212222.

Cochrane, Joanne 2012 Fly Speck/Fly Spotting Seen on Body of Deceased. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):22. Cockerton, Sarah, and Ravishka Arthur 2013 The Development of an Element-Based Method for the Reliable Identification of Bloodstain Patterns. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):3.

Collins, Rachel 2003 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Using BackTrack Suite. Bachelor of Science Thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Collins, Rachel, and Brian Yamashita 2003 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis on Angled Surfaces. A Presentation before the 88th International Educational Conference Sponsored by the International Association for Identification, July 9, 2004, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Connolly, Candace, Mike Illes, and Jim Fraser 2012 Effect of Impact Angle Variations on Area of Origin Determinations in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Forensic Science International, 223:233-240. Connolly, Jo-Ann C. 2012 The Use of Forensic Messenger RNA (mRNA) Analysis to Determine Stain Age. A Poster Presentation before the 64 th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge, February 20-25, Atlanta, Georgia. Connor, Mark 2015 Factors Affecting the Near Infra-Red Photography of Bloodstains. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):22 Connor, Mark, Lukasz Mendecki, and Stephen Cordiner 2015 Factors Affecting the Near-Infrared Photography of Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Identification, 65(1):19-33. Cook, Russell 2015 Comparison between Drip Stains and Impact Spatter Stains on Different Fabrics. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):15 Cortner, G.V. 1986 Crime Scene Reconstruction: A Case of Blood Stain Interpretation Five Years After the Crime Occurred. Tieline, 11(1):50-55. Courtney, Max n.d. Blood Spatter Evidence and Reconstruction of Events. Forensic Consultant Services, Fort Worth, TX http://www.forensic-lab.com/publications/bloodspatter.html Courtney, Max., et al. 1996 Luminol: The Next Generation. Southwestern Association of Forensic Scientists Journal, 18(1):25. Courts, C., B. Madea, and C. Schyma 2012 Persistence of Biological Traces in Gun Barrels - An Approach to an Experimental Model. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 126:391-397. Cox, Milton 1990 Effect of Fabric Washing on the Presumptive Identification of Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35(6):1335-1341. 1991

A Study of the Sensitivity and Specificity of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 36(5):1503-1511.

Crafton, E.F., and W.Z. Black 2004 Heat Transfer and Evporation Rates of Small Liquid Droplets on Heated Horizontal Surfaces. Int J Heat Mass Transf, 47:1187-1200. Craig, O.E., and M.J. Collins 2002 The Removal of Protein from Mineral Surfaces: Implications for Residue Analysis of Archaeological Materials. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29:1077-1082. Creamer, J.I., T.I. Quickenden, L.B. Crichton, P. Robertson, and R.A. Ruhayel 2005 Attempted Cleaning of Bloodstains and Its Effect on the Forensic Luminol Test. Luminescence, 20:411-413.

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Creamer, J.I., T.I. Quickenden, M.V. Apanah, K.A. Kerr, and P. Robertson 2003 A Comprehensive Experimental Study of Industrial, Domestic and Environmental Interferences with the Forensic Luminol Test for Blood. Luminescence, 18(4):193-198. Creighton, J. 1997 Visualization of Latent Impressions After Incidental or Direct Contact with Human Blood. Journal of Forensic Identification, 47(5):534541. Cresap, T.R. 1998 Bloody Bare Footprints – What Size Will They Make? International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 14(2):1-5. Cresap, T.R., et al. 1995 The Effects of Luminol and Coomassie Blue on DNA typing by PCR. A presentation before the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Seattle, Washington. Crosby, W.H., F.W. Furth, and C.E. Thibeault 1956 A Modification of the Benzidine Method for Measurement of Hemoglobin in Plasma and Urine. Blood, 11:380-383. Cullen, Siobhan, Alexandra Otto, and Paul N. Cheetham (also cited as Culen, et al.) 2010 Chemical Enhancment of Bloody Footwear Impressions from Buried Substrates. Journal of Forensic Identification, 60(1):45-86. Culliford, Bryan J. 1964 The Identification of Abnormal Haemoglobins in Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 4(3):155-157. 1967

The Determination of Phosphoglucomutase (PGM) Types in Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 7(3):131-133.

1971

The Examination and Typing of Bloodstains in the Crime Laboratory. National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criinal Justice. Washington, D.C.

Culliford, B.J., and B.G.D. Wraxall 1968 Adenylate Kinase (AK) Types in Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 8(2-3):79-80. Custer, J.F., J. Ilgenfritz, and K.R. Doms 1988 A Cautionary Note on the Use of Chemstrips for Detection of Blood Residues on Prehistoric Stone Tools. Journal of Archaeological Science, 15:343-345. Dalley, Iris 2003 Make My Day. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 911, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.9. 2005

Terror in the Woods: The Deaths of Charles and Shirley Chick. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.27.

2006a

Kidnapping by Caesarean Section (How I Spent my Christmas Vacation). Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.17.

2006b

Terror in the Woods: The Deaths of Charles & Shirley Chick. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.21.

2008

Homicide or Suicide: Bloodstains in Crime Scene Reconstruction. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, pp.9-10.

2015

Courtroom Demonstratives. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):18

Daly, Dyan J. 2008 Who Stabbed Who? Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, pp.17-18. Das, R., A. Collins, Anurag Verma, J. Fernandez, and M. Taylor 2015 Evaluating Simulant Materials for Understanding Cranial Backspatter from a Ballistic Projectile. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 60(3): Davidhazy, A. n.d. Making of a Water Drop. Efluids Media Galleries http://media.efluids.com/galleries/all?medium=532

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Davidson, Andrew 2010 Detection of Blood on Dark Items. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):8. Davidson, Peter L., Michael C. Taylor, Suzanne J. WIlson, Kevan A.J. Walsh, and Jules A. Kieser 2012 Physical Components of Soft-Tissue Ballistic Wounding and Their Involvement in the Generation of Blood Backspatter. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57(5):1339-1342. Davis, T., and S. Mays 1996 Household Products as Possible Contaminants at Crime Scenes: An Evaluation Using Two Light Sources and Luminol.A Presentation before the Northwest Association of Forensic Scientists, Salt Lake City, UT. Davison, Andrew 2015 Appearance of Small Bloodstains after Enhancement. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):23 Davison, Mark 2014 Analysis of Error Rates Associated with Area of Origin Calculations of Blunt Force Impact Patterns Resulting from Measurement Deviation. Proceedings of the 2014 IABPA Annual Conference Held in Portland, Maine, September 30-October 3, (Abstract), Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 30(4):12. De Almeida, J.P., N. Gleese, and C. Bonorino 2011 Effect of Presumptive Tests Reagents on Human Blood Confirmatory Tests and DNA Analysis Using Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Forensic Science International, 206:58-61. De Bruin, Karla 2010 How to Improve the Accuracy of the Point of Origin Calculation by Backtrack and Hemospat. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):10. 2014

Blood on Dark Surfaces -- Why Don't We See It? Proceedings of the 2014 IABPA Annual Conference Held in Portland, Maine, September 30-October 3, (Abstract), Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 30(4):8.

2015

Understanding the Visibility of Blood on Dark Surfaces. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):35

De Bruin, Karla , Nick Laan, Noushine Shahidzadeh, and Daniel Bonn 2015 Spreading Behaviour of Blood Drops on Fabrics. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):15 De Bruin, Karla G., Reinoud D. Stoel, and Josita C.M. Limborgh 2011 Improving the Point of Origin Determination in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of Forensic Sciences International, 56(6):14761482. De Castro, T.C., D.J. Carr, M.C. Taylor, and J.A. Kieser 2015 Scientific Fundamentals of Passive Bloodstain Formation on Laundered Shirting Apparel. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):16 De Castro, Therese, Tania Nickson, Debra Carr, and C. Knock 2013 Interpreting the Formation of Bloodstains on Selected Apparel Fabrics. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 127(1):251-258. De Castro, Therese C., Michael C. Taylor, Debra J. Carr, Josie Athens, and Jules A. Kieser 2016 Storage Life of Whole Porcine Blood Used for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 49(1):26-37. De Castro, T.C., M.C. Taylor, J.A. Kieser, D.J. Carr, and W. Duncan 2015 Systematic Investigation of Drip Stains on Apparel Fabrics: The Effects of Prior-laudnering, Fibre Content and Fabric Structure on Final Stain Appearance. Forensic Science International, 250:98-109. Deegan, R.D., O. Bakajin, T.F. Dupont, G. Huber, S.R. Nagel, and T.A. Witten 1997 Capillary FLow as the Cause of Ring Stains from Dried Liquid Drops Nature, 389:827-829. Dees, Timothy M. 1995 Simplifying Blood Spatter Analysis at the Crime Scene. Law Enforcement Technology, 22(8):42-44. DeForest, Peter 1990 A Review of Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence At Crime Scenes. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35(6):1491-1495.

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DeForest, P.R., R. Bucht, F. Kammerman,B. Weinger, and L. Gunderson 2009 Blood on Black - Enhanced Visualization of Bloodstains on Dark Surfaces. Document No.: 227840, August https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/227840.pdf DeForest, Peter R., Peter A.Pizzola, Ralph R. Ristenblatt III, and Peter J. Diaczuk 2015 Bloodstain Patterns Associated with Gunshot Wounds--Misconceptions. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. DeHaan, J.D., J.D. Clark, T.F. Spear, R. Oswalt, and S.S. Barney 1999 Chemical Enhancement of Fingerprints in Blood: An Evaluation of Methods, Effects on DNA, and Assessment of Chemical Hazards. California Department of Justice, Bureau of Forensic Services, Sacramento, California. http://www.latent-prints.com/cac_blood.htm Deleo, Michael 2002 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Law and Order, 50(11):43-47. Denison, David, Alice Porter, Matthew Mills, and Robert C. Schroter 2011 Forensic Implications of Respiratory Derived Blood Spatter Distributions. Forensic Science International, 204(1):144-155. Develtere, Renaat, Bert Van Dijck, Stefan Lambrecht, Karolien Van Dijck, Kurt Meyfroodt, and Gerrit Volckeryck 2001 Fluorescein: A More User-Friendly Replacement for Luminol? An Abstract, Fourth European Meeting for Shoeprint/Toolmark Examiners (SPTM), May 15-18, Berlin, Germany. Information Bulletin for Shoeprint/Toolmark Examiners, 7(2):32. De Wael, K., L. Lepot 2015 Morphological Details in Bloodstain Particles. Forensic Science International, 246:50-54. De Wael, K., L. Lepot, F. Gason, and B. Gilbert 2008 In Search of Blood – Detection of Minute Particles Using Spectroscopic Methods. Forensic Science Internaional , 180(1):37-42. Dicken, L., C. Knock, S. Beckett, T.C. de Castro, T. Nickson, and D.J. Carr 2015 The Use of Micro-computed Tomography to Ascertain the Morphology of Bloodstains on Fabric. Forensic Science International, 257:369-375. Dilbeck, Lisa 2006 Use of Bluestar Forenic in Lieu of Luminol at Crime Scenes. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(5):706-720. Dilling, W.J. 1926 Haemochromogen Crystal Test for Blood. British Medical Journal, 1:219. DiMeo, L. Allyn, and Jane Taupin 2012 Arterial Bloodstain Patterns on Clothing - An Interesting Case Linking the Accused to the Scene. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(2):3-10. Di Mizio, Giulio 2010 Development of Standardized Protocols for the Intervention of Forensic Pathologists and BPA Experts in the Solution of Violent Crimes. A Poster Presentation before the 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Advance Program), February 22-27, Seattle, Washington. Dingeman, Roger 1985 Bloodspatters at Crime Scenes Tell All. The Police Chief, March: Dinterman, Mitchell W. 2012 Rodney Robert Cocking Case. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):19. Dixon, T., V. Samudra, W.D. Stewart, and O. Johari 1976 A Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Dried Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 21(4): Doherty, P.E., and D.J. Mooney 1990 Deciphering Bloody Imprints Through Chemical Enhancement. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35(2): (also cited as 23(1): 218.) (also cited as Doherty, Paige, and Dennis Mooney, 1990, Deciphering Bloody Imprints Through Chemical Enhancement, Journal of Forensic Sciences, March:457-465) Dolzani, M. 1987 Blood from a Stone. Mammoth Trumpet, 3(4):1-8. Donaldson, Andrea E., Michael C. Taylor, et al. 2010 Using Oral Microbial DNA Analysis to Identify Expirated Bloodspatter. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 124(6):569-576.

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Donaldson, A.E., N.K. Walker, I.L. Lamont, S.J. Cordiner, and M.C. Taylor 2011 Characterising the Dynamics of Experated Bloodstain Pattern Formation Using High-speed Digital Video Imaging. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 125(6):757-762. Donaldson, Edwin R. 2015 A Preliminary Test for Blood Stains. As reprinted from Sparks from the Anvil, 2(6):5-6 in 1934. Journal for Forensic Identification, 65(4):375-378. Doo, H.K., and P.H. Lee 1960 Effect of Human Saliva on Blood Clotting Time. Yomsei Medical Journal, 1:17-21. Dorrill, M., and P.H. Whitehead 1979 The Species Identification of Very Old Human Bloodstains. Forensic Science International, 13:111-116. (also cited as pp.11-16) Doshi, N., A.S. Zahr, S. Bhaskar, J. Lahann, and S. Mitragotri 2009 Red Blood Cell-Mimicking Synthetic Biomaterial Particles. PNAS, 106:21495-21499. Doty, Kyle C., Gregory McLaughlin, and Igor K. Lednev 2015 Discrimination of Human and Animal Blood Traces via Raman Spectroscopy. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. 2106

A Raman "Spectroscopic Clock" for Bloodstain Age Determination: The First Week after Deposition. A Presentation before the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 22-27, Las Vegas, Nevada.

Downs, E.F., and J.M. Lowenstein 1996 Identification of Archaeological Blood Proteins, A Cautionary Note. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22:11-16. Doyle, Matthew 2010 Seeing is BeLeeding. A Poster Presentation before the 62nd Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (Advance Program), February 22-27, Seattle, Washington. Dubyk, Michael, and Eugene Liscio 2016 Using a 3D Laser Scanner to Determine the Area of Origin of an Impact Pattern. Journal of Forensic Identification, 66(3):259-272. Duche, J.C., F. Herve, J.P. Tillement, A.B.E. Theeuwen, S. van Barneveld, J.W. Drok, I. Keereweer, J. Limborgh, W.M. Naber, and T. Velders 1998 Enhancement of Shoeprint Impressions in Blood. Forensic Science International, 95(2):133-151. Duddy, Kim 2005 The Bloodstains That Didn’t Seem to Fit. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.27 Duggar, Anna S., and Rose R. Duryea 2005 An Evaluation of the Trigonometric Model for Point of Origin Prediction in Bloodspatter Pattern Analysis. A Presentation before the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana. Duncan, Christopher D. 2007 Bloodstain Photography. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 23(1):4-13. http://iabpa.org/march%202007%20final.pdf Duncan, G.T., H. Seiden, L. Vallee, and D. Ferraro 1986 Effects of Superglue, Other Fingerprint Developing Agents, and Luminol on Bloodstain Analysis. Journal Assoc Anal Chem, 69(4):677680. Dunn, Jonathon S., Ruiyi Ren, Robin W. Cotton, and Catherine M. Grgicak 2011 Effects of Degradation on Single-Source and Mixture Profiles Generated Using Traditional and Mini STRs. A Poster Presentation before the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, Chicago, Illinois. Durdle, Annalisa, Roland A.H. van Oorschot, and R. John Mitchell 2013 The Morphology of Fecal and Regurgitation Artifacts Deposited by the Blow Fly Lucilia cuprina Fed a Diet of Human Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(4):897-903. Eckert, William G., and Stuart H. James 1989 Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Edelman, Gerda 2015 Fifty Shades of Red: Bloodstain Age Estimation Using Hyperspectral Imaging. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):40

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Edelman Gerda, and Maurice Aalders 2015 Development of a Spectral Camera for Estimating the Age of Bloodstains in Casework. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. Edelman, Gerda, Maurice Aaulders, and Elisa van den Heuvel 2015 Bloodstain Age Estimation. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):16 Edelman, Gerda, Vicky Manti, Saskia M. van Ruth, Ton van Leeuwen, and Maurice Aalders 2012 Identification and Age Estimation of Blood Stains on Colored Backgrounds by Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Forensic Science International, 220(1-3):239-244. Edelman, Gerda, and Martin Roos 2014 Age Estimation of Bloodstain -- A Case Example. Proceedings of the 2014 IABPA Annual Conference Held in Portland, Maine, September 30-October 3, (Abstract), Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 30(4):7. Edelman, Gerda J., Ton G. van Leeuwen, and Maurice C. Aalders 2012 Hyperspectral Imaging for the Age Estimation of Bloodstains at the Crime Scene. Forensic Science International, 223(1-3):72-77. 2013

Hyperspectral Imaging of the Crime Scene for Detection and Identification of Blood Stains. Proceedings of the 2013 SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing Conference; April 29-May 3, 2013, Baltimore, Maryland, International Society for Optics and Photonics (SPIE), Bellingham, Washington.

2015

Visualization of Latent Blood Stains Using Visible Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging and Chemometrics. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 60(S1):S188-S192

Eikelenboom, Richard 2003 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: The Professional Approach. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academy of Forensic Science Meeting, September 22-27, Istanbul, Turkey. Forensic Science International, 136(Supplement 1):21. Eikelenboom, Richard, and Selma Eikelenboom-Schieveld 2006 The Whole is More that the Sum: Putting the Evidence in Perspective. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.21. Eisele,J. 1994

Survival and Detection of Blood Residues on Stone Tools. Technical Report 94-1. Department of Anthropology, University of Nevada, Reno.

Eisele, J.A., D.D. Fowler, G. Haynes, and R.A. Lewis 1995 Survival and Detection of Blood Residues on Stone Tools. Antiquity, 69:36-46. Ellis, Eric L., Tim P. Wong, and Scott W. Bowers 2009 Locating Latent Blood Stains. Journal of Forensic Identification, 59(1):59-64. Ellis, Geoff 2005 R.C.M.P. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Certification. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.24. El-Sayed, M., D.A.C. Brownson, and C.E. Banks 2011 Crime Scene Investigation II: The Effect of Warfarin on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Anal Methods, 3:1521-1524. Emes, A. 1999 The Interpretation of Bloodstain Patterns. Contact, 27:13-15. 2001

Expirated Blood: A Review. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences Journal, 34(4):197-203.

Englert, Rod 1996 Pulverised Bright Green Threads and High Velocity Blood Spatter Unravel the Mystery of a Crime: A Homicide Case Study with No Body. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 12(1):15. 2006

Luminol. In Richard H. Walton, editor, Cold Case Homicides: Practical Investigative Techniques, CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida, pp.477-483.

2010

Blood Secrets: Chronicles of a Crime Scene Reconstructionist. St. Martins Press, New York, NY

Englert, Rod and Ray Grimsbo 1998 Trace Evidence and Crime Scenes – Pulverized Green Threads, Brain and High-Velocity Bloodspatter Unravel the Mystery of a Crime:

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A Homicide Case Study with No Body. An abstract from the Annual Meeting of the Northwest Association of Forensic Scientists. http://www.nwafs.org Enejder, A.M., T.W. Koo, J. Oh, M. Hunter, S. Sasic, M.S. Feld, et al. 2002 Blood Analysis by Raman Spectroscopy. Opt Lett, 27:2004-2006. Epstein, Barton P. 1992 Examination of Bloody Clothing. A Presentation before the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts. September 25, Colorado Springs, CO 2006

Indiana v. David Camm: Comments and Concerns. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.17.

2007

State of Ohio v. Samuel Sheppard – Case Review and Lessons Learned. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1-4, San Antonio, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.6.

2010

NAS Report – How Defense Attorneys Will Challenge BPA. Abstract of the Presentations given at the Annual Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Symposium, Ames, Iowa, August 17-19, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(3):8.

Erdey, L., W.F. Pickering, and C.L. Wilson 1962 Mixed Chemiluminescent Indicators. Talanta, 9:371-375. Esperanca, Philippe 2004 A New Chemical Process to Detect Washed Bloodstains - Bluestar™. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.9. 2005

ESCrime - Three Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Software. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.23.

2006a

A New Chemical Process to Detect Washed Bloodstains, Bluestar™. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.20.

2006b

eSCrime: A New Software for 3-Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.20.

2007

Taxonomy – Its Use for BPA. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1-4, San Antonio, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.7.

2008a

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in France. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.17.

2008b

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in France. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.17.

2010

Taxonomy Applied to Bloodstain Pattern Recognition. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):8.

2012

Backspatter Phenomena. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 1214. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):18.

2015a

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Procedures ISO Accredited. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):12

2015b

Bloodstain Pattern Identification Key. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):12

Esperanca, P., Y. Schuliar, P. Chaudeyrac, B. Piranda, and D. Arques 2005 ESCRIME: A New Software for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in 3-Dimensions. A presentation before the 57th Annual meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, New Orleans, LA. Evans, G.A., G.M. Evans, R.M. Seal, and J.L. Craven 1973 Spontaneous Fatal Haemorrhage Caused by Varicose Veins. Lancet, 2:1359-1361.

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Eversdijk, Martin 2005a Collecting Blood in the Barrel of a Firearm. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.28. 2005b

Applying Luminol Once is Good; Twice is Better. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.28.

2006a

Titanium Dioxide Water-Based Dye: A Very Easy and Effective Enhancement Technique to Treat Latent Blood Prints on Non-Porous Dark Surfaces. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1820, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.18.

2006b

Blood in the Barrel of a Firearm. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.25.

2008a

Chemical Enhancement Techniques. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.12.

2008b

Chemical Enhancement Techniques for Blood Traces. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.17.

2009

Lumiscene: A NewLuminol based Vkiid Search Technique. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):19.

2010

An Introduction to: LUMISCENE – A new Advanced Blood Search Technique. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):11.

2011

Water -- A New Blood Enhancement Technique? Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):13.

2012

Blood Search Techniques, The Pros and Cons, The Dos and Don'ts Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):16.

2013

Lifting (Latent) Bloodstain with the Use of Alginate. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):27.

2015a

Accident and Murder. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):16

2015b

Using Dried Blood Drops for Determining the Area of Origin, Science or Science Fiction? An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):16

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Fackler, Martin 1992 Penetrating Projectile Caused Disruption of Human Bodies Applied to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. A Presentation before the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Colorado Springs, Colorado, September 24, 1992. Faller, Andrea, Barbara Richter, Matthias Kluge, et al. 2013 Stability of Phosphatidylethanol Species in Spiked and Authentic Whole Blood and Matching Dried Blood Spots. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 127(3):603-610.

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Defining the “Address” of Bloodstains and Other Evidence at the Crime Scene. In S.H. James, editor, Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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Utilizing Bloodstains in Accident Reconstruction. In S.H. James, editor, Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

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Fraser, G.N. 2001 Murder in Moncton. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 34(4):205-208. Fratini, Paolo 2015 The Italian Experience: BPA as a Useful Approach to Reconstruct Crime Dynamics. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):29 Fratini, Paolo, and Luciano Garofano 2008 BPA as a Useful Tool to Reconstruct Crime Dynamics. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.21. Fratini, P., G. Sampó, G.L. Talamelli, and L. Garofano 2003 An Example of a Murder Reconstruction by Using Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (B.P.A.) Together with Ballistic Data Examination. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academy of Forensic Science Meeting, September 22-27, Istanbul, Turkey. Forensic Science International, 136(Supplement 1):17. Fraser, G.N. 2001 Murder in Moncton. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 34(4):205-208. Fregeau, C.J., O. Germain, and R.M. Fourney 2000 Fingerprint Enhancement Revisited and the Effects of Blood Enhancement Chemicals on Subsequent Profiler Plus™ Fluorescent Short Tandem Repeat DNA Analysis of Fresh and Aged Bloody Fingerprints. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 45(2):354-379. Fujikawa, Amanda, Larry Barksdale, and David O. Carter 2009 Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Their Ability to Alter the Morphology and Presumptive Chemistry of Bloodstain Patterns. Journal of Forensic Identification, 59(5):502-512. 2009b

The Activity of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Can Alter the Morphology and Presumptive Chemistry of High Impact

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Bloodstains. A Presentation before the 61st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Denver, Colorado. Fujikawa, Amanda, Larry Barksdale, Leon G. Higley, and David O. Carter 2011 Changes in the Morphology and Presumptive Chemistry of Impact and Pooled Bloodstain Patterns by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 56(5):1315-1318. Fujita, M., E. Brindle, J. Shofer, P. Ndemwa, Y. Kombe, B. Shell-Duncan, et al. 2007 Retinol-Binding Protein Stability in Dried Blood Spots. Clin Chem, 53(11):1972-1975. Fujita, Y., K. Tsuchiya, S. Abe, Y. Takiguchi, S. Kobo, and H. Sakurai 2005 Estimation of the Age of Human Bloodstains by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Long Term Controlled Experiment in the Effects of Environmental Factors. Forensic Science International, 152:39-43. Gabel, Ron, Sheri Shimamoto, Ivanie Stene, and Tom Adair 2011 Detecting Blood in Soil After Six Years with Luminol. Journal of The Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction, 17(1):1-4. Gaensslen, R.A. n.d. How Small is Large? Defining the Diameter of the Smallest Parent-Stain Produced by a Drip. Gardner Forensic Consulting, Lake City, GA. 1983a

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BPA in Road Traffic Collision Investigation - A Forgotten Art? Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):15.

Ganong, W.F. 2001 Circulating Body Fluids, In Review of Medical Physiology, 20th Edition, McGraw Hill, New York. pp.525-526. Garcia, Natasha, Alison Sears, and Shawn Harkins 2015 Contamination of Bloodstain Patterns on Fabric: What is the Impact? An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):24 Gardner, Ross M. 1991 Bloodstain Droplet Dynamics and Oscillation Damping. A Presentation before the 76th Annual Training Conference of the International Association of Identification, St. Louis, Missouri 1992a

The Role of Logic in Bloodstain Analysis an Crime Scene Reconstruction. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 8(3):15-19.

1992b

Modelling Impact Spatter as a Method of Differentiation. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, ___(__):1-15.

1994

Considerations in Crime Scene Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 10(2):10-18.

1995

Computer Aided Analysis Limitations and Capabilities. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 11(3):15-22.

1996

Deformation Levels of Blood Droplets Created by Impact. A Presentation before the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, November 9, Albuquerque, NM.

1998

Deformation Levels in Blood Droplets Created by Impact Events. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 1391):3-20.

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Directionality in Swipe Patterns. Journal of Forensic Identification, 52(5):579-598.

2006a

Defining the Diameter of the Smallest Parent Stain Produced by a Drip. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(2):210

2006b

Defining a Methodology for Bloodstain Analysis. Journal of Forensic Identification, 56(4):549-557.

2009a

Volume, the Ignored Variable. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):19.

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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Report Writing. Abstract of a Presentation given at the 18th Annual Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction International Training Conference, Denver, Colorado, February 11-13, Journal of the Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction, 15(1):21.

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Have You Fallen Off the High Wire? Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):26.

2013

Distinctions: Bloodstain Pattern Analysis and Interpretation versus Scene Reconstruction. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):3.

Herold, Lynne, Stuart James, and Jim Pex 2009 State of California v. Philip Spector. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):20-21. Hess, Sabine 2012 The Detection Limits of Luminol as a Presumptive Test for Blood. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):19. Hesselink, W.F. 1931 Blutspuren in der Kriminalistischen Praxis, (Blood Tracks in the Criminological Practice). Zeitschrift fur die Angewandte Chemie, 44(31):653-654. Hesskew, D. 1997 Focus: Police Science, Luminol. Law and Order, November: Hetzel, Richard L. 1990 Luminol as an Investigative Tool. The Detective, Fall: Higaki, R.S., and W.M.S. Philip 1976 A Study of the Sensitivity, Stability and Specificity of Phenolphthalein as an Indicator Test for Blood. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences Journal, 9(3):97-102. Hill, Thomas S. 2007 Using a Photographic Grid for the Documentation of Bloodstain Patterns at a Crime Scene. Journal of Forensic Identification, 57(3):348-357. Hill, Tom 2011 Visualizing Bloodstain Patterns on Dark or Multi-Colored, Multi-Designed Cloting Using Luminol and Adope Photoshop® Layers. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(1):29-33. Hillman, K., and R.C. Shaler 1981 The Rehydration and Isolation of Leukocytes from Dried Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 26(3):543-551. Hlady, Scott 2009 Challenges of Conducting Bloodstain Analysis and Forensic Scene Examination in Isolated Remote Communities. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):25. Hoade, John 2015 Unusual Staining on the Ceiling at a Murder Scene. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):32 Hochmeister, M.N., B. Budowle, and F.S. Baechtel 1991 Effects of Presumptive Test Reagents on the Ability to Obtain Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) Patterns from Human Blood and Semen Stains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 35:656-661. (also cited as 36(3)) Hochmeister, M.N., B. Budowle, R. Sparkes, O. Rudin, C. Gehrig, M. Thali, L. Schmidt, A. Cordier, and R. Dirnhofer 1999 Validation Studies of an Immunochromatographic One-Step Test for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44(3):597-601. Hochmeister, M.N., R. Sparkes, O. Rudin, C. Gehrig, L. Schmidt, A. Cordier, and R. Dirnhofer 1998 Evaluation of an Immunochromatogrphic 1-Step Test for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. A Presentation before the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, San Francisco, CA. Hochmeister, M.N., B. Budowle, R. Sparkes, O. Rudin, C. Gehrig, M. Thali, L. Schmidt, A. Cordier, and R. Dirnhofer

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1999

Validation Studies of an Immunochromatographic 1-Step Test for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44(3):597-602.

Hodge, Nigel 2006 A View from the Dark Side. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.22. Holbrook, Misty 2010a Evaluation of Blood Deposition on Fabric: Distinguishing Spatter and Transfer Stains. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(1):3-12. http://iabpa.org/march%202010%20news.pdf 2010b

BPA on Fabric – Spatter or Transfer? Abstract of the Presentations given at the Annual Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Symposium, Ames, Iowa, August 17-19, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(3):8.

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A Blind Trial Evaluation of a Crime Scene Methodology for Deducing Impact Velocity and Droplet Size from Circular Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(1):65-69.

Hulse-Smith, Lee, Navid Z. Mehdizadeh, and Sanjeev Chandra 2005 Deducing Drop Size and Impact Velocity from Circular Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50(1):54-63. Hunt, A.C., C. Corby, B.E. Dodd, and F.E. Camps 1960 The Identification of Human Blood Stains: A Critical Survey. Journal of Forensic Medicine, 7:112-130. Huntress, E.H., L.N. Stanley, and A.S. Parker 1934 The Preparation of 3-Aminophthalhydrazide for Use in the Demonstration of Chemiluminescence. Journal of the American Chemical

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Society, 56:241-242. Hurley, Ian P., Robert Cook, Christopher W. Laughton, Neil A. Pickles, H. Elyse Ireland, and John H.H. Williams 2009 Detection of Human Blood by Immunoassay for Applications in Forensic Analysis. Forensic Science International, 190(1):91-97. Hurley, N.M. and J.O. Pex 1990a Sequencing of Bloody Shoe Impressions by Blood Spatter and Blood Droplet Drying Times. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Forensic Aspects of Mass Disasters and Crime Scene Reconstruction, June 23-29,1990, Forensic Science Research and Training Center, FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia. sponsored by the Laboratory and Identification Divisions, Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. pp 269-270. 1990b

Sequencing of Bloody Shoe Impressions by Blood Spatter and Blood Droplet Drying Times. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 6(4):1-8.

Hurst, Merrilyn 2015 An Interesting Bloodstain Pattern Attributed to a Medically Induced Arterial Breach. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):24 Huss, K., J.D. Clark, and W.J. Chisum 2000 Which Was First – Fingerprint or Blood? Journal of Forensic Identification, 50(4):344-350. (also cited as 334/50(41)) Hussain, Javaid I., and C.Anthony Pounds 1989a The Enhancement of Marks Made in Blood with 3,3',4,4'-Tetraaminobiphenyl, CRSE Report 653, Central Research and Support Establishment, UK. (also cited as report #685) 1989b

The Enhancement of Marks in Blood, Part II: A Modified Amido Black Staining Technique. CRSE Report No. 685, June.

Hyland, D.C., J.M. Tersak, J.M. Adovasio, and M.I. Siegel 1990 Identification of the Species of Origin of Residual Blood on Lithic Material. American Antiquity, 55:104-112. Ibrahim, R.D. 2005 Liquid Sloshing Dynamics, Theory and Applications. Cambridge Press, New York. Illes, Michael B. n.d Research Proposal on the Use of Downward Moving Bloodstains within an Impact Pattern for Calculating a Blood Source Area of Origin, Unpublished Manuscript, Trent University, Peterborough, Ontario. 2001

Canadian Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in the Netherlands. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 34(4):167-171.

2010

Scientific Method in Crime Scene Analysis, A BPA Case Study. Abstract of the Presentations given at the Annual Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Symposium, Ames, Iowa, August 17-19, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(3):9.

2011

Investigation of a Model for Stain Selection and a Robust Estimation for Area of Origin in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):12.

Illes, M., and M. Boué 2011 Investigation of a Model for Stain Selection in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 44(1):1-12 2013

Robust Estimation for Area of Origin in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis via Directional Analysis. Forensic Science International, 226(1):223-229.

Illes, M., A.L. Carter, P.L. Latrunus, and A.B. Yamashita (also cited as Illes as the sole author) 2005 Use of the BackTrack Computer Program for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis of Stains from Downward Moving Drops. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 38(4):213-217. Illes, M.B., I. Dalley, P.E. Kish, and M.C. Taylor 2010 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Part 1. Training and Educational Materials. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 43(1): Illes, M.B., I. Dalley, P.E. Kish, M.C. Taylor, and A.B. Yamashita 2010 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Part 1: Training and Educational Materials. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(4):3-9. http://iabpa.org/iabpa%20news%20december%202010.pdf Illes, M., and T. Stotesbury 2016 Development of an Application Method for a Zone Stain Selection Model in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 49(1):19-25.

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International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Basic Course Requirements. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts Association News, 23(1):20-24. http://iabpa.org/march%202007%20final.pdf

2010

References for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(1):24-28.

Ishihama, K., et al. 2008 High Incidence of Blood Exposure due to Imperceptible Contaminated Splatters during Oral Surgery. Journal of Oral and Maxillfacial Surgery, 66(4):704-710. Ishikawa, Fumio, Keiko Horikoshi, Shizuka Sakagami, Kazuki Yamazaki, and Yoshiro Yamada 2002 A Case of A3B Variant Bloodstain in the ABO Blood Group. Japanese Journal of Science and Technology for Identification, 7(2):167173. Ishikawa, Fumio, Shigeki Nakamura, Toshiko Sawaguchi, Osamu Ohue, Akiko Sawaguchi 1997 Comparison of Detection of Six Serum Protein Groups from Aged Bloodstains. Japanese Journal of Science and Technology for Identification, 2(2):57-61. Ishikawa, Takaki, Stefan Pollak, Markus Groβe Perdekamp, Annette Thierauf, and Hitoshi Maeda 2010 Hemorrhage from a Cavernous Hemangioma with Fatal Blood Aspiration: A Rare Cause of Sudden Unexpected Death. Legal Medicine, 12(6):308-312. Islam, Meez, Bo Li, Liam O'Hare, and Peter Beveridge 2014 The Detection and Age Estimation of Bloodstains at Crime Scenes Using Visible Wavelength Hyperspectral Imaging. Evidence Technology Magazine, 12(1):12-14. Jääskeläinen, Vesa 2008 1,000,000 € Bloodspatter Analyse. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, pp.19-20. Jackowski, C., M. Thali, E. Aghayev, K. Yen, M. Sonnenschein, K. Zwygart, R. Dirnhofer, and P. Vock 2005 Postmortem Imaging of Blood and Its Characteristics Using MSCT and MRI. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 120(4):233-240 (also cited as 19:1-8). Jackson, D., and S. Hadi 2007 Commentary on: Vandenberg N, van Oorshcot Bloodstains and Comparison with Conventional Chemical-Based Screening Tests. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 52(3):740. Jackson, Graham 2012 Application of the Principles of Case Assessment and Interpretation (CAI) to BPA. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):10. Jain, P., and H.P. Singh 1984 Detection and Origin of Bloodstains on Various Types of Cloth Immersed in Water for a Prolonged Period. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 17(2):58-61. Jakovich, C. 2007 STR Analysis Following Latent Blood Detection by Luminol, Fluorscein and Bluestar®. Journal of Forensic Identification, 57(2):193. James, Stuart H. 1998a Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp.17-32. 1998b

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1999

Scientific and Legal Applications of Bloodstain Interpretation. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (also cited as published in 1998) (ISBN: 0849381088)

2003

Bloodstain Patterns Produced by Arterial and Expiratory Mechanisms. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.8-9.

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2006a

Motel Mayhem – Bloodstain Pattern Analysis of Three Homicide Cases. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.18.

2006b

The Significance of Limited Quantities of Impact Spatter Associated with Beating Scenes. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.26.

2006c

Limitations on Quantities of Impact Spatter Associated with Beating Scenes. Abstract of the Presentation given at the 18 th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences: Classroom to Courtroom, Fremantle, Western Australia, April 2-7, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, June, p.29.

2008a

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in a Quadruple Homicide and Attempted Suicide. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.17.

2008b

Quadruple Homicide – An International Incident? Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.17.

2009

An Interesting Bloodstain Pattern. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 25(3):13 http://iabpa.org/september%202009%20news.pdf

2010

The Use of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Self Defense Issues – Two Case Examples. Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):5.

2011

Final Voyage. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):10.

2012a

Research Project on Saliva/Blood Mixtures. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):18.

2012b

Machete and Rum Party at a Homeless Campsite. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):14.

2015

Bloodstain Patterns Produced in Fatalities Due to Medical Conditions. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):29

James, Stuart H., and William G. Eckert 1998 Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. (also cited as published in 1999) (ISBN: 0849381266) James, Stuart, H., Paul E. Kish, and T. Paulette Sutton 2003 Recognition of Bloodstain Patterns. In Stuart H. James, and Jon J. Nordby, editors, Forensic Science: An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp.137-159. 2005a

Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL.

2005b

Recognition of Bloodstain Patterns. In Stuart H. James and Jon J. Nordby, editors, Forensic Science, An Introduction to Scientific and Investigative Techniques, CRC Press/Taylor Francis Group, Boca Raton, FL. pp.189-216.

2005c

Introduction to Bloodstain pattern Analysis. In Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Theory and Practice. CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida. pp.119-148.

2005d

Impact Spatter Mechanisms. In Principles of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Theory and Practice. CRC Press/ Taylor & Francis Group, Boca Raton, Florida. pp.1-10.

James, S.H., and T.P. Sutton 1998 Medium- and High-Velocity Impact Blood Spatter. In S.H. James, W.G. Eckert, editors, Interpretation of Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., pp.59-83. James, W.L. 2001 Developments in the Practical Reconstruction of Blood Spatter Events. M.S.F.S. Thesis, University of Auckland, Auckland, NZ. Janes, W.L. 2001 Developments in the Practical Reconstruction of Blood Spatter Events. In Forensic Science Program, Department of Chemistry, University of Auckland, NZ, p. 159

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HemoVision: An Automated and Virtual Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Forensic Science International, 251:116-123.

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The Role of Modeling in BPA. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.9.

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Exploring the Applicability of Equine Blood to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Medicine Science and the Law,

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Exploring the Effect of Specific Packed Cell Volume Upon Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Blood Drying and Dry Volume Estimation. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal, 48(4):167-189.

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The Sensitivity of Luminol and BlueStar® and the Use of a Thickened Luminol Solution on Non-Porous Surfaces. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.19.

2006c

The Sensitivity of Lumino and Bluestar™ and the Use of Thickened Luminol Solution on Non-Porous Surfaces. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.24.

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Proficiency Testing in BPA – A Historical Perspective and Meeting Today’s Needs. Abstract of the Presentations given at the Annual

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The Canadian Approach to Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of the Presentation given at the 18th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences: Classroom to Courtroom, Fremantle, Western Australia, April 2-7, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, June, p.29-30.

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The Canadian Approach to BPA. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):29

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Blood on Clothing – Have You Seen It? Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.20.

2006c

“Blood on Clothing, Have Your Scene It?” Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.25.

2008

Domestic Bliss? Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.20.

2010

Blood on Clothing – Have You Scene It? Abstract of a Presentation given at the IABPA Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(2):5.

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Estimation of Original Volume of Bloodstains: A Correction. Identification News, 36(9):

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Correction on Estimation of Original Volume of Bloodstains. IAI news, 9:4.

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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Fire Scenes – Determining a Point of Origin Using BackTrack®. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.20-21.

2015

Advances in Computer Software: Documenting and Analyzing Spatter Stain Groups with HemoSpat®. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):41

Lefebvre-Despeaux, Jean-Marc 2006 Demonstration of the Latent Bloodstain Reagent Bluestar™ Forensic. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.25. Leintz, Rachel C.B. 2011 Using Bluestar Forensic to Detect Shoe Movement Transfer of Cleaned Up Blood. Journal of Forensic Identification, 61(5):468-476. LeMay, Jan 2003 Detection of Blood with Luminol. Law Enforcement Technology, 30(6):140-145. LeRoy, Herb A. 1982 Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) Gazette, 44(10):19-23. Leslie, Kaitlin, Taylor Lowis, Larry Barksdale, and David O. Carter 2011 Some Error Rates Aasociated with Angle of Impact Calculations. A Poster Presentation before the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, Chicago, Illinois. Levine, George 2005 Spit, Splat or Spurt? A Reconstruction. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.2829. Lewis, Craig A. 1992 Blood Evidence, Berkeley Books, New York, NY. Lewis, Jennie, and Ros Hammond 2003 Blood Patterns Arising in Physical Assaults. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academy of Forensic Science Meeting, September 22-27, Istanbul, Turkey. Forensic Science International, 136(Supplement 1):17. Li, Bo, Peter Beveridge, William T. O'Hare, and Meez Islam 2011 The Estimation of the Age of a Bloodstain Using Reflectance Spectroscopy with a Microspectrophotometer, Spectral Pre-Processing and Linear Discriminant Analysis. Forensic Science International, 212:198-204. 2013

The Age Estimation of Blood Stains up to 30 Days Old Using Visible Wavelength Hyperspetral Image Analysis and Linear Discrimination Analysis. Science & Justice, 53(3):270-277.

2014

The Application of Visible Wavelength Refelctance Hyperspectal Imaging for the Detection and Identification of Blood Stains. Science & Justice, 54(6):432-438.

Li, G. 2007

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis on Non-Perpendicular Surfaces Employing the BackTrack Suite of Programs. Bachelor of Science Thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Lichty, Jessica E., and Brad Randall 2009 Blood and Tissue Spatter Associated with Chainsaw Dismemberment. . A Presentation before the 61st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Denver, Colorado. Liesegang, J. 2004 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – Blood Source Location. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 37(4):215-222.

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Area of Origin Analysis Using Laser Scanning Technology. Proceedings of the 2014 IABPA Annual Conference Held in Portland, Maine, September 30-October 3, (Abstract), Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 30(4):11.

2015

3D Technologies for Bloodstain Documentation. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):15

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1990

Prehistoric Organic Residues: Recent Advances in Identification, Dating and their Antiquity, in Archaeometry ‘90: Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on Archaeometry, Heidelberg , edited by W. Wagner, and M. Pernicka, pp: 645-656, Birkhäser Verlag, Basel.

1991

Biochemical Aspects of the Formation and Longevity of Blood Residues. (Unpublished Manuscript)

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1992

DNA and Proteins from Blood Residues on Stone Tools and Rock Art. Paper delivered at the 145th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago, IL.

1993a

The Artifact as Site: An Example of the Biomolecular Analysis of Organic Residues on Prehistoric Tools. World Archaeology, 25: 4462.

1993b

Prehistoric Organic Residue Analysis: The Future Meets the Past. In A Community of Culture, edited by W. Ambrose, A. Andrews, R. Jones, A. Thorne, M. Spriggs, and D. Yen, pp. 56-72. Occasional Papers Volume 21. Department of Prehistory, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Canberra.

1993c

On the Dating of Prehistoric Organic Residues. The Artefact, 16: 46-49.

1993d

The Artifact as Site: An Example of the Biomolecular Analysis of Organic Residues on Prehistoric Tools. World Archaeology, 25:44-63.

1994

Analysis of the Artefacts of the Ice Man of Hauslabjoch: Microscopy and Residue Analysis, Mainz, Innsburck: Forschunginstitut für Alpine Vorzeit, Leopold-Franzens Universität. (Manuscript on File).

1998a

Organic Residues on Oldowan Tools from Sterkfontein Cave, Africa. In M.A. Raath, et al., editors. Dual Congress of the International Association for the Study of Human Paleontology and International Association of Human Biologists, Department of Anatomical Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand Medical School, Johannesburg, South Africa. pp. 74-75.

1998b

Blood on the Axe. New Scientist, 2151:40-43.

Loy, T.H., M. David, and D. Buckle 1993 Protocol for Hemoglobin Testing Using the Ames Hemastix. Manuscript on File, Department of Anthropology and Sociology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Loy, Thomas H. and E. James Dixon 1998 Blood Residues on Fluted Points from Eastern Beringia. American Antiquity, 63(1): 21-46. Loy, T.H. and B.L. Hardy (also cited as B.G. Hardy) 1992 Blood Residue Analysis of 90,000-year-old Stone Tools from Tabun Cave, Israel. Antiquity, 66: 24-35. Loy, T.H., and D.E. Nelson 1986 Potential Applications of the Organic Residues on Ancient Tools. In S. Olin and M.J. Blackman, editors, Proceedings of the 24th International Archaeometry Symposium, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Loy, T.H., R.Jones, D.E.Nelson, B. Meehan, J. Vogel, J. Southon, and R. Cosgrove 1990 Accelerator Radiocarbon Dating of Human Blood Proteins in Pigments from Late Pleistocene Art Sites in Australia. Antiquity, 64: 110116. Loy, T.H., and C.D. Matheson 2000 The Use of the Hemastix Test in Screening for Prehistoric Blood Residues. Journal of Archaeological Science, submitted for publication. Loy, T.H., and D.E. Nelson 1986 Potential Applications of the Organic Residues on Ancient Tools. In Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Archaeometry, edited by J. Olin and J. Blackman, pp. 179-186. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. Loy, Thomas H. and Andree R. Wood 1989 Blood Residue Analysis at Cayonu Tepesi, Turkey. Journal of Field Archaeology, 16(4):451-460. Luche, C., R. Jordan, and T. Larkin 2011 Recovery of Bloodstain Patterns from Arson Scenes: Does Soot Removal Using Liquid Latex Damage Underlying Bloodstain? Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 44(2):47-58. Luo, Y., and Y. Wang 2005 Leuco Eosin Y: A New Reagent for the Enhancement of Bloody Latent Fingerprints. A Paper Presented at the 17th Meeting of the International Association of Forensic Sciences, Hong Kong, China. Lyle, W.G., L.J. Curtman, and J.T.W. Marshall 1914 The Catalytic Reactions of Blood I. A Stud of Some of the Factors Involved in the Benzidine Test for Occult Blood. J Biol Chem, 19:445-447. Lynnerup, N., H. Hjalgrim, and B. Erikson 1995 Routine Use of Ultraviolet Light in Medicolegal Examinations to Evaluate Stains and Skin Trauma. Medicine, Science and the Law, 35(2):165-168. Lytle, L.T., and D.G. Hedgecock

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1978

Chemiluminescence in the Visualization of Forensic Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 23(3):550-555. (also cited as pp. 550562)

Maberry, J.M. n.d. Documentation of Bloodstain Pattern Evidence is Critical in Obtaining Relevant Reconstruction of a Crime Scene. Drug Enforcement Administration, South Central Laboratory, Dallas, Texas. Mabel, Daniel E., and Stuart H. James 2011 Evaluation of the Celestron Handeld Digital Microscope for Use in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(1):35-43. MacDonell, Herbert Leon 1971a Interpretation of Bloodstains: Physical Considerations, in C. Wecht, editor, Forensic Sciences, Appleton, New York, NY, pp.91-136. (also cited as published in Legal Medicine Annual) 1971b

Flight Characteristics and Stain Patterns of Human Blood. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, National Institute of Law Enforcement and Crimnal Justice, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

1973

Institute on the Physical Significance of Bloodstain Evidence. Identification News, 21(7):159-185.

1974

Bloodstain Evidence. Identification News, 24(3):11-12.

1977a

Preserving Bloodstain Evidence at Crime Scenes. Law and Order Magazine, _(_):

1977b

Reconstruction of a Homicide. Law and Order, 25:26-31.

1977c

Preserving Bloodstain Evidence. Identification News, 27(8):10-12.

1981

Criminalistics: Bloodstain Examination, in C. Wecht, editor, Forensic Sciences, Matthew bender, New York, NY., Vol. 3:37.1-37.26.

1982

Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. Laboratory of Forensic Science, Corning, NY.

1990a

On Measuring the Volume of Very Small Drops of Fluid Blood and Correlation of this Relationship to Bloodstain Diameter. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, March:12-21.

1990b

Beverly Isn’t Here, We See Her Face No More, Neville Knew It Wasn’t H2O, He Used…. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 23(4):133.

1990c

Errors in Blood Droplet Impact Angle Reconstruction Using a Protractor: Letter. Journal of Forensic Identification, 40(4):

1992a

Segments in History: The Literature of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 8(1):3-12

1992b

The Literature of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation: 1901-1910. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 8(4):522. (also cited as Segments of History in the Documentation of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation – Segment 01:1901-1910)

1993a

Bloodstain Patterns, Laboratory of Forensic Science, Corning, New York, Golas Printing, New York, NY.

1993b

In Search of the Holy Grail: Part I. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 9(1):11-18.

1993c

The Literature of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation – 1800s. Journal of Forensic Identification, 43(3):313-334.

1993d

The Literature of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation: 1911-1920. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 9(2):410.

1994a

The Literature of Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation: 1921-1930. International Assiciation of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 10(1):614.

1994b

A Scientist's Comments on the Police Officer as a Bloodstain Pattern Analyst. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 10(2):6-9.

1995

Balthazard was Great, but He Didn't String Us Along. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 11(1):10-13.

1996a

Crime Scene Evidence – Blood Spatters and Smears and Other Physical Evidence. Quinnipiac Health Law Journal, 1:33-45.

1996b

No More Strings, No More Computers, Just Simple Mathematics, That’s All It Takes. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 12(1):10-14.

1997

Bloodstain Patterns, Revised, Laboratory of Forensic Science, Corning, NY.

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2003

The Bloodstain Spatter pattern That Wasn’t. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.7-8.

2004a

Another Confusing Bloodstain Pattern. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.10.

2004b

Another Confusing Bloodstain Pattern. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 20(3):11-14. http://www.iabpa.org/sept2004news.pdf

2005

Bloodstain Patterns, Second Revised Edition. Golos Printing, Elmira, New York

2006a

A Brief Review of the Literature on Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation before 1901. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.21.

2006b

Herbie’s Angels. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.21-22.

2009

Cohesion, Wettability, and Blood Drops that Land on a Mooth, Hard Surface. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 25(3):4-7. http://iabpa.org/september%202009%20news.pdf

2010

An Amazing Microscope. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 26(1):13-22. http://iabpa.org/march%202010%20news.pdf

2011

Credit Where It's Due. Journal of Forensic Identification, 61(3):210-221.

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Laboratory Manual on the Geometric Interpretation of Human Bloodstain Evidence, Laboratory of Forensic Science, Corning, NY. (also cited as published by Painted Post Press, New York, NY.)

MacDonell, H.L., and B. Brooks 1977 Detection and Significance of Blood in Firearms, in C. Wecht, editor, Forensic Sciences, Appleton, New York, NY. Pp.185-199 (also cited as published in the Legal Medicine Annual, Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, NY.) MacDonell, H.L. and K. DeLije 1989 On Measuring the Volume of Very Small Drops of Blood and Correlation of this Relationship to Bloodstain Diameter. A Presentation before the Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Dallas, Texas. MacDonnell, H.L., and P.E. Kish 1996 Absence of Evidence is Not Evidence of Absence. Journal of Forensic Identfication, 46(2):160-164. MacDonell, H.L., and C. Panchou 1979a Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. Identification News, 29(2):3-5. 1979b

Bloodstain Patterns on Human Skin. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 12(3):134-141.

Macey, H.L. 1979 The Identification of Human Blood in a 166 Year Old Stain. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 12:191-193. MacLean, B., K. Powley, and D. Dahlstrom 2001 A Case Study Illustrating Another Logical Explanation for High Velocity Impact Spatter. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences, 34(4):191-195. Mallinder, Ben, and Graham Jackson 2012 Exploring the Practicalities of Applying Case Assessment and Interpretation (CAI) to BPA Cases. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):17. Maloney, Andy 2009 FORIDENT Software Technical Paper-HemoSpat Validation. Report No. 1, FORIDENT Software Canada, Incorporated, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 2012a

Visualisation of Cast-Off Patterns. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):10.

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2012b

An Introduction to HemoSpat. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):17.

2012c

Visualization of Cast-Off Patterns. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):16-17.

Maloney, Andy, Todd Campbell, and Jim Killeen 2011 Visualization of Cast-off Patterns Using 3D Modelling Software. Journal of the Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction, 17(4):4956. Maloney, Andy, Céline Nicloux, Kevin Maloney, and Franck Heron 2011 One-Sided Impact Spatter and Area-of-Origin Calculations. Journal of Forensic Identification, 61(2):123-135. Maloney, Kevin 2005 Three-Dimensional Representation of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.26. 2007

Down, But Not Out. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1-4, San Antonio, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.10.

2008a

Looking Beyond the Obvious. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.18.

2008b

Haditha Iraq: Unique Challenges for BPA in a Combat Area. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.15.

Maloney, Kevin, A.L. Carter, Scott Jory, and Brian Yamashita 2005 Three-Dimensional Representation of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of Forensic Identification, 55(6):711-725. Maloney, Kevin, Jim Killeen, and Andy Maloney 2009 The Use of Hemospat to Include Bloodstains Located on Nonorthogonal Surfaces in Area-of-Origin Calculations. Journal of Forensic Identification, 59(5):513-524. Manning, AP. 1994 A Cautionary Note on the Use of Hemastix and Dot-Blot Assay for the Detection and Confirmation of Archaeological Blood Residues. Journal of Archaeological Science, 21:159-162. Mao, T., D.C.S. Kuhn, and H. Tran 1997 Spread and Rebound of Liquid Droplets Upon Impact on Flat Surfaces. AICHE Journal, 43(9):2169-79. March, J. 2005 Determining the Location of an Impact Site from Bloodstain Spatter Patterns: Computer-Based Analysis of Estimate Uncertainty. PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Marchant, Bonnie, and Christina Tague 2007 Developing Fingerprints in Blood: A Comparison of Several Chemical Techniques. Journal of Forensic Identification, 57(1):76-93. Marie, Charleen 2004 Two Down – One Dead. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.8-9. 2008

Presumptive Testing and Enhancement of Blood. In T. Bevel and R. Gardner, editors, Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, Third Edition, Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL, pp.275-276.

Marie, C., T. Boan, and J. DiBenedetto 2004 Fluorescein Detection of Latent Bloodstains. www.latent-prints.com Marmanis, H., and S.T. Thoroddsen 1996 Scaling of the Fingering Pattern of an Impacting Drop. Phys Fluids, 8(6):1344-1346. Marrone, A., and J. Ballantyne 2009 Changes in Dry State Hemoglobin Over Time do not Increase the Potential for Oxidative DNA Damage in Dried Blood. PLoS One, 4(4):e5110 Martin, Corrine E., and Peter Massey 2015 Effectiveness of Zar-Pro™ Fluorescent Blood Lifting Strips. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American

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Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. Martin, Nicola, Mandy Bath, Kirsty McTurk, and Amanda A. Pirie 2012 Murdered with a Hammer or Slipped in the Bath. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):23. Martin, N.C., N.J. Clayson, and D.G. Scrimger 2006 The Sensitivity and Specificity of Red-Starch Paper for the Detection of Saliva. Science and Justice, 46(2):97-106. Martin, P.D. 1977 A Manual Method for the Detection of Rh Antigens in Dried Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 17(2-3):139-142. Martin, Thomas L. 2007 Examining Blood Stain Patterns to Facilitate DNA Testing. A Presentation before the 59th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 19-24, 2007, San Antonio, Texas. Martoni, Veronica 2006 The Cogne Case. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.22. Martra, Gianmario 2015 Forensic Validation of Alternative Formulation of Luminol. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):38 Masters, R., and F. Schlein 1958 Factors Affecting the Deterioration of Dried Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 3:288-302. Matheson, Carney D., and Margaret-Ashley Veall 2014 Presunptive Blood Test Using Hemastix® with EDTA in Archaeology. Journal of Archaeological Science, 41:230-241. Matheson, Fiona 2009 Experiments and the Process of Quality Assurance Completion. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):23. Matsuzawa, S., H. Kimura, Y. Itoh, H. Wang, and T. Nakagawa 1993 A Rapid Dot-Blot Method for Species Identification of Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38(2):447-453. Maucieri, L., and J. Monk 1992 Enhancement of Faint and Dilute Bloodstains with Fluorescence Reagents. CAC News, Summer: 13-20. Mauger, Chad, Ben Harris and Katrin Both 2006 The Specificity of Hemastix® - A Presumptive Test for Blood. Abstract of the Presentation given at the 18th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences: Classroom to Courtroom, Fremantle, Western Australia, April 2-7, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, June, p.31. Mavin, T.J. 2002 A Laser Angle Gauge for Use in Stringing Blood Patterns. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 18(3):9-11. http://iabpa.org/sept2002news.pdf May, Shannon E. 2013 An ELISA Examination of Pro-Inflammatory Proteins in Human Blood Samples: A Potential Means for Investigating Diabetes in Postmortem Human Remains. A Poster Presentation before the 65th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, 2013, Washington, D.C. Mayo, Kristi 2006 More Certainty: New Test Kits Allow More Accuracy When Collecting Biological Fluids at the Crime Scene. Evidence Technology Magazine, 4(6):30-33. McBride, Martina 2006 The Use of BPA in Forensic Investigations – An Irsih Approach. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.22. McCance, Brett 2006 Ninhydrin: An Innovative Application to Bloodstained Fabrics. Abstract of the Presentation given at the 18th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences: Classroom to Courtroom, Fremantle, Western Australia, April 2-7, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, June, pp.31-32. 2008a

BPA in Australia: Progression Towards nationally Adopted Training and Education Standards. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at

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the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.16. 2008b

Bachelor of Science (Bloodstain Pattern Analysis): Development of a Discipline Specific Curriculum. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.16-17.

McCarthy, Duncan 2014 Sulfosalicylic Acid and Rhodamine 6G as a Fixing and Development Solution for the Enhancement of Blood Impressions. Journal of Forensic Identification, 64(4):351-374. McClorry, Shannon, and Andrew Kastelic 2010 The Use of BackTrack for the Directional Analysis of Shotgun Pellet Patterns. Journal of Forensic Identification, 60(3):280-290. McFarlane, W.D., and R.C. Hamilton 1932 On the Factors Influencing the Blood-Benzidine Reaction as Applied to the Micro-Determination of Haemoglobin. Biochem. J, 26:10501060. McGrath, J. 1942 The Chemical Luminescence Test for Blood. British Medical Journal, 2:156-157. (also cited as The Chemical Luminescence Test for Blood. Forensic and Chemical Applications, British Medical Journal, 28:156-157) McGuire, Jon A., and Walter F. Rowe 2004 A Study on Blood Stain pattern Analysis Dropped from a Known Height onto an Angled Medium. The George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 2005

Uncertainty in the Estimated Angles of Impact of Freely Falling Blood Drops. A Presentation before the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, 2005, New Orleans, Louisiana.

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Attempted Concealment of Fatal Assault. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):24.

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Pace, Alexei, A.L. Carter, Craig Moore, and Brian Yamashita 2006 Another Treatment of Three-Dimensional Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, March 22(1):4-11. http://iabpa.org/march%202006%20final.pdf Palmiere, Cristian, Frank Sporkert, Dominique Werner, Daniel Bardy, et al. 2012 Blood, Urine and Vitreaous Isopropyl Alcohol as Biochemical Markers in Forensic Investigations. Legal Medicine, 14(1):17-20. Paolucci, John 2015 All the King's Horses and Allthe King's Men Should Stay Outside of the Yellow Tape. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):33 Paonessa, Nicholas A. 2005 Blood, Fire and Water: The Murder of Isabella Cox. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, March, 21(1):9-15. http://iabpa.org/march%202005%2-news.pdf 2008

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Prange, Bruce 2005 A Double Homicide in Manitoba. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 5-7, Santa Barbara, California. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.23. Proescher, F., and A.M. Moody 1939 Detection of Blood by Means of Chemiluminescence. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 24(11):1183-1189. Quickenden, T.I., and P.D. Cooper 2001 Increasing the Specificity of the Forensic Luminol Test for Blood. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 16(4):251-253. (also cited as Luminescence) Quickenden, T.L., and J.I. Creamer 2001 A Study of Common Interferences with the Forensic Luminol Test for Blood. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 16(4):295-298. (also cited as Luminescence) Quickenden, T.I., C.P. Ennis, and J.I. Creamer 2004 The Forensic Use of Luminol Chemiluminescence to Detect Traces of Blood Inside Motor Vehicles. Journal of Bioluminescence and Chemiluminescence, 19:271-277. (also cited as Luminescence) Quinn, Alicia, and Kelly M. Elkins 2016 Analysis of Attenuated Total Reflectance/Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR/FTIR) Spectra to Differentiate Menstrual and VEnous Blood on Various Substrates. A Presentation before the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 22-27, Las Vegas, Nevada. Quinones, I., D. Sheppard, S. Harbison, and D. Elliot 2006 Comparative Analysis of Luminol Formulations. Canadian Society of Forensic Sciences Journal, 40(2):53-63. Racette, S., and A. Sauvageau 2005 Unusual Sudden Death – Two Case Reports of Hemorrhage by Rupture of Varicose Veins. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 26(3):294-296. Radford, G.E. 2010 Modelling Cranial Gunshot Wounds and Backspatter. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Otago. Radziki, Jozef 1960 Slady Krwi w Praktyce Sledczej. (Bloodstain Prints in Practice of Technology), Bibliotecka Kryminalistyczna, Warsaw, Poland. Rajamannar, K. 1977 Determination of the Age of Blood stains Using Immunoelectrophoresis. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 22(1): Ramsthaler, Frank, Peter Schmidt, Roman Bux, et al. 2012 Drying Properties of Bloodstains on Common Indoor Surfaces. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 126(5):739-746. Rand, S., B. Madea, and B. Brinkmann 1986 On the Classification of Bloodstain Patterns in Case of Splashes Caused by Impact. Beitr Gerichtl Med, 44:75-80. Randall, Brad 2009 Blood and Tissue Spatter Associated with Chainsaw Dismemberment. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 54(6):1310-1314. Rasmussen, W. 2001 Aspects Relevant to the Accuracy of Determining the Point of Origin of Velocity Impact Spatter Patterns. M.S.F.S. Thesis, Griffiths University, Brisbane, Australia. Rasmy, Aly H. 2011 Entomological and Acarological Evidence of Bloodstain Patterns in Forensic Investigation. Acarines, 5:1-2 Ratnoff, O.D. 1993 Blood. In R.M. Berne and M.N. Levy, editors, Physiology, Mosby Year Book, St. Louis, MO. Ray, B. 1992

Use of Alternate Light Sources for Detection of Body Fluids. Journal of the Southwestern Association of Forensic Scientists, 14(1):3033.

Raymond, M.A. 1997a Trajectory Reconstruction from Bloodstains at a Crime Scene. PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, (also cited as Oscillating Blood Droplets – Implications for Crime Scene Reconstruction, PhD Thesis, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia. 1997b

Crime Scene Reconstruction from Bloodstains. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29(2):69-78.

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Raymond, M.A., and R.L. Hall 1986 An Interesting Application of Infrared Reflection Photography to Blood Splash Pattern Interpretation. Forensic Science International, 31(3):189-194. Raymond, M.A., N.M.G. Hall, and M.K. Jones 2002 Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation. In I Freckelton and H. Selby, editors, Expert Evidence: Law, Practice, Procedure and Advocacy, Volume 3. Law Book, Pyrmont, N.S.W., pp:7031-7159. Raymond, M.A., J. Liesegang, and E.R. Smith 1995 High Speed Cinematography of Blood Droplet Deformation in Flight: Implications for Crime Scene Reconstruction. Advances in Forensic Sciences: Proceedings of the 13th Meeting of the IAFS, Verlag, Dusseldorf, Germany, pp.200-207. Raymond, M.A., E.R. Smith, and J. Liesegang 1996a The Physical Properties of Blood: Forensic Considerations. Science & Justice, 36(3):153-160. 1996b

Oscillating Blood Droplets: Implications for Crime Scene Reconstruction. Science & Justice, 36(3):161-171.

Raymond, Tony 1997 Crime Scene Reconstruction from Blood Stains. Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29(2):69-78. Redondo, Ana Hernandez, Alexandra Schroeck, et al. 2013 Determination of Ethyl Glucuronide and Ethyl Sulfate from Dried Blood Spots. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 127(4):769775. Rees, B., H.D. Howard, andS.K. Strong 1975 The Persistence of Blood-Group Factors in Stored Blood Samples. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 15(1):43-49. Rees, K.A., N.S. Jones, P.A. McLaughli, and D. Osselton 2012 The Effect of Sodium Flouride Preservative and Storage Temperature on the Stability of 6-Acetylmorphone in HOrse Blood, Sheep Vitreous and Deer Muscle. Forensic Science International, 217:189-195. Reeves, Norman H. 1994 The Police Officer as a Bloodstain Pattern Analyst. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 10(2):3-5. 1995

Computer Digitzing and Enhancements of Photographs. A Presentation to a Joint Training Conference of the International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts and the Association of Crime Scene Reconstruction, October 6, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.

2006

A Comparative Analysis of Bloodstains. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.20.

2008a

Determining Layering of Bloodstains and Their Sequence. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.21.

2008b

Study of Sequencing Bloodstain Layers. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.13.

2011

Shots in the Dark. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):11.

2015

The Report Everyone Wants to Write. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):14

Rein, M. 1993

Phenomena of Liquid Drop Impact on Solid and Liquid Surfaces. Fluid Dyn Res, 12:61-93.

Reynolds, Mark 2001 An Evaluation of the One Step ABAcard Hematrace Test for the Qualitative Detection of Human Blood at Crime Scenes. Unpublished Undergraduate Research Project, Canberra Institute of Technology, Canberra, Australia 2003a

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Western Australia. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.4.

2003b

Target Surface Influence on Angle of Impact. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.4-5.

2004

The ABAcard® Hematrace®: Confirmatory Identification of Human Blood Located at Crime Scenes. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 20(2):4-10. http://iabpa.org/june2004news.pdf

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2005

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis and IABPA Region VI “A Discipline in Development”. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 21(3):4-11.

2006

The Development of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in Western Australia. Abstract of the Presentation given at the 18th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences: Classroom to Courtroom, Fremantle, Western Australia, April 2-7, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, June, p.30.

2007a

Blood Droplet Diameter versus Bloodstain Width: The Misconception. A Presentation at the 92nd International Educational Conference of the International Association for Identification, July 22-28, 2007, San Diego, California.

2007b

Microsoft® Office Excel 2003 and the Bloodstain Measurement Process. A Presentation at the 92nd International Educational Conference of the International Association for Identification, July 22-28, 2007, San Diego, California.

2008a

Measurements of Bloodstain Using Microsoft® Excel Autoshapes: An Accurate and Precise Bloodstain Measurement System. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.11-12.

2008b

Bloodstain Size, Shape and Formation: Implications for the Bloodstain Pattern Analyst. University of Western Australia, School of Anatomy and Human Biology

2009a

Development of a Laboratory Specific Fabrics BPA Course. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):17.

2009b

BPA and the Andrew Mallard Case. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):21.

2012

Australian Bloodstain Pattern Analysis (BPA) Training and Education: A Response to Judicial Scrutiny. A Presentation before the 64th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge, February 20-25, Atlanta, Georgia.

Reynolds, Mark, Daniel Franklin, Michael A. Raymond, and Ian Dadour 2008a Bloodstain Measurement Using Computer-Fitted Theoretical Ellipses: A Study in Accuracy and Precision. Journal of Forensic Identification, 58(4):469-484. 2008b

Packed Cell Colume: Influence of Angle of Impact Calculations. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.12-13.

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Cranial Backspatter Pattern Production Utilizing Human Cadaver. An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):15

Rossi, Celestina, Misty Holbrook, Stuart H. James, and Daniel Mabel 2012 Medical and Forensic Aspects of Blood Clot Formation in the Presence of Saliva - A Preliminary Study. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):3-13. Rossie, Celestina, and Stuart H. James 2012 Medical and Forensic Aspects of Blood Clot Formation in the Presence of Saliva - A Preliminary Study. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):14. Rossi, D.V. 2001 Fluorescein Techniques for Enhancing Bloody Fingerprints, Harris County Sheriff’s Department, Houston, TX. Rothwell, T.J. 1970 A Simple Calculator for the Determination of the Frequency of Occurrence of Blood Group Combinations. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 10(1):13-14. Roux, C., K. Gill, J. Sutton, and C.A. Lennard 1999 A Further Study to Investigate the Effect of Fingerprint Enhancement Techniques on the DNA Analysis of Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Identication, 49(4):357-376. Rowe, W.F. 2006 Errors in the Determination of the Point of Origin of Bloodstains. Forensic Science International, 161(1):47-51. Rowley, B.O. 1999 Commentary on Hochmeister M.N. et al., Validation Studies of an Immunochromatographic 1-Step Test for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44(3):597-601. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44(6):1323. Rubio, Aurelien, Philippe Esperança, and Laurent Martrille 2014 Backspatter Simulation: Comparison of a Basic Sponge and a Complex Model. Journal of Forensic Identification, 64(3):285-303. Ruibiao, L., W. Xiaocong, and W. Zhuangjing

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Dye Lifting Bloody FIngeprints on Ground Surface. Forensic Science and Technology, 67(4):47-48.

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1995

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1997

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, (Sixth Edition). Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. (also cited as published in 1998).

2001

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, (Seventh Edition). Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey

2007

Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science (Ninth Edition), Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey. (ISBN: 0-13-221655-8)

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Exsanguinated Blood Volume Estimation Using Fractal Analysis of Digital Images. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57(3):610-617.

Sauvageau, Anny, Morgan Schellenberg, Stéphanie Racette, and François Julien 2007 Bloodstain Pattern Analysis in a Case of Fatal Varicose Vein Rupture. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 28(1):3537. Savage, Janina Gay 2007 Distinguishing Between Expirted Blood and Impact Spatter Using Chemical and Physical Methods. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1-4, San Antonio, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.7. Savage, Janina, N.K. Walker, M.C. Taylor, D.A. Elliot, S.J. Cordiner, D. Power and J. Horswell 2008 Distinguishing Between Expirated Blood and Impact Spatter Using Biochemical and Physical Methods. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Second European IABPA Conference, Zurich, Switzerland, July 2-4, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, September, p.13. Saviano, Jeffrey 2005 Articulating a Concise Scientific Methodology for Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Journal of Forensic Identification, 55(4):461-470. Saviano, Jeff, April Allgood, and Zerah Malone 2010 Using Multiple Void Patterns at Crime Scenes to Estimate Area of Origin in Bloodstain Cases. Journal of the Association for Crime Scene Reconstruction, 16(3):19-26. Scheller, B.L. and D.W. Bousfield 1995 Newtonian Drop Impact with a Solid Surface. AICHE Journal, 41(6):1357-1367. Schininá, M.E., C. Vecchiotti, a. Giorni, G. Mignona, and F.S. Romolo 2003 Detection of Human Hemoglobin in Blood Stains Using MALDI/TOF and HPLC/MS. Proceedings of the 3rd European Academy of Forensic Science Meeting, September 22-27, 2003, Istanbul, Turkey. Forensic Science International, 136(Suppl. 1):228-229.

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2001

Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence from Crime Scenes. http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html

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Case Presentation: Honour Killing. Abstract of a Presentation at the Fourth International IABPA Conference, Edinburgh, Scotland, November 12-14. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(4):15.

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Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Guidelines for a Quality Assurance Program in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Forensic Science Communications, 10(1): http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/current/standards/2008_01_standards02.htm

2008c

Scientific Working Group on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: Topics to Consider in Preparation for an Admissibility Hearing on Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. Forensic Science Communications, 10(1): http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/current/standards/2008_01_standards03.htm

2009

Recommended Terminology. Forensic Science Communications,11(2):

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Blunt Force Trauma Homicide Investigation. Abstract of the Presentations given at the IABPA Training Conference, Portland, Oregon, October 6-9, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 25(4):16.

2015

BPA in a Stomping Death Murder Investigation. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):30

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A Study of Errors in Area of Origin Evaluations. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):15.

Seo, Y.I., B.S. Moon, Y.J. Cho, W.J. Jeon, S.J. Kim, B.N. Son, et al. 2011 Measurements and Comparative Considerations of Velocities of Primary Bloodstain Spatters Using a High Speed Camera. Korean Journal of Legal Medicine, 35:27-31. Shah, Kesha, Swapnil S. Agarwal, Lavlesh Kumar, and Krishnadutt H. Chavali 2015 Determining Post-mortem Survival Period and Blood Group Antigenicity of Red Blood Cells: A Cross-sectional Study. Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 16(2): http://anilaggrawal.com/ij/vol_016_no_002/papers/paper002.html Shahzad, M.S., O. Bulbul, G. Filoglu, M. Cengiz, S. Cengiz 2009 Effect of Blood Stained Soils Next Term and Time Period on DNA and Allele Drop Out Using Promega 16 Powerplex® Kit. Forensic Science International, 2:161-162. Shaler, R.C., A.M. Hagins, and C.E. Mortimer 1978 MN Determination in Bloodstains – Selective Destruction of Cross-Reacting Activity. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 23(3):570-576. Shaller, J., S. Gerber, U. Kampfer, S. Lejon, and C. Trachsel 2008 Human Blood Plasma Proteins: Structure and Function. John WIley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK. Shanks, O.C., R. Bonnichsen, A.T.Vella, and W. Ream 2001 Recovery of Protein and DNA Trapped in Stone Tool Microcracks. Journal of Archaeological Science, 28:965-972. Sharma, Luv K., Geentanjali Sharma, Basabt L. Sirohiwal, Vijay P. Khanagwal, Pramod K. Paliwal, and D.R. Yadav 2006 Artifacts of Blood in a Case of Hanging: Medico-legal Masquerades. Anil Aggrawal's Internet Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, 7(1): http://www.anilaggrawal.com/ij/vol_007_no_001/papers/paper001.html Shen, A.R., G.J. Brostow, and R. Cipolla n.d. Toward Automatic Blood Spatter Analysis in Crime Scenes. Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, UK http://mi.eng.cam/ac.uk/reports/svr-ftp/brostow_BloodSpatter.pdf 2006

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A Comparison of Chemiluminescence Intensity and the Impact on DNA Recovery of Four Different Luminol Formulations. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.22.

Shimamoto,Sheri, Charles S. DeFrance,and Thomas W. Adair 2013 Visual Appearance and Chemical Detection of Bloodstains on Concrete after Exposure to the Elements. Journal of the Association of Crime Scene Reconstruction, 19(2):17-27. Shiraishi, Tomoko, Kasumasa Sekiguchi, and Takeshi Ohmori 2002 Validation Studies of 'OC-Hemocatch' for the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. Japanese Journal of Science and Technology for Identification, 7(2):159-165. Shiraishi, Tomoko, Kasumasa Sekiguchi, Takeshi Ohmori, and Koichi Sakurada 2004 The Effects of Detergents and Disinfectants in 'OC-Hemocatch' on the Forensic Identification of Human Blood. Japanese Journal of Science and Technology for Identification, 9(2):143-149. Shirk, Sanford A. 1995 Night Vision Video and Luminol. Journal of Forensic Identification, 45(5):513-514.

Shulz, Martin 2015 Shoot Down or Battered to Death? Limitations of Current Forensic Near Infrared (NIR) Crime Site Investigation Techniques. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):33 Sidorov, V.L., M.V. Maiatskaia, A.G. Smolianitski, and R.V. Babakhanian 1998 Establishing the Presence of Blood in Stains for Material Evidence by Using the Luminescent Blood Test. Sud Med Ekspert, 41(6):2023. Sikirzhytskaya, A., V. Sikirzhytski, G. McLaughlin, and I.K. Lednev 2013 Forensic Identification of Blood in the Presence of Contaminations Using Raman Microspectroscopy Coupled with Advanced Statistics: Effects of Sand, Dust and Soil. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(5):1141-1148. Silenieks, Edmund 2006 The Detection of Salivary Amylase in Expirated Blood Patterns. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 22(2):59. http://iabpa.org/june%202006.pdf 2014

The Influence of Fabric Construction on Bloodstain and Blood Clot Formation on Clothing. Proceedings of the 2014 IABPA Annual Conference Held in Portland, Maine, September 30-October 3, (Abstract), Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 30(4):6.

2015

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Downunder - A Discussion on the Status of BPA in the Australasian Region. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):19

Silenieks, E., C. Atkinson, and C. Pearman 2004 Use of the ABAcard® Hematrace® for the Detection of Higher Primate Blood in Bloodstains. A Presentation before the 17th International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Wellington, New Zealand. Silenieks, Edmund, Andrew Donnelly, Christopher Peters, and Mark Reynolds 2015 The Interaction of Blood with Fabrics. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):19 Sims, Erin 2008 Bloodstain Patterns Help Tell the Story When the Victim Can’t… or Won’t. Abstract of the Scientific Presentations at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.19. 2012

"How Much Blood is that & How did it Get There?" Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Tucson, Arizona, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 28(3):19.

Singley, Lee Ann 2006a We Got Our Man (In More Ways than One). Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.23. 2006b

We Got Our Man (In More Ways than One). Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Neterlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.21.

2010

Context Bias in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis – How Much Information is too Much. Abstract of the Presentations given at the Annual

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Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Symposium, Ames, Iowa, August 17-19, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, 26(3):11. 2013

Context Bias in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: How Much Information is too Much? Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):27.

2015a

Fabrics and Training and Reports.....Oh My! An Abstract of a Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Training Conference, Fort Worth, Texas. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(3):15

2015b

A "Bloody Good" Product - Development and Implementation of a Quality Assurance Program in Bloodstain Pattern Analysis. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):19

2015c

Shedding Light on "The Dark Side" - Views from a Forensic Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Consultant. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):20

Sikirzhytskaya, Aliaksandra, Vitali Sikirzhytski, Gregory McLaughlin, and Igor K. Lednev 2013 Forensic Identification of Blood in the Presence of Contaminations Using Raman Microscpectroscopy Coupled with Advanced Statistics: Effect of Sand, Dust, and Soil. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58(5):1141-1148. Silenieks, Edmund, Andrew Donnelly, and Chris Peters 2013 The Interaction of Blood with Fabrics. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, San Diego, California, Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 29(3-4):18. Silenieks, Edmund, and Mark Reynolds 2015 Spatter Reassignment - When Transfer Looks Like Spatter on Fabric. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Australian and New Zealand Forensic Science Society's 22nd International Symposium on the Forensic Sciences, Adelaide, South Australia. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):25 Slater, Julian 1995 Techniques for the Enhancement of Two-Dimensional Footwear Impressions in Blood. European Meeting for Shoeprint/Toolmark Examiners, Helsinki, Finland. Slemko, Joseph A. 1999 Bloodstains on Fabric: The Effects of Dropet Velocity and Fabric Composition. A Presentation before the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts, November 9, Houston, Texas. 2003

Bloodstains on Fabric: The Effects of Droplet Velocity and Fabric Composition. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, December, 19(4):3-11. http://iabpa.org/december2003news.pdf

2004a

Bloodstains on Fabrics. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.7.

2004b

Innovative Application of Bloodstain pattern Analysis. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.7.

2005

Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Tutorial for Forensic Consulting. http://www.bloodspatter.com/BPATutorial.htm

2007

Regina v. Sion Jenkins. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 1-4, San Antonio, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.8-9.

Slemko, Joe, and Norman Reeves 2004 Bangkok, Thailand Case Study – Murder or Suicide. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, pp.13-14. Sloan, Monica, and Cecilia Hageman 2006 DNA Profiling from Contact Lens Fluid; Bloodstain Patterns from a Possible Case of " Curbing"; a Case Study. A Presentation before the 58th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 20-25, Seattle, Washington. Smit, B. 2008

Photomicrography and Fluid Dynamics Relating to Bloodstains on Fabric. The University of Auckland, Auckland, NZ.

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Sparks, Rex T. 2003 State of Iowa v. Christopher Martin. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 9-11, Odessa, Texas. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, pp.3-4. 2004a

Chronic Venous Insufficiency Syndrome. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 6-8, Tucson, Arizona. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.10.

2004b

Chronic Venous Insufficiency Syndrome – Case Report. International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts News, 20(3):4-9. http://iabpa.org/sept2004news.pdf

2006a

Animated Bloodstain Traning Aid. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Annual Conference, October 18-20, Corning, New York. International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, December, p.23.

2006b

Chronic Venous Insufficiency Syndrome. Abstract of a Paper Presented at the Proceedings of the First European IABPA Conference, Middelburg, Zeeland, The Netherlands, February 13-15, International Association of Blood Pattern Analysts Newsletter, March, p.25.

2011

Wound Analysis and BPA. Abstract of a Presentation at the Annual IABPA Training Conference, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 27(4):15.

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Influence of Impact Velocity, Fluid Depth and Free Space on the Crown Growth of the Impact Mechanism and Its Implications for BPA. An Abstract of a Presentation before the Fifth European International Association of Bloodstain Pattern Analysts, Rome, Italy. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(1):41

Stotesbury, Mike Illes, Paul Wilson, and Andrew Vreugdenhil 2015 A Commentary on Synthetic Blood Substitute Research and Development. Journal of Bloodstain Pattern Analysis, 31(2):3-6. 2016

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Urine stains visualized using a forensic light source

Other Blood and Body Fluid Topics Urine , sperm, vaginal fluid, and saliva are common in violent crime scenes. Unlike blood, however, the transluscence or colorless nature, and relative lesser quantities, make it more difficult to recognize and therefore collect such stains without the applications of stains ,dyes, and/or presumptive tests. This category in the bibliography includes references which address some of these methods as well as serological tests which are not in prior categories. (744 citations)

Adamo, R., and L. Kobilinisky 1984 The Simultaneous Electrophoretic Analysis of Esterase D and Phosphoglucomutase Subtyping in Fresh Blood and in Dried Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29(2):436-444. Adams,E.G., and B.G. Wraxall 1974 Phosphatases in Body Fluids: The Differentiation of Semen and Vaginal Secretion. Forensic Science, 3:57-62. Adler, O. and R. Adler 1983 The Reaction of Certain Organic Compounds with Blood, with Particular Reference to Blood Identification. Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem., 41, 59, (1904). (Translation presented in Gaensslen, editor. Sourcebook in Forensic Serology, Immunology and Biochemistry, United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., Unit 9. Aernecke, Matthew R., Thomas A. Kubic, and Peter R. De Forest 2003 Hematoporphyrin Fluorescence as a Test for Blood: Alternative Methods and Potential Interferences. A paper presented before the 55th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, February 21, 2003. Agner, Carl J., and Patrick A. Taylor 2002 Using Bloodstain Evidence to Fit Your Department Needs. A lecture before the International Association for Identification, Las Vegas, Nevada, August 7, 2002. Akkaya, Harun, Yasemin Balci, Varol Sahintürk, Setenay Öner, and Kenan Karbeyaz 2013 Time-Dependent Changes of Sperm Cells in Human Ejaculate Samples Added in Various Liquid Media. Forensic Science International, 231:325-330. Akutsu, T., K. Watanabe, H. Fukushima, Y. Fujinami, and K. Sakurada 2011 Development of a Systematic Method for Identifying Saliva, Sweat and Urine by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay with Statherin, Dermcidin and Tamm-Horsfall Protein Markers. Japanese Journal of Forensic Science and Technology, 16(1):1-11.

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Akutsu, T., K. Watanabe, Y. Fujinami, and K. Sakurada 2010 Applicability of ELISA Detection of Statherin for Forensic Identification of Saliva. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 124:493498. Akutsu, Tomoko, Hiroshi Ikegaya, Ken Watanabe, Hisayo Fukushima, Hisako Motani, Hirotaro Iwase, and Koichi Sakurada 2010 Evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall Protein and Uroplakin III for Forensic Identification of Urine. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 55(3):742746. Akutsu, T., H. Motani, K. Watanabe, H. Iwase, and K. Sakurada 2012 Detection of Bacterial 16S Ribosomal RNA Genes for Forensic Identification of Vaginal Fluid. Legal Medicine, 14:160-162. Akutsu, Tomoko, Ken Watanabe, and Koichi Sakurada 2012 Specificity, Sensitivity, and Operability of RSID™-Urine for Forensic Identification of Urine: Comparison with ELISA for TammHorsfall Protein. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57(6):1570Allard, J.E. 1997 The Collection of Data from Findings in Cases of Sexual Assault and the Significance of Spermatozoa on Vaginal, Anal and Oral Swabs. Science and Justice, 37(2):99-108. Allen, Dale E. 1983 Effects of Blood on Gunshot and Gunpowder Residue. AFTE Journal, 15(2):102-103. Allen, J., M.E. Newman, M. Riford, and G.H. Archer 1995 Blood and Plant Residues on Hawaiian Stone Tools from Two Archaeological Sites in Upland Kne'ohe, Ko'olau Poko District, O'ahu Island. Asian Perspective, 34:283-302. Allen, S.M. 1995 An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Detection of Seminal Fluid Using a Monoclonal Antibody to Prostatic Acid Phosphatase. Journal of Immunoassay, 16(3):297-308. Allery. J-P, N. Telmon, R. Mieusset, A. Blanc, and D. Rougé 2001 Cytological Detection of Spermatozoa: Comparison of Three Staining Methods. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46(2):349-351. Alonso, A. 1988 Group Specific Component Subtyping in Bloodstains by Seperator Isoelectric Focusing in Micro-Ultrathin Polyacrylamide Gels Followed by Immunoblotting. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(5):1267-1272. An, J.H., K.J. Shin, W.I. Yang, and H.Y. Lee 2012 Body Fluid Identification in Forensics. BMB Rep, 45:545-553. Andrasko, J., and B. Rosén 1994 Sensitive Identification of Hemoglobin in Bloodstains frm Different Species by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Combined UV and Fluorescence Detection. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 39(4):1018-1025. Andrus, R.H. 1981 Phenotyping of Carbonic Anhydrase II in Fresh Blood and Bloodstains on Cellulose Acetate Membranes. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 26(1): Anonymous n.d. Forensic Serology http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/425/425lect13.htm Ansell, R. 2002 Secondary Transfer of Seminal Constituents. Journal of the Canadian Society of Forensic Science, 35(1): Antunes, Joana, Tania Madi, Robin Bombardi, Kuppareddi Balamurugan, George T. Duncan, and Bruce R. McCord 2014 Epigenetic Methylation Markers as a Powerful Technique to Discriminate Body Fluids Present in Crime Scenes. A Presentation before the 66th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 17-22, Seattle, Washington Ascenzi, A., M. Brunori, G. Citro, and R. Zito 1985 Immunological Detection of Hemoglobin in Bones of Ancient Roman Times and of Iron and Eneolithic Ages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 82: 7170-7172. Astrup, Birgitte Schmidt, Jørgen Lange Thomsen, Jens Lauritsen, and Pernille Ravn 2012 Detection of Spermatozoa Following Consensual Sexual Intercourse. Forensic Science International, 221:137-141. Austin, Kabre Shiva S., Oluseyi A. Vanderpuye, and Dwayne Goolsby 2011 ABO Blood Group Antigens and Mucin-Like Proteins in Human Buccal Cells. A Poster Presentation before the 63rd Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 21-26, Chicago, Illinois.

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Auvdel, M.J. 1986 Amylase Levels in Semen and Saliva Stains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 31(2):426-431. 1987

Comparison of Laser and Ultraviolet Techniques Used in the Detection of Body Secretions. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(2):326345.

1988

Comparison of Laser and High-Intensity Quartz Arc Tubes in the Detection of Body Secretions. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(4):929-945.

Baechtel, F.S. 1985 Secreted Blood Group Substances: Distributions in Semen and Stabilities in Dried Semen Stains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 30(4)1119-1129. 1988

The Identification and Individualization of Semen Stains. In R.Saferstein, editor, Forensic Science Handbook, Volume 2, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NY, pp. 347-392.

Baechtel, F.S. J. Brown, and L.D. Terrell 1987 Presumptive Screening of Suspected Semen Stain In Situ Using Cotton Swabs and Bromochloroindolyl Phosphate to Detect Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Activity. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 32(4): Bai, P., W. Deng, L. Wang, B. Long, K. Liu, W. Liang, et al. 2013 Micro RNA Profiling for the Detection and Differentiation of Body Fluids in Forensic Stain Analysis. Forensic Science International, Genetic Supplemental Series, 4:e216-e217. Baker, R.R., and M.A. Bellis 1993 Human Sperm Competition: Ejaculate Manipulation by Females and Function for the Female Orgasm. Animal Behavior, 46:887-909. Ballantyne, J. 2000 Serology: Overview. In J.A. Siegal, P.A. Suakko, and G.C. Knupfer, Encyclopedia of Forensic Sciences, Academic Press, London, UK., pp.1322-1331. Baranovienë, R., and O. Petrudkienë 2005 Possibilities of Use of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Membrane Test for Detection of Semen in Forensic Stains. Medicinos Teoriga Ir Praktika, 4393):189-191. Barčot, O., M. Balarin, O. Gamulin, D. Ježek, P. Romac, and J. Brbjas-Kraljević 2007 Investigation of Spermatozoa and Seminal Plasma by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Appl Spectrosc, 61(3):309-313. (also cited as 61:1-5) Barnard, P.A., and B.W. Grunbaum 1979 Alteration of Electrophoretic Mobility of Hemoglobin in Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 384-388. Barni, F., A. Berti, C. Rapone, and G. Lago 2006 α-Amylase Kinetic Test in Bodily Single and Mixed Stains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51(6):1389-1396. Bartick, E.G. 2002 Applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy in Criminal Forensic Analysis. In J.M. Chalmers and P.R> Griffiths, editors, Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK. pp.1-13. Bauer, M., andD.Patzelt 2003 Protamine mRNA as Molecular Marker for Spermatozoa in Semen Stains. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 117:175-179. Bauer, Martin, Silke Polzin, and Dieter Patzelt 2003 Quantification of RNA Degradation by Semi-Quantitative Suplex and Competitive RT-PCR: A Possible Indicator of the Age of Bloodstains? Forensic Science International, 138:94-103. (also cited as 3(1-3):94-103.) Baxter, S.J., and B. Rees 1975 The Identification of Saliva in Stains in Forensic Casework. Medicine, Science and the Law, 15(1):37-41. Bayford, Frank 1979 Sweat. The Identification Officer, 20(7-8): Bedrosian, J.L., M.D. Stolorow, and M.A. Tahir 1984 Development of a Radial Gel Diffusion Technique for the Identification of Urea in Urine Stains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 29(2):601-606. Bemelsmans, Elena A., Donald F. Siwek, Robin W. Cotton, and Amy N. Brodeur 2015 Effects of Decomposition on the Recoverability of Bioloical Fluid Evidence. A Presentation before the 67th Annual Scientific Meeting

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of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 16-21, Orlando, Florida. Benschop, Corina C.G., Fredericke C.A. Quaak, et al. 2012 Viginal Microbial Flora Analysis by Next Generation Sequencing and Microarrays; Can Micorbes Indicate Vaginal Origin in a Forensic Context? International Journal of Legal Medicine, 126(2):303-310. Ben Yousef, N., J. Almog, A. Frank, E. Springer, and A.A. Cantu 1998 Hort UV Luminescence for Forensic Applications: Design of a Real Time Observation System for Detection of Latent Fingerprints and Body Fluids, Journal of Forensic Sciences, 43:299-304. Berns, B., and J. Lötterle 1988 Micromethod for MN Antigen Grouping of Dried Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(1): Berti, A., A. Virili, G. D'Errico, G. Vespi, G. Lago, and A. Cavazzana 2005 Expression of Seminal Vesicle-Specific Antigen in Serum of Lung Tumor Patients. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 50(5):1114-1115. Betset, P., S. Srettabunjong, S. Limawongpranee, and P. Ekpo 2012 The Sensitivity of the Detection of Prostate Specific Antigen in Semen by ELISA. Ramathibodi Medical Journal, 35:70-78. Blackledge, R.S. 1996 Condom Trace Evidence: A New Factor in Sexual Assault Investigations. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 65(5):12-16. Blake, E.T., and G.F. Sensabaugh 1976 Genetic Markers in Human Semen: A Review. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 21(4): 1978

Genetic Markers in Human Semen, II: Quantitation of Polymorphic Proteins. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 23(4):

Bolton, S., and J. Thorpe 1986 Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for A and B Water Soluble Blood Group Substances. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 31(1): 1988

An Examination of a Contaminated Seminal Stain Using Absorption-Elution and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(3):797-800.

Borchman, D., G.N. Foulks, M.C. Yappert, D. Tang, and D.V. Ho 2007 Spectroscopic Evaluation of Human Tear Lipids. Chem Pys Lipids, 147(2):87-102. Boumba, Vassiliki A., Nikolaos Kourkoumelis, Panagiota Gousia, Vangelis Economou, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou, ad Theodore Vougiouklakis 2013 Modeling Microbial Ethanol Prodction of E. coli Under Aerobic/Anaerobic Conditions: Applicability to Real Postmortem Cases and to Postmortem Blood derived Microbial Cultures. Forensic Science International, 232:191-198. Boward, Emily S. 2015 Under the Microscope: Comparing Mammalian Spermatozoa Morphologies for Sexual Assault Cases. Forensic Magazine, 12(3):18-20. Boward, Emily S., and Stacey L. Wilson 2013 A Comparison of ABAcard® p30 and RSID™-Semen Test Kits for Forensic Semen Identification. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, 20(8):1126-1130. Brackett, J.W., Jr. 1957 The Acid Phosphatase Test for Seminal Stains: The Importance of Proper Control Tests. J Crim Law Criminol, 47:717-720. Brauner, P., and N. Gallili 1993 A Condom – The Critical Link in a Rape. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38:1233Brewer, C.A., P.L. Cropp, and L.E. Sharman 1976 A Low Ionic Strength, Hemagglutinating, Autoanalyzer® for Rhesus Typing of Dried Bloodstains. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 21(4): Brinkmann, B., S. Rand, and T. Bajanowski 1992 Forensic Identification of Urine Samples. International Journal of Legal Medicine, 105:59-61. Britt, Michael C., and Marta U. Coburn 2004 FluiDDB.com: A Model Database for Unidentified Bodies. A Presentation before the 56th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 20, 2004, Dallas, Texas. Briuer, F.L. 1976 New Clues to Stone Tool Function: Plant and Animal Residues. American Antiquity, 41:478-484. Brotman, R.M., J.H. Melendez, T.D. Smith, N. Galai, and J.M. Senilman 2010 Effect of Menses on Clearance of Y-chromosome in Vaginal Fluid: Implications for a Biomarker of Recent Sexual Activity. Sex Transm Dis, 37:1-4.

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Brown, B.L. 1981 The Determination of the Sex of an Individual from a Dried Bloodstain Using Radioimmunoassay of Testosterone, Progesterone, and Edtradiol-17β. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 26(4): Brown, Catherine O., Masha Signaevasky, Heather E. McKernan, Kevin M. Legg, and Phillip Danielson 2016 Absolute Quantitation of Semen-Specific Biomarkers From Post-Coital Samples. A Presentation before the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 22-27, Las Vegas, Nevada. Brown, K.M., and C.G. Brown 1974 Specificity of Two Commercial Acid Phosphatase Determination Kits with Respect to Feminine Hygiene Products and Vaginal Contraceptives. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 19(2): Brown, Lyndsey T., Robin W. Cotton, and Amy N. Brodeur 2016 Migration of Seminal Fluid Components and Spermatozoa in Semen Stains Exposed to Moisture. A Presentation before the 68th Annual Scientific Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 22-27, Las Vegas, Nevada. Bryson, C.K., A.M. Garlo, and S.C. Piner 1989 Vaginal Swabs: Endogenous and Post-Coital Components. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 29(3):157-171. Budowle, B. 1987 A Method for Subtyping Group Specific Component in Bloodstains. Forensic Science International, 33:187Budowle, B., and P. Eberhardt 1986 Ultrathin-layer Polyacrylamide Gel Isoelectric Focusing for the Identification of Hemoglobin Variants. Hemoglobin, 10:1661Budowle, B., and A.M. Gambel 1988 An Alternative, Effective Substrate for Erythrocyte Acid Phosphatase Phenotype Determinations. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 33(4): Budowle, B., R.S. Murch, L.C. Davidson, A.M. Gambel, and J.J. Kearney 1986 Subtyping Phosphoglucomutase-1 in Semen Stains and Bloodstains: A Report on the Method. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 31(4):13411348. Bueno,Lais Helena Picolo, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Aline Vieira Azenha, Mariane Cristine de Souza Dias, and Bruno Spinosa De Martinis 2014 Oral Fluid as an Alternative Matrix to Determine Ethanol for Forensic Purposes. Forensic Science International, 242:117-122. Burkhart, C.N., C.G> Burkhart, S. Williams, P.C. Andrews, V. Adappa, and J. Arbogast 2000 In Pursuit of Ceruminolytic Agents: A Study of Earwax Composition. American Journal of Otology, 21(2):157-160. Cahoon, Erica M., Cleon Barnett, and Jose R. Almirall 2008 Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyses of Biological Matrices. A presentation before the 60th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, Washington, D.C. Callas, P.W., L.D. Haugh, and B.S. Flynn 1989 Effects of Long-Term Storage on Salivary Thiocyanate Concentration. Addict Behavior, 14:643-648. Calloway, A.R., P.F. Jones, S. Siegel, and G.W. Stupian 1973 Location of Seminal Stains by Their Phosphorescence and Its Use in Determining the Order of Deposition of Overlapping Seminal and Bloodstains. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 13(3):223-230. Calonius, P.E.B. 1958 The Leukicyte Count in Saliva. Oral Surgery, 11:43-46. Camarena, Lucy, Bailey K. Glasscock, Nicolle Hardell, and Sarah J. Seashols 2013 Optimized Centrifugal Methods for Separation of Semen from Superabsorbent Polymers for Forensic Analysis. A Presentation before the 65th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, 2013, Washington, D.C. Carboni, Iiaria, Stefano Rapi, and Ugo Ricci 2014 Stability of Human α-Salivary Amylase in Aged Forensic Samples. Legal Medicine, 16(4):214-217. Carter-Snell, C., and K. Soltys 2005 Forensic Ultraviolet Lights in Clinical Practice: Evidence for the Evidence. Can J Police Secur Serv, 3(2):79-85. Casado, B., L.K. Pannell, P.Iadorola, and J.N. Baraniuk 2005 Identification of Human Nasal Mucus Proteins Using Proteomics. Proteomics, 5(11):2949-2959. Casey, David G., and Judy Price 2010 The Sensitivity and Specificity of the RSID™ Salica Kit for the Detection of Human Salivary Amylase in the Forensic Science

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Cavness, Shannon, Asha Choudhury, and George Sensabaugh 2014 Hospital Wet Mount Examination for the Presence of Sperm in Sexual Assault Cases is of Questionable Value. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 59(3):729-734. Cavness, Shannon C., William M. Green, Jennifer S. Mihalovich, Edward A. Panacek, and George F. Sensabaugh 2012 Retrospective Study of 150 Sexual Assault Cases. A Presentation before the 64th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Forensic Sciences, Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge, February 20-25, Atlanta, Georgia. Cerdas, Loreley, Fabiola Herrera, Glenn Arrieta, Concepcion Morelli, Karla Alvarez, and Aaron Gomez 2016 Menstrual Cycle Phase at the Time of Rape Does not Affect Recovery of Semen or Amplification of STR Profiles of a Suspect in Vaginal Swabs. Forensic Science International, 259:36-40. Chang, TSK 1983 Seminal Cytology. In J.H. Geer, editor, Proceedings of a Forensic Science Symposium on the Analysis of Sexual Assault Evidence; July 6-8, Quantico Virginia. United States Department of Justice, Washington, D.C. Chapman, Rosa E. 2013 Validation of Semen Detection Kits for Field Application in Sexual Assault Cases. A Presentation before the 65th Anniversary Meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, February 18-23, 2013, Washington, D.C. Chapman, R.L., N.M. Brown, and S.M. Keating 1989 The Isolation of Spermatozoa from Sexual Assault Swabs Using Proteinase K. Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 29(3):207-212. Chase, M.G. 1986 ABO Typing Studies on Liquid Urines. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 31(3):911-915. Chemimage 2015 Hyperspectral Imaging Provides Detection and High Contrast Imaging of Biological Stains. Chemimage Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. http://www.chemimage.com/docs/white-papers/biological-stains-white-paper.pdf Chen, J., L. Kobilinsky, D. Wolosin, R. Shaler, and H. Baum 1998 A Physical Method for Separating Spermatozoa from Epithelial Cells in Sexual Assault Evidence. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 43(1):114-118. Chen, Jian-Hua, Osamu Inamori-Kawamoto, Tomomi Michiue, Sayuko Ikeda, Takaki Ishikawa, and Hitoshi Maeda 2015 Cardiac Biomarkers in Blood, and Pericardial and Cerebrospinal Fluids of Forensic Autopsy Cases: A Reassessment with Special Regard to Postmortem Interval. Legal Medicine, 17(5):343-350. Chen, Jian-Hua, Tomomi Michiue, Osamu Inamori-Kawamoto, Sayuko Ikeda, Takaki Ishikawa, and Hitoshi Maeda 2015 Comprehensive Investigation of Postmortem Glucose Levels in Blood and Body Fluids with Regard to the Cause of Death in Forensic Autopsy Cases. Legal Medicine, 17(6):475-482. Chiasson, D.A., R. Vigorito, Y.S. Lee, and J. Smialek 1994 Interpretation of Post-Mortem Vaginal Acid Phosphatase Determinations. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology,152:42-46. Child, A.M., and A.M. Pollard 1992 A Review of the Applications on Immunochemistry to Archaeological Bone. Journal of Archaeological Science, 19:39-47. Christian, C.W., J.M. Lavelle, A.R. De Jong, J. Loiselle, L. Brenner, and M. Joffe 2000 Forensic Evidence Findings in Prepubertal Victims of Sexual Assault. Pediatrics, 106(1):100-104. Clift, A., and C.M. Lamont 1974 Saliva in Forensic Odontology, Saliva in Forensic Odontology, Journal of the Forensic Science Society, 14(3):241-245. Collins, Kim A., and Allan T. Bennett 2001 Persistence of Spermatozoa and Prostatic Acid Phosphatase in Specimens from Deceased Individuals During Varied Postmortem

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