Calcium, Magnesium and Potassium Concentrations

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on Ca, Mg" and Kt concentration in a recirculated nutrient solution of a ... The initial-desired mineral composition of a nutrient solution in meq L' was as follows:.

Calcium,Magnesiumand PotassiumConcentrationspredictionin a Recirculated NutrientSolutionofa Greenhouse Soilless RoseCrop Ch.Lykas,N. Katsoulas andC. Kittas Uni\ersityofThessal], SchoolofAqricutrural Scicnces D€prnme ofAgriculrure. CropPr;duclion andAgncukutul Env,ronmenl PhytokoLr St.,N. lonia,cR.l84i6, Magnisia Xeyrvords:wateruprake,cntions,pH, lC. biophysicalardchemicalprocesses 'l hc cflcctl of i) bioph]sicalprocc\s!! suchns crot, $nter uptakc,and elemenrs . trDrorpuon nnd ||) chemtcrtproc$sessucI as fcrriti/(rsdksolurionand pI chanscs. onCa".Nlg'rndK'concenirationinrrecirculatcdrurricntsolutionoii;;;il;; roiffcrr rorc ctop tRoln hJ-htih .l'irst Rcd'). scrc sludicd, tvcusUrtmcnii oi grrcnhoulcnicroclimnt(.\nrirhlcs. crop $atcr ulrxkc rs $cll as plt, EC nnd Ca?.. l\lF' rnd li conccntr{tion in nurrlcotsolutiirn(lirpr in sroraqcr:ink or aDDtic(l for cn'n fcflignrio\-$crc (xrri(d our duri g aurunrn:Oor.Thi r$uh\ sh;ird r;;t rrflxlionsol ( n' conc(ntrrjuDin lh( n tr.icnr\otntioINrrc hiqht\(,rrrctxtcd to cron sxl(.r uptrl(. crol C '- t|hroryti',n.f(rtiti,/crrti!soturion rnd DH r,rrl,rrionof rtr'c nulri!.ItlolLrlion.l hc (('n(( rrrrionQtNtgr:in rhc nL,rriurrsoturi;n$rs corrchr(dto r.(. ol llr( \oluti0n.lilu:'tiu'ri fur Cn'-. \tg.- rnd K' !on(cnrruionsDr(dictionin rhc lrrlcrcd Dutri!ntsolulionrr(rc dLrrl,)Dcd nnd cxtihrnr(d. \irtidntion;l r( srri\fucror) INTRODUC'I'ION I .t c osr'l h)df(nuni,jcLrltJ,,:rcu.,: Jf dm,ncd |\rrr.L.| su'.rlr\rnrc\Lll. inl..,l.r'r.(s in rhu rJt.rri,'n f'ui|1'isr\Jl) I' n.irfi,.nr {l(\ti cr:rt , loe6) ThuL,d ..J ,.,l.ron Jr.,,rl.1 rri..r)t $ ll. lfof.i i.rl,..rrr,ol srr.:r:rlJ rJtr-1.rsh,.l;yc I'r r.:pl(rr,tr.\i 'lr rr Sitlron. A pRrtr.rrr)rn.\i n..lnc1tdJJit,,,n nrr) ilL-Jrjc th,., nulricnrLs,r..ftlcirni!. rl.rnr (1r!!'lJpnr(rr rnd t,r.)dr.it \,r'.r $cll r, dccrcirrilhc clr\r|1.,nnrintirl inrnr,.r(LcriCi,\ cr nl..lue(r).vi oU\srr.r(,gi..r rR.r\i! cr.,1. l99drrnd r..ihn.jLrcs rS ,ris fl.riAJ.,r).rdr). lrvel h.Ncb.cI dc\..1,.n.J ro.flrnIlc f(clcttnsot lhc s;luUon ln oracrto rdd llr( rlprollrllc nrrcur)rol lt rl|l."r. rhc co junrrJ ,,Jr.l c:r.h nr.lricnlc]..r)r(. in th( rccyclcd nLrtricnl solution nruslbc knowtj Ihr'.rinroflhj,\orl\\J,ro jr,lud)rhcfjlrcto-hjlhh.ort\"icll ard(hcrnirdl p'oc-'ss.r.on(r.-.Vg--lrdK.unLcrlrrJUoJrsinrl.,:r..c)rL\i nLrr;icrirrol,.ridr"u,ed tbr ,1'l:ill.j'..fo!'((,r iriS. r. Ii.ndr.rd.!ulofJl]J...rtrbr.ri(:rr.rod(t i,r rhc rrc(tiJ|,rrof ( r_ . \4i :rr(lK co..1"1rrrl Jr., ii rJilc c(ln. |1..rI*,tUtjuf!. NIATIItI A T,SAN.DI\I E'IIIoDS A!rosldh)dr.'|n r.)Jcrr] .,al|o"cd.tJ r00 1.,,.t-icnr \,,.U. rJr\.u 1nr' .., r rfrlJrlroIf.'r'rf.:rJ n r.ri;Jri.np.prrJrs,rk.r rJc)\tin!.t.rnrTbflnBr! rh-.drr.r.d , \.,: Lr.Lrl lor ir srnglero$ ro,c (ion {n,,../,r.rntl., .Frrslt(cd i rerricJrilrr. rn,u u,trn . rn lrj;'Jd Clr,slou.c.\ U .J Icr'\iJlos. or)r\fJonUnc iJt .|lc;ofErjre.r crccce. _lr'0 'I|l-.ir-' | -dr..rr.:d IrircrJ. cornt.,s(ior..fa nr..r,cnr,o r.rr,,rr rr.n.:1L ur. a. foltou,: \O-l:l.NHr-l.ll.|Orl.sO-.{.-5.K -F.{.(J-^.5.Vd.:o,tL.n06,B-nn9.CLr-0.1,2. N10-0 tll-. V'r.0.0: rrrCZn-u.00'.fhc c\n(rirncnr\ scricr.r(.1 orrrtur Scorcrnbrro \o\ flnb.r :001. Dur'n!ri,( rbo\c Nrior rrurr.nr .ot rriun,q,rh d,.itrenrinttil r ot,me. r.Irgedlicrr 200 I r,J,tU0L NcrJ usrJ A fo FolLtru,c cron $d, Dt:rntcd ||r conr:lirlr. 1| In . l(ngrh,,r,.1 r' I nr i r\ ior\) l: cd'-t(: \i h n..rl c rnd lheDtirr din,rl\ \!r, 6 t iIr': n, . Thr TIlIr, $(rc FrJ$n luttu\\ ri rh: .t-r'rJie r..cfIi(|rc.Air r(rrp.r1,r,c. 1 'Jrr\c

l, I r , r , '

) , r r ! r ir ( J l|r , i \ . ) t ., r r . ( , | l | , I

l)r!. tll r lS or lt oRTlVO Dt il. t l) { ) a rilr l-. |l. NlNlr r r lr . r nl Acr.rllo'r 7rs lsfls lrx)(,

scrc lot c..ted

^n

1 1J J | i

491

logilcrsysr(nr. M,ilturcrnd)ls roo[ pl]cc c\cry J0 scconJs :r)J l0rr)Iiulcfl\cr:rqc \:rI c( ucrc rccordcd. orcc c\ury rrr(rrnils ar 0li:0n.usir)c tC:'-l. tvg l.,rrd [K-l rcu5urcd AltechHPLCSyslcnr,(Unh,crsrlCilion Col!unr.7 nrnr,150x4.6mm)l a)in nLrlrient solutiors kcprir a r nk lbr 7 dayslvitha constnl pll (by addingHCI),in (onccnlralror) ordcl to \lud) lhe irnucnccol chclrica-lrc c!iorrror) rrrrcroc]lions rlcr' 1.lI,lS' l and[K ]). In rhiscirsc.C:l: . Ms:- il)d K'.jl labilirysr{ rffecrcdby Cn(\Ol):4ll:O.LlgSOr?H:O.K:SO.rnd K:O dis\olutiuor sflltnricrpirilroonly. blin nurricnrsolurrons kcpr in r rank \\rlh i pH r:rngcd[iom 5.5 ro t.2. in ordci lo dercnninc thcinflucncc ofthc pH chrr)gcon C.r-'ir)d V!__irrilabrlily. Fourd:rls3ficr nrlrienlsolurions withouraDyrnitlcialcoffcction, cbouL?.5 FJlaralronpH rcacheJ. Afier that pH $as.srlificiallydcc,crscJflom 7.: to 55 b) tlcl rdditro[ d d nleasuremcutsof [Ca- l. IMg"] jr)'!lrtioD!ofll rrlucucrecanrcdour.and c) in nurrientsolurionsrppheJ ro rhe cron for a DcrioJof 7 divs In orderro sruJv rhe cffectof crop,chcDiciireacrrons rrd irlt chanircs un rhecrolutionof tcar-1.IMs:-t rnd [K ] in the nutricntsokrtion.The ]iH of thc-nurricnrsoh-uonrrngcd froni 5.5 io i anrlwasatljusred cveryrD.Jnring ro a valLre o15.5.$lth ll)euddrlion ofHCl. Whenrhe EC of l\csc nurricnlsolLrtioDs r{achcdralLrshuhcr lhdD3 dS nr'. lhc solLtiun$as rejectcd.In the nlearliDlc,Do ficsb \vateror corrplcleDutrienlsolulionwis addedto the t0nk fof drc corcction of lhe rcuscdnutrientsolutio . The daily valLrcs of pfl and ECwerenre{sL|rcd lwo lilnespcrday:r108:00 cnd16t00. RESULTSAND DISCUSSION The ,neanmonthlyvc[,e] of thc greenhousc clinr.Ie!rri:rblcscollcclcd orcr rhe period0l00-19:00h locallrmc..iufiugrhc t.:rigdoi nrcxsUr(ffcnls, rrc prescntcd in pH, [C:'-'] nnd lMc"l nrc$L,edirr a n,.rrrr"nr TableL The eloluti, of \!atcrLrptake, uscdfor cropfcnisrriondrifinga ?-dii fcriiJ is siroinin Fig. t. i. 3 rn.t+. soluuon Effcctof lJlo-Ph) ricnlI'rocc.scs on lC0r:l nnd l\lgr'l Thc !rriJri.'r (,f {C.r"l .rndtlr4g'"1ir) lhc r,rricnt\)lurionJ c ro croDwnrer unHkc lTR, L d.D ). o,icur.d duriug rhc t.rrioJ rio|l) dxy I rnLrriLnr\;lurion\ pri:prration dd)) lo dr) r (c,surrinE lhorrhc(rop Jo.s nol lb:orb i r) nut cnlsr.crr)bc cilculalcJrsin! lhcrchlion:

r*c, =c^tV,:i:11,_t)

(l)

where(/r,ic)is rl)c[Crr'] dud IMgr'] diffcrcnccbcr\!'ccD lhc irilirl clcnrcntconccntration 1C,.,):r11d lhLir!rf(cnrruri(,n Juri g lhc J.ryr.rnJ I ..,rtL) rs thc inrri,rl\ctun)coftbc r)urricul solulrun. $rs Lilculrt(d Cropsrrcr unr:rkc Lhc(Ifr'crcnu! oflhc r)rcilsurcd volu c ofthc rul cntsoluti(nl. 'ionr EffectofCroDCN:tand l\tr!'*AbsorDtion AccoriingroVoogtind Sonnc;cld( l,).rrr) rl'canronnt of ( r:- ind Vr:- rbsofbed by s rlr:llurchvdroflonicrosc croD is 1.79 nrcq :rnLl0.25 nrcq resocrfircivncr L of t.insprrqd$rtcr Cpnsequcnrly, rlic reducrioD ol lCar-l rnd tMr''j dunjldrirc dar r to tl:lnr rrurricnls:rb$ipriori. ll,,..lCa"l,.l.,.Ll,''lg''1,).,luc caub'cg-rrinb1 rh-efollowing

= v,[ca'], -36rR-lca'1, d,/,"tCa:.1,

(2)

= Y,lMst'1,-7TR- lMc"l, d,,nJMg:.1,

(3)

v,

v,

492

Effect ofChemlcrl procesfeson lCa2+l

ilc,Jil;,i'ifJu:.1'is; **,.,if;"il:::Tl':f H,T9li", ;:*:#:idrsil"f ,; ff""Ti:d..':ii5,i,"Ji3;'],fli9,i:'"?'J!it.',",ii:' l:l"i"#i:";Ti[i,i]l

i,l+lilr"ihT,'ril'f i*j;l,niii* :i*{*il,r:,:1:,'i#$:rif .ht[(.^] -2 . i)7 d p, . O . 8 t d p -\ )s

a\

:ill,""xi'iiJ:::,:i::tlili:',,:Lli'i#1Tj,;sl!1f:;,1f';'*1i3,"'f .'n;i'"''|iri=' .ij;-1,,T#lJl t -;;'i';:'r=ti i;r;'i:;;:

i;il'i:ll'ft:['.j'# p';!]1tsl.il;lti'35'

."lrr:"l;i$i'iirl iir..ri'1iri:iiirtirll,l'*H ui,.',." ruu,i11." .ltticn) l( al,,a,7= [cl: 1,,,,,+

:rnd

()

(5)

rsoh'c 0

(8)

Thus,in Dutdentsolulionsuscd for crop fcrtjgatioD. a conrinuously lMgl'l incrcmcnl will beobserved. = ri,m IM{: 1,,^{,1,lN,t,l?-l . Fig.9.showsrhc rilari of lMr: l ditlerenccs L ') asI funcrion oi LC LtitTcrcnce fronrEC.i r.ifC = EC- EC,,,). fMS'-l - fMg--1.,,.,. 'ng Therelationfoundlvasl

,/r,,[,ltc"]= l 05 dZC+O.+s

(e)

whcredtc is thelariatioD0f EC lionr rheinitialvaluc. in rheNurrientSolution ll\lg:'l Predlction [Mg' ] duringthcdoy/ canbe crlcrhlcdusinglherelili(nri lt/,qrl,:[.1,4]:.1,,,,,+(/[n/sr.]/(,

( l0)

Fig. I0 :ho\\s nlcxsur..d ilnd cslin lcd IJs g cqn.( t0r]. \r.t cs of IN,tg:']in rlLrlflcnr roiulir,r)s uscJ r'orcr0p Ii. igltir,n.ll h:rsro hcin,,rcrlth.rrlhc JIt:r rrrid_for !rlidxlionwcrcditlcrcntlioDlll)oscuscdlbr c libr'0lion ol lhcnrodcl. In eqD.( l0) [Mg-']r,,rr w s gilcn irsirlputpnrlnclcr in lhe :,{urrlent Solution lK'l Prcdl$tlon in DUrncnr soh,rions $|lh DH [Ca']. IMg- ]. tK-l nd lNHr'l qcrc nrc.rsurcJ trngctj lrorD5.5 lo ? irnJ FC r lgcJ li(,nr I { lo 1..1JS m'. .hcd tir croDl,.r1i!!uut).For \ith [C \ilLrcsot lhc rbovc rrngc.I linc:rrlr:'rrr,on nu icntsr)luliors bcnrcinEC rnd lol0l s h colccnlrillion is rcllrcd (U.S.SlslinityL borloty SliIl]: l0Jll Slvv.s aDd AJofiiJis. lt99r 'fhc tori\l:rlt ui, ccnlr.rrn,of rrlrurt|)liotuti,,n.:rnnlirJt,rr Jroo i.nrgirrion!vrsc:rl(ul.uc.rs11grhcrcl u(,n(S.rv\\rndAJ.Irri(lii.,9eo): _1.46: c,{ = 9.819.1iC

(ll)

AccorJrDg to Dc RijckirndSchre\cns (mcqL ) (l()99).rhcror.rt sirlrj,Jnccntrrliun nulri!'ntsolutiol) is equrlto lhe sLrntofthe n)cn)c lions cuncctrlno (C-r..jneq

tri

C,,,,= Cr. + C(.,. I C,r,.

(t2)

where.C\ .C(. rndC..".. irc rhe tCd: I, tvg: l and lK-l crlcutaled i neq Ll respecrrvely, Thc evolutionof CEc a'ld C" values calculatedfor 6 nutrieN solurionsarc presented in Fig. ll.Asrnrlldiffcrence(C,-.mcqLr)isohreNcdbetweenCrcandC,r Imlr€dialely anerlheprepararion of rhenurrient s;lulion,sincefor lhecalcularion ofCa

the concentration of otherthanCa'z*,Mgr* andK+ calions,is not takeninto accounr.The Cr.. ircrementduring the nutrientsolutionuse is attriburcdmainly to the incrementof cationsnot absorb€d by rhecrop. ln conlrasl.dunngthe samep€riodofnutrienrsolution use, [NH4'1.which was nor raken inro accounrior C.", esiimarion,was continuallv decreased dueto plants'absorption(datanot shown) Assumingthal Crc = C"a,+ C^" andusingEqn.(l l) andinitial measured valuesof EC, C(.,Cc",,andCMs.., theinilialC,.,valuecanbeestimated byi C^.,=9.819 tC-Cr.

-C.,,. -C R. -1.462

(13)

SinccC,",rcpresenti lhe concenrralion o{ elctncnls noribsorbed bv theDlbnts. lls Nhcration be ertifialed for I day I nutrient prciaratidn o solution use a ner lh e day { I l. .can. Dyrhet0rro!*tng rel8tron:

.

\,.,,

_c..... v,. - --i:-----:-

( j{l

In cqn.(13),rqrlacrng C,.,.C firdC... ( cq L l vnhcshy rhoscesLrmnlcrl for cachday ol nurflcnrsolurionusc:b) Fqn'.lra), (7r lnd (10) resiccrivel), andllrc dlily nrcasurcd EC (dS m') rnlue.rhe d.rilyC. canbc cnlc l cJ ThcscC !rtu.:s pructically rcnrcsent thc lotrc.rpossiblc !.rlucl li)r tK l. sincc lhc cstimrrrr5n ofrhe iniliitl C.., v.luc. rhc INH;l wis iclJlcd Fig l2 showsrhc 'br comn:rricon berwcc m{asurcd ltndeninrcted usedfor cropfcilisarion IK-l ! il.rcsIn nuricntsolLrtions CONCLUSIONS M easurernenls.o f grc.nhou\e nicrocltmatevrflables.crof walerlptake as well fls pH. LC i|]d Ca_. N'lg"andK con.:enr:l|ion in nurricnr sotutioiskeprin slorasclanl or afplicdfor fL.rrig3tlon of a ereenhousc soillcss.rorc ct:op. allo$cds rd)ing rhaeffecrof bxlph)sr(alrnd chenn..olproccsscs on Cs'. Mg'_ ind K- conccnk3riou rn lhc recircrlatednuiricnrsolulion The resLrhs showedthar\aridrions of Ca:- coqccnlralion in lhe n. flenrsolution $ere hi8hl) corrclaredlo crop \rJlcr uflJke. crol Ca/_absorplron,fc4ilrzerdissolurion and pH variarionof rhe nutricnt solutron,The concenlralonof Mal in thc nutrienl was correlared solurlon wilh lhe EC of rhc sohrron.Lqualions for aar'. Ms:' and K' concentration predrclronin rhe rccyclednutrienrsoluuonuere dereloped.cal-ihrsled and validatedwilh satisfactorv resuhs. LlleratureCitcd De Rijck, C andSchrevens, E. 1999.CLridclinos to optimizerhemacrocalionandmaL.ro, 6nion composirionof nutri€nrsolulionsusingmixturerheory.J. Agric. Engng.Res. 721355-362. Lea-Cox, J.D.,Slutle,GW.,Bcrry,w.L. andwhecler,R.M. 1999.Nurrienr dynamics and pH/charge-balancc relationships in hydroponicsolutions. ,4da tlod. 481t241,249. Raviv,M., Krasnovski,A., \4edina.S. and Reuveni,R. 1998.Assessment of various controlslrategies for recirculalionofgreenhousc emuentsundersemi,aridcondirions. J. Hon.Sci.Biorech. 73:485-491. Sawas,D. andAdarDidis, K. 1999.Aulonratednranagement ofnulrieot solutionbasedon targel clectricalconductivitt pH, arrd nutricnt concenlrationralios. J. PlaDtNulr 22(9):14151432. U.S. SaslinityLaboratoryStafl I954. Diagnosisand improventenlof salire and alkali soils.USDAHnndbookNo. 60, U.S.covernmen(PrintingOIlice,Washington, DC. Voogr,W and Sonneveld, C- 1996.NulrieDtm:rnagement ilr closcdgrowingsysremsfor grecnhouse production-Intl. Symp.on PlantProductionin CloscdEcosystems, Narita, Japan,August26-29. 495

Zckki,H...caurhier, L. and Cosselin. A. 1996.crowrh.Droducrrvirv. and miner;l or wrtholrt

.iiili,,:,". gi::l!iii6,ij'ft13*, ;iil,Hilill,,:l,Hi:lfi"JT:l" "1in

Trblc.

ovc',he "T:n',;Jtii6b:13$l'il,::iii,,fj n:,f;"i*$:o.lili:."J"Til*il:"*"red Period Septcffber 200l Oclober 2001 Novcmber 2001

rncominsjoll:radiation *.pS.A"-***l--E t4s 101 94

26A

36.E 44.5 66.1

2t,j Ij.8

Fllurer

TI I

D.yJ

Fig.l. Cumulative wateruptakeffom the Fi8.2. Mcar dorlypH valucs for th. 7 rose duringlhc 7 dayspcriod dnyspcriodthf,tnLrrrienr solLrtion )crop was used for te rose croD fenigation (n=5)

496

l.

E

fig. 3. [Ca:'] duringthe ? daysperiodlhar nutaiCntsohrtionwas uscd fof rose cropferrigation(n=5).

Fig.4.tMgr-l duringthe 7 daysperiod thatnutrienr solutionwasuscdfor rosecropterligatioo (n=5).

3s i-,

, )a1

ory9 f r g . ), [L a - J d rl l c rl rl c c s o l u rx ,D .\ { n = 1 2 )I' o r

In nl fi tent l h c-[C " ], r.

Fig.6.Evolrtionin tinre of [Cr:'] in nutricnl solulions notapplicd t{)thc (.h,tcr"l- icr' l - [ca'1," 1,nrs poinlsafe ntcanvalltcs crop, DatA L ) as R funclionof Dll diillrcncc Barsrcprcs€nt theSD. 0r=12). from pll,,jir.Tlle conlinuesline rcprescntsa 2"" ordcr polynoqriul exprcssion lltrcdlo ttc data(R'of 0.97).

t"

t, 3

tc.'J n.!&,cd qres (noa f')

r - rg . /. M c a s u rc dv e r:i u se s tl l n tte dl La_ l t0 nulrien! solutions used for rosc crop fertigation (h=5).

DaF

Fig.8 Evolulionin lime ot [Mg]'l in nutnent solutioltsnot appled to the crop. Data poin6;r€ Dr€an values (n=6). Bars representahe SD, 491

I :

83

E 0,3

I

dEc(dsm')

tMdl n!.tu6d *16r (d!q r')

Fic,9. IMc:'l diffcrencein nurrient Fig.10.Measurcd vcrsuscsrimared IMsl'l iolitidns frorn lMqI.l ",,. in nutrrent solutions rrscdfoia r-osi (dEctMgl'l= IMs'-l - IMc'-j,;,,, (n-?), crcpfcnigalion nl8 L') as a fuflcrionof EC differcnccfrom EC"rr(n=5).The continucsline wal obscrvcdby (R' of 0.86). linerrrcgression

qr!

F:

?0

I

lll

!

d' .

!::i

€""':.

i

E.' :1 3 5 7 9 11 13151f L21 232521 Oay€

(r) tig, 11.Evolution ofClc (.) andC.r (o) Fig,12.Evolulioniu tiNc of nlcasurcd (E)[K'1,in 4 nutricDt andeslimat€d calcul&ted using"Ecval{essnd thc sum of [Ca"], [Mg'-] and solutions appliad for a crop (n=6), fcrtigationp;;iod of 2? days.Th. rcspcctivcly Bars [K'] continuousline represcntstllc rcp.cs.nt theSD. optimumvalucsof'[K'] in tbc nutricntsolulion.

498

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