Journal of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies
Wann Fanwar 3
Factors Related to Language Shift among the Tindal Population in Ratau, Kota Belud, Sabah Jimmy Kijai, Ritha Maidom Lampadan, and Daron Benjamin Loo 4 - 13 Defining the Integration of Faith and Learning
Darrin Thomas 14 - 20
Motivation Toward English Language Learning of Thai Students Majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University
Nakhon Kitjaroonchai &Tantip Kitjaroonchai 21 - 40
Treating Anorexia Nervosa through Pharmacotherapy and Psychotherapy
Samira Behiyat 41 - 49
Cross-cultural Communication in Southeast Asia: A Biblical and Psychological Perspective
Ebenezer A. Belete 50 - 53
True to the Word: Four Quadrants Approach to Bible Study
Wann Fanwar 54 - 68
God’s Presence in ‘the Call of Moses’: The Structure, Theme, and Theology of Exod 2:23-4:17
Duncan Thomson 69 - 75
Who is Jesus?: Linking the Historical Jesus with the Christ of Faith
Gerard Bernard 76 - 77
CATALYST, Journal of the Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies ISSN 1905-6931 Editor Wann M Fanwar, Asia-Pacific International University, Thailand Editorial Review Board Samuel Gaikwad, Associate Dean, Graduate School, Adventist International Institute for Advanced Studies, Philippines Clifford Jones, Associate Dean, SDA Theological Seminary, Andrews University, USA Chayada Thanavisuth, Dean, Faculty of Arts, Assumption University, Thailand Siroj Sorajjakool, Professor, Theological Studies, Loma Linda University, USA Kai Arasola, Professor, Religious Education, Lönnrot University, Finland Daniel Bedianko, Dean, School of Graduate Studies, Valley View University, Ghana Beulah Manuel, Professor of English, Washington Adventist University, USA Loren Agrey, President, Asia-Pacific International University, Thailand Oktavian Mantiri, Director, Graduate Studies Program, Asia-Pacific International University, Thailand Ritha Lampadan, Dean, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Asia-Pacific International University, Thailand Pak Lee, Professor, Accounting and Finance, Adventist International Institute for Advanced Studies, Philippines Publication Board Wann M Fanwar, Wayne Hamra, Ronny Kontour, Jee Sang Hoon, Wanlee Putsom, Ritha Lampadan, Nola Tudu, Henry Foster, Kamolnan Taweeyanyongkul, Petcharat Watanapinyo, May Su Thwe Mang Copy Editor Nola Tudu Layout May Su Thwe Mang Editorial Statement: Aim and Scope CATALYST is an inter-disciplinary, peer-reviewed journal published by the Institute for interdisciplinary Studies of Asia-Pacific International University. The journal is intended to be published online with a limited number of hard copies available. The objective of the journal encompasses scholarly as well as professional articles, seminar/forum papers, research papers, and book reviews. The journal is interdisciplinary and brings together articles in several areas of the social sciences such as religion, education, arts and humanities, and business. The journal aims to facilitate scholarly activity among the faculty of Asia-Pacific International University and to engender scholarly exchanges with other universities within Thailand and with visiting lecturers, pastors, and teachers from other parts of the world. Indexing EBSCO and CAR Submissions All articles will undergo a double blind peer-review process. Manuscripts should be in MS Word format and should relate to one of the relevant disciplines. Manuscripts should include an abstract not exceeding 200 words. All manuscripts should adhere, as much as possible, to the Institute Press Manual which is available online at http://www.apiu.edu/publications/aiu_catalyst.html All manuscripts should be submitted via email attachment to [email protected]
or [email protected]
Current and Past Issues Volume 6 December 2011 Volume 5 December 2010 Volume 4 November 2009 Volume 3 November 2008 Volume 2 November 2007 Volume 1 November 2006 Contact information Wann M Fanwar [email protected]
Tel: +66-36-720777 ext 1505 May Su Thwe Mang [email protected]
Tel: +66-36-720777 ext 1504 © Institute Press, Asia-Pacific International University, 2012
Editorial Catalyst is now in its seventh year of publication. In some ways this is a landmark achievement, especially as this issue will be the first one to be listed in EBSCO. This is a worthwhile milestone for the journal and its publishers. With each new milestone, Catalyst continues to grow and reflect its original intentionality: to serve as an inter-disciplinary journal for Asia-Pacific International University. There has been a surge of interest in the journal with numerous submissions of manuscripts from various sources. For a variety of reasons, not all the submitted manuscripts necessarily made it into this issue of Catalyst. Nevertheless, this is an encouraging trend and I hope that Catalyst will become a journal whose articles truly reflect its raison-d’être. I thank all contributors to this issue of Catalyst and invite others to also consider Catalyst as their potential publication avenue. Wann Fanwar Editor, Catalyst
Catalyst ISSN: 0905 - 6931, Volume 7, No. 1, 2012 Institute Press
Factors Related to Language Shift among the Tindal Population in Ratau, Kota Belud, Sabah Jimmy Kijai, Ritha Lampadan, and Daron Benjamin Loo Abstract This research serves as a preliminary analysis of the language situation of Tindal, a Dusunic language spoken in Kampung Ratau, Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia. For the past several years, it has been observed that the use of the mother tongue of the community, Tindal, has steadily declined while the domain of Bahasa Malaysia (BM), the national language, has increasingly widened. A survey was administered to selected residents of Kampung Ratau to determine language use and their perception of the economic and social functionality of Tindal and Bahasa Malaysia. The results indicate that there is indeed a language shift between the older and younger residents of Kampung Ratau with the older ones predominantly using Tindal while the younger ones primarily use Bahasa Malaysia in their daily communication. Overall, the respondents think Tindal is an important cultural marker to preserve their identity, both in the present and for the future. They agree that the continuous use of Tindal will ensure the longevity of the language. Though the speakers of Tindal do acknowledge the vital role they play in preserving this minority language, they are also aware that a proficient grasp of Malay is necessary. Most respondents view BM as important since it is the accepted medium which allows them to fully function socially and economically. The dilemma for the residents of Kampung Ratau is that they are being torn between preserving Tindal, their mother tongue, and subordinating it to the more dominant Bahasa Malaysia, the national language. This, unfortunately, is a shared concern affecting many other minor ethnic language communities in Malaysia. Key words: language shift, Tindal, Sabah, Bahasa Malaysia Introduction Malaysia has 139 languages of which 98 are spoken primarily in East Malaysia – Sabah and Sarawak (Ethnologue, 2009). The presence of varying tongues in the country led to the need for a selection of a lingua franca for communication. Since Malay has always been the lingua franca in the region, and the Malays have long held political dominance in the country, Malay was selected as the sole official language of the newly independent Malaysia (Wong & James, 2000). To achieve integration, the nation’s policy makers decided on a National language. Malaysia’s National Language Policy, as stated in Article 152 of the country’s Constitution, positions Malay or BM as the only national language of the country from the time of Independence (Omar, 1985, p. 41). After joining Malaya, Sarawak and Singapore in 1963 to form the Federation of Malaysia, Sabah placed emphasis on acquiring the national language. For the sake of social and economic progress, as well as assimilating into the fast-growing Malaysian culture, Kadazan/Dusun parents began to use BM in their homes (Lasimbang, 1996). According to Lasimbang and Kinajil (2000), by early 1980s, the Kadazan/Dusun community began to see telltale signs of language loss , an early sign of language shift. They attributed this shifting away of the the Kadasan/Dusun language chains to modernization and development (p. 416). Language shift occurs when a particular linguistic community gradually replaces the local dialect with another language which is perceived as more prestigious or dominant (Lee, 2008; Trudgill, 2000). It is a linguistic event that has become a serious concern to sociolinguists and informed community members as it tends to signal eventual language loss and death (Mackey, 1980, p.68). Understanding what motivates such shift might give communities strategies for successful language revitalization efforts; or at the very least, 4
assist them in recognizing when such efforts should be seriously considered and when language should be allowed its own course. In the village of Ratau, in the District of Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia, the use of Tindal, the mother tongue of the community, appears to have declined over the years. Instead, the use of Bahasa Malaysia (BM), the lingua franca of Malaysia, has slowly gained dominance. In this paper, we report the findings of a study designed to examine the attitudes of selected residents of Kampung Ratau about their use of Tindal and BM to determine (a) if there is a language shift, and (b) the factors that may have influenced this language shift. It is hoped that this study will provide some understanding of the dynamics between the uses of BM and Tindal. Tindal is a variety of the Dusunic language family, a subgroup of the Austronesian language family (Ethnologue, 2009). Tindal, which means “people who have come out from the earth,” is a coastal Dusunic language, where it is spoken along the west coast of Sabah, primarily in the Kota Belud area (Robinson, 2006). Tindal is often used interchangeably with the name Dusun. One should note here that “Kadazan” and “Dusun” are terms used by different groups of people who speak varieties of the Dusunic language. In fact, Kadazandusun has been used as a general term for all languages in the Dusunic language family (Lasimbang & Kinajil, 2000, p.415). Literature Review Most literature on language shift examines factors that motivate the shift, and those factors can basically be divided into two categories: internal and external. The internal factors refer to those elements that lie within the speech community while the external ones are those residing outside (David & Dealwis, 2008). In their report of a study on language shift in Sabah and Sarawak, David and Dealwis (2008) listed urbanization, increased mobility, and education as macro level language shift factors. Micro level language shift factors involve exogamous marriages, locality, network density, language attitudes, and the lack of a lingua franca. Crawford (1996), on the other hand, maintains that language shift is mainly internally directed and is reflective of changes in social and cultural values within the linguistic community. However, he readily acknowledges that the internal changes are often a reaction to external pressures, and refers to factors cited by Fishman (1991) as “dislocations”. Dislocations are caused by a number of factors such as demographic factors (mobility and intermarriages), economic factors (employment and commerce), mass media, social identifiers or role models for the young people (Crawford, 1996, pp. 57-58). Macro Level Language Shift Factors Urbanization and Increased Mobility In general, movement from the rural to urban areas is seen as an act of increasing opportunities for better life. In an area where different languages are spoken, such movement usually affects the speakers’ choice of language. The movement is always toward one that is closely associated with socioeconomic progress (Abas, 2005; Borbely, 2000; Holmes, 2008; Morita, 2007). In order to fit into the new environment, ethnic minorities are compelled to adapt to a new lingua franca. This usually results in the narrowing of the use of the mother tongue to home domain only (David & Dealwis, 2008). Ultimately, those working and living in the urban areas find themselves using the dominant language in their social network at the expense of their mother tongue. In relation to socioeconomic factors, Kershaw (1992), who conducted a study on the Dusuns in Brunei, attributed language shift to the changes in the socioeconomic landscape of a speech community. His study revealed that today’s younger generation is not exposed to the “elements” which require the use of the native language. These elements include an agrarian atmosphere in which agricultural occupation was the norm. With more career choices, many Dusuns in Brunei have progressed from being farmers to civil servants. The success of the pioneering Dusuns in ‘upgrading’ their lives is an encouragement to others to follow in their footsteps. Education In a multilingual society, the language chosen as the medium of instructions in educational institutions will attract the efforts of non-native speakers to acquire it. The motivation for such behavior is obvious--to succeed in academics. Based on a study done in Sabah where the medium of instruction in school is BM, 5
Lasimbang (1997) reported that parents, in efforts to ensure that their children will do well in schools, have resorted to communicating to their children in BM as a way to assist them master the language. Martin (2005) observed the same phenomenon in Brunei. Many parents admitted that they used Malay at home instead of their own mother tongue because Malay is the medium of instruction in schools. Other studies concur with this finding (Anonby, 1999; Borbely, 2000; David, 2003, 2008; Morita, 2007). Micro Level Language Shift Exogamous Marriages A number of research studies show that exogamous marriages are influential in shaping the linguistics environment at home. This leads to language shift (Borberly, 2000; David, 2003, 2008; Martin, 2008; Martin & Yen, 1992). In situations where spouses come from different linguistic background, there is a clear need to establish a common language for the home. In some situations, a linguistic compromise is made which often does not include the use of either spouse’s mother tongue. In other situations, one of them will adopt the spouse’s language if it is the dominant one in the society. Both situations involve a lack of mother tongue usage which discourages the maintenance of such language (Lasimbang, 1996). In the case of mixed marriages among the Kelabits, Martin and Yen (1992) discovered that 65% communicated in English while 15% did so in Malay. Among all the respondents, regardless of the ethnicity of the spouses, 45% reported the use of English as a main means of communication, followed by 33% who used Kelabit and 15% who used Malay. In Martin’s (2005) study on the Belait community in Brunei, findings indicated that 95% of the parents stated that Malay was used with their children. Even so, Martin (2005) points out that even though Belait-speaking parents do not transmit Belait to their children, the grandparents are countering these deliberate efforts. However, these efforts by the older generation are futile as the younger generation still lean towards the use of Malay even when comprehension of Belait is possible. Locality Geographical context affects the linguistic ecology of ethnic minorities as well. Close proximity with speakers of other languages forces community members to reach a compromise. Often, this compromise is made at the expense of abandoning the native language for one that is understood by the general public. In other words, changes in the environment could be part of a broader shifting process, as discovered by Kershaw (1992) in his studies of the Brunei Dusuns’ adaptation of Brunei Malay culture and identity. Language Attitudes and Prestige Language is a social trend that is closely linked to a community’s social structure and value system. A language, or a dialect, will be held prestigious if it proves economically, politically, or socially beneficial (Trudgill, 2000). A language’s prestige can also be evaluated by taking into account the community’s language attitudes. Kershaw (1992) considered the youth’s attitudes as well as the elders’ choice of response as two elements of prestige. Based on a study done in Brunei, he reports that the youth consider Brunei Dusun as archaic while the elders make compromises in their choice of language when responding to the younger generation. Similar observations can be made on the Orang Miriek of Sarawak, where the younger generation is losing their sense of pride in being Miriek (Ghani and Ridzuan, 1992). Ghani and Ridzuan (1992) report that the Orang Miriek is economically disadvantaged in comparison to most groups in the Miri area. To make matters worse, they are perceived as backwards by their immediate surroundings (p. 135). Furthermore, in a personal communication with a Miriek local, Ghani and Ridzuan (1992) learned that some of the new generation experience some sense of embarrassment in using Miriek because they perceive it as “bahasa kuno” [primitive language]. They prefer to use Malay as they think it is modern, “so they want to learn and use that only.” (p. 134). In a study on language attitudes in a multi-ethnic organization in Kuching, Sarawak, Ting (2003) revealed that attitudes can be explained in terms of the importance of English in various contexts and the affective dimension of the use of English and BM. Ting discovered that participants believed that a good command of English would ensure a good educational future for their family (children). Furthermore, a high percentage of 6
the respondents (96.48%) indicated that they wanted their children to be proficient in both English and BM. Ting also concluded that about half of the participants felt positively about using English as a language for wider communication. In a study of language acquisition among the Punjabi community of West Malaysia, David (2003) reported that a person who uses English is seen as educated while a person who uses Punjabi is seen as having a lower education. She further observed that the Portuguese community communicates in English so as to appear sophisticated when their relatives visit from abroad. These studies appear to suggest that changes experienced by a speech community, whether internal or external, impact the communities’ attitudes toward language preferences. Though these factors may be prevalent across generations, there are certain aspects which may be relevant to a particular age generation, for example, the use of language as shown in Martin’s (2005) study. Taking this into account, this study aims to discover whether there is a difference in terms of language use between age groups, as well as whether or not there is a different perception towards factors linked with language shift discussed in the literature. Methodology Participants for this study were selected, using purposeful sampling, from a population of Tindal speaking residents in the village of Ratau in the District of Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia. To determine whether or not language shift affected a particular age group, we separated the participants to those who were under 25 years old (younger participants) and those who wereover 30 years old (older participants). In addition, this study was delimited to only literate members of the village. Subjects who agreed to participate in this study were given a survey questionnaire consisting of 36 items: 8 items on demographic characteristics, 26 items on factors related to the use of Tindal and BM, and 2 open-ended items on reasons why they believe parents do not speak Tindal to their children, and, if they were married, why they don’t speak Tindal to their children. The 26 items, designed to measure attitude about the use of Tindal and BM, were scaled along a 5-point Likert Scale from 1-Strongly Disagree to 5-Strongly Agree. These items were constructed based on a comprehensive review of the literature and feedback from parents and students who had personal experience with language shift. As indicated earlier, the participants were selected using purposeful sampling. They were selected by virtue of their being residents of Kampung Ratau; that they met our age group criterion for inclusion (25 and younger and 30 and older); and they were willing to engage in the study. The survey was conducted in BM. In the preface or introductory part of the questionnaire, a brief explanation of the purpose of the study was given. In addition, respondents were assured that their participation in the research would not harm them in any way. They were not required to disclose their identity, thus assuring them of anonymity. A research assistant was recruited to give the survey at the homes of some of village residents. Some were also administered at small social gatherings by one of the researchers. It took about two weeks to complete the study before it was decided that there was no one else to approach. Some of them handed the questionnaire directly to the researcher. Others were returned through the assigned person. Although the registered population was about 350, the population residing at the village at the time the survey was conducted was much smaller due to migration motivated by career, education and marriages. Result The demographic characteristics of the participants are summarized in Table 1. Thirty-eight persons participated in this study. Of these, 24 (63.2%) were married, and mostly male (60.5%). Only 5 (13.2%) of the participants had college degrees. All participants considered themselves as Dusuns. Approximately 30% of them were employed by the government or the private sector. Another 34% reported they were self-employed. The average age of the participants was 34 years old (SD=11.77). Seventy-four percent of the respondents reported using Tindal always or all the time, while 72% indicated they spoke BM always or all the time. A cross-tabulation indicates that everyone spoke both languages sometime to all the time. Thus, the subjects in this study were clearly bilingual. Only 11% of them spoke English regularly. The mean age of the older participants was 41.72 (SD=5.95) while the average age of the younger ones was 19.77 (SD=3.42).
Table 1. Participants’ Characteristics (N=38) Variable n % Gender Male 23 60.5 Female 15 39.5 Marital Status Married 24 63.2 Single 14 36.8 Educational Level Bachelors 5 13.2 SPM/STPM 22 57.9 SRP 10 26.3 Other 1 2.6 Occupation Public Sector 9 23.7 Private Sector 2 5.3 Farmer 2 5.3 Self-employed 13 34.2 Other 12 31.6 In Table 2, the percent of younger or older participants using Tindal, Bahasa Malaysia or English are shown. Ninety percent of the older participants use Tindal almost always or all the time compared to only 30.8% among the younger participants. Bahasa Malaysia was used almost always or all the time by 100% of the younger participants compared to only 56.5% among the older participants. These group differences in the usage of Tindal and BM are statistically significant (p>0.01). The use of English is minimal at 15.4% for the younger participants and 8.7% among the older participants. These results appear to suggest that there is a language shift among the Dusuns of Kampung Ratau with the older ones using Tindal while the younger ones use predominantly Bahasa Malaysia in their daily communication routines. Table 2. Use of Tindal, Bahasa Malaysia and English by Age Group. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Age Group* Language Younger (n=13) Older (n=24) χ2 p --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tindal 30.8 96.0 18.77 0.001 Bahasa Malaysia 100.0 56.5 7.83 0.005 English 15.4 8.7 0.38 0.540 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------*Percent reporting ‘Almost always or all the time’. Table 3 shows item mean and standard deviation as well as the percentage of respondents who agreed or strongly agreed to the respective statement. For the purpose of this study, items with mean responses of 3.5 or higher are considered important reasons for the use of Tindal or BM. In defense of the use of Tindal, the participants reported that (a) knowing Tindal is important for cultural identity (4.74); (b) the future of Tindal is important (4.44); and (c) that the Tindal language will die if the current generation does not know it (4.61). To be sure Tindal does not die, the participants reported they must use and know it (4.37) and that it would be embarrassing not to know Tindal (4.18). While it is apparent that Tindal is important, the use of BM is equally essential. For example, knowing BM is important for (a) school success (4.42), (b) dealing with the government (4.18), (c) getting good jobs (4.00) and (d) communication and interaction with the general population (4.26). A series of t-tests for independent samples using 0.01 as the level of significance were conducted to determine if there were gender or marital status differences on subjects’ attitudes toward the use of Tindal and BM. No statistically significant differences were found between male and female. There were also no statistically significant differences between older and younger participants. There were also no significant differences in attitudes between self-employed (farmer/self-employed) and those employed by government (public) or private sectors. These results suggest that there is consensus among the participants 8
of the importance of using Tindal and Bahasa Malaysia, regardless of their gender, work situations, or age group. Table 3. Item mean, standard deviation and percent of ‘agree/strongly agree’ (N=38) Item Tindal language is important for the identity of the Tindal people Tindal (language) will die if the new generation does not know it. The future of Tindal is important. Knowledge of Bahasa Malaysia helps one study effectively in school. I can make sure that Tindal does not die by knowing/using it. Bahasa Malaysia helps one to mix around with people from all walks of life. Bahasa Malaysia helps one to deal with the government. It will be embarrassing not to know the mother tongue, Tindal. One can learn Bahasa Malaysia even Tindal is spoken at home. Bahasa Malaysia can help one get a good job in Malaysia. It will be difficult to get a good job if one does not know Bahasa Malaysia. The future is brighter for those who know Bahasa Malaysia. Knowledge of Tindal helps one to study effectively in school. Tindal can help one to mix around with people from all walks of life. The future is brighter for those who know Tindal. The ability to use Tindal well is a sign of being educated. The ability to use Bahasa Malaysia well is a sign of being educated. Tindal can help one get a good job in Malaysia. Tindal helps one when dealing with the government.
M 4.74 4.61 4.44 4.42 4.37 4.26
SD 0.72 0.64 0.68 0.50 0.67 0.68
% 97.4 92.1 89.5 100.0 89.5 92.1
4.18 4.18 4.13 4.00 3.89
0.56 0.95 0.74 0.46 1.08
92.1 78.9 89.5 89.5 76.3
3.63 3.31 3.29 3.18 2.95 2.95 2.95 2.74
0.88 0.84 1.11 0.80 0.96 1.04 0.73 0.89
68.4 44.7 50.0 31.6 31.6 36.8 15.8 15.8
Bahasa Malaysia can be used as an identity for the Tindal people. If one does not know Tindal, it will be difficult to get a job. Bahasa Malaysia is more beautiful than Tindal. It is not embarrassing not to know Tindal. It is not embarrassing not to know Bahasa Malaysia. Not proud of Tindal. Tindal is not relevant at this stage.
2.50 2.47 2.42 2.39 2.37 1.82 1.63
1.08 0.76 1.03 1.05 0.82 1.20 0.88
15.8 5.3 15.8 13.2 13.2 15.8 2.6
Discussion In this study, we found that over 70% of the subjects speak Tindal or BM always or all the time. Additionally, we found that all (100%) speak both Tindal and BM, clearly suggesting that they are bilingual. When disaggregated by age group, a majority of the older participants use Tindal while all of the younger ones use BM almost always or all the time in daily communication. This result points to a possible language shift. On the one hand, Tindal is important for maintaining cultural identity and therefore, the younger generation should learn it. On the other, the use of BM is equally important. It is, after all, the national language. Therefore, one should know BM for school success, dealing with government, getting good jobs, and communicating and interacting with the general population. Closer analysis of the results show that the respondents, regardless of age, seem to be at two opposite ends, where they claim Tindal as their identity marker but seemingly value BM for practical purposes. At one end, the respondents acknowledge the socioeconomic benefits BM offers. On the other, they also realize that Tindal is a major indicator of their ethnic identity. A majority of the participants in this study are conversant in both BM and Tindal. The necessity to converse in BM becomes even more evident as two thirds of these respondents are working in the private or public sectors. Being employed requires the use of BM as a practical means to interact with members external to the Tindal community. Hence, in pursuing their social and economic aspirations, these respondents deem the use of BM as practically valuable. They know that being functionally literate in BM is important since Tindal does not guarantee them a good job in 9
Malaysia. The participants in this study recognize that career prospects in Malaysia become better with the knowledge of the working language. This is consistent with David (2003) who observed that the Punjabi Sikhs in the Klang Valley of Malaysia chose to learn both BM and English because it is crucial for their economic well-being. Trudgill (2000) also suggested that many minority languages in Malaysia are giving way to BM and English, the former and latter being national and international languages, respectively, for economic reasons. Our study indicates that a major reason for learning BM is that it is the medium of instruction in all national schools. Education plays a vital role in determining the preferred language of communication. Since schools in Malaysia are operated in the national language, the community is compelled to ensure a linguistic environment that facilitates the learning of Bahasa Malaysia, the school’s medium of instruction. This is consistent with Martin (2005) who reported that parents of the Belait community in Brunei chose to speak Malay with their children. David (2003) reported that the Punjabi community in Peninsular Malaysia associated the use of English with higher education, while the native language is associated with low education. Tindal, and many native languages of Sabah, may be viewed by some as ‘lacking’ in authority, perhaps because they are vernacular languages that have not developed into lingua franca languages. Bahasa Malaysia, on the other hand, has become the lingua franca at all levels of the Malaysian society. Whether or not knowing BM can be validly associated with levels of education is, however, debatable. Further research need to be conducted to provide empirical evidence for such a notion. Participants in this study regard Tindal as a distinguishing trait for the community of Kampung Ratau. Though the use of BM is predominant in the socioeconomic and education domains, the respondents generally agree that Tindal has higher aesthetic value. This may stem from the respondents’ sense of belongingness to their linguistic group. Even though BM is a practical language to know, it functions only as a bridge for the cultural and linguistic gaps. Tindal, on the other hand, is a unique trait which only the speakers possess. From the researchers’ personal observation, locality does not appear to be a factor in the language shift experience among the Tindal speakers. Tindal is a common tongue for many villages in the inland area of the Kota Belud district. The presence of other ethnic groups like the Bajaus, who reside along the coast line, does not appear to have any immediate impact on the language shift. Although Tindal is a common Dusunic variation spoken in the Kota Belud district, it is not widely used. Perhaps this is because educational opportunities and social mobility have presented BM as an essential language since it is the national language. Four of the older respondents have spouses of another race. It is possible that for these respondents, exogamous marriage may be a factor in the language shift phenomenon. As Borberly (2000), David (2003, 2008) and Martin (2008) seem to suggest, exogamous couples tend to seek comprises in terms of lexical items and linguistic structure that may eventually lead to the adoption of a third language that is more widely used. Perhaps this is the case for some the respondents in our study. However, data collected from the research is not sufficient to clarify this matter. Our data indicates that all of the participants are bilingual. However, when the data was disaggregated by age group, the older respondents almost always use Tindal while the younger ones almost always use BM for their communication routines. The results of our study appear to suggest that language shift has occurred. Bilingualism, in an environment where a minor language co-exists with a major one, is often a precursor to language shift. Such a phenomenon occurs because parents and children need to have a common language. If the mother tongue is a minority language, the younger generation will eventually adopt the more powerful language while maintaining adequate fluency of the mother tongue for communication with the older folks. When the older generation is gone, there is a high possibility that the younger generation will not continue maintaining their mother tongue. Moelleken (1983) suggested that language shift tends to increase bilingualism in various domains before a complete shift occurs. What happened to the Maori people in New Zealand testifies to this possibility. They moved from monolingualism in Maori in the late 19th century to bilingualism in their mother tongue and English. After a period of bilingualism in Moari and English, they gradually became monolingual English-speakers in the second half of the 20th century (Holmes, 2008, p. 57). Conclusion Our study indicates that the participants from both of the age groups are bilingual. Nevertheless, there is some evidence of a language shift with older respondents using Tindal and the younger ones using BM almost all the time. This shift may be due to the necessity of knowing BM since it is the medium of instruction in all national schools as well as the official language for use in most government communications. If Moelleken’s (1983) and Holmes’ (2008) observations generalize to the Tindal of Kampung Ratau, it is possible that within 10
the next one or two generations, Tindal will be no more. Thus, if the use of Tindal is to be preserved in the backdrop of BM as the lingua franca of Malaysia, serious efforts must be taken to increase intergeneration transmission of the language. We recognize several limitations in this study. First, the sample size is quite small and therefore, may not have adequate statistical power for any hypothesis testing. Second, the subjects were not selected using random sampling procedure and therefore, the result may not necessarily generalize to the population of Ratau Village. Third, the participants were delimited to only those who were literate. Thus, those less educated, but nonetheless speakers of both Tindal and BM were not represented. Future study should consider these limitations. --------------------------------Works Cited Abas, N. 2005 Language shift towards Bahasa Malaysia and English among the Malaysian Banjarese: A case study. Unpublished Masters Dissertation, International Islamic University,Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://lib.iiu.edu.my/mom2/cm/content/view/view.jsp?key=XaNeP LUZaFfJlIB4VKDsTpxiuO4fdyT720061117114449187 Anonby, S.J. 1999 Reversing language shift: Can Kwak’wala be revived? In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair & E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing indigenous languages (pp. 35-52). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Retrieved May 31, 2009 from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/RIL_4.html Borbely, A. 2000 The process and the factors of language shift and maintenance: a sociolinguistic research in the Romanian minority in Hungary. Retrieved May 7, 2009 from http://rss.archives.ceu.hu/ archive/00001138/01/146.pdf
Crawford, J. 1996 Seven hypotheses on language loss causes and cures. Unpublished manuscript. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED395 731). Retrieved May 24, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/ data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/89/f8.pdf
David, M. K. 2003 Reasons for language shift in peninsular Malaysia [Electronic version]. Investing in innovation, 7, 111 – 114. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://eprints.um.edu.my/789/1/111-114_%287-28%29.pdf
2008 Language choice of urban sino-Indians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia [Electronic version]. Migracijske i etničke teme, 3, 217–233. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.google.co.th/url?sa=t&sourc e=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fhrcak.srce.hr%2Ffile%2F48622&rct=j&q=%20 Language%20choice%20of%20urban%20sino-indians%20in%20Kuala%20Lumpur%2C%20 Malaysia.%20%20&ei=OlxSTLWxPNC_rAeH05jeAQ&usg=AFQjCNEKMBo1RtcOI0Bz4LhcmXo4Gl4Ufg David, M.K. & Dealwis, C. 2008 Why shift? Focus on Sabah and Sarawak. Suvremena Linguistika, 34(66), 261-276. (Non-ISI/Non-SCOPUS Cited Publication). Retrieved 30 August 2011 from http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_ clanak_jezik=48371
Fishman, J. A. 1991 The intergenerational transmission of ‘additional’ languages’ for special purposes. In Reversing language shift (pp. 355-367). UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Ghani, B. A. A. & Ridzuan, A. A. 1992 Language shift among orang Miriek of Miri, Sarawak. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 131-146). Virginia, USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc. Holmes, Janet. 2008 An introduction to sociolinguistics (3rd ed.). Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited. Kershaw, E. M. 1992 Final shifts: some why’s and how’s of Brunei-Dusun convergence on Malay. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 179-194). Virginia, USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc. Lasimbang, R. 1994 Cherish your language through knowing your language. Paper presented at the seminar “Embrace your culture, cherish your language for excellence and unity” in conjunction with Kadazandusun Language Week 1996, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. November 4. 1997 Situatsi bahasa Kadazandusun masa kini [The Kadazandusun language situation]. Paper presented at the Seminar Pendidik Kadazandusun [Seminar for Kadazandusun Educators], Donggongon, Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. July. Lasimbang, R. & Kinajil, T. 2000 Changing the language ecology of Kadazandusun: the role of the Kadazandusun Language Foundation. Multilingual Matters.net 1(3). Retrieved February 25, 2008, from http://www.multilingual- matters. net/cilp/001/0415/cilp0010415.pdf Lee, S. 2008 A study of language choice and language shift among the Hakka-speaking population in Hong Kong, with a primary focus on Sha Tau Fok. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://lbms03.cityu.edu.hk/theses/abt/phd-en-b23407797a.pdf Lewis, M. P. (Ed.). 2009 Ethnologue: Languages of the world (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://www.ethnologue.com/ Mackey, W. F. 1980 The ecology of language shift. In A. Fill & P. Mulhausler (Eds.), The ecolinguistic reader: Language, ecology and environment. London: Continuum. Martin, P. 2005 Language shift and code-mixing: a case study from Northern Borneo. Australian journal of linguistics, 25(1), 109 – 125. Martin, P. W. & Yen, E. 1992 Language use among the Kelabit living in urban centers. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 147-164). USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc. Moelleken, W. W. 1983 Language maintenance and language shift in Pennsylvania German: A comparative investigation. Monastshefte. 75(2), 172-186.
Morita, L. C. 2007 A historical study of the factors contributing to language shift among the Thai Chinese. In S. Iwasaki, et al. (Ed)., SEALSXIII: papers from the 13th meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 2003. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 147 – 155. Retrieved 1 April, 2010 from http://sealang. net/sala/archives/pdf8/morita2007historical.pdf
Omar, Asmah H. 1985 The language policy of Malaysia: a formula for balanced pluralism. In D. Bradley (Ed)., Papers in South-East Asian linguistics No.9: language policy, language planning and sociolinguistics in SouthEast Asia, 39-49. Pacific Linguistics, the Australian National University. Robinson, L. C. 2006 Vowel harmony in Borneo? An examination of vowel changes in Tindal Dusun. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17-20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/ papers/robinson-vowel%20harmony%20in%20borneo.pdf
Ting, S. H. 2003 Impact of language planning on language attitudes: A case study in Sarawak. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development, 24(3), 195 – 210. Trudgill, P. 2000 Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society (4th ed.). England: Penguin Books. Wong, Y. L. & James, J. E. 2000 Malaysia. In Y. L. Wong & J. E. James (Eds.), Language policies and language education: the impact in East Asian countries in the next decade (pp 209-240). Singapore: Times Academic Press.
About the authors Jimmy Kijai, PhD, is a professor with the School of Education and Psychology at Andrews University, Michigan, USA. He is a member of the American Educational Research Association and the National Council on Measurement in Education. Ritha Lampadan is the Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Asia-Pacific International University. Daron Benjamin Loo is currently undertaking his PhD in applied linguistics at the School of Liberal Arts at King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Thailand. He is also a lecturer in the Faculty of Arts and Humanities at Asia-Pacific International University.
Catalyst ISSN: 0905 - 6931, Volume 7, No. 1, 2012 Institute Press
Defining the Integration of Faith and Learning Darrin Thomas Abstract This article addresses the issue of defining the phrase “integration of faith and learning” (IFL). An examination of the phrase and the various perspectives of IFL has revealed that IFL can be defined as a process that a person undergoes personally before serving as a catalyst to cause this to happen in others. An understanding of seeing IFL from this viewpoint can help Christian educators who are attempting to grasp the concept of IFL. Key words: faith, learning, Christian education Developing s Definition of the Integration of Faith and Learning Christian educators are increasingly encouraging the integration of faith and learning (IFL) in their schools and universities. Many fundamental questions about IFL have been addressed in part but need further clarifications. Such questions include, “What is IFL?”, and “How can different viewpoints or perspectives change the meaning of IFL?” Each of these questions serves the purpose of providing a deeper explanation of IFL. The purpose of this article is to provide a theoretical context from which to address these relevant questions in relation to IFL. Through addressing these questions, it is desired to provide a framework upon which a further development of the concept of IFL can take place. This is an exploratory study of the relevant literature in relation to IFL with the goal of determining what has been discussed in regards to this subject. It is important to grasp that our understanding of IFL is still emerging. Definitions and frameworks have been developed previously, however, further development of the nascent knowledge on the concept of IFL is still needed in the world of Christian education. Lastly, as this is a theoretical study, the implementation of IFL will not be addressed as this is going beyond the scope of the article. Defining the Integration of Faith and Learning The history of IFL dates back to the creation of man (Thomas, 2011). It was in the 20th century that IFL was formerly named. Frank Gaebelein first used the phrase “integration of faith and learning” in 1954 in the book The Patterns of God’s Truth (Badley, 1994 & 2009). In this book, Gaebelein addressed problems that impede the IFL. The next major use of this term was in Arthur Holmes book The Idea of a Christian College. Holmes (1987) argued that a Christian College should be an arm of the church, which entails evangelistic, missionary, and humanitarian responsibilities in addition to the academic goals of every school. Rasi’s (2006) interpretation of IFL is consistent with Holmes’ (1987), in that he defines IFL as an intentional institutional-wide process of expressing education from a Christian perspective. Both Gaebelein (1954) and Holmes’ (1987) books helped to set the stage for the debate over what the IFL really is. Each of these authors was a pioneer in the development of IFL, however, with many new branches of knowledge, the initial defining and application of IFL was not as clear as it needed to be. This ambiguity can be observed in the disagreement over defining IFL. A Disputed Term Badley (1996) states that the definition of the term IFL is disputed and the literature does not agree on 14
one meaning. Originally, evangelical Christian parents did not attempt to define IFL, they wanted to see it happen in the classrooms of their children (Badley, 1994 & 2009). This naturally led to confusion since there was a demand for IFL when educators were not sure what it was. Badley (2009) states that the term IFL is an essentially a contested concept, which means that the definition of IFL is an idea that is not agreed upon by those who are concerned with defining the notion of IFL. Without agreement on the definition, it can make it difficult to apply the concept. With such ambiguity in defining the term IFL, many in the field of faith and learning believe that the IFL is entangled in an identity crisis (Hall, Gorsuch, Malony Jr., Narramore, & Leeuwen, 2006). Not only do experts disagree on how to define the IFL, but students also have a different perception on defining it. Ripley, Garzon, Hall, Mangis, & Murphy (2009) conducted a study in which students and faculty defined the IFL different from one another. Students consistently put the responsibility for integrating faith and learning on the teachers while the teachers’ definition would vary in terms of where the burden was for integrating faith and learning. Therefore, it appears that parents, teachers, and students do not agree on what IFL is. This confusion has led to a lack of clarity as to how to implement the IFL. The Phrase “Integration of Faith and Learning” The term “integration of faith and learning” is comprised of three key words: integration, faith, and learning. The word ‘integration’ comes from the same Latin word as the word ‘integrity’ (Sorenson, Derflinger, Bufford, & McMinn, 2004). One of the many meanings of the word integrity is “the state of being whole” (Aubuchon, 2003, p. 1). This implies, as a philosophical assumption, that in order for education to be whole or integrated it must include both faith and learning. Hall, et al (2006) claims that one of the problems with the term IFL is the word ‘integration’, because people who are Christian already have a worldview in which faith and learning are united and thus do not need to integrate. Therefore, in order for this unity to flow within a Christian context, the word integration must be removed from the term IFL. Yet despite this, integration remains a part of the phrase, which may be in part due to tradition. In addition, the word integration serves as a reminder to Christian educators that faith and learning must remain together in Christian education. The word ‘faith’ is much more difficult to define and is the second word in the term IFL. Parker (2009) defines faith as a “universal activity of meaning-making it is not an asset of beliefs but a way of knowing” (p. 40). This definition entails that faith is something everyone engages in because it is universal. This is yet another philosophical assumption. Yet, many agree that either people have faith in God or they have faith that there is no God. The purpose of faith is to make meaning out of which worldview one subscribes to as an individual. If one has faith in God, one will find evidence for God’s existence. White (1945) supports this when she says, “faith rests on evidence, not demonstration” (p. 68). In other words, because of faith in God, people will uncover evidence that supports their original belief. Cooper (1999) defines faith as “openness to revelations from God and a guide of human actions” (p. 383). This entails a supernatural approach to faith because of the idea of revelations from God. Cooper’s (1999) definition relies more on an experience with a god through revelations and these revelations serve as a guide for humans. It is true in many religions that people have had revelations from a god that directly influences their behavior. In the book of Exodus, the Israelites and the Egyptians have a revelation of the true God of the Bible. The Israelites chose to have faith and obey God while the Egyptians chose not to have faith or submit to the true God despite the supernatural revelations God was providing them. Ream, Beaty, and Lion (2004) support this by defining faith as religiously motivated beliefs and practices. People who are motivated to do something because of a religious experience are demonstrating faith. Those who have faith in God often have different values and worldviews from those who do not have faith and this can be contributed to the believer’s supernatural encounter. Therefore, if one is motivated by God to teach or to study they are demonstrating faith because the motivation is religious. This is an example of intrinsic motivation that did not arise from the will of the person but was implanted supernaturally. Hasel (2006) explains that faith has three aspects to it: cognitive, relational, and volitional. The cognitive aspect of faith is what a person believes. For example, some believe in God and some do not. The relational aspect of faith is about having a relationship or connection with what one believes. If one believes in God, one will develop a relationship with the God that one believes in. This assumption here is that one can have a personal relationship with God. Lastly, the volitional aspect of faith has to do with practicing what one claims to believe. If one’s God says, “Keep the Sabbath holy” faith is demonstrated by deciding to obey what one’s God has commanded one to do. In others words, this is an instance of showing one’s faith by one’s actions. 15
Many of the definitions related to the final word ‘learning’ pertain to changes in behavior or the behaviorist definition of learning. Learning prepares people to perform different actions (Zimmerman & Schuhck, 2003). This implies that learning happens in order to accomplish a task. Smith and Pourchot (1998) agree with this when they said that learning brings about development in an individual. This development leads to a change in the behavior of the person (Lawrence, Burton, & Nwosu, 2005). From these definitions, it appears that learning focuses on changes in behavior. The reason for this is that changes in behavior can be assessed and observed by others. Faith is closely related to learning in that when one has true faith in something his behavior should be different. This is in agreement with Hasel (2006) volitional aspect of faith. In the book of James in the New Testament, James uncovers this relationship between faith and learning which is defined as a change in behavior. “Yea, a man may say, Thou hast faith, and I have works: shew me thy faith without thy works, and I will shew thee my faith by my works.” (James 2:18) NKJV What James is implying here is that faith is showing others that one has learned something by demonstrating a corresponding change in behavior. To describe this differently, one can show someone their faith (a revelation from God) by works (a change in behavior through learning). When faith is a part of the learning process it necessitates a change in the behavior of those involved. IFL is deeper than only defining each word in the phrase. It is necessary to understand how defining IFL can vary depending on the perspective or purpose one has for IFL. In addition, each perspective serves as a critical step in understanding IFL. Defining the IFL from Various Perspectives From the Christian viewpoint, there are at least four perspectives from which the IFL can be defined and they are connective, ontological, worldview, and evangelistic. Each viewpoint provides a fuller picture of what IFL is. Through looking at them as a whole one can better understand exactly what the definition of IFL could potentially be. Connective View The connective perspective to defining the IFL states that there must be a dialog or a connection between the religious aspect of faith and the academic aspect of learning (Lyon, Beaty, Parker, & Mencken, 2005; Hall, Ripley, Garzon, & Mangis, 2009). Through such a dialog, students’ lives can be transformed by seeing the connections between scholarship and biblical truth (Sherr, Huff, & Curran, 2007; Schroeder, 2008). Transformation of lives is one of the goals of IFL as students accept the faith of the teacher, which leads to a corresponding change in the students’ behavior. Ontological View The Ontological perspective relates to the study of the nature of being or existing (Ehrig, 2007). Sites, Garzon, Milacci, & Boothe, (2009) “state that faith, which is an integral part of integrating faith and learning, must be holistic and it must involve every aspect of one’s being” (p. 32). That is faith must be a part of the educator’s existence or their ontology in order for them to integrate faith and learning. This unity between self and faith in God is critical to demonstrating the corresponding change in behavior that students need to see to be convinced of the power of God. Living a holistic life is another way to reiterate the importance of an ontological definition of the IFL. Burton and Nwsou (2003) state that living a holistic life is foundational to the IFL in the classroom since a teacher cannot integrate what they do not possess. Integration must first happen within the life of the teacher before it can be present in the classroom (Polestar, 2009). How this is done is beyond the scope of this article. However, from the ontological viewpoint, IFL starts with the life of the teacher and the oneness of faith with his own actions and behavior. This viewpoint is at odds with the connective viewpoint because it sees faith and learning as one entity whereas the connective viewpoint asserts that faith and learning are separate. However, oneness can also be achieved through dialoging and coming to an agreement. Therefore, though it appears that the ontological and connective viewpoint contradict one another they may be different steps of one process. First, there is a 16
dialog, which is in agreement with the connective viewpoint, and then there is consensus or oneness, which is in agreement with the ontological viewpoint. Worldview Perspective The worldview perspective to defining the IFL is explaining this expression as a way of seeing the world. A worldview is a set of presuppositions by which one answers questions (Hall et. al, 2006). One’s worldview affects in a great deal the way one will answer questions. An example is a Christian looking at nature and he sees the beauty of God’s creative power. However, when an atheist looks at creation he sees the beauty in natural selection. Each person is correct according to his or her worldview and the presuppositions each possesses. This difference in worldview has significantly influence their interpretations of the world around them. Defining the IFL from the worldview perspective is closely related with thinking christianly. Thinking christianly involves seeking the mind of Christ. Seeking the mind of Christ means to attempt to make decisions and see things from Christ’s perspective. This implies having the mind of Christ, which is explained in the book of Philippians. Thinking christianly can also be defined as understanding God as the creator and redeemer and exploring human existence from this worldview (Burton & Nwosu, 2003). The purpose of Christian education is trained students to see and interpret the world from a biblical viewpoint (White, 1952). In demonstrating the unity between each perspective, one can say that IFL starts with a dialog (the connective perspective). Through this dialog, faith and learning become one (ontological perspective). After this, a person now has a unique set of presupposition from which to answer questions and deal with the world (worldview perspective). Evangelistic Perspective The last perspective from which IFL is defined is from an evangelistic perspective. The evangelistic perspective relates to seeking to convert people to a particular faith. For the Christian church evangelism is about seeing people join the Church upon accepting Christ as their Lord and Savior. The evangelistic perspective sees the IFL as being about redemption (Glanzer, 2008). Redemption is defined as restoring within man the image of God (White, 1952). The purpose of evangelism is to see people brought to Christ. Through being with Christ, the individual is restored to the image of God. The IFL in the classroom can help with this through the teacher’s spiritual life having an impact on the students or in other words, through the students seeing the works of the teacher (Polestra, 2009). The goal of the IFL is for the teacher to pass on their faith to the students so that they do what the teacher does (Burton & Nwosu, 2003). White (1952), emphasis this point when she states that teachers need to have the character that they want their students to have in the future. Faith without works is futile in regards to IFL. The evangelistic perspective of the IFL shows the importance of it to the Christian identity (Holcomb, 2006). Through defining the IFL from an evangelistic perspective, one’s desire is to see people changed by setting a Christ-like example. Indeed, there are two primary objectives for integrating faith and learning. The first is evangelistic which relates to increasing the number or quantity of Christians. The second goal should be to strengthen those who are already Christian or to improve the quality of current Christians, which can be defined as revivalist goal. The evangelistic perspective is the final aspect of defining IFL. First, there needs to be a dialog between faith and learning (connection). This leads to an oneness in the life of the person in regards to faith and learning (ontology). Next is a distinct worldview from which one deals with questions (worldview). Finally, a person begins to reach out to their students in order for this process to begin in them (evangelistic). Figure one provides a conceptual framework of IFL.
Figure 1 Aspects of the Integration of Faith and Learning
A Definition of the Integration of Faith and Learning The integration of faith and learning is a concept that deals with maintaining the integrity or the wholeness that is found between faith and learning from a religious or non-religious perspective. Faith is related to knowing and believing in something based on either supernatural or natural revelation. Learning is the acquiring of knowledge via faith, which brings about a change in behavior. Therefore, the integration of faith and learning is about maintaining the wholeness or connection between learning new information and seeing a corresponding change in behavior because of this new information. It begins with a dialog with the goal of consensus, which affects a person worldview. IFL has to do with transmitting one’s faith (supernatural or natural revelation) to others, which causes a change in their behavior. The IFL is not limited to bringing the Christian God into the classroom. It can also be about bringing Buddha into the classroom or any other deeply held perspective into the classroom, because these are the beliefs and values of the people who are integrating their faith with their learning. From the Christian perspective, the IFL has to do with bringing God into the classroom in a way that provides the evidence students need to come to Christ or grow in Christ. Conclusion This study has explored the literature to contribute to a deeper understand of IFL. Defining the IFL is something that educators need to do in order to determine how it can be accomplished. There are different perspectives or ways to see the IFL and each is an important way to attempt to explain what it is. Through combining these perspectives into a process, an individual can develop a fuller sense of what IFL is. Naturally, no spiritual process is strictly linear as God’s Spirit moves in mysterious ways to humans, however, the model provided gives some guidance as to how to see what IFL is. The IFL is the intentional action of an individual to bring his or her personal beliefs and faith into his or her classroom in a way that affects the behaviors and attitudes of the students. The behavior of the teacher influences the worldview of the students in such a way that the student experiences a paradigm shift in their thinking. With such a definition, educators are prepared to develop strategies for implementing the integration of faith and learning in the classroom and see results amongst the students. ----------------------------------------References Aubuchon, D. 2003 Integrity: Do You Have It? Lincoln, NE: iUniverse Inc. Badley, K. 2009 Clarifying “faith-learning integration”: Essentially contested concepts and the concept-conception distinction. Journal of Education & Christian Belief , 13 (1), 7-17. 18
1996 Two ‘cop-outs’ in faith-learning integration: Incarnational integration and Worldviewish integration. Spectrum , 28 (2), 105-118. 1994 The Faith/learning integration movement in Christian higher education: Slogan or substance. Journal of Research on Christian Educatio , 3 (1), 13-34. Badley, K. Burton, L., & Nwosu, C. 2003 Student perceptions of the integration of faith, learning, and practice in an educational methods course. Journal of Research on Christian Education , 12 (2), 101-135. Cooper, M. 1999 Faculty perspectives on the integration of faith and academic discipline in southern Baptist higher education. Religious Education , 94 (4), 380-394. Ehrig, M. 2007 Ontology Alignment: Bridging the Semantic Gap. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media LLC. Glanzer, P. 2008 Why we should discard “the integration of faith and learning”: Rearticulating the mission of the Christian scholar. Journal of Education and Christian Belief , 12 (1), 41-51. Hall, M., Gorsuch, R., Malony Jr., H., Narramore, S., & Leeuwen, M. 2006 Dialogue, embodiment, and the unity of faith and learning: A conversation on integration i in a postmodern age. Journal of Psychology and Christianity , 25 (4), 331-337. Hall, M., Ripley, J., Garzon, F., & Mangis, M. 2009 The other side of the podium: Student perspectives on learning integration. Journal of Psychology and Theology , 37 (1), 15-26. Hasel, F. 2006 Passing on what really counts: Transmitting Adventist values, beliefs and a spirit of service and mission. Journal of Adventist Education , 63 (3), 16-21. Holcomb, J. 2006 Financing faith and learning: Assessing the constitutional implications of integrating faith and learning at the church-related college. Journal of Church and State , 48 (4), 831-850. Holmes, A. 1987 The Idea of a Christian College. Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. Lawrence, T., Burton, L., & Nwosu, C. 2005 Refocusing on the learning in “integration of faith and learning”. Journal of Research on Christian Education , 14 (1), 17-50. Lyon, L., Beaty, M., Parker, J., & Mencken, C. 2005 Faculty attitudes on integrating faith and learning at religious colleges and universities: A research note. Sociology of Religion , 6 (1), 61-69. Parker, S. 2009 Measuring faith development. Journal of Psychology and Theology , 34 (4), 337-348. Polestra, P. 2009 Faith-praxis integration in research design and statistics. Journal of Psychology and Theology , 37 (1), 62-69.
Rasi, H. 2006 Integration of Faith and Learning. Retrieved August 4, 2011, from The Institute of Christian Teaching: http://www.aiias.edu/ict/ifl_definition.html Ream, T., Beaty, M., & Lion, L. 2004 Faith and learning: Toward a typology of faculty views at religious research universities. Christian Higher Education , 3, 349-372. Ripley, J., Garzon, F., Hall, M., Mangis, M., & Murphy, C. 2009 Pilgrims’ progress: Faculty and University factors in graduate student integration of faith and learning. Journal of Psychology and Theology , 37 (1), 5-14. Schroeder, B. 2008 Science instruction in the context of Christian faith. Theology and Science , 6 (3), 319-330. Sherr, M., Huff, G., & Curran, M. 2007 Student perceptions of salient indicators of integration of faith and learning (ifl): The Christian vocation model. Journal of Research on Christian Education , 16, 15-33. Sites, E., Garzon, F., Milacci, F., & Boothe, B. 2009 A phenomenology of the integration of faith and learning. Journal of Psychology and Theology , 37 (1), 28-38. Smith, M., & Pourchot, T. 1998 Adult Learning and Development: Perspectives from Educational Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Sorenson, R., Derflinger, K., Bufford, R., & McMinn, M. 2004 National collaborative research on how students learn integration: Final report. Journal of Psychology and Christianity , 23 (4), 355-365. Thomas, D. 2011 A history of the Integration of Faith and Learning. Catalyst , 6 (1), 18-22. White, E. 1952 Education. Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald. 1945 Testimonies to the Church (Vol. 5). Hagerstown, MD: Review and Herald. Zimmerman, B., & Schunk, D. 2003 Educational Psychology: A Century of Contributions. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
About the author Darrin Thomas is a doctoral student at Adventist International Institute for Advance Studies, Philippines.
Catalyst ISSN: 0905 - 6931, Volume 7, No. 1, 2012 Institute Press
Motivation Toward English Language Learning of Thai Students Majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University Nakhon Kitjaroonchai &Tantip Kitjaroonchai Abstract This study sought to investigate the types of motivation (integrative or instrumental) that English major Thai students at Asia-Pacific International University have toward the learning of the English language, and the correlation between the students’ learning motivation and their academic achievement (GPA). A modified 20- item motivational survey adapted from Gardner’s (1985) Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) was administered to 137 English major Thai students. The findings reveal that the students had high levels of integrative and instrumental motivation to learn English. Their instrumental motivation was found slightly higher than their integrative motivation. The investigation also demonstrated that there is a significant positive relation between students’ learning motivation and their academic achievement (GPA). Following these findings, some pedagogical implications are discussed with their recommendations. Key words: motivation, English language, learning Introduction Over the last two decades the volume of research on foreign or second language learning motivation has increased remarkably (Dornyei, 2001: Dornyei, Csizer, & Nemeth, 2006; Kyriacou, 2005; Ushioda, 2006, Kyriacou & Zhu, 2008). Countries in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, realize the vital role of English as a lingua franca for foreign investment, the economy, industry, science, medicine, information and technology, education, and communication. Since the Thai government passed the law on education which allowed any Thai student to attend an international school in 1992, the growth in the number of International schools in Thailand has been nothing short of phenomenal (Techavijit, 2007). However, parents who couldn’t afford to enroll their children in an International school, the youngsters are still secured under the 2002 Education Act Amendment, guaranteeing them a 14-year free education (National Report, 2004). With this educational scheme, Thai students could learn English as early as the primary level since English had long been made a compulsory subject from primary to high school level. More foreign teachers were employed to teach English in public and private schools in Thailand. Recently, Former Education Minister Woravat Auapinyakul launched Thailand’s English Speaking Year 2012 program on December 26, 2011, with the purpose of preparing Thai people for the ASEAN Community in 2015. With this initiative program, schools throughout the nation are encouraged to set one day in a week to encourage their students to use English in classroom and outside classroom setting. Then why is Thai students’ English test performance marginally substandard over the past years? (NIETS, 2011: EF English Proficiency Index, 2011). Is it because of the teaching quality at the Thai schools, or the students’ lack of motivation in learning English? Motivation is widely accepted by educators as “a key component of a model of language learning achievement” (Gardner, 1985; Dornyei & Otto, 1998; Brown, 2000; Spolsky, 2000; Elyildirim & Ashton, 2006). This study investigated the motivation of Thai students majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University, Saraburi Province, Thailand, and the correlation between the students’ learning motivation and their academic achievement (GPA). Some pedagogical implications were discussed with their recommendations.
Objective of this study This study aimed to investigate the types of motivation (integrative or instrumental) that Thai English majors at Asia-Pacific International University hold toward the learning of English language.
Research Questions 1. What types of motivation (integrative or instrumental) could be the primary source of Thai English majors’ motivation toward learning the English language? 2. Is there any significant correlation between the students’ learning motivation (integrative and instrumental motivation) and their academic achievement (GPA)? Literature Review The review of literature includes a brief overview of foreign language learning in Thailand, the theory of motivation proposed by Robert C. Gardner (1985), and a survey of related studies. Foreign Language Learning in Thailand Having never been colonized, Thailand has only Thai as its official language. Disagreement later rose over adopting English as a second language for teaching and learning in Thai schools. The former Thai Education Minister, Chinaworn, stated: “Other countries that have declared English as their second official language were normally viewed as former colonies, but Thai is the only official language of Thailand” (Bangkok Post, October 20, 2010). He added that more than the issue of adopting English as a second language, the more important issue was putting a serious effort to improve English teaching and learning in schools and making it the main foreign language in the country. Understanding and speaking only the official language of the country would be a great dilemma in the face of globalization and internationalization, in which all countries coalesce into a world community for varied purposes. Dr Rom Hiranyapruek, director of Thai Software Park (cited in Wiriyachitra, 2001) affirmed, saying that English is as important to the domain of information technology as other infrastructures. Thai people have a high proficiency in technology but their below average level of English competence keeps them from making much progress in terms of science and technology. The 2011 National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS results for the English test by primary 6 (grade 6), Mathayom 3 (grade 9), and Mathayom 6 (grade 12) students nationwide showed mean scores of 20.99, 16.19, and 19.22, respectively (NIETS, 2011), and brought much discussion among leading educators. Chinaworn pointed to unchanged teaching pedagogies that emphasized rote learning instead of appropriate learning process, rendering the students unable to think critically (Maitichon, 2011).” Rote learning only focuses on memorization and repetition, and it does not challenge learners to exercise their critical and analytical skills. This results in a lack of motivation in language learners. Thai classrooms are static and students lack involvement in learning, resulting in a lowering of Thai students’ academic competitiveness (Fry, 2002; Wiratchai, 2002; Atagi, 2002). Thai children are raised in an environment where their mother tongue is spoken, as in all other nations that use their indigenous language as an official language. Children at a very young age unconsciously absorb their mother tongue (L1) and use it freely because the circumstances and environment compel them to do so. Williams (1994, cited in Dornyei, 2001, p. 66) stated that the learning of a foreign language involves far more than simply learning skills, or a system of rules, or a grammar; it involves an alteration in self-image, the adoption of new social and cultural behaviors and ways of being. Thus, acquiring a foreign or second language demands a high level of motivation. The Theory of Motivation The Oxford Dictionary of English defines motivation as “a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way with interest or enthusiasm”(Oxford Dictionary of English, 2004), while Online Business Dictionary explains motivation as an “internal and external factor that stimulates desire and energy in people to be continually interested in and committed to a job, role, or subject, and to exert persistent effort to attain a goal” (Online Business Dictionary, 2010).In line with Dornyei and Otto (1998, p. 65), Harmer (2007, p. 98) defined motivation as “the dynamically changing cumulative arousal or internal drive in a person that initiates, directs, coordinates, amplifies, terminates, and evaluates the cognitive and motor processes whereby initial wishes and desires are selected, prioritized, operationalized and successfully or unsuccessfully acted out”. Gardner (1985) stated that motivation is “the extent to which the individual works or strives to learn the language because of a desire to do so and the satisfaction experienced in the activity.” According 22
to Gardner, in order to understand why language learners were motivated, it is essential to understand the learners’ ultimate goal or purpose for learning the language. He referred to this as learner’s orientation. His theory of second language learning motivation is identified into two distinct orientations, namely integrative orientation and instrumental orientation, both of which affect foreign language learners in one way or another. In integrative orientation, learners acquire a foreign or second language to become familiar with members of the language community or learn about their culture or values. Motivation to learn a second language stems from positive feelings toward the community that speaks that language (Gardner, 1985: 82-3, cited in Dornyei, 2001, p. 50). This type of motivation is defined by Deci and Ryan (1985) as intrinsic motivation in which learners find enjoyment and interest in learning a language with a positive attitude. Integrative orientated learners demonstrate interest in learning a foreign language in order to better understand the culture, tradition, and community of the people who speak that language. They may even have a desire to increase their affiliation with the target community (Liuoliene & Metiuniene, 2006). The integrative oriented learners have positive attitudes towards the community or people and their culture who speak that foreign language. Integrative oriented learners show more persistent and intense motivation than other learners (Gardner, 1985). They have a strong desire to learn the language and have positive attitudes toward the learning situation, and are more likely to expend more effort and efficiency in learning the language. Likewise, Clement, Dornyei & Noels, (1994) found that learners with high integrative motivation tend to work harder and learn faster than those who have low integrative motivation. Language learners reflect their willingness and interest in social interaction with members of other groups (Gardner and MacIntyre, 1993: 159). Dornyei and Clement (2000) found that integrative motivation is “the most powerful general component of language-related affective disposition, determine language choice, and level of effort language learners intended to invest in the learning process.” Learners with integrative orientation show great interest in English, put much effort into English learning, have a high academic self-concept (Cokley, Barnard, Cunningham, & Motoike, 2001), high self-efficacy (Yi-Guang, Lin, et al. 2003), tend to persist when facing challenging tasks, recognize the importance of learning the language and internalize it into their self-value system (Wang, 2008). So they put in more effort and search for more appropriate strategies, which lead to greater achievement. As integrative orientation is believed to relate to and support language acquisition, it should be encouraged and enhanced. An instrumental orientation or extrinsic motivation refers to the learning of a foreign/second language for pragmatic gains such as passing examinations or university requirements, obtaining a prospective career with lucrative income, or for further education overseas. Gardner, et al. (1983) defines instrumental motivation as “learning a language because of some more or less clearly perceived utility it might have for the learner.” The learner desires to learn the language in order to accomplish some non-interpersonal purpose. He is motivated by external factors such as appraisal, gratification, pledge, or money to compel them towards accomplishment without realizing their genuine interest. They perform mainly for the attainment of a desired external reward. Schools that emphasize grades, tests and competition usually only encourage learners’ extrinsic motivation and such a strategy may have an influence on learners’ interpersonal purpose or learning progress in the long run (Wang, 2008). According to Wang, instrumental motivation is “a controlled motivation which decreases autonomy and causes external perceived locus of causality (EPLOC)”. Walker and Deci (2006, cited in Wang, 2008) found extrinsic motivation a significant variable that predicted a shallow cognitive strategy, which was negatively related to achievement. Language teachers are discouraged from employing teaching pedagogies which insinuate external factors in class activities assisting learners to produce a successful outcome. Therefore, the extrinsic motivation can only be applied when a learners’ intrinsic motivation is declining (Lile, 2002). It may be hypothesized that the integrative motivation outperforms the instrumental one in terms of language cognitive persistence and mastery. However, foreign or second language acquisition both have an impact on learners’ motivation one way or another. According to Dornyei (2001), integrative and instrumental motivations are not found to be at the opposite ends of a continuum. They are positively related and both are affectively loaded goals and can produce learning. They both may be in return enhanced by better proficiency and higher achievement in the target language (Dornyei, 1994; 2001). Brown (2007, p. 173) adds that successful classrooms usually incorporate both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Wan-er (2008) averred that although instrumental motivation does not have the same positive function as integrative motivation, it will very often function positively together with integrative motivation in a learner’s study. Language teachers must understand the circumstances under which they can use extrinsic motivational strategies without undermining the intrinsic motivation which learners already have, and teachers can safely use extrinsically oriented strategies when their students have absolutely no intrinsic interest in the activities (Spaulding, 1992). 23
Related Studies There is a plethora of research on learner motivation toward learning English that has been carried out internationally. In Thailand, for example, Degang (2010) investigated the level and type of English language learning motivation of 50 second year Thai students majoring in Business English at Assumption University. The study revealed that these students were relatively highly motivated and were found to be close to being equal in instrumental and integrative motivation, although on the subtler assessment, they were more slightly ahead with integrative motivation in learning English. In Yemen, Al-Quyadi (2002) conducted research to investigate Yemeni EFL learners in term of attitudes and motivation. He found that the students had a high level of both instrumental and integrative motivation toward learning the English language and that they had positive attitudes towards the English language. Al-Tamimi and Shuib (2009) investigated the Yemeni petroleum engineering students’ motivation and attitudes towards learning the English language and found instrumental motivation to be the primary source of their motivation. These students had a great desire to learn the English language for both utilitarian and academic reasons. In China, Liu (2007); Kyriacou and Zhu (2008); Wang (2008) studied Chinese university and high school students’ attitudes toward and motivation for learning English and the correlations of the variables with the students’ English proficiency and the perceived influence of important factors. The students were found to have positive attitudes toward learning English and were highly motivated to study it, and they had more instrumental than integrative motivation toward learning English. The student’s attitudes and motivation were positively correlated with their English proficiency. Furthermore, the students’ English learning motivation was dominated by life and career-based reasons rather than integrative reasons, and students with external motivation learned English mainly for the praise of their teachers, examination results and graduation, while students with internal motivation recognized the importance of English learning and internalized it into their self- value system. These studies show both integrative and instrumental motivation to be very important factors to compelling learners to master their foreign or second language learning goals. Failure or success of L2 learners seems to be determined by their level of motivation. This perspective of foreign language acquisition sparked the interested in investigating which types of motivation could be the primary driving force for the Thai students majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University. Research Methodology Participants The sample for this study consisted of 137 Thai students majoring in English at Asia-Pacific International University. The participants were 62 male and 75 female students, ages between 18-24, and undertaking English as their major at different levels from first year to fourth year. Instrument The instrument used in this study consisted of a motivational survey and an open-ended question. a) The motivational questionnaire was adapted from the questionnaires developed by (1) Gardner (1985) for his Attitude Motivation Test Battery (AMTB) using the integrative and instrumental orientation scales; (2) Clement et al. (1994);(3) Liu (2007); (4)Wang (2008); and (5)Degang (2010) care being taken to avoid repetition. Liu (2007) and Wang (2008) investigated Chinese students’ motivation towards learning English, and Degang studied the Thai English business students’ motivation toward English language learning. The questionnaire consisted of 20 five-point Likert (1932) scale items (on a scale of 1-5, ranging from strongly disagree =1 to strongly agree = 5). The questions about integrative motivation were items 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 13, 16, 17, 18 (see appendix) and the questions about instrumental motivation were items 4, 5, 6, 10,11,12,14,15,19,20 (see appendix). For this motivational survey, the researchers chose statements that were most suitable for Thai students and the reality of their cultural context. b) The open-ended question was intended to unearth the students’ English language learning difficulties. 24
The students were asked to list the barriers or difficulties which they encountered while learning English as a foreign language. The questionnaire format consisted of the following parts (see appendix): Part I: General information of respondents: gender, age, grade point average (GPA), only for general information. Part II: Integrative motivational items (1,2,3,7,8,9,13,16,17,18), and instrumental motivational items (4,5,6,10,11,12,14,15,19,20; see appendix). These questionnaire items were rated on the five-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree). Part III: An open-ended question on students’ perception of language learning difficulties. It is worthwhile mentioning that the questionnaire items were originally bilingual since some participants in the basic level might not correctly perceive all the questions in English. However, only the English version can be viewed in the appendix. The researchers closely supervised the administration of the questionnaires to ensure that the participants understood all the items accurately. Data Analysis Procedures The data collected from the questionnaire in this study were computed and analyzed in terms of means, and standard deviation, using the MINITAB. The responses to the open-ended question in Part III of this survey form were categorized by outlining problems of language skills or difficulties. To interpret the mean score for students’ motivational level, the researchers adopted the interpreting procedure designed by Best (1981) and Degang (2010) as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Interpretation of Mean Score of Motivational Levels Scale Mean Range Motivational Level Score Range ___________________________________________________________________ 5 strongly agree very high 4.50 – 5.00 4 agree high 3.50 – 4.49 3 moderate average 2.50 – 3.49 2 disagree low 1.50 – 2.49 1 strongly disagree very low 1.00 - 1.49 ____________________________________________________________________
The mean score for each item indicated the level of students’ motivation; the higher score indicated that students had high motivation, while the lower score indicated low motivation. Results and Analysis The 137 respondents were 62 male and 75 female students. They were in different years of study and therefore in different age ranges, as Figure A portrays. No one was above 24 years in this study.
Figure A: Age of respondents and percentage
The following two tables (Tables 2 and 3) outline all the 20 question items, their resulting itemized mean scores ( x ) and stand deviations (SD).
Table 2: Mean scores of integrative motivation items
Integrative Motivation Items
Q1. Studying English is important to me because I can understand their culture and tradition.
Q2. Studying English is important to me because I can understand English stories, novels, and literature
Q8. Studying English helps me to easily make friends with foreigners.
Q9. Studying English helps me to associate with foreigners and learn about their values and beliefs.
Q13. Studying English helps me to be an open-minded and friendly person like native English speakers.
Q16. The American and British are kind and cheerful.
Q17. I enjoy watching English news and movies.
Q18. I enjoy reading English books, articles, newspapers, and magazines.
Q3. Studying English can be important for me because I will be able to participate more freely in activities among other groups who speak English. Q7. Studying English helps me to better understand the ways of life of native English speakers.
Table 3: Mean scores of instrumental motivation items Instrumental Motivation Items
Q4. Studying English can be important for me because it will help me 4.64 to get an ideal job in the future. Q5. Studying English can be important for me because I will need it 4.69 for my future career. Q6. Studying English can be important for me because it will make me 4.57 a more knowledgeable person. Q10. Studying English can be important for me because other people will respect me more if I know a foreign language.
Q11. Studying English can be important for me because it will help me to further my studies. Q12. Studying English can be important for me because it will help me search for information and materials in English on the Internet. Q14. Studying English is important to me because it will help me when I travel abroad. Q15. Studying English is important to me because it will help me to achieve at school. Q19. I study English diligently because I want to earn a university degree. Q20. I study English diligently because it is an important tool for communication.
SD 0.63 0.57 0.59
The following table indicates the average mean score and standard deviations of the two motivational types: integrative and instrumental. The results are presented in the average mean scores indicating the motivational levels based on the criteria of Likert (1932), as outlined on Table 1(page 5). Table 4: Mean scores and standard deviations of the motivational types (N = 137) Types of Motivation Integrative Instrumental
Mean Standard Deviations Motivational Level 4.0467 0.5669 High 4.4241 0.4068 High
As shown on the Table 4, the average mean scores of integrative motivation and instrumental motivation are 4.04 and 4.42, respectively, which fall in the category of ‘high’ motivation of learning English as indicated in the motivational level in Table 1 on page 5. A comparison of the two types of learning motivation, integrative motivation and instrumental motivation, shows that the Thai English majors at Asia-Pacific International University had close to equal integrative and instrumental motivation to learn the English language although the average mean score of the instrumental motivation is just a little slightly higher at 0.38. These research findings correspond to those of the studies of Liu (2007) on Chinese students’ motivation to learn English at the tertiary level in which she found that students’ instrumental orientation slightly outperformed integrative orientation; of Kyriacou and Zhu (2008) on Shanghai pupil’s motivation towards learning English in that their study results indicated that Chinese pupil’s motivation was dominated by instrumental reasons concerning career enhancement and the need for examination success; and of Al-Tamimi and Shuib (2009) on motivation and attitudes towards learning English of Yemeni undergraduates who undertook petroleum engineering at Hadhramout University of Sciences and Technology and whose study revealed that the students’ instrumental reason for learning English was higher than their integrative reason. However, the study’s results contradicted those of Degang (2010) who studied the motivation toward 27
English language learning of Thai students majoring in Business English at an English-medium University, in which he found that the students’ integrative motivation was slightly higher than their instrumental motivation. The supposition was given that these students’ results may be attributed to the rather competitive environment of an English–medium University in the predominantly Thai speaking country of Thailand. It is worth analyzing some items of significance in the questionnaire, particularly the items that secured the highest mean scores and lowest mean scores. The following are the first three items with the highest mean score and lowest mean scores. Each group is arranged in the descending order from the highest to the lowest and from the lowest to the highest mean scores respectively. Table 5: Highest Scored Items Items x Q5. Studying English can be important for me because I will need it for my future career. 4.69 Q4. Studying English can be important for me because it will help me to get an ideal job 4.64 in the future. Q14. Studying English is important to me because it will help me when I travel abroad. 4.62
SD 0.57 0.63 0.61
Table 6: Lowest Scored Items Items x Q18. I enjoy reading English books, articles, newspapers, and magazines. 3.60 Q16. The American and British are kind and cheerful. 3.72 Q10. Studying English can be important for me because other people will respect me 3.83 more if I know a foreign language.
SD 0.80 0.89 0.89
As can be seen in Table 5, Question 5: Studying English can be important for me because I will need it for my future career ( x = 4.69, SD = 0.57), and Question 4: Studying English can be important for me because it will help me to get an ideal job in the future ( x = 4.64, SD = 0.63) rated the highest. These two items deal with career and professions and both received very high scores. From the mean scores it can be interpreted that students perceive the importance of English language as a means to help them in their career prospects. The findings are congruent with those of Kyriacou and Zhu (2009) in that they found that Shanghai pupils tended to be dominated by extrinsic reasons for learning English because they were concerned about their future careers. It is well understood that over the last few decades Thailand has invited foreign investors in the country whose investments generate income and employment for local citizens. According to the American Chamber of Commerce in Thailand (AmCham, cited in Arvizu, 2011) Thai employees with English proficiency stand a greater chance for promotion or career advancement. Approximately 50% or half of Thai students who major in English at Asia-Pacific International University are ethnic minorities, and in that they have their own dialects apart from Thai. Education and English language skills may help improve their quality of life and social status. Question 14: Studying English is important to me because it will help me when I travel abroad ( x = 4.62, SD = 0.61). This fairly highly rated score may reflect students’ awareness of the language as a vital instrument for effective communication when they travel abroad. They well perceived that English is a lingua franca or an international language which is widely spoken. The above mentioned items appear to show students’ strong instrumental motivation. Motivational questions in Table 6, Question 18: I enjoy reading English books, articles, newspapers, and magazines ( x = 3.60, SD = 0.80), and Question 16: The American and British are kind and cheerful ( x = 3.72, SD = 0.89) received the lowest scores. Although these two questions received the lowest scores compared to other items, they did not mean that students were less motivated to read English books or English newspaper, or that they did not view Americans and British as cheerful and kind people. The mean scores still imply that students had fairly highly integrative motivation, as referred to the interpretation of the mean scores of motivational levels as defined in Table 1 on page 5. In conclusion, the Thai English majors of Asia-Pacific International University have high integrative and instrumental motivation to learn English. Their integrative and instrumental motivational levels were found
to be fairly close although their instrumental motivation was slightly higher than their integrative one. Such findings may suggest that the institution find ways to maximize the use of available resources and to implement any necessary language programs to promote and enhance positive learning motivational trends for language learners to achieve learning goals. Correlation between student’s learning motivation (integrative and instrumental) and academic achievement (GPA) Table 7: Correlation between students’ learning motivation and academic achievement (GPA) Motivational Types Integrative Instrumental
Significant Correlations r = 0.293 *p< 0.001 r = 0.218 *p