Chapter 1

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"-ji" and "-bhai" (“bahen” is feminine) in addressing friends, siblings, and parents. The direct translations for “bhai” is brother, “bahen” is sister, “dada” is older ...

Chapter 1 Modernity and Tradition _____________________________________________________________________ (1) AA Map: Geography Lesson Study the map of India (on large wall map or map found on text page 3). Note its location in South Asia, including the countries at its border: Pakistan (and Afghanistan just beyond), Bangladesh, Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, and China. Find some of the major cities of North India: Delhi, Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Kolkuta (formerly Calcutta), and Benares (also called Varanasi). Locate the Himalayas (mountain range), the Ganges River, the Brahmaputra River, and the Thar desert. Find also the Indus River in Pakistan, located in what was once northwestern India, and the Khyber Pass in the Hindu Kush mountains which was historically an entry for peoples from the Middle East and Europe into India. _________________________________________________________________ (2) AA Page 1 Sound-Surrounds Have you been there? Becoming aware of the ambient sounds that surround you and then discerning the music that arises out of it? In a class/group, discuss how music develops a feel for a particular time and place, and how it has a tendency to "locate" us. __________________________________________________________________ (3) AA CD Track 1 Lata Mangeshkar sings Mera Saya 1. Play selection. Ask "What do you hear?" Answer: Woman's voice, chimes, ochestral strings, tabla (drums) 2. Ask "What makes this music sound 'Indian'?" Play selection again while students formulate their response. Answer: Tabla (drums), voice (gliding between pitches, language), extent to which strings play in unison rather than in harmony. Note also the high-pitched “little girl” vocal timbre that has become endemic in popular Indian music. 3. Share the translation of the text, "Wherever you go, my shadow will be with you. So, remembering me, wherever you have tears, I will stop them with my own. In whichever direction you go, there will be my shadow also." Is the sentiment of this text particularly Indian, or more universal in nature? 4. Ask "Is this the typical sound of music from North India? Why or why not?"

Answer: It is. Draw attention to the description in the text of the ubiquitous presence of film music throughout India, particularly since independence and the rise of the massive industry of films as appealing entertainment for all the population. 5. Discuss the orchestration as characteristic of Hollywood films, which was used by Indian composers such as Madan Mohan in film music of the 1970s and 80s. 6. Play selection. Lead students in keeping the eight-beat rhythm in a half-time tempo as they listen (because the actual rhythm, being double the speed, might be difficult for some students). 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (Clap) (tap) (tap) (tap) (Wave) (tap) (tap) (tap) 7. Follow the boxed guide to text and music (text pages 1-2) while listening, noting the expressive nature of the singer's voice. _________________________________________________________ (4) 7-12, C/U Pages 1-2 Record-Breaker-Singer As an individual or class/group project, look up information on the singer, Lata Mangeshkar. As she is listed in the Guinness Book of Records for the most recorded songs of any singer in the world!, she is no doubt profiled in biographical dictionaries, music dictionaries, encyclopedias, and websites of Indian musicians. See, for example, this website: . Share with class/group a portrait of her musical education and training and her professional accomplishments in films and on other recordings. ____________________________________________________________ (5) 7-12, C/U Page 2 Music in the Movies Rent an Indian movie, preferably from the "Golden Age" of Indian movies. Invite students to observe the placement of songs in the story, who sings (or lip-syncs songs), who dances, and how the music functions to support the story line. Discuss the plot, the main protagonist and antagonist characters. See end of manual for Filmfare Magazine Award Winners (the Indian “Academy Awards”) 1953-1970, in a displayable overhead chart. _____________________________________________________________ (6) E, 7-12 Pages 4-5; 15-21 Visions of India

Ask students: “What are some illustrations of 'old India' and 'new India'?” Find examples of Indian traditions with 'staying power': photos of people in traditional dress, Hindu temples, Islamic mosques; people's remembrances of traditional stories, myths, and beliefs. How strong are these traditions, and how are they changing? See websites and . __________________________________________________________________ (7) E Page 4 Name-Play As a class/group, play with the possibilities of using familiar and respectful endings of "-ji" and "-bhai" (“bahen” is feminine) in addressing friends, siblings, and parents. The direct translations for “bhai” is brother, “bahen” is sister, “dada” is older brother, and “didi” is older sister. Taking on some of theses suffixes, Andrew becomes “Andrew-ji” or “Andrew-bhai”, and Anna becomes “Anna-ji” or “Anna-bahen”. On other hand, adult women are respectfully addressed with the addition “di” as suffix, where Mrs. Jones becomes “Mrs. Jones-di”, and Mom becomes “mom-di”. __________________________________________________________________ (8) 7-12 Pages 5-6 Culture of Contradictions? Challenge students to find support for these descriptive statements: (a) India is big, (b) India is old, (c) India is filled with contradictions. Argue the opposite side, too, noting how India is not-so-big, how India is modern, and what perceptions of India by Indians and non-Indians are stable, strong, and seemingly non-contradictory. Have students organize a debate, to be preceded by the research on these concepts. See website and . __________________________________________________________________ (9) C/U Page 7 Artistic Expressions of Beliefs Develop a report on the presence of devotional practices in India, including descriptions of Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism. Rather than to go deeply into the specific nature of theological positions and practices, explore their influences on artistic expressions such as sculpture and architecture, painting, music, dance, and drama. (See the following websites: for Hinduism, , for Islam, , for Buddhism,, for Sikhism,, for Jainism, . ) __________________________________________________________________

(10) C/U Pages 7-8 Fixed or Free? Lead students in a discussion of the essence of Indian music as partly preserved and partly created, by raising the following questions. What musical genres can you identify that are "fixed,” absolute, and preserved intact from performance to performance? What styles are spontaneous, improvised, and newly created? Find out where the music of India fits on the continuum of 'fixed-to-free' (preserved-tocreative) music-making. What about the concept of “fixed” in Western traditions? If every element were really “fixed” in a Bach invention or a Chopin prelude, would there need to be multiple recordings of pieces? __________________________________________________________________ (11) AA Pages 8-10 Rhythm Syllable Systems Explore the use of verbal syllables in learning to sing or play an instrument. Rhythmic systems include the "1-ee-and-ah-2-ee-and-ah" counting method and the French Cheve "tah" and "ti-ti" approach. Chant the rhythm below using these various syllable systems that are widely known in the West, followed by syllables used in North India. / 1 ta ta

/ 2 ta ta

/ / / / 3-ee-and-ah ti-ki-ti-ki ta-ka-di-mi

/ / 4 - and ti - ti ta-ka

/ / / 1 - and 2 ti - ti ta ta - ka ta

/ / / 3- ah 4 ti- ki ta ta- mi ta

Melodic systems widely used are the "Tonic Sol-fa" system (do-re-mi), alphabetic letters, and scale degree numbers. Sing the major scale with solfege syllables, letters, numbers, and sargam syllables from India. Do C 1 Sa

Re D 2 Re

Mi E 3 Ga

Fa F 4 Ma

Sol G 5 Pa

La A 6 Dha

Ti B 7 Ni

Do C 1 (8) Sa

See Figure 1.2 to sample more of the system that is practiced by musicians of North India. __________________________________________________________________ (12) AA CD Track 2 Jati chhand (rhythmic jatis) Follow the instructions in Activity 1.1, text page 9. Recite the syllables more slowly than the tempo of the recorded recitations, clapping the chhand, or pulse, on the first syllable of each rhythmic pattern. Each jati, the rhythmic syllable (ta) or rhythmic

syllable grouping (such as taka or takita), is chanted four times. Listen to the recording, noting and imitating the wavering, lowered pitch on "dimi.” Note that the tempo of the chanting is slow in comparison to its typical chanting pace of four to five times faster! Gradually increase the speed of the recitations to the tempo of the recording. (While the traditional transmission process is entirely oral/aural, the syllables can be displayed in overhead fashion as a visual aid to learning. See end of manual for an overhead of syllables.) __________________________________________________________________ (13) AA CD Track 3 Jati, laya (rhythmic jatis) Follow the instructions in Activity 1.2, text page 9. Listen to the recording, clapping while silently chanting the syllables, in order to understand the division of the jatis in relative speed, or laya. Gradually chant the syllables aloud with the recording while clapping the pulse. Again, the syllables are learned by way of oral/aural transmission, without need for reading words or symbols, but the syllables of Activity 1.1 may be a helpful guide in depicting the syllables and syllable-groups that are chanted four times each. __________________________________________________________________ (14) AA Pages 10, 11 Thats, Scales, and Modes With reference to Figure 1.2, sing several common Indian thats (scales) that employ raised or lowered pitches to the principal seven tones of the scale. Ask students to try singing scales that correspond to Western church modes, such as Kalyan (Lydian mode), Khammaj (Mixolydian mode), and others. They may also sing scales with no Western equivalent, such as Bhairav. Assign drone pitches C ("sa") and G ("pa") to be sung or played on cello, guitar, or keyboard while the singing the scale. See end of manual for an overhead of syllables of these and other scales. __________________________________________________________________ (14) AA Page 11 Singing in Sargam Invite students to recall the melody for "My Country 'Tis of Thee,” and to follow the sargam printed below while singing it. Note the sargam symbols: the letters indicate pitch degrees, the vertical lines show measures (in this case, measures of three beats each in 3/4 time), the dashes indicate that the duration of a pitch is sustained past a full beat, a curved line shows a shortened duration that is connected to the previous longer duration, and dots below letters are pitches in the lower register while dots above letters indicate upper register pitches. The small “m” indicates that as the fourth degree of the scale, it is located a semitone/half-step above the third degree, G. Check Figure 1.2, the Key to Notation, for the actual “singing syllables” of the sargam initial

letters; for example, “S” is “Sa, “R” is Re”, etc. Compare the sargam notation to standard Western staff notation. See also Figure1.3 in text. S S R / N -S R / G G m / G -R S / R S N / P P P / P -m G / m m m / m -G R / G mG RS / G - m P / Dm G R / S - - / __________________________________________________________________ (15) AA Page 11 More Singing in Sargam S


Challenge students to recall by memory the following familiar melodies to sing in sārgām: "Frere Jacques,” "Jingle Bells,” "Ode to Joy,” "Greensleeves” (this last one will challenge even the best of sārgām -singers!). Find standard Western staff notation for these and other familiar melodies, and sing them in sārgām. ________________________________________________________________ (16) 7-12, C/U Page 11 Musical Segments in Sargam As a class/group, extract phrases from notated music in vocal, choral, and instrumental scores under preparation by an ensemble, and sing them in sargam. (Note that “sargam” is short for the syllables in the solfege system, “sa-re-ga-ma.”) __________________________________________________________________ (17) AA Pages 10-14 Makers of Musical Instruments How important an instrument is to a performer of Indian music! Invite a maker of musical instruments in, or visit a musical instrument maker's shop. Begin by talking with members of the local Indian community, who can help to locate musicians, and then proceed to arranging for a visit with the performer and his or her instrument, who will no doubt be interested in talking about the critical need for a well-crafted instrument. This could lead to arrangements for a discussion, live or via satellite, with the maker of the instrument, if an English-speaking instrument-maker can be found (or a translator can be paired with a non-English speaker). __________________________________________________________________ (18) C/U Pages 14-16 Concert Contexts I Have students attend a concert of Indian classical music. Reflect upon the context of the performance. Is the space in any way distinctively designed , or set up, for the performance of Indian music, as opposed to a Western orchestra, wind band, choir, solo pianist? How is this context unlike the more traditional venue for Indian music?

__________________________________________________________________ (19) AA Pages 14-16 Concert Contexts II Lead a discussion with students on the following questions concerning the concert performance of Indian music. If possible, invite a member of the Indian community in to clarify the extent of consideration given to these items in the planning of modern concerts and festivals. What would it take to draw you to a concert of Indian classical music? How much would you pay for tickets? How long a concert could you sit for? Which instruments would you wish to hear? Would you attend a vocal concert? How would you feel about the length of individual pieces? Does the possibility of a long and gradual unfolding of a raga appeal to you? Would you require strongly rhythmic pieces? Would you require explanations from performers on the selections, or printed program notes? (Throughout the discussion, keep in mind that as is the case of Americans, most Indians know nothing about the classical music of their culture.)