Chapter 1

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1/16/2012. 1. The Journey Of Adulthood, 6/e. Helen L. Bee & Barbara R. Bjorklund. Chapter 1. INTRODUCTION. TO ADULT. DEVELOPMENT. Multiple Factors ...

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Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Biological Influences Shared Experiences Internal Change Processes Cultural and Cohort Effects Timing of Experiences

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Biological Influences Some biologically influenced changes are universal (e.g., loss of muscle tone). Sequence of physical changes is highly similar. Rate of physical changes varies greatly from one individual to another. There are direct and indirect effects of biological change. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Shared Experiences Social clock produces shared changes by dictating timing and sequence of normal adult experiences. Age stratification is prominently seen in patterns of experience associated with marriage and family life.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Cultural and Cohort Effects Cultures are the social environment in which change takes place. Cultures vary enormously in expected life patterns. There are also significant variations in adult life experiences from one generation to the next within a given culture. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Cultural and Cohort Effects (cont’d) A cohort is a group of persons born within some narrow band of years. - Explains the similarity in attitudes, values, skills, or life experiences of individuals within the same generation and differences in these dimensions across generations. - Helps us differentiate between apparent age-related change and real developmental change. - Has implications for research on development (Cohort effect). The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Multiple Factors contribute to universal adult development and individual differences: Timing of Experiences On-time events are easier to cope with then off-time events.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Adult development is characterized by periods of stability: Biological Factors Environmental Factors

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Adult development is characterized by periods of stability: Biological Factors Heredity is a source of stability (e.g., personality patterns).

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Adult development is characterized by periods of stability. Environmental Factors Inherited qualities do not develop in a vacuum. Initial patterns are perpetuated by choices we make.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Adult development is characterized by periods of stability. • Interactionist View – Genetic traits determine how one interacts with the environment.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

A Word about “Age” • Chronological Age – Number of years since birth. • Biological Age – Physical condition. • Psychological Age – Ability to deal with the environment. • Social Age – Timing of taking on adult roles. • Functional Age – How well a person is functioning. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Cross-sectional Designs Longitudinal Designs Sequential Designs

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Cross-sectional Designs Includes different groups of subjects at different ages. Can tell us about potential age differences. Do not provide direct information regarding age-related changes. Limited by cohort effects.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Cross-sectional Designs Advantages: Relatively quick Highlight possible age differences Disadvantages: Age and cohort are confounded. Cannot draw conclusions individual consistency and change over time. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Longitudinal Designs Solve many problems of cross-sectional studies. Follow the same subjects over time.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Longitudinal Designs Advantages: Age and cohort not confounded. Changes seen can be inferred to be real changes. Non-change reflects real stability. Enable researcher to look at change or stability within individual. Disadvantages: Selective attrition can weaken findings. Weakened by time-of-measurement effects. Often have smaller samples. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Sequential Designs A family of research designs each of which involves either multiple crosssectional comparisons or multiple longitudinal comparisons, or both. Used to mitigate cohort and time-of-measurement effects. Time-Lag Design Time-Sequential Design Panel Studies The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Choosing the appropriate research design is essential to the scientific study of development: Sequential Designs Advantages: Can analyze age changes and their variations. Separate the impact of unique cohort experiences from that of more enduring developmental patterns. Disadvantages: Complex, expensive and time-consuming.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Subject Selection Data Collection Data Analysis Study Type

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Subject Selection Goal is sample that enables depth and generalizability of findings. Small samples increase depth of study but limit generalizability. Larger samples (if representative) can increase generalizability, but often limit depth due to practical considerations (time, expense, etc.).

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Data Collection Observation Interviews Questionnaires Standardized Tests

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Data Analysis The two most common ways of looking at the results of studies of adult change and stability are: comparison of mean scores and correlational analysis.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Data Analysis Comparison of Means: The means (averages) are analyzed to look for differences or continuities. Comparison of means can highlight possible age changes, but cannot determine stability or change within individuals.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Data Analysis Correlational Analysis: A correlation indicates the extent to which two sets of scores covary. Correlations (r) can range from +1.00 to –1.00. A positive correlation shows that high scores on the two dimensions occur together. A negative correlations tells us that high scores on one dimension go with low scores on the other. The closer the number is to 1.00, the stronger the relationship. Correlational analysis is the main tool used to identify continuities or discontinuities in individual patterns over adulthood.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Study Type The type of study that is used determines what conclusions can be formed. Correlational Studies Experimental Studies Quasi-Experimental Studies

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Study Type The type of study that is used determines what conclusions can be formed. Correlational Studies Can be very useful to show that two factors are related, but further studies are necessary to prove causality.

The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Study Type The type of study that is used determines what conclusions can be formed. Experimental Studies: If the group receiving the treatment shows a significant difference in the resulting measure (dependent variable), the experimenter can state that the independent variable caused the change in the dependent variable. Key to experimental design is random assignment of groups. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Knowledge of strategies for collecting and analyzing data is important to understand research on adult development: Study Type The type of study that is used determines what conclusions can be formed. Quasi-Experimental Studies: Conducted as if true experiments, but no random assignment of groups. Can provide valuable information, but can never tell us if the factor of interest causes the change in a dependent variable. The Journey of Adulthood 6/e by Bee & Bjorklund. Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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