Perceptual & Motor Skills: Learning & Memory 2015, 121, 2, 413-430. © Perceptual & Motor Skills 2015
COMPARISON OF ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT BURNOUT USING THE STROOP COLOR AND WORD TEST1, 2 KWANGMIN RYU AND JINGU KIM Department of Physical Education, Kyungpook National University, Korea ASIF ALI Department of Physical Education, The Islamic University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan SUNGMOOK CHOI Department of English Education, Kyungpook National University, Korea HYUNJI KIM Department of Psychology, Kyungpook National University, Korea STEVEN J. RADLO Department of Kinesiology, Western Illinois University, USA Summary.—The present study compared brain activity of adolescents with or without burnout during their responses to a computerized version of the Stroop Color and Word Test. The Sport Adaptation of the Maslach Burnout Inventory was administered to 460 Korean high school student athletes. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from frontal, central, parietal, and occipital brain regions while these participants were performing the Stroop Color and Word Test. A 2 (group) × 2 (condition) × 15 (electrodes) three-way analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that the athletes without burnout exhibited signiÀcantly higher accuracy than their counterparts with burnout on the Stroop Color and Word Test. The athletes without burnout also showed higher amplitudes for theta, alpha, and beta power in the frontal areas than the athletes with burnout.
The prevalence of burnout among young athletes has become a serious issue in recent decades (Gustafsson, Kenttä, Hassmén, & Lundqvist, 2007). It can be conceptualized as a psychophysiological dysfunction which negatively aͿects athletes and is characterized by psychological and physical fatigue, distress, depersonalization, and a decline in feelings of accomplishment (Cresswell & Eklund, 2007). In addition, burnout makes athletes feel physically and psychologically exhausted from the demands of training and competing (Raedeke & Smith, 2001). This usually leads to deAddress correspondence to Jingu Kim, Department of Physical Education, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro Buk-gu Daegu, South Korea, 702-701 or e-mail ([email protected]
knu.ac.kr). 2 This study was supported by the Kyungpook National University A/S Research Fund (2010). 1
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