Comparison of Secure OLSR Routing Protocol

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Keywords: OLSR protocol, HASH chain, SHA algorithm, Encryption algorithm, AES. 1. ... network and have to pass the information of each node in the network.

Kunwar Pal et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Comparison of Secure OLSR Routing Protocol KUNWAR PAL Department of Computer Science and Engineering PEC, University of Technology, Chandigarh, India [email protected]

Prof. SANJEEV SOFAT Department of Computer Science and Engineering PEC, University of Technology, Chandigarh, India [email protected]

Prof. DIVYA BANSAL Department of Computer Science and Engineering PEC, University of Technology, Chandigarh, India [email protected] Abstract: In this paper we are presenting the comparison of the secure OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) in mobile ad-hoc network with other approach. We compare the security from the different approach and their effect on the existing OLSR. Main concern of the paper is the security but also the complexity and the storage is also compare in the different approach. Different approaches uses different cryptography security scheme and trying to provide the security to OLSR routing protocols. We also concern the different possible attacks on the OLSR and check that which security scheme is better to provide the security from the attacks. Keywords: OLSR protocol, HASH chain, SHA algorithm, Encryption algorithm, AES. 1. Introduction Mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile hosts. And there is no centralized administration exist in the MANET which generally available in the wired network. This is the basic reason why the security of the network in the communication between two nodes is becoming a challenging issue in the wireless network. Simply for making the network live the nodes have to communicate with each other in the network and have to pass the information of each node in the network. Maintain the such type of information which is required for sending the data from one node to another is the part of routing protocols. There are different types of routing is there in wireless network.

Figure 1: Different type of routing protocols in wireless Ad-hoc network

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 6 June 2011

5049

Kunwar Pal et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

The figure shows the different types of routing protocols. Basically it is divided in to two parts reactive routing protocols or proactive routing protocols. Reactive routing or on-demand routing protocol is a protocol in which there is no pre-defined table between sender and receiver. When a sender node wanted to send something to other node it start the process and all the table between the nodes come in exist. But in the proactive or table driven routing protocol the table between the node is available before the real data transmission.In the proactive routing protocol the information about the link is periodically passing to each node. On the basis of that all the nodes maintain their routing table. And for the communication purpose they use this information. Example of table driven routing protocol is OLSR (optimized Link State Routing protocol) and DSDV (Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing). A different approach from table driven routing is the source initiated on demand routing protocol. In this type of routing protocols routes are created only when source node desired it. When a source node requires a node to destination it initiates a route discovery process to destination with in a network. The process is completed when the desired route is discovered between the nodes and all the permutation of the required route is considered. The example of such type of routing protocol is AODV (Ad-hoc On Demand routing protocol) and DSR (Dynamic Source Routing protocol). But the security of the both type of routing protocols is a very challenging issue in the wireless Ad-hoc network. Because there is no centralized authority in the network and that’s why node cannot trust to each other. 1.1. Safety Measures In the routing all the information is passing from node to node so if there is an un-trusted node is there, than it can getting the information. The link between the node is should be in such a way that no other node can use this information. Sender to receiver Authentication as well as node to node authentication is also required in the routing protocols. So that the attacker node cannot harm the victim node. There are also some attacks possible in the OLSR routing protocols. We discuss it in the further pages. So it is clear that the security of the routing protocols is very important for the safe communication between the nodes or in the networks 2. OLSR Protocol OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing Protocol) is optimization of Link State Routing Protocol. It is a table driven routing protocol. In which nodes are available at any time for the routing when they are needed. The node always maintains their routing tables after a certain period of time for better communication. For the communication in the OLSR there are two type of message are passes between the nodes 2.1.

Control Message in OLSR

2.1.1.

Hello Message

In the OLSR, Hello message is used for the maintenance of the route or establishing the route between the nodes in the network. After a certain period of time every node available in the network sends the hello message to the other nodes (only neighbour nodes). The hop count in the hello message is 1 and the time to live (TTL) is also 1in the case of hello message. Means only immediate neighbour can listen the hello message of the neighbours. On the basis of hello message the node maintain the routing table. And finding the optimal path between the nodes when the path is needed. 2.1.2.

TC Message

Other type of message is control message (TC message). It is performing the topology declaration in the network. TC message is also sending by the node after a certain period of time. TC message is received by every node but only defined node is forwarding it. The node which forward the TC message is called the MPR (Multipoint relays). Instead of hello message and TC message there are two more type of message .HNA message and MID message. If a node having more than one interface than this type of message is used. MID message are emitted by a node with multiple OLSR interfaces, in order to announce information about its interface configuration to the network. HNA message are emitted by a node with multiple non_MANET interfaces. And provide the connection to OLSR network to non OLSR network.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 6 June 2011

5050

Kunwar Pal et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

2.2.

Routing In OLSR

2.2.1.

Multipoint Relays

Multipoint Relays are optimized in the OLSR where each node must select MPRs from among its neighbour nodes such that its cover all the neighbour of two hop away. MPR selection is basically performed by HELLO message in which every node describe the status of the neighbour node. How much the node wanted to make his neighbour as a MPR. There is a range between (7-0) WILL_ALWAYA and WILL_NEVER. Every node describe its neighbour in this range how much he wanted that its neighbour should be MPR or not. And every node maintains a MPR selector set, describing the set of nodes which have selected it’s as MPR.

Figure 2: (a) simple distribution of control packet in LSR. (b) Control packets are only distributed by MPR in OLSR routing protocol, black node work as MPR.

In the figure 2(a) the distribution of the control packet is done by the every node and every node forward it to their neighbours. So the node which is two hops away gets the multiple same packets from different nodes. Which is basically increasing the congestion in the network. Figure 2(b) but with the help of MPR we can solve this problem because only MPR forward the control packet and MPR is selected in a way that the entire two hop away node can get the control packets. So the problem of congestion is solved in the OLSR with the help of MPRs. 3.

Security Problems in OLSR

There are various type of attacks are possible on OLSR protocols. In the present OLSR routing protocol there is various security weaknesses. That’s why we are presenting the new security scheme in the present OLSR routing protocols. For the table driven routing protocols it is necessary that to generate or forward the routing information correctly. If this is not happened then the either the false path is made between the node or there is no path between the node when the actual data sending is take place. If it is not correctly generate or forward the message then such node are called the influence node. There is various type of security problem in OLSR. 3.1. Incorrect Control Message Generation 3.1.1.

False Hello Message Generation (ID SPOOFING)

Incorrect hello message also called the Id spoofing attack. In such type of attack, attacker node uses the id of other node and show itself as the other node. Ex: A node A sending the hello message to its neighbour C and showing the id of node B. Now C think the message is come from node B not from A and its make B as its neighbour. And they make their wrong Routing table and according to it all the other node also updates their routing table according to it.

ISSN : 0975-5462

Vol. 3 No. 6 June 2011

5051

Kunwar Pal et al. / International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology (IJEST)

Figure 1: The node D showing to C that it is connected to A and same node Y showing to C about U.

In the figure node X showing to C that it is directly connected with node A. so instead of making the MPR X and B. C making the MPR only to X. Because it think with the help of X it is connected with X, B, A and neighbour to X also. But if X not doing it then it is only connected with X

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