Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and

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ized as a disordinal interaction. Specifically, for the healthy alternative, the US group showed lesser or equal percent weight gain (Fig. 5) while, for the unhealthy ...

Lindvall et al. Nutrition Journal (2015) 14:88 DOI 10.1186/s12937-015-0078-0

RESEARCH

Open Access

Comparisons of weight change, eating habits and physical activity between women in Northern Sweden and Rural New York Stateresults from a longitudinal study Kristina Lindvall1,2*, Paul Jenkins3, Melissa Scribani3, Maria Emmelin4, Christel Larsson5, Margareta Norberg1,2 and Lars Weinehall1,2

Abstract Background: Previous research has focused exclusively on weight loss or weight maintenance following weight loss, i.e. secondary weight maintenance (SWM). The long-term results of SWM have been modest, suggesting that preventing initial weight gain among normal weight or overweight individuals, i.e. primary weight maintenance (PWM), may be more successful. The aim of this study was to compare the pattern of weight change between Swedish and US women and to contrast eating and physical activity between the two countries. Methods: A questionnaire of attitudes, strategies and behaviours regarding physical activity, food habits, body image and demands to maintain weight was mailed to 4021 Swedish and 3199 US individuals. Subjects had weight measurements taken 10 years apart in the Västerbotten Intervention Programme in northern Sweden, and self-reported weight as part of the Upstate Health and Wellness Study in Upstate New York. The mean 10-year percent weight change, and weight change in kilograms, were calculated between the two countries for nine female age (30, 40, 50 years at baseline) by BMI (20–25, 25–30, 30–35) groups. For the Swedish/US pair showing the largest differences in these two endpoints, analysis of variance, correlations and chi-square tests identified likely contributors to the observed differences in weight change. Results: For all subgroups combined, the mean percent weight changes for Swedish women and US women were 4.9 % (SD = 5.8) and 9.1 % (SD = 13.7) respectively (p

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