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Construction: Use the instructions to build the K'NEX Oscillating. Fan model. ( Technology and Engineering). Ensure that all of the electronic components have.

Table of Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................................... 4

Standards Alignment Charts (ITEEA, NSES, NCTM).............................................................. 8 Lesson 1: Sliding Door ............................................................................................................ 12 Lesson 2: Oscillating Fan ........................................................................................................ 15 Lesson 3: Super Spinner Ride ................................................................................................ 18 Lesson 4: Bascule Bridge ........................................................................................................ 22 Lesson 5: Elevator.................................................................................................................... 26 K’NEX Computer Control K’NEXions Chart ......................................................................... 30 Cost Per Piece Chart ................................................................................................................ 31

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Teacher’s Notes ................................................................................................................. 5

Lesson 2 Objectives: Students will demonstrate the ability to: Research fans and fan technology in order to answer essential questions which will focus the research. (Technology and Engineering) Program a model and an SCE to respond to push button and reed switch inputs. (Science and Technology) Solve problems that involve rate and degree computations. (Science and Mathematics) Redesign the blades of the K’NEX Oscillating Fan to meet prescribed criteria. (Technology and Engineering) Change the gearing of the fan and analyze the impact of that change on the speed of the fan. (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)

Oscillating Fan Context: Your team is now ready to take on your second project. A small manufacturing company has requested that you design an operating model of an oscillating fan that they can mass produce in time for the warm summer months. They would like the fan to operate at several speeds and to sweep from side to side as it blows cool air across a room.

Good Luck!

Requirements: For this activity you are required to: 1. Make daily entries in your STEM Journal. (Teacher Note: Help students to realize the importance of keeping records and journaling. Inform students of the materials they must include in their STEM Journals.)

(Teacher Note: Students should list and describe their programs in their STEM Journals. If students have the ability to print their programs the copies can be place in their STEM Journals.)

2. List the K’NEXions Chart for all of the Learning Tasks and Challenge Activities your team completes. This chart will be provided by your teacher. (Teacher Note: A reproducible template page of K’NEXions Charts is included in this guide.)

4. Include all calculations, charts, and graphs you prepare in your STEM Journal. 5. Name and save all of the programs that you write during this series of projects. (Teacher Note: Remind students to select program names that are descriptive of the actions they direct and to include the lesson number they are associated with.)

3. List and describe the steps in your programs. Keep a record of changes you made to programs as you improved them.

Construction: K’NEXions Chart

Use the instructions to build the K’NEX Oscillating Fan model. (Technology and Engineering)

K’NEX Oscillating Fan

Inputs

Ensure that all of the electronic components have been connected to the K’NEX Interface before you begin work. (Teacher Note: The K’NEXions Chart outlines the placement of the LED, motors, push button, and reed switches for the Learning Tasks in this lesson. The students will find this information in graphic form in the Building Instructions.)

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4 3 Push Button 2 Reed Switch # 2 1 Reed Switch # 1

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Motors

B - Motor 2 A - Motor 1

Outputs 6 5 4 3 2 1 LED

Learning Tasks: Complete these learning tasks using both the K’NEX Oscillating Fan SCE on the computer, the K’NEX model, and the K’NEX Interface. (Teacher Note: Encourage students to complete these learning tasks using the K’NEX Oscillating Fan SCE before they program the computer to operate the model with the K’NEX Computer Control Interface.) Program the Oscillating Fan model so that it will operate automatically to cool a room and keep people comfortable. 1. * Write a program that makes the model 3. * Edit the program so the LED shines green oscillate (slow the oscillation motor to 20% while the fan is spinning. power) as the blades spin when the push (Science and Technology) button is pressed. (Science and Technology) 2. * Edit the program to stop the fan when the push button is pressed a second time. Include a loop in the program so that the fan can be turned on and off over and over again. (Science and Technology)

Challenge Activities: As you move through the Challenge Activities listed below, you may have to change the location of some of the components or add additional components to the K’NEX Interface. Part of the learning process is understanding when, where and how to make those changes. 1. * Complete some research related to fans before continuing with the project. Use the following questions to guide your research and report all of your findings in your STEM Journal.

3. ** Determine the average number of times the blades turn in one minute. Express this number as a speed with proper units. Run four trials as you collect your data. Present your data in a table and calculate the average speed of the fan blades. (Science and Mathematics)

a. What is the purpose of a fan? b. What are the different parts of a fan?

4. ** Redesign the blades to move air as they spin. Cover the blades of the fan using paper and tape. Run the fan to see if you can feel air moving in front of the blades or behind the blades. If not, redesign the blades so that a breeze is produced in front of the blades as the fan runs. Experiment to see if further design changes will produce a stronger breeze. (Science, Technology, Engineering)

c. What are some of the different types of fans? d. Why do you feel cool when a fan blows air over your skin? (Teacher Note: Student performance on this Challenge Activity will be partially dependent on the grade and ability level of your students. Assess students accordingly.) (Science, Technology, and Engineering) 2. * Determine the speed of the K’NEX Oscillating Fan’s blades in revolutions per minute (rpm). In other words, how many times do the blades spin in one minute? (Science and Mathematics)

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5. ** Change the gear ratio of the model and report the effect on the operation of the fan. Determine the gear ratio of the gear system on the fan. Switch the red and blue gears on the model. Does the fan operate differently when you run it after the blades have been changed? Describe the difference in operation. Determine the speed of the blades with the new gear configuration (four trials and a computed average). Is the fan now geared up or geared down? Support your answer with data from the experiment

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you just completed and your findings in Challenge Activity number three (3) above. (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics)

8. ** Prepare a bill for the cost of the project that will be given to the manufacturing company owners.

Second, include the cost of labor required to design and build the K’NEX Oscillating Fan. The fan project will require that two employees work for 24 hours each on the actual design of the fan. These designers each make $150 per hour. Two builders will construct the fan in three hours. The builders each make $28.00 per hour.

7. * Refer to the building instructions for the K’NEX Oscillating Fan and the Cost per Piece Chart provided by your teacher. Determine the cost of the materials that are used to build the K’NEX Oscillating Fan.

Third, include the cost of labor required to develop the software program that will operate the fan. One programmer will work for 10 hours to program the fan to operate efficiently and safely. The programmer makes $125.00 per hour.

a. Make a data chart for this activity in your STEM Journal and include all of your calculations b. Place your answer on the board in the spot indicated by your teacher. (Teacher Note: Set aside space on the white board or chalk board for each team to list their cost of materials so that the costs are visible to the entire class.).

Fourth, add up all of the costs associated with the project and include a profit for your company that is 35% higher than the total of the other four costs. Prepare a bill for the project that includes all of the costs with 35% added to each of the categories. (Teacher Note: This is an excellent opportunity for students to design a name and logo for their company. With those in hand, the students can prepare an official invoice to submit to their customer.) (Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics)

c. How do your results compare with other groups who have completed the challenge? If answers vary, devise and implement a plan to check your work. (Teacher Note: Provide time for the teams to compare their answers and to correct any differences. The Cost Per Piece Chart has been provided in an editable format allowing you to assign costs to the K’NEX pieces that are appropriate for the students you are working with. Use the same costs for all 5 lessons. This is an excellent project to complete with spreadsheet software if students have experience with spreadsheets. Students can design data charts, enter formulas, and compute both the cost per each type of piece and the total cost of the pieces used in the project. If the students designed a spreadsheet to compute the cost of materials in Lesson 2 they should be able to add a column to that spreadsheet to compute the material costs for the K’NEX Oscillating Fan.) (Science, Technology, and Mathematics)

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OSCILLATING FAN

First, determine the cost of the materials that are used to build the oscillating fan system. You found this information for the Sliding Door in the previous challenge.

6. ** Research fan blades and the science behind their operation. Produce a short multimedia presentation that outlines your research, your findings and photos of the various blades and blade configurations you found. Present you work to the entire class. (Science, Technology, and Engineering)

National Science Education Standards (Grades K - 8) Students will develop an understanding of: Unifying Concepts and Processes • Systems, order, and organization • Evidence, models, and explanation • Measurement • Form and function science as inquiry

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NSES Content Standards Alignments

• Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry • Understanding about scientific inquiry PHYSICAL SCIENCE Grades K-4 • Position and motion of objects Grades 5-8 • Motions and Forces • Transfer of Energy SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY • Abilities of technological design • Understanding about science and technology HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE • Understanding of science as a human endeavor • Understanding the Nature of Science

Reprinted with permission from 1996 National Science Education Standards by the National Academy of Sciences, Courtesy of the National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

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ITEEA Standards for Technological Literacy Students will develop an understanding of: The characteristics and scope of technology Grades 3 – 5 • Tools, materials, and skills are used to make things and carry out tasks. Grades 6 – 8 • New products and systems can be developed to solve problems or to help do things that could not be done without the help of technology. • Technology is closely linked to creativity, which has resulted in innovation. The core concepts of technology Grades 3 – 5

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Standards for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology

• Requirements are the limits to designing or making a product or system. Grades 6 – 8 • Systems thinking involves considering how every part relates to others. • Technological systems can be connected to one another. • Different technologies involve different sets of processes. Relationships among technologies and the connections between technology and other fields Grades 3 – 5 • Various relationships exist between technology and other fields of study. Grades 6 – 8 • Knowledge gained from other fields of study has a direct effect on the development of technological products and systems. The cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology Grades 6 – 8 • The use of technology affects humans in various ways, including their safety, comfort, choices, and attitudes about technology’s development and use. The attributes of design Grades 3 – 5 • Requirements for a design include such factors as the desired elements and features of a product or system or the limits that are placed on the design. Grades 6 – 8 • Design is a creative planning process that leads to useful products and systems.

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Grades 3 – 5 • When designing an object, it is important to be creative and consider all ideas. • Models are used to communicate and test design ideas and processes. Grades 6 – 8 • Modeling, testing, evaluating, and modifying are used to transform ideas into practical solutions. Apply Design Process Grades 3 – 5 • Improve the design solutions. Grades 6 – 8 • Apply a design process to solve problems in and beyond the laboratory-classroom. • Make a product or system and document the solution. Use and Maintain Technological Products and Systems Grades 3 – 5 • Use computers to access and organize information.

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Engineering Design

• Follow step-by-step directions to assemble a product. Grades 6 – 8 • Use computers and calculators in various applications. • Select and use energy and power technologies. Grades 6 – 8 • Energy can be used to do work, using many processes. • Power systems are used to drive and provide propulsion to other technological products and systems. Used with permission of the ITEEA (www.iteea.org)

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National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards and Expectations Grades 3 - 8 Students will develop an understanding of: Numbers and Operations Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems. Grades 6 - 8 •  Work flexibly with fractions, decimals, and percents to solve problems. •  Understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another. Grades 3 - 5 •  Understand various meanings of multiplication and division. •  Understand the effects of multiplying and dividing whole numbers. •  Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Grades 3 - 5

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NCTM Standards Alignments

•  Develop fluency in adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing whole numbers. • Select appropriate methods and tools for computing with whole numbers from among mental computation, estimation, calculators, and paper and pencil according to the context and nature of the computation and use the selected method or tools. Grades 6 - 8 • Select appropriate methods and tools for computing with fractions and decimals for among mental computation, estimation, calculators or computers, and paper and pencil, depending on the situation, and apply the selected methods. Algebra Analyze change in various contexts. Measurement Understand measurable attributes of objects and the units. Apply appropriate techniques, tools, and formulas to determine measurements. Grades 6 - 8 • Solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such attributes as velocity and density. Data Analysis and Probability Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them. Grades 3 - 5 • Collect data using observation, surveys, and experiments. • Represent data using tables and graphs such as line plots, bar graphs, and line graphs. • Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data. • Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data. • Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

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Problem Solving •  Solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts. Communication • Organize and consolidate their mathematical thinking through communication. • Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others. Connections •  Recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics.

Standards are reprinted with permission from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics, copyright 2000 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). All rights reserved. NCTM does not endorse the content or validity of these alignments.

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Process

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Common Core State Standards for Mathematics in Grades 3 - 8 mathematical practices - associated with mathematics at all grade levels 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. grade 3 Operations and Algebraic Thinking

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Common Core Standards Alignments

• Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. • Understand properties of multiplication and the relationship between multiplication and division. • Multiply and divide within 100. • Solve problems involving the four operations, and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. Number and Operations in Base Ten • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Measurement and Data • Solve problems involving measurement. • Represent and interpret data. Grade 4 Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. • Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. • Generate and analyze patterns. Number and Operations in Base Ten • Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Measurement and Data • Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit. • Represent and interpret data. Grade 5 Operations and Algebraic Thinking • Write and interpret numerical expressions. • Analyze patterns and relationships.

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• Perform operations with multi-digit whole numbers and with decimals to hundredths. Measurement and Data • Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. • Represent and interpret data. MATHEMATICS GRADE 6 In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: • C  onnecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems. • Writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations • Developing understanding of statistical thinking. GRADE 6 Ratios and Proportional Relationships • Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. The Number System • Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.

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Number and Operations in Base Ten

Expressions and Equations • Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions. • Reason about and solve one-variable equations. • Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables. Statistics and Probability • Develop understanding of statistical variability. MATHEMATICS GRADE 7 In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: • D  eveloping understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations. GRADE 7 The Number System • Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. Expressions and Equations • Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. • Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. MATHEMATICS GRADE 8 In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: • Grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships.

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Expressions and Equations • Analyze and solve linear equations. Functions • Define, evaluate, and compare functions. • Use functions to model relationships between quantities. Authors: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers; Title: Common Core State Standards (insert specific content area if you are using only one); Publisher: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, Council of Chief State School Officers, Washington D.C.; Copyright Date: 2010

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GRADE 8

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