concrete under severe conditions

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May 7, 2010 - R.F. Correia, E.M.R. Fairbairn, R.D. Toledo-Filho & C.R. Miranda. Monitoring of ..... Ivan Escalante, CINVESTAV-Saltillo, Coahuila, México.

CONCRETE UNDER SEVERE CONDITIONS

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE 6TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON CONCRETE UNDER SEVERE CONDITIONS (CONSEC’10), MÉRIDA, YUCATÁN, MEXICO, 7–9 JUNE 2010

Concrete under Severe Conditions Downloaded by [Khanh Son Nguyen] at 21:02 09 August 2017

Environment and loading Editors Pedro Castro-Borges CINVESTAV del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida, Yucatán, México

Eric I. Moreno Facultad de Ingeniería, UADY, Mérida, Yucatán, México

Koji Sakai Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan

Odd E. Gjørv Norwegian Institute of Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Nemkumar Banthia University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada

VOLUME 1

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CRC Press/Balkema is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London, UK Typeset by Vikatan Publishing Solutions (P) Ltd., Chennai, India Printed and bound in USA by Edwards Brothers, Inc, Lillington, NC All rights reserved. No part of this publication or the information contained herein may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, by photocopying, recording or otherwise, without written prior permission from the publisher. Although all care is taken to ensure integrity and the quality of this publication and the information herein, no responsibility is assumed by the publishers nor the author for any damage to the property or persons as a result of operation or use of this publication and/or the information contained herein. Published by: CRC Press/Balkema P.O. Box 447, 2300 AK Leiden, The Netherlands e-mail: [email protected] www.crcpress.com – www.taylorandfrancis.co.uk – www.balkema.nl ISBN: 978-0-415-59316-8 (set of 2 volumes Hbk) ISBN: 978-0-415-59317-5 (vol 1) ISBN: 978-0-415-59318-2 (vol 2) ISBN: 978-0-203-84240-9 (eBook)

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Concrete under Severe Conditions – Castro-Borges et al. (eds) © 2010 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978-0-415-59316-8

Table of contents

Preface

xix

Steering board

xxi

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Organizing committee

xxiii

Scientific committee

xxv

International advisory committee

xxix

Reviewers

xxxi

Host organizations

xxxiii

Supporting organizations

xxxv

Sponsors

xxxvii

VOLUME 1 Keynote lectures Durability and safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context J.-M. Torrenti & G. Nahas

3

Diagnosis of alkali-aggregate reaction—polarizing microscopy and SEM-EDS analysis T. Katayama

19

Accelerated vs. natural corrosion experimental results for remaining life stage forecasting A.A. Torres-Acosta

35

Honoree sessions (Invited Papers) The impact of tropical urban environment on the durability of RC in Iberoamerican countries O.M. Trocónis de Rincón, M. Sánchez, V. Millano, R. Fernández, E. Anzola de Partidas, I. Martínez, N. Rebolledo, M. Barboza, J.C. Montenegro, R. Vera, A.M. Carvajal, R. Mejia de Gutiérrez, J. Maldonado, C. Guerrero, E. Saborio-Leiva, C. Villalobos-Gonzalez, J.T. Pérez-Quiroz, A. Torres-Acosta, P. Castro-Borges, E.I. Moreno, T. Pérez-López, F. Almeraya-Calderón, W. Martinez-Molina, M. Martínez-Madrid, M. Salta, A.P. de Melo, G. Rodríguez, M. Pedrón & M. Derrégibus Electrical resistance tomography approach for localizing reinforcing bars in concrete K. Karhunen, A. Seppänen, A. Lehikoinen, P.J.M. Monteiro & J.P. Kaipio

45

57

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Experimental simulation of surface cracking in concrete structures affected by AAR G. Nery, P. Helene, D. Cusson & J.C. Margeson

65

Sodium sulfate weathering in the residential concrete foundation N. Yoshida, Y. Matsunami, M. Nagayama & E. Sakai

75

A required condition of thaumasite formation in marine environments T. Nozaki, S. Ogawa, H. Hirao, K. Kono & K. Yamada

85

Qualification of repair materials by mechanical and durability properties C.C. Ferraro, A.J. Boyd & C.A. Ishee

91

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Concrete durability and sustainability as influenced by resistance to fluid ingress and selection of cementitious materials R.D. Hooton

99

Special NDT session Nondestructive evaluation of horizontal cracks in RC slabs by impact elastic-wave methods T. Kamada, S. Uchida, K. Nakayama, H. Mae & T. Tamakoshi Stress evaluation in concrete members using ultrasonic propagation velocity Y. Oshima, A. Okamura & H. Kawano

117 127

Evaluation of chloride ion content in concrete structures using near-infrared spectroscopic technique T. Yamamoto, M. Kohri & T. Ueda

135

Improving performance prediction of corroding concrete bridges with field monitoring D. Cusson, Z. Lounis & L. Daigle

145

Nondestructive quality evaluation of surface concrete with various curing conditions I. Kurashige & M. Hironaga

159

Monitoring of macrocell corrosion rate in existing structures S. Miyazato

169

Electrochemical behavior of steel bar in concrete under tidal environment Y. Akira, M. Iwanami, T. Yamaji, Y. Shimazaki & M. Ishinaka

183

The use of electrical resistivity as a NDT for the specification of concrete durability C. Andrade & R. d’Andrea

195

Several factors affecting the anodic polarization curve of steel bars embedded in mortar H. Hamada, Y. Sagawa, T. Ikeda & R. Morikawa

201

Durability monitoring on RC structures using “Shirasu concrete” in marine environment T. Yamaguchi, K. Takewaka & S. Mori

209

Detection of reinforcement corrosion with a new non-destructive test method using induction heating K. Kobayashi & N. Banthia

217

Surface resistivity profiles on marine substructures to assess concrete permeability F.J. Presuel-Moreno, A. Suarez, I. Lasa & M. Paredes

227

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Performance under severe environment

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Deterioration processes Risk of stress corrosion cracking of prestressing steels in contact with galvanized components J. Mietz, A. Burkert, J. Lehmann & G. Eich

239

Chloride ingress in pre-tensioned prestressed concrete beams and the effect of corrosion on their structural behaviour B. Cousin & B. Martín-Pérez

247

Evaluation of the risk of cracking in thin concrete walls due to hydration heat C. Zanotti, A. Meda, G. Plizzari & S. Cangiano

257

Frost scaling of blast-furnace slag mortar with sodium monofluorophosphate K. Sisomphon, O. Copuroglu & A.L.A. Fraaij

265

Improving the frost resistance of short-fiber-mixed shotcrete by hollow microspheres F. Taguchi, M. Takahashi, N. Kishi, Y. Kurihashi & H. Mikami

273

Strains and stresses in concrete due to saline and non-saline freeze-thaw loads V. Penttala

279

Experimental investigations concerning combined delayed ettringite formation and alkali-aggregate reaction R.-P. Martin, J.-C. Renaud & F. Toutlemonde

287

Analysis of AAR preventive methods: Petrographic analysis and accelerated bar method C.F.C. Silva, E.C.B. Monteiro & A.D. Gusmão

297

A brief description of alkali-aggregate reaction occurrence and prevention in Brazil L. Sanchez, S. Kuperman & P. Helene

305

The natural pozzolana ‘Rhenish trass’ and its effect on ASR in concrete U. Müller, P. Bürgisser, F. Weise & B. Meng

313

Chemical changes and carbonation profiles of carbonated cement pastes at 80°C for different relative humidities E. Drouet, S. Poyet, P. Le Bescop & J.M. Torrenti

321

Influences of carbonation on heavy metal diffusivity in cement hydrates K. Kawai, T. Sato & Y. Miyamoto

329

Carbonation of mortar with mineral admixtures and relation with physical properties J.L. Gallias, K. Dizayee & A. Bessa

335

Influence of type of deicing chemical and cement on salt scaling of concrete T. Oyamada, S. Hanehara, T. Fujiwara & T. Takahashi

343

Deteriorate forms and defective events on concrete surface damaged by de-icing chemical attacks Y. Takashina

351

Influence of casting direction on chloride-induced rebar corrosion U. Angst, C.K. Larsen, Ø. Vennesland & B. Elsener

359

Co-effects of initial and exposure environments on chloride penetration H. Yokota, W. Xue & W. Jin

367

The effect of the corrosive environments over high strength concrete C. Magureanu, C. Negrutiu & B. Heghes

375

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Influence of concrete cracking on the corrosion of steel reinforcement V. Jiménez-Quero, P. Montes-García & T.W. Bremner

383

Influence of local steel corrosion on shear failure mechanism of RC linear members K. Watanabe, J. Niwa & M. Tsunoda

391

Effect of corrosion on the tensile properties of steel bars in cracked HPC containing CNI H.Z. Lopez-Calvo, T.W. Bremner, M.D.A. Thomas & P. Montes-García

397

Corrosion resistance of lightweight concrete made of ternary mixtures E.P. Reyes-Díaz, J.G. Osuna-Alarcón, F. Almeraya-Calderón & C. Gaona-Tiburcio

405

Reinforced concrete beams deterioration in tropical marine environment: DURACON-Campeche H.T. Pérez, M.R. Sosa, L.R. Dzib, J. Reyes, R. Camacho, O. Troconis-Rincón & A. Torres-Acosta

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Remaining shear strength in reinforced concrete beams deteriorated by corrosion B. Guevara, C. Juarez, G. Fajardo & P. Castro-Borges

413

421

Experimental evaluation of the structural behaviour of corroded prestressed concrete beams Z. Rinaldi, S. Imperatore, C. Valente & L. Pardi

429

Deterioration due to combined cyclic actions and reinforcement corrosion of R.C. structures L. Giordano, G. Mancini & F. Tondolo

437

Failure analysis of reinforced concrete due to pitting corrosion of reinforcing bar B.S. Jang, B.H. Oh & S.Y. Jang

445

Corrosion initiation state of rebars in concrete subjected to chloride penetration G.M. Sadiqul-Islam & T. Sugiyama

453

Corrosion propagation in RC structures—state of the art review and way forward M.B. Otieno, H.D. Beushausen & M.G. Alexander

461

Quantification of water penetration into concrete through cracks to rebars by neutron radiography M. Kanematsu, N. Tuchiya, T. Noguchi & I. Maruyama Behaviour of a crack submitted to a fluid penetration C. Rouby, A. Féraille-Fresnet & A. Ehrlacher Use of entrained air concrete exposed to chlorides in non-freeze thaw environments: Effects on plastic concrete properties J. Thesen & R. El-Hacha

471 479

487

Study of CEM I and low pH cement pastes leaching in multi-ionic underground water A. Dauzères, P. Le Bescop, P. Sardini & C. Cau Dit Coumes

495

Diffusion and adsorption properties of lead in cement hydrates K. Kawai, H. Kikuchi & T. Sato

505

Influence of specimen type with RILEM CDF and ASTM C 672 on scaling under same temperature M. Takahashi & S. Miyazato

513

Heat deterioration on fracture properties of concrete Y. Kitsutaka & K. Matsuzawa

521

Thermal behaviour of concrete with layer of fireproofing materials exposed to fire K.S. Nguyen, C. Lanos & Y. Mélinge

527

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Heat and moisture movement and explosive spalling in concrete under fire environment T. Noguchi, M. Kanematsu, J.W. Ko & D.W. Ryu

537

Fire resistance of high performance RC column with nylon and polypropylene fiber C.G. Han, M.C. Han, R.P. Ferron & D. Han

545

Spalling under fire of ultra-high performance fibre concrete: Effect of polymer fibers L. Missemer, E. Ouedraogo, Y. Malécot, D. Rogat & C. Clergue

553

Properties of fibre reinforced concrete after various degrees of heatloading L. Bodnárová, R. Hela & J. Válek

561

Meso-scale analysis of mortar deteriorated by acid Y. Oiwa, Y. Sato & T. Miura

569

Study of concrete alteration in sewer systems by biogenic sulfuric acid T. Chaussadent, F. Boinski, J. Herisson & E. van Hullebusch

577

Simplified resistance evaluation of cementitious materials to sulfuric acid K. Kawai, H. Morita & Y. Matsui

583

Service life prediction Performance-based approach for durability of concrete containing flash metakaolin as cement replacement R. San Nicolas, M. Cyr & G. Escadeillas

591

Modelling of reinforcement corrosion—simulation and time dependence J. Harnisch, J. Warkus & M. Raupach

601

Inclusion of GCC in analytical solutions of service life models for concrete J.M. Mendoza-Rangel & P. Castro-Borges

609

The time to commencement of reinforcement corrosion in marine environments R.E. Melchers

617

A probabilistic approach for modelling calcium leaching in concrete structures T. de Larrard, F. Benboudjema, J.-B. Colliat, J.-M. Torrenti & F. Deleruyelle

625

Prediction method of concrete deterioration by electrochemical inspection K. Toda, T. Nishido & K. Uji

633

Relationship between electric resistivity and diffusion coefficient of chloride ion in mortar H. Minagawa, M. Hisada & A. Ehara

641

Durability Durability of light-weight self compacting concrete with expanded clay aggregate M. Hubertova & R. Hela

653

Freeze-thaw durability of Portland cement and silica fume concretes A. Badr

659

The influence of intergrinding of cement and fly ash on concrete durability B. Czarnecki, W. Johnston & W. Dobslaw

667

Surface layer study of concrete containing metakaolin K. Kolář, P. Reiterman, T. Klečka, M. Dudíková & P. Huňka

675

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Durability of high performance concrete in cold climate and exposure to deicing salts B. Czarnecki & R.L. Day

683

Capillary absorption and concrete durability L. Juárez, P. Cano-Barrita, C. Robles, P. Castro-Borges & A.A. Torres-Acosta

689

Field performance of structures and materials

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Concrete behaviour in four different atmospheres in Michoacan, Mexico W. Martínez Molina, E.M. Alonso Guzmán, F.A. Velasco Avalos, C. Lara Gómez, H.L. Chávez García, A.A. Torres-Acosta & X. Chávez Cárdenas

701

Validation and improvement of procedures for performance testing of anti-graffiti agents on concrete surfaces K. Malaga & U. Mueller

709

New possibilities of cooling towers diagnostics and repairs for increasing a service life J. Bydzovsky, A. Dufka & Z. Snirch

717

Field experience of UHPFRC durability in an air cooling tower F. Toutlemonde, V. Bouteiller, A. Deman, G. Platret, A. Pavoine, B. Duchesne, L. Lauvin, M. Carcasses & M. Lion Structural behavior of monitored harbors during several tide and temperature loading cycles H. Yáñez-Godoy, F. Lanata & F. Schoefs Durability of fly ash concrete in a concrete harbor structure V. Årskog & O.E. Gjørv Effect of corrosion on time-dependent reliability of steel sheet-pile seawalls in marine environment conditions H. Yañez-Godoy, J. Boéro, G. Thillard & F. Schoefs Durability of silica fume concrete in Aursundet Bridge V. Årskog, O. Sengul & O.E. Gjørv The French National Project CEOS.FR: Assessment of cracking risk for special concrete structures under THCM stresses A. Sellier, C. La Borderie, J.M. Torrenti & J. Mazars Experimental modeling of high thermal gradients in steam injection wells R.F. Correia, E.M.R. Fairbairn, R.D. Toledo-Filho & C.R. Miranda Monitoring of “Zarzuela Racecourse” structure by means of no-destructive techniques for durability assessment A. Castillo, C. Andrade, I. Martínez, N. Rebolledo, L. Fernández Troyano, G. Ayuso, J. Cuervo, J. Junquera & C. Santana Author index

727

735 743

751 759

767 775

783

789

VOLUME 2 Performance and application of specialized materials Cement Slag cements and frost resistance V. Årskog & O.E. Gjørv

795

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Aggregates Effect of type of fine aggregate on the resistance of concrete to sulfuric acid attack T. Ayano & T. Fujii Development of lightweight aggregate concrete with high resistance to water and chloride-ion penetration X.M. Liu, K.S. Chia & M.H. Zhang Improved durability of concrete due to SAP H.W. Reinhardt & A. Assmann

803

813 823

A study on NOx purification by porous concrete with several kinds of aggregates and void contents T.S. Xiang, T. Nakazawa, F. Imai & K. Onoue

831

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Mortars Textile reinforced mortar for shear strengthening of RC beams T.H. Almusallam, Y.A. Al-Salloum, S.H. Alsayed & H.M. Elsanadedy

841

Concretes Impact safety of structural UHPC elements—combined numerical and experimental approach M. Noeldgen, E. Fehling, W. Riedel & K. Thoma

851

Comparative performances on the resistances of HPC and RPC to penetration of water and Cl− K.V. Harish, D.S. Sabitha, J.K. Dattatreya & M. Neelamegam

861

Development of low-shrinkage high-performance concrete with improved durability D. Cusson & J. Margeson

869

Effect of autogenous shrinkage of UHSC on bending behavior of RC column I. Maruyama & M. Teshigawara Ultrasonic monitoring of shrinkage development of HPC under isothermal conditions S. Staquet, C. Boulay, N. Robeyst & N. De Belie Sulfuric acid resistance of belite-based cement concrete mixed with GGBFS S. Yoshida, F. Taguchi, T. Nawa & H. Watanabe Performance of self compacting concrete with different quantities of FA and limestone M. Skazlić

879

889 897

905

Self-compacting concrete for in loco molding walls system for low cost housing R. Alencar & P. Helene

911

Fundamental study on self-repairing concrete using a selective heating device T. Nishiwaki, H. Mihashi & Y. Okuhara

919

Self-healing concrete R. Vandine, C. West & M.R. Hansen

927

Validation of an accelerated carbonation model for limestone aggregate concrete R. Solís-Carcaño & E.I. Moreno

935

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Composites Crack damage mitigation of shear-dominant RC beams patching—repaired with SHCCs W.S. Park, H.D. Yun, S.W. Kim, S.Y. Nam, J.H. Cha & K. Rokugo

945

Limiting crack width in RC beams by the use of ultra high toughness cementitious composites X.F. Zhang & S.L. Xu

953

Thermal properties of aramid-fiber reinforced cement composite E. Vejmelková, P. Konvalinka & R. Černý

965

Supplementary materials

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Combined use of Class F fly ash and lithium salt for the reduction of alkali-silica reactivity N. Ghafoori & M.S. Islam

975

Sustainable binder for severe environment: Magnesium-based cementitious material F. Qiao, Z. Ding & Z. Li

983

Utilisation of slag from steel industry as an aggregate in concrete I. Netinger, D. Bjegović & M. Jelčić

991

Durability of RC structures using GGBS under the complex deterioration condition J. Matsumoto, K. Takewaka, T. Yamaguchi & M. Umeki

1001

Effect of silica fume and GGBS on shrinkage in the high performance concrete F. Ghassemzadeh, M. Shekarchi, S. Sajedi, M. Khanzadeh & S. Sadati

1007

Comparing chloride diffusion in nine months concrete specimens containing zeolite and silica fume pozzolans F. Pargar, M. Shekarchizadeh & M. Valipour

1013

Fibers Mechanical behavior of steel fiber reinforced refractory concretes R.D. Toledo-Filho, V.G.O. Almeida, E.M.R. Fairbairn & L.F.L. Rosa Effect of steel fiber on explosive spalling and permeability of high performance concrete after exposure to high temperature G.F. Peng, X.J. Duan, X.C. Yang & T.Y. Hao Wood fibres as reinforcement in a low environmental-impact cementitious material M.G. Sierra-Beltran & E. Schlangen

1023

1029 1037

Reinforcements High strength stainless steel 14301 for prestressed concrete structures protection M.C. Alonso, M. Sánchez, E. Mazario, F.J. Recio, H. Mahmoud & R. Hingorani

1047

Corrosion resistant steel reinforcement—laboratory and field testing M. Serdar, D. Bjegovic & I. Stipanovic-Oslakovic

1055

Stainless steel performance in chloride contaminated concrete A. Ramírez-Rentería, G. Serrano-Gutiérrez & A. Torres-Acosta

1063

Effect of the chromite precipitates on the corrosion performance of SSR A. Bautista, F. Velasco, S. Guzmán & G. Blanco

1069

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Evaluation of galvanized steel under the action of chloride ions and/or carbonation D. Linares & M. Sánchez

1077

Maintenance and repair

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Conditions assessment Reliability of existing bridges under severe seismic and wind loading A. Mandić, J. Radić & Z. Šavor

1085

Diagnosis and rehabilitation of a Mexican Pier A. del Valle-Moreno, A. Torres-Acosta, M. Martínez-Madrid, D. Vázquez, R. Hernández, M. Fabela, W. Molina-Martínez & E. Alonso-Guzmán

1093

Experimental study on the long-term durability after repairing by desalination H. Koga, H. Watanabe & Y. Takeuchi

1101

Repassivation of steel rebars after an electrochemical chlorides removal treatment by simultaneous application of calcium nitrite M. Sánchez & M.C. Alonso

1109

The effect of chloride depletion on the corrosion state of steel in alkaline environment T. Eichler, B. Isecke, G. Wilsch, A. Faulhaber & K. Weidauer

1115

Analysis of sorted powder samples for the assessment of deteriorated concrete R. Felicetti

1123

Moisture transport within building materials J. Skramlik & M. Novotny

1131

RH measurements for assessing moisture conditions in concrete structures F. Pruckner & O.E. Gjørv

1141

Surface treatments The effect of using surface penetrate materials (silane type) to control the scaling of wheel-guard concrete on highway bridges H. Endoh & F. Taguchi Effect of concrete surface hydrophobation against chloride penetration G. Liu, O.E. Gjørv & V. Årskog Effect of w/c on the behavior of hydrophobic concrete coatings in a tropical environment O. Troconis-Rincón, J. Bravo, M. Sánchez, D. Contreras, M. Aboulhosn, C. Morales, V. Millano & Y. Hernández

1149 1157

1165

Water repellent treatments—the importance of reaching a sufficient penetration depth A. Johansson-Selander, J. Trägårdh, J. Silfwerbrand & M. Janz

1173

Elimination of biological covering on concrete: Tests in situ of different techniques M. Bouichou, E. Marie-Victoire, A. François, F. Bousta & G. Orial

1181

Preventing chloride ingress in concrete with water repellent treatments A. Johansson-Selander, J. Trägårdh, J. Silfwerbrand & M. Janz

1189

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Sensing and monitoring A fundamental study on non-destructive measurement of chloride concentration in concrete by Prompt Gamma-ray Analysis I. Ujike, S. Okazaki, Y. Yamada & H. Matsue

1197

Wireless measurement of electrochemical potentials of steel reinforcement in concrete structures K. Reichling & M. Raupach

1205

Development of a remote monitoring strategy for building foundations affected by AAR G. Nery, P. Helene, D. Cusson & J.C. Margeson

1211

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Application of electrochemical and novel techniques Self-corrosion of steel in concrete by electrochemical measurements and X-ray tomography J. Goebbels, M. Beck, B. Isecke, A. Burkert & R. Bäßler

1221

Suppression of ASR due to electrochemical supply of lithium from DFRCC anode system T. Ueda, T. Kameda, T. Maeda & A. Nanasawa

1229

Application of bacteria in repairing the concrete cracks—A review R. Narayanasamy, N. Villegas-Flores, F. Betancourt-Silva, J. Betancourt-Hernández & N. Balagurusamy

1237

Corrosion mitigation Inhibiting behavior of nitrites in corrosion of reinforcing steel in micropore solutions P. Garcés, E. Zornoza, P. Saura & C. Andrade

1247

Performance under severe loading Fatigue Behaviour of anchor rods under creep and fatigue tests F. Delhomme & G. Debicki

1257

Cyclic behavior of RC hollow bridge piers with corroded rebars D. Cardone, G. Perrone & S. Sofia

1263

An experimental study regarding static and dynamic behaviors of RC pier models T. Okamoto, I. Hirasawa & Y. Ito Reduced service life of concrete sleepers due to inadequate design K. Giannakos

1271 1281

Temperature Mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of self-consolidating concrete exposed to elevated temperatures H. Fares, S. Rémond, A. Noumowé & A. Cousture Remediation of high temperature effects on self-consolidating concrete N. Ghafoori & H. Diawara

1291 1299

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Monitoring the explosive spalling process of HSC by means of acoustic emission method M. Ozawa, H. Morimoto, S. Uchida & T. Kamada

1307

Energetic consideration on strength decrease of concrete immersed in liquid K. Onoue & H. Matsushita

1315

On shotcrete mechanical behavior past severe heating P. Bamonte, P.G. Gambarova, M. Marazzi & A. Rinaldi

1323

On the influence of high temperature on the dynamic behaviour of HPFRCC E. Cadoni, A. Caverzan & M. di Prisco

1331

Earthquake

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Seismic performance of RC columns with low-environmental impact friction-welding mechanical anchor bars T. Matsuka, K. Sakai, M. Suzuki & N. Takahashi Connection solutions for precast concrete columns subjected to earthquake loading V. Popa, D. Cotofana & R. Pascu

1341 1349

Impact Flexural response of RC beams subjected to impact loadings K. Fujikake, S. Soeun & B. Li

1359

Fiber Bragg grating arrays for impact damage monitoring in concrete V. Sotoudeh, B. Moslehi, R.J. Black, L. Oblea, G. Chen & P.W. Randles

1367

Experimental validation of an anisotropic delay damage model for impact on reinforced concrete structures M. Chambart, F. Gatuingt, R. Desmorat & D. Guilbaud

1375

Loading Effect of the composition on concrete behaviour under high triaxial loading X.H. Vu, Y. Malécot & L. Daudeville

1385

Mechanical behaviour of very light concrete under severe triaxial loading X.H. Vu, Y. Malécot, L. Daudeville & L. Zingg

1393

Steel-concrete bond-slip influence on behavior of RC structures L. Davenne, A. Boulkertous & A. Ibrahimbegovic

1401

Dynamic model of a clamped elastic rectangular plate for spreadsheet application J.M. Rambach

1409

Sustainability Life cycle assessment Life-cycle maintenance strategies for deteriorating RC buildings C.K. Chiu & T. Noguchi

1421

Use of novel cements and concretes Pervious concrete development in Rapid City, South Dakota, USA M.R. Hansen & C. Phillips

1431

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S-TBL assessment for new concrete materials Y. Kato & M. Henry

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Recycled and supplementary materials Performance of concretes prepared with blended cements made in Romania D. Georgescu, A. Apostu & R. Pascu

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Properties of HPC containing supplementary cementing materials E. Vejmelková, P. Konvalinka, R. Černý, M. Ondráček & M. Sedlmajer

1457

Required usage of supplementary cementitious materials in concrete L.J. Malvar

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Silicoaluminate cementitious materials, chemical durability and strength O. Burciaga-Diaz, R. Arellano-Aguilar & J.I. Escalante-Garcia

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Low carbon rice husk ash—A sustainable supplementary cementing material K.V. Harish & P.R. Rangaraju

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Control of thermal cracking in mass concrete with blast-furnace slag cement S. Miyazawa, K. Koibuchi, A. Hiroshima, T. Ohtomo & T. Usui

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Effect of slag on chloride transport and storage properties of HPC Z. Pavlík, M. Pavlíková, L. Fiala, H. Benešová, J. Mihulka & R. Černý

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Monitoring the setting of concrete containing high cement substitution by supplementary cementitious materials M.I.A. Khokhar, S. Staquet, E. Rozière & A. Loukili Development of a prefoam-type air-entraining admixture for fly ash concrete M. Kitatsuji, H. Aoyama, K. Saito & T. Endo

1505 1513

Hydration process of RHA and SF in cement paste by means of isothermal calorimetry N. Van Tuan, G. Ye, K. van Breugel, Z. Guo & B.D. Dai

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Effect of silica fume on carbonation of reinforced concrete structures in Persian Gulf region S. Sadati, F. Ghassemzadeh & M. Shekarchi

1529

What controls the durability of geopolymer binders and concretes? J.L. Provis & J.S.J. van Deventer

1535

LWA absorption and desorption: The influence on transport properties J. Castro, J. Weiss, R. Henkensiefken, T. Nantung & D.P. Bentz

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Performance of cement paste partially replaced by micronized sand Y. Wang, G. Ye & K. van Breugel

1551

Mechanical strength of hydraulic cement with addition of 2 & 4% of sugar cane bagasse R. Romero, M.A. Baltazar, D. Nieves, E. Maldonado, G. Fox, H. Hernández, U.R. Bañuelos & R. Hernández Reduction of CO2 emissions by using sugar cane bagasse ash as partial cement replacement E.M.R. Fairbairn, T.P. Paula, R.D. Toledo-Filho, G.C. Cordeiro, B.B. Americano & M.M. Silvoso

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1567

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Corrosion inhibitors for concrete from cactus extracts A. Torres-Acosta Effects of recycled coarse aggregate replacement levels on the mechanical properties of RAC H.D. Yun

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The use of crushed porcelain electrical isolators as fine aggregate in mortars A.E.P.G.A. Jacintho, M.A. Campos, V.A. Paulon, G. Camarini, R.C.C. Lintz & L.A.G. Barbosa

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An option for the use of fly ash on roller compacted concrete dams in Mexico A. Garduno & M. Montero

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Environmental issues

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Environmental effects of a new concrete armor block W. Nishigori, S. Takimoto, S. Noboru & K. Sakai

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Codes and design Structural design and performance A methodology to enhance quality assurance for new concrete construction D.F. Burke

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Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD) of RC special moment frame structures W.-C. Liao, S.C. Goel & S.-H. Chao

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An energy spectrum method for seismic evaluation of structures S.C. Goel, W.-C. Liao, M.R. Bayat & S. Leelataviwat

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The new Romanian code for seismic evaluation of existing buildings T. Postelnicu, E. Lozincă & R. Pascu

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Short and long-term behaviors of longitudinally restrained reinforced concrete slabs T. Yamamoto

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Experimental and numerical analysis of prestressed HPC girders for bridges P. Bujňáková & M. Moravčík

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Specifying 100-year design life infrastructure projects—the pitfalls R. Sri Ravindrarajah & B.A. Sabaa

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Performance-based design Determination of design wind speeds based on the simulation of historical tropical cyclones L.E. Fernandez-Baqueiro, A.J. Fernandez-Ojeda & J.L. Varela-Rivera

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Concrete construction and miscellaneous Mexico City’s deep drainage—Durable concrete design, production and supply R. Uribe & B. Martínez

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New method for continuous monitoring of concrete E-modulus since casting M. Azenha, F. Magalhães, R. Faria & A. Cunha

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Author index

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Evaluation efficiency of a vessel-shaped concrete mixer using a visual technique M. Yoshida, C. Hashimoto, T. Watanabe & H. Mizuguchi

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Preface

These proceedings include the papers presented at the “Sixth International Conference on Concrete under Severe Conditions-Environment and Loading”, CONSEC’10, which took place in Mérida, Yucatán, México, June 7–9, 2010. CONSEC conferences strive to facilitate an active dialogue between researchers and practitioners with the primary objective of maintaining a safe and functional concrete infrastructure. They also provide a forum for dealing with our current environmental concerns and help promote sustainable and environmentally friendly materials, processes, and technologies. Equally important is to bring various disciplines together—which otherwise function in isolation—to accelerate the discovery of multi-disciplinary solutions that are not only elegant and cost-effective but also environmentally conscious and socially responsible. Finally, these conferences provide networking opportunities at the highest international level that help foster long-term partnerships. Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel, inadequate structural design for seismic or blast loading, are some of the reasons for a reduced service life of concrete structures. These not only represent technical and economical problems for the society, but also account for a significant waste of natural resources and creation of insurmountable environmental and ecological problems. Experience with structures subjected to severe conditions represents a unique opportunity and benchmark for quantifying the actual available safety and durability margin. In fact, for several reasons, most concrete design codes, material specifications, and other requirements for concrete structures have frequently shown to yield insufficient and unsatisfactory results, and fail to address the above problems. The problem is even more critical for structures that are subjected to extremely harsh environment and for structures that are strategic in nature such as nuclear installations, hospitals, defense facilities and schools. Recently available high to ultra-high performance concretes may find rational and valuable application in such cases. It is important, therefore, to bring people with different professional backgrounds together on a common platform to exchange innovative ideas and to develop multi-disciplinary concepts to alleviate the concerns we currently face. The previous CONSEC conferences were held in Sapporo, Japan (1995), Tromso, Norway (1998), Vancouver, Canada (2001), Seoul, South Korea (2004) and Tours, France (2007). CONSEC’10 had a modern distribution of themes and topics in accordance to the current state of the art. These included: sustainability, performance under severe environments, specialized materials, concrete construction, performance under severe loading, codes and design, maintenance and repairs and emerging research fields. CONSEC’10 has been pleased by the presence of Drs. J.M. Torrenti, T. Katayama and A.A. Torres-Acosta as keynote speakers. They presented the state of the art on important topics such as safety of concrete structures in the nuclear context, modern techniques for diagnosis of AAR, and experimental results for forecasting remaining serviceable life, respectively. For the first time, CONSEC conferences honored distinguished members of our international community. Honored researchers were Drs. Paulo Helene and Douglas Hooton who presented thought-provoking lectures on understanding durability of concrete and on concrete degradation mechanisms. Also, and for the first time, CONSEC conference awarded prizes for the best presented papers based on the criteria of innovation, scientific value, clarity of concepts, complexity

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and completeness. CONSEC’10 acknowledge the efforts of the winning authors and congratulates them. We would like to express our gratitude to members of the Organizing, Scientific and Advisory Committees and to the many host organizations, sponsors and sustaining institutions for their encouragement, generous support and unfailing cooperation. Last but not least, we would like to thank the many reviewers, who donated their time in ensuring the quality of papers delivered. We are sure that with their unstinting help, these CONSEC Proceedings will be cited for many years to come and will have significant archival value.

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Pedro Castro-Borges Eric I. Moreno Koji Sakai Odd Gjørv Nemkumar Banthia Mérida, Yucatán, México, June 2010

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Steering board

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Koji Sakai, Kagawa University (Japan) (Representative) Odd E. Gjørv, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway) Nemkumar Banthia, University of British Columbia (Canada) Byung Hwan Oh, Seoul National University (Korea) François Toutlemonde, LCPC (France)

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Organizing committee

Pedro Castro-Borges, CINVESTAV-Mérida (Conference Chairman) Eric I. Moreno, UADY (Conference vice-chairman) Daniel Dámazo, IMCYC, D.F. Jorge Euan, CICY, Yucatán Víctor Castillo, CICY, Yucatán Víctor May, CMIC-Yucatán, Yucatán Enrique C. Cervera, FEMCIC, D.F. José H. Loría, UADY, Yucatán Romeo De Coss, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán Alejandro Durán, UANL, Nuevo León José M. Mendoza-Rangel, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán Andrés A. Torres-Acosta, IMT, Querétaro Erick Maldonado, UV, Veracruz Facundo Almeraya, CIMAV, Chihuahua Demetrio Nieves, UV, Veracruz Mercedes Balancan, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán Jairo Pacheco, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán Midori Cordova, CICY, Yucatán Ana Navarrete, FIUADY, Yucatán Teresa Ramirez, CICY, Yucatán Carlos Erosa, CICY, Yucatán Juan Mancera, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán Lidia Juárez, CIIDIR-IPN, Oaxaca

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Scientific committee

Pedro Castro-Borges, CINVESTAV-Mérida, México (Conference Chairman) Eric I. Moreno, UADY, Yucatán, México (Conference vice-chairman) Koji Sakai, Kagawa University, Japan (co-chair) Odd E. Gjørv, Norwegian Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Norway (co-chair) Nemkumar Banthia, University of British Columbia, Canada (co-chair) Romeo De Coss, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán, México. José H. Loría, UADY, Yucatán, México José M. Mendoza-Rangel, CINVESTAV-Mérida, México Alejandro Durán, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Andrés A. Torres-Acosta, IMT, Querétaro, México Facundo Almeraya, CIMAV, Chihuahua, México Gerardo Fajardo, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México César Juárez, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Pedro Montes, CIDIIR-Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México Pedro Valdéz, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Felipe Cano, CIDIIR-Oaxaca, Oaxaca, México Citlalli Gaona, CIMAV, Chihuahua, México Miguel Martínez-Madrid, IMT, Querétaro, México Konstantin Sobolev, UANL, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México Romel Solís-Carcaño, UADY, Yucatán, México Luis Fernández-Baqueiro, UADY, Yucatán, México Jorge Varela-Rivera, UADY, Yucatán, México Roberto Centeno-Lara, UADY, Yucatán, México Mauricio Gamboa-Marrufo, UADY, Yucatán, México Alfredo Tena, UAM, D.F., México Luis Maldonado, CINVESTAV-Mérida, Yucatán, México Ivan Escalante, CINVESTAV-Saltillo, Coahuila, México Oladis Troconis, CEC-LUZ, Venezuela Paulo Helene, USP, Brazil Patrícia Martínez, PUCC, Chile Mauricio López, PUCC, Chile Fernando Branco, Portugal Manuela Salta, LNEC, Portugal François Toutlemonde, LCPC, France Noru Gowripalan, University New South Wales, Australia Geert De Schutter, University of Ghent, Belgium Bernard Espion, Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium Jean-Marc Franssen, Université de Liège, Belgium Eduardo Fairbairn, Federal University Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Vivek Bindiganavile, University of Alberta, Canada Luke Bisby, Edimburgh, Scotland Mohammed Boulfiza, University of Saskatchewan, Canada Daniel Cusson, National Research Council, Canada Jacques Marchand, Université Laval, Canada Patrick Paultre, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada xxv

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Patrice Bailly, Université d’Oréans - ENSI Bourges, France Véronique Baroghel-Bouny, LCPC, France Thierry Chaussadent, LCPC, France Wolfgang Kusterle, University Appl Sciences, Regensburg, Germany Birgit Meng Bam, Berlin, Germany Günther Meschke, University Ruhr Bochum, Germany Hans-Wolf Reinhardt, Univ Stuttgart, Germany David Yankelevsky, Technion, Israel Marco Di Prisco, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Giovanni Plizzari, University of Brescia, Italy Lucca Sorrelli, MIT, USA Roberto Felicetti, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Alberto Meda, University of Bergamo, Italy Destephano, Italy Toshiki Ayano, Okayama University, Japan Kazunori Fujikake, National Defence Academy, Japan Hidenori Hamada, Kyushu University, Japan Tetsuya Ishida, The University of Tokyo, Japan Hidenori Hamada, Kyushu University, Japan Yshitaka Kato, The University of Tokyo, Japan Kenji Kawai, Hiroshima University, Japan Tatsuhiko Saeki, Niigata University, Japan Yasuhiko Sato, Hokkaido University, Japan Takumi Shimomura, Nagaoka University of Technology, Japan Piti Sukontasukkul, King Monkut’s Institute of Technology – North Bankok, Thailand Byung Hwan Oh, Seoul National University, Korea Jaap Weerheijm, TNO Netherlands Ion Radu Pascu, UTCB, Romania Mark G Alexander, University of Cape Town, South Africa Carmen Andrade, Institute Eduardo Torroja, Spain Ezio Cadoni, Univ Appl Sci Lugano, Switzerland Karen Scrivener, EPFLausanne, Switzerland Venkatesh Kodur, Michigan State University, USA Luis Javier Malvar, Naval Facilities Eng SC, USA Victor Saouma, University of Colorado, Boulder, USA Shamim Sheikh, University of Toronto, Canada Kevin Folliard, University of Texas, USA Mehmet Tasdemir, Technical, University of Istanbul, Turkey Gehlen, Technical, University of Aachen, Germany Ramazhanianpour, Amir Kabir University, Iran Vesa Penttala, Helsinki University of Technology, Finnland Zonejin LI, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China Sun Wei, South East University Nanjing, China J Barros, University of Minho, Portugal Gary Ong, National University of Singapore, Singapore Nicholas Carino, NIST, USA S.G. Millard, University of Liverpool, UK Priyan Mendis, University of Melbourne, Australia Thanassis Triantafillou, University of Patras, Greece Konstantin Kovler, Technion, Israel Jacob Sustercic, Slovenia Stefan Jacobsen, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway Bertil Persson, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden Jason Weiss, University of Purdue, USA H.D. Beushausen, University of Cape Town, South Africa xxvi

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Neal Berke, Grace Co., USA Alberto Sagüés, South Florida University, USA Joost Gulikers, The Netherlands Fabio Biondini, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy Andrzej Nowak, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE, USA Nguyen Tien Dich, Institute of Building Science and Technology, Vietnam

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International advisory committee

Pierre Rossi, LCPC, France Herbert Mang, TU Wien, Austria Luc Taerwe, University of Ghent, Belgium R. Douglas Hooton, University of Toronto, Canada Philippe Bisch, Séchaud et Metz, France François De Larrard, LCPC, France Alain Ehrlacher, ENPC, France Elisabeth Marie-Victoire, LRMH, France Gilles Pijaudier-Cabot, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, France Jean-François Sidaner, COGEMA, France György L. Balasz, Budapest University of Technology, Hungary Pietro Gambarova, Politecnico di Milano, Italy Chikanori Hashimoto, University of Tokushima, Japan Koichi Maekawa, University of Tokyo, Japan Hirozo Mihashi, Tohoku University, Japan Toyoaki Miyagawa, Kyoto University, Japan Junichiro Niwa, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan Takafumi Noguchi, University of Tokyo, Japan Kenji Sakata, Okayama University, Japan Motoyuki Suzuki, Tohoku University, Japan Kazuyuki Torii, Kanazawa University, Japan Tamon Ueda, Hokkaido University, Japan Hiroshi Yokota, Port and Airport Research Institute, Japan Stephen J. Foster, University of New South Wales, Australia Ha-Won Song Yonsei, Korea University, Korea Mette Glavind, Danish Technological Institute, Denmark Petr Hájek, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic Young-Soo Yoon, Korea University, Korea Algirda Jonas Notkus, Vilnius Gediminal TU, Lithuania Hans De Vries, Bouwdienst Rijkswaterstaat, The Netherlands Klaas Van Breugel, TU Delft, The Netherlands Karl V. Hoiseth, NTNU Trondheim, Norway Tor O. Olsen, Dr. Techn Olav Olsen as, Norway Adam Wysokowski, Road & Bridge Research Institute, Poland Anders Lindvall, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden Eugen Brühwiler, EPF Lausanne, Switzerland Jan G.M. Van Mier, Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich, Switzerland Mohammad Zineddin, American University in Dubai, UAE Alan J. Watson, University of Sheffield, UK Jonathan Wood, Structural Studies and Design Ltd, UK Theodor Krauthammer, Penn State University, USA Antoine E. Naaman, University of Michigan Ann Arbor, USA Surendra P. Shah, Northwestern University, USA

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Reviewers

Alberto Meda Alejandro Durán Alfredo Tena Andrés A. Torres-Acosta Andrzej Nowak Bernard Espion Bertil Persson Birgit Meng Byung Hwan Oh Carmen Andrade César Juárez Citlalli Gaona Daniel Cusson David Yankelevsky Eduardo Fairbairn Eric I. Moreno Erick Maldonado Ezio Cadoni Fabio Biondini Facundo Almeraya Felipe Cano Fernando Branco François Toutlemonde Francisco Presuel-Moreno Gary Ong Geert De Schutter Gerardo Fajardo Giovanni Plizzari Günther Meschke Hans-Wolf Reinhardt Hidenori Hamada Hiroshi Yokota Ion Radu Pascu Ivan Escalante Jaap Weerheijm Jacob Sustercic Jacques Marchand Jason Weiss Jean-Marc Franssen Joaquim Barros Joost Gulikers Jorge Varela-Rivera José H. Loría José M. Mendoza-Rangel Karen Scrivener

Kazunori Fujikake Kenji Kawai Kevin Folliard Koji Sakai Konstantin Kovler Konstantin Sobolev Lucca Sorrelli Luis Fernández-Baqueiro Luis Javier Malvar Luis Maldonado Luke Bisby Manuela Salta Marco Di Prisco Mark G. Alexander Mauricio Gamboa-Marrufo Mauricio López Mehmet Tasdemir Mercedes Balancan Midori Cordova Miguel Martínez-Madrid Mohammed Boulfiza Neal Berke Nemkumar Banthia Nguyen Tien Dich Nicholas Carino Noru Gowripalan Nuria Rebolledo Odd E. Gjørv Oladis Troconis Patrice Bailly Patrícia Martínez Patrick Paultre Paulo Helene Pedro Castro-Borges Pedro Montes Pedro Valdéz Pietro Gambarova Piti Sukontasukkul Priyan Mendis Rabindranarth Romero Roberto Centeno-Lara Roberto Felicetti Romel Solís-Carcaño Romeo De Coss Shamim Sheikh xxxi

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Venkatesh Kodur Véronique Baroghel-Bouny Vesa Penttala Victor Saouma Vivek Bindiganavile Wolfgang Kusterle Yasuhiko Sato Yoshitaka Kato Yshitaka Kato Zonejin Li

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Stefan Jacobsen Sun Wei Takumi Shimomura Tatsuhiko Saeki Tetsuya Ishida Tetsuya Yamada Thanassis Triantafillou Thierry Chaussadent Toshiki Ayano Ueli Angst

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Host organizations

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Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Mérida, México Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, México Asociación Latinoamericana de Control de Calidad, Patología y Recuperación de la Construcción, ALCONPAT México Colegio de Ingenieros Civiles de Yucatán, México

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Supporting organizations

Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, CONACyT Cámara Mexicana de la Industria de la Construcción, Delegación Yucatán, CMIC Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Ingenieros Civiles, FEMCIC Academia de Ingeniería, AI Instituto Mexicano del Cemento y del Concreto, IMCyC American Concrete Institute, ACI Architectural Institute of Japan, AIJ Canadian Society of Civil Engineers, CSCE Instituto Brasileiro do Concreto, IBRACON Indian Concrete Institute, ICI Japan Concrete Institute, JCI Japan Society of Civil Engineers, JSCE Kagawa University, Japan University of British Columbia, Canada Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, LCPC Norwegian Concrete Association, NCA Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU National Association of Corrosion Engineers-Mexican Chapter, NACE México

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Sponsors

Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Mérida Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, CONACyT Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán Gobierno del Estado de Yucatán H. Ayuntamiento de la Cd. de Mérida H. Ayuntamiento de la Cd. de Progreso Asociación Latinoamericana de Control de Calidad, Patología y Recuperación de la Construcción, ALCONPAT México CEMEX Concretos SA de CV WR GRACE Holdings SA de CV PENMAR SA de CV SIKA Mexicana SA de CV BASF Mexicana SA de CV

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Thermal behaviour of concrete with layer of fireproofing materials exposed to fire K.S. Nguyen, C. Lanos & Y. Mélinge UEB, Equipe MTRhéo—Laboratoire Génie Civil et Génie Mécanique, Rennes, France

ABSTRACT: The high temperature thermal transfer through concrete protected by mineral fireproofing layer is studied. In order to model the thermal transfer, a numerical model has been developed taking into account the thermal properties and the thermal degradation kinetics. To circumvent some difficulties associated with the identification of thermo-physical materials parameters, a reverse method is presented. An iterative algorithm is developed to optimize the temperature deviation between numerical-experimental results of heat transfer. The method stability is firstly tested on simulated signals. Then, the heat transfer through the multi layer sample is studied. Experimental data are registered during laboratory fire tests realized following two types of standard fire curves (ISO 834 and HCM). The intrinsic parameters are calculated with the reverse method and numerical results are compared with fire tests experimental results for each standard fire curve. The obtained results appear very satisfactory and give a validation of the developed method.

1

INTRODUCTION

Fire passive protection is mainly based on the use of insulating materials to avoid fire propagation in compartment and to protect load-bearing structures during fire. Mineral materials are often used to formulate such insulators, as in the case of building and underground structure (tunnel, subway...). Under a large range of temperature many mechanisms characterize the insulators and two main groups can be described for fire protection. The case of nonreactive materials (simple conduction characteristic) is the first of them and the case of reactive materials is the second. The mineral phases transitions are used to enhance the thermal barrier (high latent heat associated with these reactions, Fejean 2003). The fire resistance of materials can be evaluated during standard fire tests. Temperature curves such as the ISO 834 curve or the Modified Hydrocarbon Curve (HCM) are usually reproduced with the standard furnace. The tested panel constitutes one of the furnace walls and the temperature increase within thickness sample is recorded with temperature sensors. The temperature signal versus time of Non-reactive materials is mainly given by heat diffusion. With the use of reactive materials, the response becomes more complex due to the phase transition. An isothermal plateau appears (Fig. 1), and the temperature level is close to the temperature of endothermic reaction. The chemical reactions duration is in relation with the quantity of reactive material and the combination of the different steps of the phase transition. When such duration is completed, the temperature evolution within material is mainly conditioned by diffusion characteristic. These specific thermal insulators are interesting for fire protection, Baux et al. (2008) and contribute to increase the needed duration to ensure rescue and evacuation of persons. In previous papers, Baux et al. (2007) and Nguyen et al. (2007), we have presented a numerical modeling of the heat transfer evaluation including the materials phase transition. Our proposal is based on the kinetic chemical evolution modelisation to ensure the right distribution of the endothermic reaction (latent heat ΔH). The model also takes into account unsteady state of some thermo-physical properties of the material as a function of 527

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Figure 1. Example of temperature fields within a 30 mm panel thickness of material with high latent heat effect. The panel is exposed at one side to the ISO 834 standard curve. The room temperature is 20°C. Thermocouples TC are placed at various positions from hot face.

temperature (density ρ(T), thermal conductivity λ(T) and heat capacity Cp(T)). Experimental measurement of these parameters is possible, especially with homogeneous compounds and one main component (e.g. gypsum panel). The numerical temperature distribution of the heat transfer results were validated with the recorded temperature during experimental fire tests, Baux et al. (2007). However, composite compounds are popular in fire protection to improve the mechanical stability. The identification of all characteristic data of such insulators is often impossible because of the complex formulation, the experimental measurements reproducibility or the analysis cost and because the measurements are not possible. To circumvent these difficulties, a reverse method is presented in this paper. This framework serves to estimate the parameters values by the use of the temperature fields T(t,z) (within sample thickness) recorded with thermocouples during fire tests. The iterative algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt is developed to minimize the temperature deviation between numerical (R(t,P)) and experimental (Y(t)) results of heat transfer. The parameters values P are finally evaluated. The method is firstly tested on simulated signals obtained in the case of simple layer of material. Then, the calculus of the heat transfer trough the multi layer sample is realized. Experimental data are recorded during laboratory fire tests. Samples are composed with a layer of concrete and a fireproofing layer and are developed including thermocouples between the two layers. Fire tests are realized following two types of standard fire curves (ISO 834 and HCM). The intrinsic parameters are calculated with the reverse method and numerical results are compared with experimental results for each standard fire curve.

2 2.1

NUMERICAL MODELING OF HEAT TRANSFER Thermal and chemical combination

Mineral phases transition commonly used in fire protection materials are dehydration reaction (gypsum, lime, gibbsite...) or decarbonation reaction (calcite or cementitious binder...). These conversions are usually associated with modifications in the material microstructure. We use a heat transfer model particularly adapted to integrate kinetic conversion of material, Baux et al. (2007). The one dimensional equation of heat balance (thickness direction: z direction in Fig. 1) is:

ρC (T )

∂T ∂t

φg =

∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ⎜ λ (T ) ⋅ ⎟ ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠

(1)

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T, the temperature is unknown and φg = −ρ ⋅ ΔH ⋅ dα/dt is the source term conditioned by latent heat (ΔH). In the source term, the variable is the conversion degree (α) of material. α features explicitly phases combination within the material: original material (before conversion) α = 0, altered material (after conversion) α = 1. As assumption, the latent heat distribution, function of time, is fulfilling in compliance with the chemical reaction kinetic dα/dt. The kinetic function, dα/dt, is expressed by the product of a temperature function k(T) (Arrhenius law) and a kinetic law f(α):

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dα = f( dt

) k (T )

⎛ Ea ⎞ f (α ) ⋅ k exp − ⎝ R T ⎟⎠

(2)

f(α) = αm(1−α)n is the kinetic law in respect with the reaction mechanism, k and Ea are two constant parameters of the Arrhenius function and R is the perfect gas constant. The identification of the triplet kinetic parameters {f(α) = αm(1−α)n, k, Ea} can be performed using thermal analysis results DTA/TG of pure minerals (under crushed condition). In the biphasic system corresponding to the material during phase transition, the average values of thermo-physical parameters used in equation 1 must be evaluated. These parameters depend on temperature and also on conversion degree (the ratio between initial and altered phases). 2.2

Numerical development

A multi-layer structure of panel is modeled. Boundary conditions of exposed side (ISO 834 or HCM fire curves) and of the opposite unexposed side (room temperature at 20°C) are reproduced in calculation. The temperature gradients within fluid layers near the hot and cold boundaries reflect heat radiation and convection between sample and environment. The heat equation (1) is solved numerically using the finite differences method. An implicit scheme of calculation is applied to evaluate the temperatures values within the material thickness. 2.3

Results analysis

The comparison of experimental results and numerical results from the proposed model shows that it is convenient to use simulation of the heat transfer taking into account the mineral phases transitions (Baux 2007). The accuracy of such model seems to be better than the results obtained with the apparent heat capacity method. The last one remains more popular and the numerical development is easier. However, some simplified assumptions have been proposed in our model: Mechanical damages (cracking, volumetric deformation...) associated with phase transition and the migration of vapor released during reaction were thus not taken into account. Then, the convergence between simulated and experimental results can be altered, especially after the period of isothermal plateau. Finally, the boundary conditions imposed in the model (radiative and convective exchange) may differ slightly from the experimental conditions. 3 3.1

REVERSE METHOD Parameters analysis

Thermo-physical behaviour of material have some specific effects on the heat transfer. − A high value of thermal conductivity (λ) promotes the temperature variation because of the increase in the heat transfer through the panel. An exponential relation is retained in our model (λ(T) = k0 ⋅ exp(−k1/T)). We also remark that the values of λ are different for initial and altered material. − A high value of volumetric specific heat (ρCp) reduces the diffusion of the heat. It delays the temperature evolution at the unexposed side of panel sample. 529

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− Without taking into account the cracking effect due to phase transition, the higher the latent heat (ΔH), the slower the heating rate within the material. Apart from the measurable density (ρ) of original material (before conversion) and altered material (after conversion), we must estimate others thermo-physical parameters using the reverse approach. The total number of identified parameters is quite different between material with or without phase transition. 3.2

Strategy of minimization

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The used methods for parameters estimation are often gradient type. In such condition, it is necessary to evaluate the sensitivity matrix. This process is based on the minimization of a quadratic equation (difference between the measured results Y(t) and the theoretical response (direct calculation) of the system R(t, P)). The objective function S(P) is written according to: S(

I

) ∑ ⎡⎣Yi i =1

Ri ( P )⎤⎦

2

(3)

P is a vector of parameters involved in the direct model, Ri(P) = R(ti,P) is the theoretical response of system by using the direct calculus at ti time, Yi = Y(ti) is the experimental measurements at ti time, I is the number of measured values by one thermocouple. With several sensors using (M totally), equation (3) may be rearranged: M

I

( ) ∑ ∑ ⎡⎣Yiim

Rim ( P )⎤⎦

m =1 i =1

3.3

2

(4)

Calculation of sensibility coefficients

The sensitivity coefficient is defined as the variation in the theoretical response R(t, P) due to a small perturbation of parameter P. It allows us to evaluate the significance of parameter perturbation with the results of heat transfer, Beck (1998). The scheme of forward difference (equation (5)) with small value ξ = 10−4 is evaluated by using the numerical calculation. This scheme is less accurate than the central difference, but it requires less calculation. Jij =

3.4

(

R ti P

) (

Pj + Pj

PN − R ti P

Pj

PN

ξPj

)

(5)

Summary of the algorithm

This method was born from the union of Levenberg method and Marquardt method and permits to solve the instability problem in the gradient type methods (e.g. Gauss method, Ozisik 2000). The iterative optimization of the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method is divided into 7 steps: − Step 1: direct problem calculus with initial values Pk. Response of the system R(t, Pk) and S(Pk) identification; − Step 2: Sensitivity matrix J calculus using equation (5); − Step 3: Increment ΔPk+1 determination. I is the unit matrix and μk+1 is a damping variable; ΔP k

⎡ JT J ⎣

−1

(

)

μ k I ⎤⎦ ⋅ JT ⎡ Y (t ) R t P k ⎤ ⎣ ⎦

(6)

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− Step 4: Update of the estimation of the parameters from equation Pk+1 = Pk + ΔPk; − Step 5: New direct problem resolution with values Pk+1. Estimation of the difference S(Pk+1); − Step 6: (a) if S(Pk+1) > S(Pk), μk is replaced by 10 ⋅ μk and then: step 3; (b) if S(Pk+1) < S(Pk), validation of the new estimation Pk+1 ⋅ μk is replaced by 0,1 ⋅ μk; − Step 7: Check the stopping criteria given by equation (7) and stop iterative procedure if this is satisfied. Otherwise, k is replaced by k + 1 and then: step 2.

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max ⎡ Pjk +1 Pjk ⎣

Pjk ⎤ < ε , with j = 1, ..., N ⎦

(7)

N is the total number of unknown parameters and ε is prescribed tolerance, e.g. 10−3. The presence of μkI term in equations (6) is to damp oscillations and instabilities due to illconditioning character of the problem, by making its components larger than those of term JTJ. All along the first iterations, the damping parameter μk is large as the initial parameters values can be quite far from the exact parameters values. During iteration procedure, μk is gradually reduced to solve the estimate problem. The L-M method tends to the gradient method of Gauss, according to Ozisik & Orlande (2000). 4

NUMERICAL VALIDATIONS

In a first step, the validation of the iterative procedure of L-M method is realized with simulated signals. Such signals are generated by direct calculation from a set of known parameters. Temperature field within a 30 mm thickness simple layer of material exposed to ISO 834 fire is produced. Room temperature is 20°C. Such field plays as experimental data Y(t). Two cases are simulated: non-reactive material (without phase transition) and reactive material with latent heat. The reverse method is then applied on simulated temperature fields to evaluate the material parameters. The obtained results are then compared with the selected values of parameters. To reproduce the uncertainties associated with sensors, we add to the simulated temperature field a random error on Y(t) (Fig. 2). Material properties (thermal conductivity λ(T), heat capacity Cp and latent heat ΔH) are resulted from minimizing the difference between the direct calculation R(t,P) and the simulated signals Y(t). In order to start the iterative optimization, the initial values of parameters Pinit (k0, k1, Cp, ΔH) were taken 80% of real values. The stability of the calculation is controlled with the comparison of the difference δ(%) between the estimated Pestim. and exact values Pexact of parameters.

δ ( % ) = Pexact − Pestim. Pexact

(8)

Various procedures of parameters estimation are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Thermocouple column TC shows the number of temperature curves takes into account in calculus. Iteration numbers needed for optimization procedure is in the last column. Our results are making resonable and consistent qualitatively with the conclusions drawn by Ouyang (1992): the number of used thermocouple data increases the calculus stability and leads to reduce the iteration number to achieve calculus with similar precision. The random uncertainties of experimental signals visibly penalize the estimate accuracy and leads to increase the iteration number of calculation. We note that convergence is obtained after a relative small iteration number. The simulated signals with random errors Y(t) and the calculated temperature field obtained with a direct calculus using parameters values of last line of the Tables 1 and 2 are compared on Figure 3. Reverse method results appear very reliable despite the fact that certain values of parameters are poorly estimated, e.g. k1before, k1after. 531

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Figure 2. Simulated signals of temperatures Y(t) containing random uncertainties (left: material without phase transition λ(T) = 0,75.exp(–126/T) and Cp = 700 Jkg−1 K−1; right: material with latent heat λbefore(T) = 0.75exp(−126/T), λafter(T) = 0.45exp(−173/T); Cp = 700 Jkg−1 K−1 et ΔH = 580 kJkg−1). Table 1.

5

5.1

Estimate of material properties: case of material without phase transition.

Unknown parameters

Pinit

Pestim.

Thermocouples number

δ (%)

k0 Cp k0 Cp k0 Cp k0 k1 Cp k0 k1 Cp

0,6 560 0,6 560 0,6 560 0,6 100,8 560 0,6 100,8 560

0,74999 702,1 0,74968 699,497 0,75095 708,105 0,74354 116,441 707,074 0,73737 104,420 718,350

1 1 2 (no errors added to data) 2 (with random errors) 3 (no errors added to data)

0,0005 0,003 0,043 0,072 0,127 1,158 0,861 7,587 1,621 1,684 17,29 2,621

3 (with random errors)

Iterations number 3 5 2 3 6

7

THERMAL PROPERTIES IDENTIFICATION OF A COMPOSITE STRUCTURE (FIREPROOFING/CONCRETE) Fire tests

Two series of fire tests were conducted in the TNO laboratory (Netherlands) to analyze the properties of a fireproofing product. Samples panels (insulating product + concrete slab) were subjected to both conventional fire of the temperature-time curves of ISO 834 and HCM. Furnace (Fig. 4 left) used gas for heat generation. Insulator layer thicknesses are 20, 25, 30 and 35 mm to protect concrete slab 400 × 400 × 150 mm3. Five thermocouples are placed at the interface between insulator layer and concrete (Fig. 4 right) to measure average temperatures versus time at these positions. In the present study, we consider data recorded below 200°C for calculus. 5.2

Reverse method applied on HCM test results

Results of Reverse method are presented in Table 3. Experimental and calculated temperature fields are compared in Figure 5 left. We note a good consistency between experimental and numerical results in particular during the phase transition periods. 532

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Table 2.

Estimate of material properties: case of material with phase transition.

Unknown parameters

Pinit

Pestim.

Thermocouples number

δ (%)

k0before Cp ΔH k0before k0after k0before k0after Cp k0before k0after Cp ΔH k0before k0after Cp ΔH k0before k0after Cp ΔH k0before k1before k0after k1after Cp ΔH k0before k1before k0after k1after Cp ΔH

0,6 560 464E+03 0,6 0,36 0,6 0,36 560 0,6 0,36 560 464E+03 0,6 0,36 560 464E+03 0,6 0,36 560 464E+03 0,6 100,8 0,36 138,4 560 464E+03 0,6 100,8 0,36 138,4 560 464E+03

0,7491 700,01 567,1E+03 0,7245 0,4491 0,7286 0,4470 698,60 0,7201 0,4497 693,75 581,3E+03 0,7341 0,4493 691,00 578,3E+03 0,7172 0,4497 691,35 582,4E+03 7,5572 135,85 0,4464 166,21 691,05 586E+03 0,7384 158,56 0,4398 154,86 660,84 599,7E+03

1 1 1 2

0,114 0,001 2,224 3,397 0,192 2,860 0,665 0,200 3,989 0,062 0,893 0,230 2,117 0,158 1,283 0,290 4,375 0,062 1,236 0,411 0,762 7,136 0,810 3,927 1,279 1,034 1,544 25,84 2,272 10,49 5,594 3,399

3 (no errors added to data) 3 (with random errors)

4 (no errors added to data)

4 (with random errors)

4 (no errors added to data)

4 (with random errors)

Iterations number 4 4 5 2

3

4

2

5

5

7

Figure 3. Fields of calculated (dots) and simulated temperature R(t, P) (line) within the panel thickness. (left: material without phase transition λ(T) = 0,75. exp(−126/T) and Cp = 700 Jkg−1 K−1; right: material with latent heat λbefore(T) = 0.75 exp(−126/T), λafter(T) = 0.45 exp(−173/T); Cp = 700 Jkg−1 K−1 et ΔH = 580 kJkg−1).

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Concrete 15 cm Thermocouples

sample A

A

Insulator layer

Gas burner

200mm TC2 400mm

Thermocouple wires

200mm

TC1

TC5 TC4

TC3

400mm

Figure 4.

Description of sample and fire test.

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Table 3. Material properties estimation using fire tests results with temperature-time curve HCM. Unknown parameters

Pinit

Pestim.

k0before k1before k0after k1after Cp ΔH

2,5 92 0,54 289 1298 186E+03

1,3610 147,56 0,3180 75,506 912,24 71,96E+03

Iterations number 21

Figure 5. Left: fields of calculated and measured temperature at interface under HCM fire tests; right: fields of calculated and measured temperature under ISO 834 fire tests.

5.3

Extrapolating result of fire tests with temperature-time curve ISO 834 (direct calculation)

In order to validate the characteristic parameters of the material, we make a comparison between numerical results using estimated parameters of Table 3 and experimental results in the case of fire tests realized with ISO 834 curve. The results are compared in Figure 5 right. They are coherent particularly regarding the isothermal periods. As expected, the temperature evolution at the end of these plateaus is poorly simulated.

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6

CONCLUSIONS

The initial objective of our study was to develop a numerical calculus of fire test. Selected model appears particularly adapted in the case of phase transition of mineral materials with high temperature. The addition of a reverse approach permits to estimate values of thermophysical material parameters. On the whole, results reveal the effectiveness of the reverse study with different categories of material (non-reactive or reactive with phase transition). So, estimated parameters lead to interest coherence between calculated temperature fields and experimental results. However, the conclusion concerning the intrinsic character of the values identified for each parameter remains to be assessed. The thermo-mechanical interaction is not yet takes into account in our heat transfer model. Cracks and volume variations usually observed during mineral phase transition affect coherence between numerical results and experimental results. This problem should be shortly studied. However, our reverse study permits to consider various practical applications with industrial partner: e.g. a technical design of fireproofing solutions or optimization of product formulations.

REFERENCES Baux, C., Lanos, C., Mélinge, Y. & Nguyen, K.S. 2007. Modélisation du comportement thermique haute température de matériaux minéraux, Rev. Europ. Génie Civil: 787–800. Baux, C., Mélinge, Y., Lanos, C. & Jauberthie, R. 2008. Hydraulics binders based materials for fire protection, ASCE’s Journal Materials in Civil Engineering, MT/2005/023091. Beck, J.V. & Woodbury, K.A. 1998. Inverse problems and parameter estimation: integration of measurements and analysis, Measurement Science and Technology, 9: 839–847. Fejean, J. 2003. Développement de liants et de composites minéraux: application à la protection incendie, PhD Thesis, INSA de Rennes. Nguyen, K.S., Baux, C., Mélinge, Y. & Lanos, C. 2007. Modeling of the behavior of inorganic materials under high temperature sollicitation, CONSEC O7, tours, France. Ouyang, T. 1992. Analysis of parameter estimation heat conduction problems with phase change using the finite element method, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng. 33: 2015–2037. Ozisik, D.M.N. & Orlande, H.R.B. 2000. Inverse heat transfer: fundamentals and applications: 330, Taylor & Francis.

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