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CONFERENCE PROCEEDING CONFERENCE PROCEEDING ICIE 2012 November 7-9, 2012 Bangkok Thailand

CONFERENCE PROCEEDING

ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Published by Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand www.il.mahidol.ac.th

ICIE2012 Conference Proceeding Edited by Wannapong Triampo Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand

Book cover designed by Jiraporn Thanpaew Audio-Visual Technical Officer Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand

All rights reserved.

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

THE 1ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INNOVATION IN EDUCATION (ICIE 2012) Hosted by Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand 2012, November 7-9 at the SD Avenue Hotel, Bangkok, Thailand This year’s special theme: Innovative Science, Mathematics, and Technology (SMT) Education for Enhancement of Learning for the 21st Century ICIE 2012 focuses on Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations taking place in the 21st century in schools, colleges, and universities. ICIE 2012 welcomes academic staff, graduate students, and researchers to present novel experimental studies, conceptual analyses, theoretical insights, modeling, and simulation and gaming for effective teaching and learning. The five sub-themes in the three-day conference will foster the building of research communities in the field of Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations. ICIE 2012 includes keynote speakers and discussions among experts on Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovation. It also includes numerous parallel sessions. Participants are invited to present their research by an oral presentation, a poster presentation, and/or a workshop. The proceedings will be fully peer reviewed by two or three reviewers. Note that the submitted proceedings have not been previously published in a substantially similar format. An article presented by an oral presentation may be selected to be published in a special issue of International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation. Moreover, this conference will hold an exhibition of Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations.

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WELCOME INTRODUCTION Dear ICIE2012 Conference Participants, On behalf of the organizing committee, our sponsors, and the many supporters, it is my great pleasure to warmly welcome you all to our first edition of the international ICIE conference that brings together delegates and experts from every corner of the globe. ICIE2012, this year’s special theme, focuses on Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations taking place in the 21st century in schools, colleges, and universities. It encourages academic staffs, graduate students, and researchers to present papers, posters, exhibits, workshops, and discussions on novel experimental studies, conceptual analyses, theoretical insights, modeling, and simulation and gaming for effective teaching and learning. It makes every effort to foster the building of research communities in the field of Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations. ICIE2012 is an opportunity for us all to learn from keynote/ plenary speakers’ experiences and to discuss among experts on Science, Mathematics, and Technology educational innovations. This will make us think and learn about innovative and creative ways to improve our own research and practices in educational area. The success of this conference rests mainly on your active participation. We are confident you will find similarities and differences in the experiences to share with each other. Importantly, you will network with your counterparts so that you should be taking back with you such a valuable experience. It was an immense task that could have not been accomplished without the support of members of the Program Committee, our staffs and all participants. We are grateful to presenters, session Chairs and discussants that will contribute to the success of our meeting. We are especially grateful to the Microsoft (Thailand) Ltd., KNJ International (Thailand) Ltd., PTT Public Co.,Ltd, the Siam Commercial Bank Public Co.,Ltd, the Bangkok Bank Public Co.,Ltd, and Lactasoy Co.,Ltd for their generous sponsorship of our meeting. Their academic and financial support made our conference possible. We hope that you will find the program challenging and rewarding, but still find the time to enjoy our amazing city. Thank you very much for coming to share your innovative ideas and experiences with us. We hope you get the best from ICIE2012 and we wish us all a very successful conference.

ICIE2012 Conference Chair

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CONTENTS WELCOME INTRODUCTION CO-ORGANIZATIONS SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE AND ADVISORY BOARD CONFERENCE CHAIR PERSON CONFERENCE COORDINATOR EXCLUSIVE EXHIBITIONS STUDENTS MATER OF CEREMONY KEYNOTE SPEAKERS AND PLENARY LECTURES WORKSHOPS CONFERENCE ABSTRACT An Immunoassay to Self-Study Differential Counting Stefan SCHREIER, Sebastian P. BHAKDI, Wannapong TRIAMPO Efficacy of Anesthesia Trainee–Administered Propofol Deep Sedation for Enteroscopy in Elderly Patients by Using a Syringe Pump Somchai AMORNYOTIN, Wiyada CHALAYONNAWIN, Siriporn KONGPHLAY Chemistry of Thyroid Hormone: Biosynthesis and Active Atropisomeric Conformer Piyachat JITTAM, Bhinyo PANIJPAN Exploring Glomerular-Model Activity to enhance Diabetes Patients’ Understanding of Nephropathy Benjamaporn WONGPRASERT The Construction of a Science Teaching and Learning Module to Develop Secondary School Students’ Reasoning Ability: a Collaborative Approach Surintorn WANGKHAD Enhancing Creativity and Learning Achievement of Undergraduate Students in Applied Computer Science–Multimedia via Teaching and Learning Model for Writing for Communication Design Subject Yada ATANAN, Suwanna SOMBUNSUKHO The Effects of Celestial Motion Model on Pre-service Teachers’ Conceptual Understanding of Basic Concepts of Astronomy Sopita JANSRI Students’ Mechanistic Reasoning about Surface Wettability Phenomena during Hands-on, Open-inquiry Science Activities Niwat SRISAWASDI Affective Computing Techniques for Developing a Human Affective Norm Recognition System for a U-learning System Chih-Hung WU, Yi-Lin TZENG, Bor-Chen KUO, Gwo-Hshiung TZENG Managing a Multi-section Course with Cloud Storage Support Kuntinee MANEERATANA, Thanyarat SINGHANART, Tawan PAPHAPOTE, Nuksit NOOMWONGS, Sawat LUENGRUENGRIT, Ratchatin CHANCHAROEN, Angkee SRIPAKORN A Streaming Video–based Peer Assessment Approach to Supporting Drama Practice Lu-Ho HSIAA, Iwen HUANG, Gwo-Jen HWANG

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Using Illustrations and Motion Pictures Generated by the Mathematica Programming to Develop Teaching Statistics Sangtien YOUTHAO Learning Aggressive Behavior and Courtship Behavior through Computer Game–based Instructional Unit Tadsanai JEENTHONG, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAI Pintip RUENWONG, Bhinyo PANIJPAN A Guided-Inquiry Learning Unit on the Reaction between Iodate and Bisulfite Usa JEENJENKIT, Chanyah DAHSAH, Bhinyo PANIJPAN Using Computer Simulations to Enhance Understanding of Density of States for Undergraduate Students Busara PATTANASIRI, Wannapong TRIAMPO, Charin MODCHANG, Narin NUTTAVUT, Darapond TRIAMPO Enhancing Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students’ Understanding of Special Tests of the Knee with an Innovative Knee Model and the 5E Learning Cycle Chanonya CHAIWONGROJ, Warin KRITYAKIARANA, Khajornsak BUARAPHAN Using Students’ Preferred Language in Learning Some Factors Affecting Solubility in High School Chemistry Arlene P. DE LA CRUZ, Amelia E. PUNZALAN Effective educational management for the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area: the cases of Best Practice TQA 2008–2010 Pinyo SRIMUANG Comparison of Two Formative Assessment Tools for Analogy Teaching of Solid, Liquid, and Gas Chamaiphorn LARBPHO, Romklao ARTDEJ Exploring the Use of Analogy and K-W-L Chart on Thai Students’ Conceptual Change of Conjugate Acid-base Pairs Waraporn YOTHAPHAKDEE, Romklao ARTDEJ The Effect of Undergraduates’ Computer Efficacy on the Media Used on Mobile Computing Devices Brian J. PHILLIPS, ,Michael GROSCH A Web-based Collaborative Problem-Solving Approach to Improving Students’ Learning Achievements in Social Studies Courses Fan-Ray KUO, Chih-Hsiang WU, Gwo-Jen HWANG Developing Multimedia for Hearing-Impaired Children Watching Reum An-re, a Famous Folk Dance of Surin Province Wijittra POTISARN, Nawuttagorn POTISARN Decision Tree: a Tool for Promoting Self-evaluated Knowledge in Health Education Artorn NOKKAEW, Wannapong TRIAMPO, Charin MODCHANG,Busayamas PIMPUNCHAT The Development of Active Learning Activities to Enhance Students’Achievement in Chemistry at Phanamtipwittaya School Wilaiporn TECHA Inhibition of Carica papaya Lipase by Alcohol: an Experiment for Undergraduate Students Pirom CHENPRAKHON, Watcharathorn SUGJAISOMRAN, Somchart MAENPUEN, Pimchai CHAIYEN

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Thai and Bangladeshi In-service Secondary Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: A Cross Cultural Study Md. Ziaul Abedin FORHAD, Khajornsak BUARAPHAN Using Interactive Computer Game Activities to Assess Nursing Students’ Basic knowledge in Tracheostomy Care A-ngun NOYUDOM, Watcharee KETPICHAINARONG Using Soil Buffering System to Motivate Students to Learn Concept of Buffer Solution: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment for High School Students Thammarat KEOSOMNUK, Pirom CHENPRAKHON Integrated Learning Unit Between Career-related Local Wisdom and ICT to Promote Area-based Science Content in Secondary Student Chakpet TIANCHAI, Nantawadee TIANCHAI The Gaps between Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics Classroom Bongkoch NIMTRAKUL, Kait SANG-AROON The Estimation Problem Solving in Lesson Study and Open Approach Classroom Siwarak PROMRAKSA, Kiat SANGAROON Students’ Problem Solving Behavior in Problem-Solving Mathematics Classroom Pimpaka INTAROS, Maitree INPRASITHA, Niwat SRISAWADI Assessment of Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Mathematical Creativity Kawissara SANSAOH, Maitree INPRASITHA Student Intern’s Role of Working together with Teachers in School using Lesson Study and Open Approach Weerasuk KANAUAN, Narumol INPRASITHA Types of Mathematical Tasks Used in Classrooms to Influence Students’ Thinking Katanyuta BANGTHO, Narumol INPRASITHA What Mathematics Student Teacher Interns Learn through Participation in Lesson Study Nisakorn BOONSENA, Maitree INPRASITHA Learning to Listen to Students’ Mathematical Ideas Kanjana WETBUNPOT, Narumol INPRASITHA, Auijit PATTANAJAK Intuition in Problem-Solving Process of Subtraction Problems Kwanta PANBANLAME, Kiat SANGAROON Exploring Teachers’ Understanding of Lesson Plan in Lesson Study Rungthiwa KHONKARN, Suladda LOIPHA, Auijit PATTANAJAK Exploring the Students’ Demand for Multimedia Used in Immune System Teaching Monamorn PRECHARATTANA The Practical Way to Use Collaborative Learning on a Learning Management System Sasithorn CHOOKAEW Supporting Students’ Conceptual Learning and Retention of Light Refraction Concepts by Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model Siriporn KROOTHKEAW, Niwat SRISAWASDI Effect of Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion Prapaporn SORNKHATHA, Niwat SRISAWASDI

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Enhancing Pupils’ Understanding of Mathematics Through the Use of Digitized Learning Materials Aida I. YAP Improving Understanding of Fractions in the Early Grades Through Collaborative Lesson Research and Development Teresita R. MAÑALAC How Epidemic Modeling and Simulation Software can Enhance Science Teaching and Learning Sudarat CHADSUTHI, Charin MODCHANG, Wannapong TRIAMPO Review of Some Free Ising Model Software for Scientific Teaching Kan SORNBUNDIT, Narin NUTTAVUT, Darapond TRIAMPO, Wannapong TRIAMPO Impact of Game-based Learning upon Flow Experience and Cognitive Load Chih-Hung LAI, Hsiang-Hsuan LIU, Chih-Ming CHU, Yung-Chih CHENG Learning material for promoting Newton’s laws of motion conceptual development: What and How? Apinya DHATSUWAN, Monamorn PRECHARATTANA, Patcharin PANJABUREE Game-based Learning on Fast Food Consumption for Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Nutrition Knowledge Chonlada KHRUTTHAKHA, Piyachat JITTAM Attribution of Genetic Disorder Understanding to a Series of Games Thanaporn PIMOUBOL, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAI Development of a Collaborative Learning Environment for Conducting WebBased Problem Solving Activities Chih-Hsiang WU, Fan-Ray KUO, Gwo-Jen HWANG Learn to Think Scientifically: Proposing a Framework for Inquiry-based Experimentation through Hybrid Computer-based Laboratory Environment Niwat SRISAWASDI Online interactive instruction using a flowchart to support students in a computer programming course Dechawut WANICHSAN, Sasithorn CHOOKAEW An Automatic Diagnostic Assessment System (ADAS) for Computer Programming: A Case Study on PHP Programming Language Suchot SINTHSIRIMANA, Patcharin PANJABUREE, Parames LAOSINCHAI CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Efficacy of Anesthetic Trainee–Administered Propofol Deep Sedation for Enteroscopy in Elderly Patients by Using a Syringe Pump Somchai AMORNYOTIN, Wiyada CHALAYONNAWIN, Siriporn KONGPHLAY Exploring Glomerular Modeling Activity to Enhance Diabetes Patients’ Understanding of Nephropathy Benjamaporn WONGPRASERT, Piyachat JITTAM The Development of Active Learning Activities for Students’Achievement in the Chemistry class at Phanamtipwittaya School. Wilaiporn TECHA Effectiveness of Learning Achievement of Teaching and Learning Model in Writing for Communication Design Subject to Enhance Creative Thinking for Undergraduate Students Program in Applied Computer Science - Multimedia Yada ATANAN, Assoc.Prof.Suwanna SOMBUNSUKHO A Guided-Inquiry Learning Unit on the Reaction between Iodate and Bisulfite Usa JEENJENKIT, Chanyah DAHSAH, Bhinyo PANIJPAN

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Using Computer Simulations to Enhance Understanding of Density of States in Statistical Thermodynamics for Undergraduate Students Busara PATTANASIRI, Wannapong TRIAMPO, Charin MODCHANG, Narin NUTTAVUT, Darapond TRIAMPO Use of Bilingualism in College Organic Chemistry Marilou M. SAONG, Amelia E. PUNZALAN Chemistry of the Thyroid Hormone: Biosynthesis and Active Atropisomeric Conformer Piyachat JITTAM, Bhinyo PANIJPAN Exploring the Use of Analogy and K-W-L Chart on Thai Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Waraporn YOTHAPHAKDEE, Romklao ARTDEJ Students’ Mechanistic Reasoning about Surface Wettability Phenomena during a Conceptually Causal Design of Hands-on Open-inquiry Science Activities Niwat SRISAWASDI Affective Computing Techniques for Developing a Human Affective Norm Recognition System for U-learning Systems Chih-Hung Wu, Yi-Lin Tzeng, Bor-Chen Kuo, Gwo-Hshiung Tzeng Review on Some Free Ising Model Software for Scientific Teaching Kan SORNBUNDIT, Narin NUTTAVUT, Darapond TRIAMPO, Wannapong TRIAMPO Managing a Multi-section Course with Cloud Storage Support Kuntinee MANEERATANA, Thanyarat SINGHANART, Tawan PAPHAPOTE, Nuksit NOOMWONGS, Sawat LUENGRUENGRIT, Ratchatin CHANCHAROEN, Angkee SRIPAKAGORN Decision tree: a tool for promoting self-evaluated knowledge in health education Artorn NOKKAEW, Wannapong TRIAMPO, Charin MODCHANG, Busayamas PIMPUNCHAT A Streaming Video-based Peer Assessment Approach to Support Drama Practice Lu-Ho Hsiaa, Iwen Huang, Gwo-Jen Hwang A Web-based Collaborative Problem-Solving Approach to Improve Students’ Learning Achievements in Social Studies Courses Fan-Ray Kuo, Chih-Hsiang Wu, Gwo-Jen Hwang Development of a Collaborative Learning Environment for Conducting Webbased Problem-Solving Activities Chih-Hsiang Wu, Fan-Ray Kuo, Gwo-Jen Hwang Interactive computer media instruction using a flowchart strategy to support students in computer programming course Dechawut WANICHSAN, Sasithorn CHOOKAEW Measuring the Effect of Computer Proficiency on Undergraduates’ Mobile Media Usage on Mobile Computers Brian J. PHILLIPS, Michael GROSCH Game-based learning of fast food consumption for enhancing secondary school students’ nutrition knowledge Chonlada KHRUTTHAKHA, Piyachat JITTAM Attribution of A Series of Games to Genetic Disorder Understanding Thanaporn PIMOUBOL, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAI Impact of Game-based Learning upon Flow Experience and Cognitive Load Chih-Hung Lai, Hsiang-Hsuan Liu, Chih-Ming Chu ,Yung-Chih Cheng

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Developing multimedia for hearing-impaired children in Reum An-re, a famous folk dancing of Surin province Wijittra POTISARN, Nawuttagorn POTISARN Effect of Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion Prapaporn SORNKHATHA, Niwat SRISAWASDI Learning With Fun Through Science and Math Thinker Motivators (SMTM) Ramil F. BOLIVAR, Leah A. BOLIVAR, Joena B. PARCO, Mariel F. BOLIVAR, Fe T. APOLONIO Learning Aggressive Behavior and Courting Behavior through Computer Game-based Instructional Unit Tadsanai JEENTHONG, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAI Pintip RUENWONGSA, Bhinyo PANIJPAN Collaborative Research on the Construction of Science Teaching and Learning Modules for Developing Reasoning Ability of Mattayomsuksa Students Surintorn WANGKHAD The Effects of Celestial Motion Model on Pre-service teachers’ Conceptual Understanding on Basic Concepts of Astronomy. Sopita JANSRI Comparison of Two Formative Assessment Tools for Analogy Teaching Approach on Solid, Liquid, and Gas Chamaiphorn LARBPHO, Romklao ARTDEJ Using Illustrations and Motion Pictures by the Mathematica Programming to Develop Teaching Statistics Sangtien YOUTHAO Monitoring and Predicting Air Pollution in Industrial Estate Area Using Modify Multiple Linear Regression Khwansiri SIRIMANGKHALA , Busayamas PIMPUNCHAT , Isabel ALPGÜNER , Suwannee JUNYAPOON Supporting Students’ Conceptual Learning and Retention of Light Refraction Concepts by Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model Siriporn Kroothkeaw, Niwat SRISAWASDI

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CO-ORGANIZATIONS Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Secretariat (SEAMEO Secretariat) Kenan Institute Asia Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand Faculty of Engineering of Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon, Thailand

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SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE AND ADVISORY BOARD Bhinyo Panijpan

Rajata Rajatanavin

Charuni Samat

Romklao Artdej

Gwo-Jen Hwang

Suchai Nopparatjamjomras

Issara Kkanjug

Sumalee Chaijaroen

Kessara Amornvuthivorn

Supan Yodyingyong

Khajornsak Buaraphan

Surakit Nathisuwan

Maitree Inprasitha

Suwanna Ruangkanchanaset

Massami Isoda

Tawee Sranamkam

Monamorn Precharattana

Thasaneeya R. Nopparatjamjomras

Namkang Sriwattanarothai

Vallop Phupha

Niwat Srisawat

Wanicha Chuenkongkaew

Parames Laosinchai

Wannapong Triampo

Patcharin Panjaburee

Wararat Wongkia

Pirom Chenprakhon

Watcharee Ketpichainarong

Pisarn Soydhurum

Witaya Jeradechakul

Piyabutr Cholvijarn

Yeap Ban Har

Piyachat Jittam Piyapa Su-angavatin Prasit Palittapongarnpim

CONFERENCE CHAIR PERSON Wannapong Triampo Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand

CONFERENCE COORDINATOR Patcharin Panjaburee Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand

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EXCLUSIVE EXHIBITIONS Faculty of Education, Khon Kean University, Thailand Faculty of Engineering of Rajamangala University of Technology Phra Nakhon, Thailand National Science Museum, Thailand APM Group Organizational Development Consulting - Learning Solutions – Assessment, Thailand

STUDENTS MATER OF CEREMONY Mahidol University International College, Thailand

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KEYNOTE SPEAKERS AND PLENARY LECTURES

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Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bhinyo Panijpan “An Innovative Science Education Program to Produce Research-Oriented and Competent Science Educators”

Dr. Bhinyo Panijpan is currently a Senior Advisor to the Dean of Faculty of Science, Mahidol University and a Senior Advisor to the Director of the Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University. He received his Bsc. (Hons) in Bichemistry from UQ, Australia. He received his PhD degree in Biophysics from King 's College London ,UK. He was a former President, Chemical Society of Thailand and a former Director, Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University. His research interests include Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and science and technology education. Dr. Panijpan has published nearly 130 academic papers in such professional journals as Journal of Chemical Education, Journal of Fish Biology, Chemical Educators, Biological Control, and ZOOTAXA among others.

Abstract I briefly describe here an international program on science and technology education under my tenure at Mahidol University from 2002-2010 for training post-graduate students to become research - oriented science educators. In most courses of the program (run entirely in English) students had to read science education research papers or reviews from international journals before presentation (to class) while following an educational model for active participation by the learners (their peers). In the "Nature, History and Philosophy of Science and Mathematics" course not only the events and personalities but also in-depth understandings of discoveries and theories were emphasized. In one course, after having read the literature on a particular topic, each and every student had to make a new and better apparatus or new and better model or come up with a new and better explanation to improve learning on the topic. In all of the above, at least one competent instructor(s) would provide comments and suggestions, and involve them in the class discussion. Rubrics were also given to students to evaluate the presenter in all

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activities About 25% of the students had the chance to carry out professional scientific experiments under guidance of well- established science researchers to learn about the process of science. Publishable papers were expected from this type of endeavour. During the 8 years, every student that graduated with a Ph.D. had to have published at least 1 international paper. The average was about two papers per student; the best combination being one science-education paper and one science paper. So far our graduates have joined many academic institutions country-wide. Some are known to act as facilitator in their class and others pursue research intensively for international publication. In Thailand such combined qualities in one person are rare among graduates in this field, even those graduating from overseas.

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Assist. Prof. Dr. Maitree Inprasitha “How is Lesson Study-based Professional Development effective?”

Dr. Maitree Inprasitha is currently a Dean of Faculty of Education and Director of Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University. He is currently chair of an International Program Committee of EARCOME 6 (will be held in Thailand 2013). In the 12th ICME to be held in Seoul in 2012, he is invited as a regular lecture. He has been managing five international projects by Asian-Pacific Economic Cooperation. In these projects, he made a great contribute in implementing Lesson Study in APEC member economies. He also contributes to teacher education program and teacher professional development in Thailand and Mekong sub-region. He has conducted a professional development program supported by the Ministry of Education, implementing two innovations – Lesson Study and Open Approach – among 4 project schools and now LS has been expanded to cover 22 schools in northeast and north parts of Thailand. Abstract During the last three decades, mathematics Professional Development has been recognized as the major area of research in mathematics education (Diezmann and Perry, 2007). NCTM (2010) has summarized the core goals and important features of Mathematics Professional Development during the past three decades through three bodies of research in US as follows; building teachers’ mathematical knowledge and their capacity to use it in practice, building teachers’ capacity to notice, analyze, and respond to students’ thinking, building teachers’ productive habits of mind and building collegial relationships and structures that support continued learning. In response to these demands, ‘Lesson Study’, a Japanese way of teacher professional development, has been adapting to schools in Thailand.

CRME, Faculty of

Education has been conducting the project for professional development of mathematics teachers since 2006. This study aimed to describe how a variety of activities in the project school provide opportunities for teachers to learn. One among four project schools participating in the

ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

project was selected for this study. The case study school has 14 teachers and the school participated in the project in 2007 academic year (May 2007). To get start, the CRME provided a 3 days workshop on “Open Approach” focusing on “how to incorporate openended problem into mathematical activities”, for example, how to construct ‘open-ended problems’, how to make them into mathematical activities using short instructions, how to organize these activities in the classrooms. Three basic steps of lesson study has been introduced and organized in the schools by the leadership of the school principal. Moreover the school participated in APEC lesson study international conference, where public lessons demonstrating by Japanese teachers. Internship students participated in the lesson study team since 2008. Outside knowledgeable persons organized workshops, participated in Open Class, visited the normal classes. Student teachers from KKU visited and observed classes teaching by the teachers in lesson study team. Research result found that there were opportunities for learning while participating in the workshop, opportunities for learning while participating in three steps of Lesson study and opportunities for learning while participating in extra activities.

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Assist. Prof. Dr. Hui-Chun Chu “A Repertory Grid-Oriented Mindtool for Conducting Mobile Learning Activities”

Dr. Hui-Chun Chu is currently an Assistant Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Information Management at Soochow University, Taiwan. Dr. Chu received her Ph.D. degree from that department in July, 2009. Her research interests include mobile and ubiquitous learning, information technology-applied instructions, and knowledge engineering in education. Dr. Chu has published nearly 70 academic papers, including 32 academic journal papers in such professional journals as Computers & Education, British Journal of Educational Technology, Educational Technology & Society and Electronic Library among others. Abstract Recent developments in computing and mobile technologies have enabled the mobile and ubiquitous learning approach, which situates students in an environment that combines realworld and digital world learning resources. Previous studies have reported the importance and benefits of situating students in a real-world learning environment with access to digitalworld resources. Although such an approach seems to be innovative and interesting, several problems have been revealed when applying it to practical learning activities. One major problem is owing to the lack of proper learning strategies or tools that can guide or assist the students to learn in such a complex learning scenario. Students might feel excited or interested when using the mobile devices to learn in the real world; however, their learning achievements could be disappointing. Therefore, researchers have indicated the need to develop learning guidance mechanisms or tools for assisting students to learn in such a complex learning scenario. In this speech, a knowledge engineering approach to develop Mindtools for such innovative learning scenarios is introduced. Moreover, a practical application on a natural science course of an elementary school is reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

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Chair Prof. Dr. Gwo-Jen Hwang “Research Issues and Applications of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning”

Dr. Gwo-Jen Hwang is currently a Chair Professor at the National Taiwan University of Science and Technology. His research interests include mobile and ubiquitous learning, computer-assisted testing, web-based learning, and artificial intelligence in education. Dr. Hwang has published nearly 400 academic papers, including 150 academic journal papers. Owing to the good reputation in academic research and innovative inventions in e-learning, he received the annual Outstanding Researcher Award from the National Science Council in the years of 2007 and 2010. Moreover, in 2007, Dr. Hwang was elected as the Chair of the Special Interest Group of Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning in the Information Technology Education Division of the National Science Council in Taiwan. Currently, he serves as an editor, an editorial board member and a reviewer for more than 30 academic journals. Abstract In recent years, the advance of wireless communication, sensing and mobile technologies has provided unprecedented opportunities to implement new learning strategies by integrating real-world learning environments and the resources of the digital world. With the help of these new technologies, individual students are able to learn in real situations with support or instructions from the computer system by using a mobile device to access the digital content via wireless communications. With such an innovative approach, the learning system is able to detect and record the learning behaviors of the students in both the real world and the digital world with the help of the sensing technology. Such a new technology-enhanced learning model has attracted the attentions of researchers from both the fields of computer science and educational technology. It not only supports learners with an alternative way to deal with problems in the real world, but also enables the learning system to more actively interact with the learners.

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In this invited talk, several applications of mobile and ubiquitous learning are presented; moreover, several issues concerning this innovative approach, including the development of learning contents and systems, the design of learning activities, and the investigation of learning behaviors and achievements, are revealed as well.

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Dr. Pisarn Soydhurum “Curriculum Innovation: From Idea To Implementation”

Dr. Pisarn Soydhurum is currently an Advisor to Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology, and an Advisor to Mahidol Wittayanusorn School, Nakhon Pathom Thailand, and an Advisor to Rector, Dusit Thani College, Bangkok, Thailand. He received PhD degree in Science Education from the University of Texas at Austin, U.S.A. In 2004, Dr. Soydhurum received outstanding Executive from the “Economic Outlook” Newspaper. He had professional experience such as President of Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology (IPST), Bangkok, Thailand, Consultant of Asian Development Bank (ADB) Project, Pakistan, Deputy Director of Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization (SEAMEO) Regional Centre for Education in Science and Mathematics (RECSAM) Penang, Malaysia, and Focus Area Leader in UNESCO International Forum : Science Education in the Year 2000 and Beyond (Project 200+). Abstract Thailand’s current Basic Education Core Curriculum has been implemented in schools all over the country since 2008 after a remarkable revision whereby findings from pertinent related research and innovations were carefully taken into account. However questions on clarity and specificity which are crucial features of curriculum innovation are still existed. Users are not quite clear about strategic words / phrases used in the national curriculum document that can lead to misunderstanding on teaching of science as inquiry, practical activities in science learning, and the design of tests to assess student learning outcomes. Firstly it was found out that at the upper secondary school level (Grade 10-12), the indicators for 7 out of 8 strands use the words which describe learning behaviors belonging to comprehension / understanding category while those for only 1 strand use words that can be classified as learning behaviors that belonging to the process of scientific inquiry. It may lead to teacher perception that the emphasis is placed on learner development of the process of science for only one strand while the other 7 strands emphasize the development of learner

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knowledge of science. Secondly very few number of practical activities are identified in the national curriculum document. There are totally 15 experiments for all 8 strands. They can be classified as 2 activities in biology, 6 activities in chemistry, 4 activities in physics, and 2 activities in earth and space science. The information provided lead to hesitation in organizing practical activities for science learning in the period of up to 3 academic years, i.e., 6 semesters. Thirdly, the number of indicators identified in the national curriculum document are very limited while the content coverage and time allocation are substantially provided. On average, only 3-4 indicators are indentified for each standard and seem to cover the whole range of contents to be learned in each semester whereby the examination requires a test of at least 30-40 items. Moreover, a number of words or phrases used to indicate learner behaviors are not sufficiently clear and concise. Some of them convey different messages to different people. These create confusion in the design, development, and implementation of instruments, techniques, and procedures to evaluate student learning achievement. It can be concluded that the national curriculum document still lacks adequate clarity and specificity. Various aspects of the standards need more precise elaborations, and some indicators are hardly measurable.

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Dr. Thomas B. Corcoran “Too Much Innovation, Too Little Development: Why Education Requires A Different Approach”

Dr. Thomas B. Corcoran is Associate Vice-President for International Affairs at Teachers College, Columbia, and Director of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE). He has served as Policy Advisor for Education for the Governor of New Jersey, Director of School Improvement for a federal R & D lab, and Director of Evaluation and Chief-of-Staff of the New Jersey Department of Education. He has over thirty years of experience designing school improvement and professional development programs. Abstract Education is different than business. It is a profession like medicine, and there is a moral obligation to clients. We cannot afford the pattern of failure that accompanies innovations in business; we need to adopt the oath of doing no harm. When children receive bad teaching or are subject to a poor curriculum or to untested education fads, their subsequent learning and their life-chances can be negatively affected. Like medicine, we need to support focused research and development that helps us make progress while protecting the interests of children. This presentation will describe three approaches to research and development that are affordable, productive, and generate innovations in a way that protects against harm to children.

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Prof. Dr.Richard K. Coll Former “Fostering Innovation In Education: A Strategic Approach”

Dr. Richard K. Coll is professor of cooperative education at the University of Waikato, New Zealand. Richard holds a PhD in chemistry from Canterbury University and an EdD in science education from Curtin University of Technology. He worked as a lecturer in chemistry in the Pacific and Caribbean before his appointment at Waikato. Richard is Director of Cooperative Education, has served as Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Science & Engineering, and is currently Pro Vice-Chancellor (Teaching & Learning). His research is in the area of cooperative and work-integrated education, and science education – particularly at the tertiary level Abstract Traditionally, the Nature of Science (NOS) is presented to students in terms of the scientific method, or methods. The science education literature suggests that students think of NOS in simplistic ways; thinking, for example, that scientists slavishly adhere to a rigid protocol or method when conducting scientific inquiry.

Recently researchers note that

approaches such as problem-based learning, or inquiry-based teaching can help students better understand the variety of approaches scientists use for scientific inquiry. In this presentation I suggest NOS can be viewed from a different perspective; that of scientific thinking.

Scientific thinking, and scientific attitude, here is conceptualized in terms of

Scientific Habits of Mind (SHOM), a framework detailing how scientists think (or should think – ideally) based on the work by Gauld. A key argument is then that SHOM ought to be a core part of being a scientist, and further that such HoM would be beneficial for all citizens—not only scientists, because of the importance of science in everyday life. This latter proposition seeks to link SHOM and NOS to scientific literacy; something addressed by discussion and debate of socio-scientific issues.

ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

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Dr. Devadason Robert Peter “The SEAMEO Search for Young Scientists Congress as an Innovative Regional Programme to Bring Young Scientists Together”

Devadason Robert Peter is the Acting Director as well as the Deputy Director for Research and Development in SEAMEO RECSAM. He has been in the education field for the past 28 years; as a science & mathematics teacher, teacher educator as well as trainer and researcher in the regional centre since 2003. His research interest includes science education particularly with respect to the integration of ICT. Abstract There has been a growing concern about children losing interest in science and mathematics. A major reason proposed is that the formal curriculum is too often detached from the students’ immediate world to be of relevance to the student. The SEAMEO Search for Young Scientists (SSYS) Congress is an innovative programme developed by SEAMEO RECSAM to encourage youths of the region to use the science and mathematics knowledge and skills gained from the formal curriculum to address authentic problems. During this Congress, student research teams are provided the opportunity to address a problem related to a selected theme through the conduct of a research – from identifying the problem right up to writing a research report and presenting the findings to their peers. Towards this end, the student researchers are encouraged to work with experts and the community. The SSYS Congress also provides the opportunity for these young scientists, who are from the region, to share and exchange ideas as well as to learn from one another.

A number of observations

based on the analysis of student research projects as well as feedback from participants and teacher advisors during the past few Congresses will be discussed in this presentation.

ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

WORKSHOPS

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Workshop 1: Mathematica Organizer: Asst.Prof. Somkid Amornsamankul Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand and KNJ INTERNATIONAL (THIALAND) LTD.

Abstract Mathematica is one of the technical tools for computing that is used by mathematicians, engineers, analysts and many others around the world which contain an extensive knowledge base for working with a very broad range of tasks, including solving equations, programming, importing and exporting data, visualizing functions and data, and much more. Today, Mathematica is a cross-platform package that can be used in a variety of science, engineering and math applications.

Mathematica incorporates powerful

symbolic

computation capabilities, numerical computation tools and a rich visualization suite. This workshop will provide an overview of new functionality in Mathematica that makes it easy for innovative educators to integrate into collages, high schools, and higher education classrooms. Whether you have used Mathematica for years or have no technical computing experience, you'll see many examples of Mathematica's use for education that can be implemented immediately. Presentation materials and additional resources to get started teaching with Mathematica are made available to all participants. Topics Covered      

Preliminaries Introduction of Mathematica Table and Manupulate Visualization and Graphics Symbolic Computations Numerical Computations

ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Workshop 2: Learning With Fun Through Science and Math Thinker Motivators (SMTM) Organizers: Ramil F. Bolivar1 , Leah A. Bolivar1, Joena B. Parco2 Mariel F. Bolivar2, Fe T. Apolonio3 1 Altavas National School, Altavas, Aklan 5616 Philippines 2 Man-up Elementary School, Man-up, Batan, Aklan 5615Philippines 3 Lucas R. Pascual Memorial Elementary School, Baesa, Quezon City Philippines

Abstract Teaching students science and mathematics should be interesting, fun, and enjoyable. If not, teachers may not teach effectively and can create monotony in the classroom. Teachers should ensure that scientific skills, analytical thinking, and creativity are gained by our students. A science or mathematical concept can be more exciting and fun if it can be presented physically in a model that can be seen, manipulated, and, if possible, heard. This is a demonstration of selected science and mathematics concepts with simple activities using simple and readily available materials as a strategy to enhance learning and get more interested in the subject/s at various levels of learners. It features the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to Higher Order Learning Tasks Skills (HOLTS), multi-modal approach, applications, connections, and strategy in the learning process using the Science and Mathematics Thinker Motivators. There are six categories to be tackled during the presentation: origami, puzzles and dissections, topology experiments, tops, travel games, and links between science and mathematics.

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Workshop 3: Simple Demonstration Of The Radial Velocity And Transit Method For Detecting Exoplanet Organizers: Wachiraporn choopan1,Watcharee ketpichainarong1, Bhinyo panijpan2 1 Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand 2 Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand

Abstract The purpose of this study is to develop two models helping to simulate methods that astronomers use to detect exoplanet as a demonstration setting in the classroom. These two models will be used to promote student understanding in radial velocity and transit methods. The models simplify the way to detect by demonstrating how the spectrum of a star is shifted as it and its planet orbit around their common center of mass. From the pilot study, the students showed their own understanding of the concepts using their own explanation even without lecture. It can be concluded that the two models provide benefits in teaching and learning astronomy.

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Workshop 4: Microsoft Free Tools in Education- Motivate And Captivate Your Students Organizer: Supoet Srinutapong Director – Public Sector Program, Microsoft (Thailand) Limited

Abstract “Are you using technology to motivate and engage your students?” In today's web-surfing, interactive world, how does a teacher engage students? This session will share with you the information for teachers to make the best use of technology in the classroom and introduce you to over 20 of our most popular free education tools, captivating, digital tools and teacher resources from Microsoft Education. Microsoft offers free tools to help engage students in a variety of subject areas—from movie-making to collaboration to science and beyond. Teachers can download these tools for free, the majority of which require no special training. For example: 

Microsoft Mathematics 4.0: Visualize math concepts to promote better understanding.



Math Worksheet Generator: Create great math worksheets in seconds!



Chemistry Add-in for Word: The simple, easy way to include chemistry information in your Word documents.



Kodu Game Lab: Teach programming, problem-solving and collaboration in a creative 'hands-on' environment.



Songsmith: Help your students 'find their spark' in the classroom with music.



Mouse Mischief: A fun way to keep your students' attention and increase participation in the classroom.



Interactive Classroom: Use classroom polls to improve student learning.



WorldWide Telescope: Explore outer space from your classroom.

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education



AutoCollage: Create an artful photo poster using this fun collage-making tool.



Microsoft Photosynth: Explore famous places with cinematic quality using these virtual, visual, three-dimensional tours.



Windows Live Movie Maker: The fast, easy way to turn photos and video clips into great-looking movies and slide shows to share in class or on the web.

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Workshop 5: Hands-on Technology-enhanced Active Learning in Science Organizers: Dr. Niwat Srisawasdi and Dr. Romklao Artdej Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand Abstract In the 21st century, microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) and computer simulation (Sim) have been recognized as effectively technological tool for science teaching and learning. The tools provide a better means of teaching science by enabling supportive teaching practices and active learning process to build on students’ direct experiences of the physical world. Using the MBL tool and various sensors, students can now simultaneously measure and graph several physical quantities such as position, velocity, acceleration, force, kinetic energy, momentum, temperature, sound, and so on. Also, using the Sim, students can visualize indirect and unobservable physical phenomena which related to the physical quantities. Integration of both tools into science classroom environment could enhance students’ active learning and engage them to understand scientific concept meaningfully. In this hands-on workshop, participants will work in science teaching and learning area involving physics of sound wave and acids-bases chemistry. They will explore instructional approaches and materials from Vernier Software & Technology and Physics Education Technology. The hands-on workshop will introduce modeling of physical systems and the integration of MBL and Sim into an inquiry-based science activity of teaching/learning. The primary emphasis of this workshop will be on using these tools to teach science effectively to secondary school students. There will be extensive discussions on how to use these tools in science courses, and tactics to enhance active science learning for secondary school students. In addition, this workshop will be concerned with the application of the classroom research findings in science education.

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CONFERENCE ABSTRCT

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

An Immunoassay to Self-Study Differential Counting Stefan SCHREIERa,b, Sebastian P. BHAKDIb, Wannapong TRIAMPOa a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Differential cell count is a standard procedure in general laboratory diagnosis and may well distinguish between viral and bacterial infection, and therefore, is crucial for the choice of the correct drug therapy. The classic differential counting is done by microscopy and has been largely automated by analytical devices. Nevertheless, professionals associated with laboratory diagnosis should be able to analyse blood specimens under the microscopy. The differential count is focussed on the leukocyte cell types that are distinguishable from each other by characteristic cell type patterns when stained with giemsa dye. The recognition of the cell type specific patterns can be learned at best by comparison and correct referencing when visualized under the microscope. The learning process, moreover, is notably facilitated by comparing homologous and well determined cell type populations with each other. Immunomagnetic separation is the technique of choice to obtain purified cell types. Magnetic beads are functionalized with antibodies typically reactive to the cell type specific clusters of differentiation. After incubation with the immunobeads, bead bound cells can be isolated by magnetic force and visualized by staining and subsequent microscopy. This work is focussed on the production of a most simple leukocyte purification assay using immunobeads intended for the execution by students in low facility laboratories that may lead to the self-study of differential counting. Keywords: differential count, immunomagnetic separation, self-study

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Efficacy of Anesthesia Trainee–Administered Propofol Deep Sedation for Enteroscopy in Elderly Patients by Using a Syringe Pump Somchai AMORNYOTIN, Wiyada CHALAYONNAWIN, Siriporn KONGPHLAY Department of Anesthesiology and Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the clinical efficacy of anesthesia trainee–administered propofol deep sedation (PDS) by using a syringe pump for small-bowel enteroscopy (SBE) between patients aged < 65 years and patients aged ≥ 65 years in a unit outside the operating room in Thailand. We undertook a retrospective review of patients who underwent SBE. All patients were classified into two groups: group A (age < 65 years) and group B (age ≥ 65 years). The primary outcome variable was the successful completion of the procedure. The secondary outcome variables were complications. After matching patients’ characteristics and duration and indications of procedures, there were 45 patients in group A and 28 patients in group B. All sedations were successful except for one patient in group A. There were no significant differences in overall, respiratory, and cardiovascular complications between the two groups. However, hypotension in group B was significantly higher than that in group A. In the setting of an endoscopy unit outside the operating room, PDS by an anesthesia trainee using a syringe pump for SBE procedure in elderly patients with appropriate monitoring was relatively safe and effective. The clinical efficacy of this technique in elderly patients was not different or worse than that in younger patients. Serious adverse events were rare in our population. Keywords: Anesthesia trainee, enteroscopy, elderly, deep sedation, propofol, syringe pump

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Chemistry of Thyroid Hormone: Biosynthesis and Active Atropisomeric Conformer Piyachat JITTAMa, Bhinyo PANIJPANb Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand a [email protected], [email protected]

a

Abstract: To add relevancy and interest to the teaching / learning of chemical biology, the examples of the unusual biosynthesis and active conformation of the thyroid hormone are described in this review article. Triiodothyronine (T3) is hormonally more active than the better known thyroxine (T4). In fact the latter is likely to be the prohormone of the former. Both T3 and T4 are biosynthesized on a large protein (thyroglobulin, Tg) by iodide activation and substitution of the iodine atoms on the Tg tyrosyl rings, all catalyzed by thyroperoxidase (TPO) enzyme. Coupling of iodinated tyrosyl residues on the protein is aided by the TPO iron-heme coenzyme having the iron in the form of a Fe(IV) and a putative Fe(V). The more active conformer of T3 and T4 at the hormonal receptor site is the transoid atropisomer. Since atropisomerism is a type of isomerism not commonly associated with biological action, we thus propose that authors and teachers use the thyroid hormone and two other biologically important molecules to engage students when addressing this aspect of stereoisomerism. Keywords: Upper-Division Undergraduate, Biochemistry, Conformational Analysis, Biosynthesis, Bioinorganic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry, Mechanisms of Reactions

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Exploring Glomerular-Model Activity to enhance Diabetes Patients’ Understanding of Nephropathy Benjamaporn WONGPRASERT, Piyachat JITTAM Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand

Abstract:This research explored a glomerular hands-on activity model that employed making and doing to enhance participants’ understanding of diabetic complications. The problems were detected by educators through diabetic education at diabetic clinics. For example, the lack of insight into or knowledge about how physiology and pathology contributed to the slow progress of kidney damage. This study proposes making a glomerular physical model from ribbon wire made manually to stimulate the cognitive domain. This study employed a randomized controlled trial in a community hospital. This model serves to illustrate four components. namely, normal blood, characteristics of high blood sugar, parts of kidney filtration, and causes of kidney insufficiency. Sample: Twenty patients with type 2 diabetes agreed and participated to use the model to better understand the function of kidney with normal blood sugar so that they were able to explain kidney filtration. Result: The simulation of glomeruli with the use of ribbon wire appeared to be effective as a teaching model in explaining kidney function (p-value < 0.05), thereby reflecting the factors of shape and size in the kidney function in processing sugar (pvalue < 0.05). Outcome: Participants’ learning about kidney function was enhanced. Key word: hand-on model, diabetic nephropathy, learning activity

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Construction of a Science Teaching and Learning Module to Develop Secondary School Students’ Reasoning Ability: a Collaborative Approach Surintorn WANGKHAD Science Subjects Department, Phongthongpattanawittaya School, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The purposes of this study were 1) to construct the knowledge and understanding of science concepts for the research team in order to construct an activity-based science teaching and learning module for reasoning ability development of secondary school students of Roi Et Education Service Area Office 3, 2) to investigate present secondary school students’ reasoning ability for Roi Et Education Service Area Office, and 3) to compare reasoning ability and learning achievement of the students before and after using the science teaching and learning module. The research team consisted of the present researcher herself, school directors, and nineteen science teachers. Data collection was done through multiple procedures, checked for completeness and quality by means of triangulation. After that, the data were analyzed by way of interpretation and then concluded. The quantitative instruments employed for the study included (1) A test of learning achievement with 30 items, with discrimination indices (r) ranging from 0.20–0.40, difficulty indices (p) ranging from 0.26– 0.79, and a reliability of 0.89, and (2) a questionnaire on satisfaction of student with the learning module. The collected data were analyzed by percentage and mean and standard deviation. The research findings were summarized as follows: The developed CDSC MODEL resulted in students’ average scores of 72.45% and 71.77% for interim and post tests with a normalized gain of 51.28%. The students who learned by using the CDSC MODEL and other experiments on the science teaching and learning module showed gains in learning achievement and a higher percentage of students with formal reasoning ability. The strategies for the development and implementation of the collaborative model include the following: (1) changing patterns or levels of funding, (2) awakening the desire of researchers to increase their scientific popularity, visibility, and recognition, and (3) creating the atmosphere in which researchers could develop their skills and abilities in sharing ideal experience, critically reflecting, etc. Keywords: Reasoning Ability, Strategy Development, Collaborative Research

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Enhancing Creativity and Learning Achievement of Undergraduate Students in Applied Computer Science–Multimedia via Teaching and Learning Model for Writing for Communication Design Subject Yada ATANANa, Suwanna SOMBUNSUKHOb Ph.D. Student of Learning Innovation and Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand b Computer and Information Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand

a

a

[email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: The purposes of this research were to develop a teaching and learning model for the Writing for Communication Design subject to enhance creative thinking of undergraduate students in Applied Computer Science–Multimedia, Department of Computer and Information Technology, Faculty of Industrial Education and Technology, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi and to evaluate the quality of the teaching and learning model by comparing the achievement of learners using the teaching and learning model coupled with Student Teams–Achievement Divisions (STAD) to enhance creative thinking. The sample consisted of a specific group of students in year 4, semester 1/2555 that registered for the Writing for Communication Design subject. The 80 students were divided into 2 groups: an experimental group consisted of 40 students and the control group consisted of 40 people. The variables studied were: 1) creativity that included originality, flexibility, fluency, and elaboration; and 2) learning achievement. Instruments used in this research were 1) acreativity test, and 2) a learning achievement test. The experiment employed the randomized two-group posttest-only design. The evaluation of the teaching and learning model as a whole by experts found that the quality was very good. The average score of the experimental group in every aspect of creative thinking was significantly higher than that of the control group at the 0.05 level. Keywords: Teaching and Learning Model, Creative Thinking, Writing for Communication Design.

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Effects of Celestial Motion Model on Pre-service Teachers’ Conceptual Understanding of Basic Concepts of Astronomy Sopita JANSRI Institute for Innovative learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: In this paper, the author investigated the impact of a celestial motion model on pre-service teachers’ understanding of astronomy concepts. Twenty pre-service teachers in university were taking a required astronomy course. One hundred and eighty minutes were provided for a hands-on, inquiry-based astronomy workshop. These pre-service teachers explored the concepts using the developed celestial motion model. A two-tier test was used to measure conceptual understanding of astronomy concepts. A questionnaire was used to ask for a perception towards using the celestial motion model. A qualitative approach was used to gain qualitative data to support quantitative data. The t-test result of the comparison between the scores of the two-tier pre-test and post-test indicated that the pre-service teachers had significantly higher post-test scores than pre-test scores. Pre-service teachers agreed that the developed model could help them to improve the understanding of astronomy concepts. Keywords: Astronomy, Celestial motion, Inquiry, Model, Pre-service teacher

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Students’ Mechanistic Reasoning about Surface Wettability Phenomena during Hands-on, Open-inquiry Science Activities Niwat SRISAWASDI Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Many educational researchers suggested that scientific inquiry in classroom environment fails because it cannot represent the real world of science and cannot reflect the authentic context of scientific research and practice. In fact, it could provide students with invaluable scientific experience from an actual inquiry process and it may help students to develop science literacy and higher level thinking skills in science. In order to create science learning environment and situate particular aspects of scientific inquiry with its nature, features of mechanistic reasoning should be, therefore, incorporated into students’ scientific inquiry process in the classroom. This paper presents a conceptual causality design of handson, open-inquiry science activities about surface wettability phenomena for school science classrooms and there are three open-inquiry science activities. The activities were implemented to 20 grade 11 students as an instructional intervention. They were classified into four characteristics of inquirers and were assigned to conduct the activities in dyad. To investigate the students’ mechanistic reasoning about the surface wettability during their own conducted laboratory activities, their practices and conversations in dyad during doing laboratory were recorded and then analyzed by the qualitative method of protocol and discourse analysis. The result shows that mechanistic reasoning about surface wettability was abundantly present in process of open-inquiry science activities. This finding has significant implications for educational practice of scientific inquiry in classroom environment: even students in different characteristics of inquirers can engage in substantive mechanistic reasoning when given the opportunity independently to do science activities. Keywords: Mechanistic reasoning, scientific inquiry, hands-on, experimentation

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Affective Computing Techniques for Developing a Human Affective Norm Recognition System for a U-learning System Chih-Hung WUa, Yi-Lin TZENGa, Bor-Chen KUOa, Gwo-Hshiung TZENGb a NTCU, National Taichung University of Education, Taiwan b KNU, Kainan University, Taiwan [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected]

Abstract: Few studies have focused on integrating affective computing and soft computing techniques for human physiology signals recognition in a digital content learning system. Therefore, in the study, a human affective norm (emotion and attention) recognition system for a U-learning system will be developed while fifth graders in the elementary school will be recruited as participants firstly to see some emotion pictures in the international affective picture system (IAPS), secondly to fill out the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) questionnaire, and lastly to do the attention test to obtain the affective information— electroencephalography (EEG), electrocardiogram (ECG), and eye movement—for developing the affective norm recognition system of the study. These bio-physiology signals will be transformed by wavelet transforms and important features will be extracted (Linear PCA, Kernel PCA, Linear DA, Generalized DA, NWFE, and Kernel-based NWFE) to serve as the input variables for SVM models (SVM, Fuzzy SVM, RVM). We hope that the research results will construct an affective norm recognition system for an e-learning system and provide a best learning strategy for the researchers, e-learning designers, and students in the future. Keywords: Affective Computing; Support Vector Machine; Emotion and Attention Recognition System; Eye Tracker; EEG (Electroencephalography); ECG (Electrocardiogram); Ubiquitous Learning

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Managing a Multi-section Course with Cloud Storage Support Kuntinee MANEERATANA, Thanyarat SINGHANART, Tawan PAPHAPOTE, Nuksit NOOMWONGS, Sawat LUENGRUENGRIT, Ratchatin CHANCHAROEN, Angkee SRIPAKORN Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: A cloud storage, specifically Dropbox™, was used by lecturers for resource sharing and course management in a multi-section, mathematically-intensive, basic engineering course. The storage allowed effortless, desktop and mobile-delivered resource sharing that could be readily accessed any place and time. The exam could be set up more efficiently with all rounds of feedback from other lecturers in a naturally group-like setting. The unexpected benefits were the better use of chance meetings as detailed management information was readily available as well as the peer pressure among lecturers for exam setting and marking deadlines. The key for success in this adoption was the underlying cooperation and leadership within the course management. Keywords: Cloud storage, multi-section course management, resource sharing

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

A Streaming Video–based Peer Assessment Approach to Supporting Drama Practice Lu-Ho HSIAAa, Iwen HUANGa, Gwo-Jen HWANGb Department of Information and Learning, National University of Tainan, Taiwan b Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan [email protected], [email protected], [email protected] a

Abstract: This study invistigated the validity and the reliability of utilizing the peer assessment system in drama practice lessons of junior high students. A total of 163 junior high students were divided into an experimental group and a control group. The experimental group participated in the drama lesson integrated with streaming video peer assessment and the control group did without streaming video. The process of the lesson was designed by Chang (1999); it consists of 5 steps: realizing the lesson, explanation, regulation, practice, judgment and outcome. After analyzing the collected data by ANCOVA, we found that the learning performance of the experimental group was better than that of the control group significantly. The students of the experimental group were given more opportunities to assess peers’ works, make comments for peers, and reflect what they did while using Interactive Response System (IRS) and reviewing their peers’ works via the internet. Such a learning context made the students improve what they did. The scores of peer assessment given by the students were highly correlated with those given by experts. This showed that peer assessment in junior high school is considered as a valid assessment method. Finally, we investigated the satisfaction level of the students after the experiment. The findings indicated that the students were more satisfied when having the lesson with the peer assessment system after watching the streaming video. The results of this study could be a reference for those who intend to apply computer and information technologies to various fields of education. It demonstrates how streaming videos can be combined with the peer assignment method. By further studies, we would modify the details of this method and develop a robust model in the future. Keywords: Video streaming, Peer assessment, Drama education

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Using Illustrations and Motion Pictures Generated by the Mathematica Programming to Develop Teaching Statistics Sangtien YOUTHAO Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: This study had the main aims to study the problems about illustrations and motion pictures used for teaching and learning statistics and to develop guideline on generating illustrations and motion pictures in statistics class. The Mathematica program version 8 (Copyright of Mahidol University) was used to created the illustrations and motion pictures. This study employed the mixed methods research by using questionnaire responses from 67 students and instructors. It used deep interview responses from 15 students after teaching and 3 statistical instructors at Mahidol University in 2012. The results showed that most of the students wanted to see the pictures of data distribution and secondary was the different pictures between Z and t. The section that used the most pictures to learn and teach statistics was the chapter on hypothesis testing, both of one and two populations. This study found that the command Manipulate in the program could plot good pictures and could display by varying data intervals. All of the students had high satisfaction after class and they could understand the comparison between Z and t and hypothesis testing better. The results from statistical instructors’ interviews showed that all of them had high satisfaction. They thought that it could help to teach the difficult things in statistics by explaining using the illustrations and motion pictures and should be developed for all chapters in statistics classes. Keywords: Mathematica Programming, Develop Teaching, Teaching Statistics

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Learning Aggressive Behavior and Courtship Behavior through Computer Game–based Instructional Unit Tadsanai JEENTHONGa, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAIa Pintip RUENWONGb, Bhinyo PANIJPANb a Institute for Innovation Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: Traditional learning only could not provide appropriate environment for presentday students to learn. They have developed ability to multitask or ability to operate more than one task at the same time. Therefore an instructional unit which integrates technology to challenging situations or problems could engage those students to learn academic content. Well-designed simulations and games have been recognized as an effective strategy to enhance students’ conceptual understanding, skills, and learning attitude. This study thus aims to determine the effectiveness of a computer game–based instructional unit in enhancing students’ understanding of aggressive behavior and courtship behavior and students’ perception toward the instructional unit. The instructional unit consisting of four instructional games on the aggression and courtship displays of fighting fish and information to introduce the basic knowledge of fighting fish was implemented to 77 grade eleven students from one secondary school in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand via Kolb’s learning cycle. Students experienced four computer games during reflective observation and active experimentation phases. They then participated in small group discussion, whole class presentation, and debriefing during concrete experience and abstract conceptualization phases. The results from the conceptual test, students’ presentation, and interview show that students gained knowledge of aggression behavior and courtship behavior in animal, especially in fighting fish. Moreover they showed positive attitude toward an instructional unit as shown in the questionnaire and interview results. Keywords: Computer-based game, experiential learning cycle, fighting fishes, aggressive behavior, courtship behavior

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

A Guided-Inquiry Learning Unit on the Reaction between Iodate and Bisulfite Usa JEENJENKITa, Chanyah DAHSAHb, Bhinyo PANIJPANc a Chemistry Department, Mahidol Wittayanusorn School, Thailand b Science Education Center, Srinakharinwitrot University, Thailand c Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: High achieving secondary students with very limited exposure to hands-on activities were taught by a guided-inquiry laboratory to carry out their experiments to obtain the initial rates in the Landolt reaction with respect to [IO3-]0 and [HSO3-]0 and the activation energy of the IO3- + HSO3- reaction. A pH meter was used to follow progress of the reaction. Students felt more comfortable when provided with the datalogger to work with the pH meter. The values of activation energy obtained by them varied over such a wide range that they began to recognize the importance of experimental skills and the tool used to measure temperature. Students developed their concepts and ideas through this 5E inquiry lesson. They learned to investigate by hands-on activities and construct their explanations within their groups and with the class. Students could develop their knowledge on chemical kinetics, effects of concentration and temperature, rate law equation, and activation energy. Evidence for students’ knowledge improvement can be seen in the high percentage gain. These findings suggest the usefulness of meaningful activities in the learning unit in enabling students to connect experimental data with scientific concepts and ideas. Apart from showing positive attitude toward the laboratory the students gained manipulative and procedural skills. They also acquired a more realistic perception of the micro aspect of chemical reactions Keywords: Kinetics, pH, Rate Law, Student-Centered, Landolt Reaction, Iodate, Hydrogen Sulfite, pH meter, Secondary and Tertiary Students, Hands-On, Inquiry-based, Computerbased, Acids / Bases

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Using Computer Simulations to Enhance Understanding of Density of States for Undergraduate Students Busara PATTANASIRIa,c, Wannapong TRIAMPOb,c,d, Charin MODCHANGc, Narin NUTTAVUTc, Darapond TRIAMPOa a Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand b Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand c R&D Group of Biological and Environmental Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand d ThEP Center, CHE, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Statistical mechanics and thermodynamics become much more important in both physics and related fields because of their widely applicable uses in many research areas, such as biology and chemistry. However, even students who complete these courses still have difficulty making the connection between microscopic and macroscopic phenomena. Moreover most students cannot relate what they have learned to phenomena encountered in other fields. In this paper, we proposed to bridge that gap by using a computer simulation technique as an illustration tool to help students understand the fundamental concepts of density of states. Some applications will be provided to allow students to develop an idea of how to apply these concepts to experimental systems. Keywords: Statistical Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Density of States

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Enhancing Undergraduate Physiotherapy Students’ Understanding of Special Tests of the Knee with an Innovative Knee Model and the 5E Learning Cycle Chanonya CHAIWONGROJa, Warin KRITYAKIARANAb, Khajornsak BUARAPHANa a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Division of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The difficulty in teaching physiotherapy is the lessons about kinematical movements of human body. Because of a lack of learning materials such as threedimensional models of human anatomy, joints models and movable joint models, etc., it affects students’ understanding especially in applied lessons about kinematic of joints. In this study, an innovative physical model for teaching special tests of the knee joint was applied with the 5E learning cycle aimed to enhance undergraduate physiotherapy students’ understanding of special tests of the knee joint. This pilot study was tried with four secondyear and eight third-year undergraduate students. The data collection tools were: a conceptual test, group interview for measuring knowledge and attitude, and a questionnaire. The pretest and posttest scores were compared and the means of the Likert-scale questionnaire were reported. The results revealed that nine students out of twelve gained more points in posttest. Moreover, every student had more confident doing the special tests after involving in this activity. The discussion and implication were also presented. Keywords: Innovative knee model, 5E learning cycle, Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Using Students’ Preferred Language in Learning Some Factors Affecting Solubility in High School Chemistry Arlene P. DE LA CRUZ, Amelia E. PUNZALAN University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development, Philippines [email protected], amelia.pun[email protected]

Abstract: The role of language in learning science is crucial in the sense that language is both a system for transmitting information and for making sense of expression, and a tool for participation in communities of practice. The latter is inextricably linked with the current view of learning science as an achievement of shared understanding rather than an individual accomplishment. Therefore, difference between cultures and languages at home and school can be a hindrance for students’ meaningful science learning. Mainly due to the Philippines’ historical background, English has been mandated as the medium of instruction in school science and mathematics classrooms. What happens when students are allowed to use their preferred language in the science classrooms? This study will discuss pre and post test results as well as verbal and written expression during the pre and post laboratory activities of third year high school chemistry students in their preferred language (Filipino) in learning some factors affecting solubility. Feedback from students and teachers in assessing their science learning and teaching and initial analysis imply a need to shift our pedagogical focus from transmitting knowledge to actively engaging students in the learning process by using their preferred medium of instruction. Keywords: lesson study, medium of instruction, factors affecting solubility, high school chemistry

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Effective educational management for the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area: the cases of Best Practice TQA 2008–2010 Pinyo SRIMUANG [email protected]

Abstract: The purposes of the research are 1) to study elements of effective management of the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area, 2) to take lessons learned about the effectiveness of the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area from the cases of Best Practice Thailand Quality Award (TQA) 2008–2010. A total of 33 target groups consisted of the director of the Office of Education, Deputies, Heads, and Staff. The research instrument was semi-structured interviews. The results of decoding group interviews and focus groups with the aim to study the best practices for TQA years 2008–2010 that resulted in effective education showed that elements of effective educational management for the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area included 2 aspects: 1. Human resource management included 1) a personal system on each of the organizational culture and rule, 2) innovative change in each organization through the stakeholder on assessing qualitative and quantitative research including the pleasure of respondents, and 3) maintaining the morale of the staff. 2. General management included 1) quality control including quality planning and quality improvement; 2) strategic sustainability including internal and external data, strategy analysis, and strategy implementation; and 3) strategic challenges including a one-stop service system, client needs, and a continuous improvement process focusing on the intrapersonal. Recommendations for effective management of the office of Secondary School Educational Service Area were 4Hs: 1) Hand = working together, 2) Head = brainstorming, 3) Heart = loving organizational culture, and 4) Happy = happiness in their work. Keywords: Educational effectiveness, Office of Secondary Education Service Area, Best Practice TQA, Lesson learned

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Comparison of Two Formative Assessment Tools for Analogy Teaching of Solid, Liquid, and Gas Chamaiphorn LARBPHOa, Romklao ARTDEJb Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: The objective of this research study was to compare two formative assessment tools for analogy teaching of solid, liquid, and gas. The participants were grade 11 students who studied chemistry from the two classes at a medium-sized high school in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. This study utilized the pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison groups and group A was assigned to study the analogy with the Frayer Model and group B was assigned to study the analogy with the K-W-L chart. The Solid, Liquid, and Gas Test (SLGT) was used to examine students’ conceptual understanding. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference between the mean scores of the two groups. The findings demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in the post test scores of both groups. This suggests that both formative assessment tools (the Frayer Model and the KW-L chart) were able to promote students’ conceptual understanding of solid, liquid, and gas. Keywords: Analogy, Formative assessment, Conceptual understanding, Solid, liquid, and gas

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Exploring the Use of Analogy and K-W-L Chart on Thai Students’ Conceptual Change of Conjugate Acid-base Pairs Waraporn YOTHAPHAKDEEa, Romklao ARTDEJb Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: Analogy is an instructional approach which assists students in understanding an abstract concept. To assess their understanding of this concept, a K-W-L chart is necessary as a tool for formative assessment which is used to provide them with feedback during teaching and learning. The present study aimed to explore the use of analogy and a K-W-L chart on Thai grade 11 students’ understanding and conceptual change of conjugate acid-base pairs. Data from the acid-base conceptual test were gathered and analyzed to evaluate levels of students’ understanding. The difference in the pre and post tests was compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Further interview analysis helped researchers to clarify students’ understanding. A protocol analysis was used to find patterns of conceptual change. The findings showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the pre and post test scores (p < 0.05). The pattern of conceptual change obtained from this study was incremental changes. These findings indicate that analogy and a K-W-L chart enable students to learn content easily and change their conceptual understanding. Keywords: Analogy, Formative assessment, Conceptual change, Acids and bases

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Effect of Undergraduates’ Computer Efficacy on the Media Used on Mobile Computing Devices a

Brian J. PHILLIPSa, ,Michael GROSCHb Mahidol University International College & PhD Candidate of Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Institute of Pedagogics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany [email protected]

Abstract: With the tremendous growth in the adoption of netbooks, tablet computers and smart phones, the implementation of mobile technology in education has become a priority, but most universities have yet to measure what mobile devices students use and in what way. This research surveyed 439 Thai undergraduate students studying in an international program, using the principal component analysis in order to build a computer skills typology for Thai undergraduate students and then Student’s t-test in order to analyze the different skills grouping to measure the differences in media usage of mobile devices. The results show that students with more advanced research skills more heavily used a wider range of media than did students with only basic software computer skills. The more advanced students also saw themselves as having better academic and study skills. Key words: learning media, mobile learning, computer efficacy, digital literacy

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

A Web-based Collaborative Problem-Solving Approach to Improving Students’ Learning Achievements in Social Studies Courses Fan-Ray KUOa, Chih-Hsiang WUb, Gwo-Jen HWANGc Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan b Department of Information and Learning Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan c Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan [email protected] a

Abstract: With the rapid spread of information technology, cultivating web-based problemsolving to deal with upcoming challenges and problems is essential and important. Nevertheless, students might encounter problems in dealing with web-based problem-solving tasks without any support; in particular, for elementary school students. To cope with this problem, in this study, a web-based collaborative problem-solving approach is proposed. To examine the effectiveness of the proposed learning approach, an experiment has been conducted on an elementary school social studies course to compare the learning achievements of students who learned with the proposed approach and those who learned with the conventional web-based problem-solving approach. The research findings show that the experimental group students who adopted collaborative learning approach gain better web-based problem-solving ability than those who accepted individual learning approach in a social studies course. Moreover, for the affective measurement, the feedback concerning perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and system quality and intention collected from the students was significantly positive. Keywords: web-based learning, web-based problem solving, collaborative learning, computer supported collaborative learning

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Developing Multimedia for Hearing-Impaired Children Watching Reum An-re, a Famous Folk Dance of Surin Province

a

Wijittra POTISARNa, Nawuttagorn POTISARNb Computer Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology ISAN, Surin Campus, Surin, Thailand b Computer Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Surindra Rajabhat University, Surin, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Multimedia has been developed to help the hearing-impaired children’s understanding of Reum An-re, a famous folk dance of Surin province. This research aimed to develop multimedia of Reum An-re for hearing-impaired children and study their satisfaction with the multimedia. From the verification of the experts, the multimedia included text, images, audio, video, and animation. However, the audio had no benefit to the hearingimpaired children. The satisfaction of children with the multimedia was tested. The sampling consisted of 20 students who studied in the first semester of 2012 in Sotsuksa Surin school for the deaf, Surin province. The purposive sampling technique was used. The result found that the students’ satisfaction was good ( x = 2.33). In conclusion, the hearing-impaired children knew more about Reum An-re of Surin Province and they enjoyed learning with the help of the multimedia. Keywords: Reum An-re of Surin province, hearing-impaired children, multimedia

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Decision Tree: a Tool for Promoting Self-evaluated Knowledge in Health Education Artorn NOKKAEWa, Wannapong TRIAMPOa,b, Charin MODCHANGb, Busayamas PIMPUNCHATc a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand c Industrial Mathematics Research Unit and Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Health education is crucial to control spread-out of infectious diseases. Along with the education, most works focused on prevention, such as destroying breeding sites of the vector and promoting healthy lifestyles. Imparting knowledge and providing a tool for self-evaluation are less attended. Not only is early diagnosis effective in controlling epidemics, but it also benefits therapies. However, preliminary diagnosis is not easy especially for a group of infectious diseases that share similar clinical features. Since their nearly identical outbreak periods and similar clinical symptoms, dengue fever and leptospirosis are frequently misdiagnosed. So this study proposes an alternative tool for promoting differential diagnosis knowledge and facilitating self-evaluation for febrile patients based on clinical features. The tool was constructed using a decision tree that can be transformed into a rule form which places less of a burden on learners’ memory. To construct a decision model, hypothetical populations were generated including thousands with positive leptospirosis, negative leptospirosis, positive dengue and negative dengue. All hypothetical populations were assumed to present some febrile symptoms. Each hypothetical patient expressed clinical features randomly and proportionally. The generated data were used to train the tree by the classification and regression tree algorithm (CART). In this case, the decision tree was used to turn raw data into useful knowledge in a conceivable and usable form. Obtained trees were analyzed and decision rules were generated. Common rules were synthesized. Consequently, four common rules could be formed for the classification, two rules for classifying leptospirosis and the others for dengue fever. Leptospirosis patients can be distinguished by the presence of jaundice together with two of these following symptoms: joint pain, eye pain, and diarrhea (Rule 1). Also, in the absence of jaundice, leptospirosis can be diagnosed by the presence of the three symptoms (Rule 2). Dengue patients can be differentiated by the absence of cough and sore throat of patients with febrile illness (Rule 3). Also, dengue fever patients can be distinguished with the presence of either rash or retro-orbital pain (Rule 4). The performance analysis found that a combination of rules 1, 2, and 4 provides the most effective diagnosis rule for differentiating leptospirosis and dengue fever from other febrile illnesses. A model based on clinical features solely was able to differentiate leptospirosis and dengue fever from other febrile illnesses with the likelihood ratio for a positive test of 3.43 (95% CI 3.1 to 3.8), the likelihood ratio for a

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

negative test of 0.47 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.49) and the diagnostic odds ratio of the test of 7.37 (95% CI 6.4 to 8.5). Further study should investigate an impact of the tool and the diagnostic results on the patients or users. Keywords: Differential diagnosis, decision tree, dengue fever, leptospirosis, health education

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Development of Active Learning Activities to Enhance Students’Achievement in Chemistry at Phanamtipwittaya School Wilaiporn TECHA [email protected]

Abstract: The purposes of this research were to (1) develop active learning activities in chemistry for eleventh-grade students in Phanamtipwittaya School (2) compare the pretest points and posttest points of students who join the active learning plan, and (3) study the opinions of students who participate in the active learning activities in chemistry. There were two groups of participants. The first group consisted of 42 students in Phanamtipwittaya School, Aumphor Nongphok, Roi Et Province. The data were collected in the second semester of academic year 2008. The second group comprised 39 students in Phanamtipwittaya School, Aumphor Nongphok, Roi Et Province. The data were collected in the second semester of academic year 2009. There were three types of research instruments: 1) teacher observation forms, 2) plan evaluation forms, and 3) student interview forms. Research results: (1) The developed active learning plan resulted in first group students’ average scores of 92.86% and 85.89% for interim and post tests and second group students’ average scores of 100% and 87.75% for interim and post tests with a normalized gain of 0.8884. (2) The achievement level of students after participating in the active learning activities in chemistry was significantly higher than that before the participation at the significance level of 0.5. (3) The students who used the active learning activities in chemistry were satisfied with the activities. Keywords: Active Learning Activities

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Inhibition of Carica papaya Lipase by Alcohol: an Experiment for Undergraduate Students Pirom CHENPRAKHONa, Watcharathorn SUGJAISOMRANb, Somchart MAENPUENb, Pimchai CHAIYENc a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Burapha University c Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Enzyme inhibition is a topic that most students find difficult to understand. As the topic is useful for students to develop analytic concepts for drug discovery and enzyme mechanisms, a handson experiment that can allow students to learn the content better is needed. In this report, we present the first phase of our research aiming to develop a laboratory experiment to teach the concept of enzyme inhibition for undergraduate students. We used the inhibition of Carica papaya lipase (CPL) by alcohol as a model for studying. CPL was chosen because it can be purified easily from papaya latex with reasonable yield (20 mg/mL of papaya latex). Moreover, this material is related to students’ everyday life, which may help them learn better. Firstly, substrate specificity of CPL was explored using derivatives of p-nitrophenyl ester with different alkyl group chain lengths (C1, C7, and C15) and the activities were measured by the spectrophotometric method. After that, the inhibition effect of alcohol (methanol, ethanol, and 1-pentanol) on the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by CPL was tested. The results showed that CPL preferred C7 the most because the compound showed the highest kcat/Km . All alcohols tested inhibited the hydrolysis reaction catalyzed by CPL with 1-pentanol showing the lowest Ki value. When the inhibition was analyzed by direct and Lineweaver-Burk plots, the inhibition was consistent with a mixed type. In the next phase, a teaching experiment with guidedinquiry laboratory instructional style will be designed and implemented in classes. Keywords: Enzyme inhibition, Carica papaya lipase, Undergraduate student

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Thai and Bangladeshi In-service Secondary Science Teachers' Conceptions of Nature of Science: A Cross Cultural Study Md. Ziaul Abedin FORHADa, Khajornsak BUARAPHANb Ph. D. Student, Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Assistant Professor, Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected] a

Abstract: Understanding of the nature of science (NOS) serves as one of the desirable characteristics of science teachers. The current study attempted to explore 55 Thais and 110 Bangladeshis in-service secondary science teachers’ conceptions of the NOS in particular to scientific knowledge, the scientific method, scientists’ work, and scientific enterprise, by using the Myths of Science Questionnaire (MOSQ). The results revealed a similar pattern of Thai and Bangladeshi science teachers’ NOS conceptions regarding a relationship between science and technology, science as cumulative knowledge, a scientific model, a relationship between theories and laws, and a scientific method. Up to now, the common uninformed conceptions of NOS held by Thai and Bangladeshi science teachers were science as cumulative knowledge and the relationship between theories and laws. The professional development programs for improving Asian science teachers’ conceptions of NOS should consider the patterns of NOS conceptions found in this study to be included in such programs. The relationship between science teachers’ NOS conceptions and a cultural context should also be discussed. Keywords: In-service secondary science teacher, nature of science, Thailand, Bangldesh, cultural study

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Using Interactive Computer Game Activities to Assess Nursing Students’ Basic knowledge in Tracheostomy Care A-ngun NOYUDOM, Watcharee KETPICHAINARONG Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University 999 Phuttamonthon 4 Road, Nakhon Pathom 73170 [email protected]

Abstract: Game-based learning has been widely used to assess both knowledge and practical skills in a wide variety of subjects. We aimed to develop interactive computer game activities to assess nursing students’ basic knowledge in tracheostomy care. The participants were 60 second-year nursing students divided into two groups. After all participants learned the topic by lecture, we assessed the students’ achievement by the new game-based activities for one group and by a paper-pencil test for the other. The results showed that the students using the game-based activities got a better score than those using the paper-pencil test. Moreover, students showed more positive attitude toward using the game-based activities as an evaluation method. Keywords: game-based learning; nursing student; practical skills; tracheostomy care

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Using Soil Buffering System to Motivate Students to Learn Concept of Buffer Solution: A Guided-Inquiry Experiment for High School Students Thammarat KEOSOMNUKa, Pirom CHENPRAKHONa Institute of innovative for learning ,Mahidol University,Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: Using materials or compounds relevant to students’ everyday life for teaching in a classroom causes students to be interested in chemistry and to understand the role of chemistry in daily life better. In this research we used a natural buffer system from soil to motivate students to apply knowledge of the concept of buffer solution to real situation. The laboratory was designed by introducing students to the concept of buffer using traditional style. After that students were assigned to measure the pH and determine the buffering system of soil. The experiment was implemented with guided-inquiry instructional style. Students were introduced to buffer solution experiments by standard buffer solutions: An acetate buffer solution and a phosphate buffer solution. Students selected the concentration of buffer solution which was composed of weak acid solution and weak acid salt solution. The buffer solution concentration affected the buffer capacity and pH value of the buffer solution and could be calculated from the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Students perceived good characteristics of buffer capacity. In the national curriculum a natural buffer solution experiment used cucumber solution or coconut solution, but students did not know the composition of the buffering system. Furthermore a sea water buffering system and a blood buffering system were unsuitable to high school laboratory which affected students’ learning due to the lack of context-based learning, but a soil buffering system could be understood in the context of soil fertility for an agricultural community. The soil was collected from many places such as farms and orchards, etc. This experiment was tried with grade 11 students (72 students) which were composed of 2 classes, a control and an experimental group. The control group was taught with traditional style only. The results indicated that soils in different places had different pH values. pHs were found in the range of 6 to 8 and it could hold pH in different pH levels. Students in each group were asked to discuss about the result from the experiment. The data from the pre-test, the post-test, the questionnaire, the interview, and classroom observation showed that students in both groups improved their conceptual understanding of buffer solution with no significant difference, but students in the experimental group had a good perception of the experiment. They felt the experiment was interesting and motivating. Keywords: guided inquiry, soil buffering system, natural buffer system, guided-inquiry experiment

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Integrating a Career-related Local Wisdom Learning Unit with ICT to Promote Area-based Science Content in Secondary Students a

Chakpet TIANCHAIa, Nantawadee TIANCHAIa Ban Klongsomboon School, phragnamdang, Amphawa, Samut Songkhram, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: To serve youth development in the 21st century, Thailand’s Basic Education Core Curriculum 2008 has placed emphasis on enhancing essential knowledge and skills required for their lives in an ever-changing society. A local wisdom–based learning unit linking local resources in the community together with technology could prepare students to deal with actual situations and serve students’ real needs. Therefore this study developed an integrated learning unit to enhance student understanding of science content relating to their lives, future careers, and local resources in their community. The learning unit was implemented to 22 grade 9 students in a school located in Samut Songkhram province, Thailand. The students experienced career-related local wisdom in a share-and-learn session. They then utilized ICT to develop an e-book or video presenting local careers of their own choices while being facilitated by the teachers and local scholars. Students’ e-book and video represented their understanding of life and careers in their community. There was also knowledge of science relating to life and careers, for example, ecosystem, biodiversity, and natural resource management. The results from the e-book, video, and questionnaire reflected students’ awareness of conservation of the natural resources in their community. Moreover, students exhibited positive attitude toward science and technology learning via classroom observation and the questionnaire. Keywords: local wisdom, natural resources, ICT

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Gaps between Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge in Mathematics Classroom Bongkoch NIMTRAKUL, Kait SANG-AROON Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand Department of Mathematics, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Two essential types of knowledge that children acquire are conceptual understanding and procedural skill (Rittleston-Johnson and Siegler & Alibali, 2001). According to Isoda (1996), there are times when the concept and procedure contradict each other and times when they do not. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gaps between conceptual and procedural knowledge, which can be seen when these two kinds of knowledge do not match each other. The evidence from students’ written work illustrates the gaps between conceptual and procedural knowledge. The written work was collected from classroom observation of a teaching experiment in the unit of “The first rules of division” at Sanambin School, with fourth graders (N=6) as a target group. The findings are 1) when students engage in previously learned tasks, they are not faced with a difficult situation because they are within the range of previously learned knowledge of division; 2) when students engage in target tasks (extended situation) which have yet to be learned: equivalent division sentences (such as 6 ÷ 2 = 3, 18 ÷ 6 = 3) which are under the rule of changing the divisor and the dividend by the same multiply, many are still accustomed to seeing each division as a separate unrelated problem that can be checked by multiplication (by 2 x 3 = 6, 6 x 3 = 18) and become proficient in quickly aligning these division sentences to multiplication sentences. As a result, they do not see the relationships between equivalent division sentences. The overall findings highlight that when students apply previously learned procedures to the extended tasks, the gaps between the two kinds of knowledge happen. These conclusions correspond to Isoda (1996)’s mention that when students are faced with a task they are unfamiliar with, they are likely to test existing quick-to-use proficient procedures; there remain gaps between conceptual (relational) and procedural knowledge. This can present the development of conceptual knowledge. Keywords: conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, relationship

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Estimation Problem Solving in Lesson Study and Open Approach Classroom Siwarak PROMRAKSAa, Kiat SANGAROONb Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: This research was qualitative research to analyze the upper primary school students’ thinking about estimation in a Lesson Study and Open Approach classroom. The target group included grade 5 students in 2011 school year at Choomchonbanchonnabot School, Khon Kaen Province. The lesson plan was developed based on the Open Approach for grade 5, including the activity “How much money are you prepared to pay”. The instruments used for data collection were: 1) the video tape recorder for recording both pictures and sounds for analyzing the sequence of situations in the interactions between the teacher and students and between students and students, and the behavior of the teacher and students while the instruction was being implemented; 2) the audio tape recorder for recording the sound of students while they were participating in activities; and 3) the worksheets of students in each group, used as evidence for analyzing the students’ estimation in the mathematics classroom. The framework of analysis consisted of: 1) video analysis for analyzing students’ estimation while they were solving the problem in the mathematics classroom, 2) the information supporting the students’ estimation while they were solving problem, and 3) the students’ drawings for reflecting their behavior during estimation in the mathematics classroom. The research found that the students had various techniques for estimation including estimation before calculation, calculation before estimation, and estimation by rounding to any nearest digit such as units, tens, hundreds, thousands, and tens of thousands and integrated by using the estimation in the classroom and real-life estimation in judging and solving the problem of estimation. The outcomes of estimation and of real-life estimation were investigated whether they were possible. Keywords: Estimation, Lesson Study and Open Approach

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Students’ Problem Solving Behavior in Problem-Solving Mathematics Classroom Pimpaka INTAROSa, Maitree INPRASITHAb, Niwat SRISAWADIc Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand c Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected] a

Abstract: Currently, teaching approaches in mathematics classrooms have been changed to more insight-based, problem-oriented processes (van Oers, 2002). In order to enhance students’ problem-solving process, a critical point is what kinds of authentically mathematical experiences that students should get through problem solving (Cai, MamonaDowns, & Weber, 2005). Regarding the point, this research aimed to explore first grade students’ problem-solving behavior in the problem-solving mathematics classroom, which was classified into 4 phases according to the open approach used as a teaching approach (Inprasitha, 2010) and dealt with 6 key universal activities (Bishop, 1988) that were the basis for the students’ mathematical problem solving. A case study was employed in this research. Data were analyzed by using protocol analysis and analytic description, and quantitative data were presented according to the analyzed data. The results revealed that students’ problemsolving behavior of measuring and explaining was found in all the phases of the problemsolving mathematics classroom. However, the students’ problem-solving behavior of playing was found in only the 2nd phase. In the 3rd and 4th phases, the students’ problem-solving behavior of designing-and-building was not found. Also the students’ problem-solving behavior of counting and locating was not found in the 1st and 4th phases, respectively. These findings could be considered as a teaching opportunity in order to support pedagogically and fulfill students’ problem-solving learning in mathematics. Keywords: open approach, problem-solving mathematics classroom, problem-solving behavior

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Assessment of Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Mathematical Creativity a

Kawissara SANSAOHa, Maitree INPRASITHAb Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: In order to improve students’ mathematical creativity in elementary and secondary school, teachers’ knowledge about mathematical creativity is required (Saito, 2012). This paper focuses on prospective mathematics teachers’ mathematical creativity and their creative attitude toward mathematical problem solving associated with the implementation of the Problem for Activating Creative Thinking (PACT) (Saito, 2012) and the Creative Attitude Scale (CAS) (Saito & Akita, 2001). The Problem for Activating Creative Thinking (PACT) is the mathematical problem developed by Prof. Noboru Saito and Prof. Miyo Akita (2001). This problem is related to learning contents of a unit. The solutions are open and from which the evaluation of divergence, fluency, flexibility, and originality can be made. The Creative Attitude Scale (CAS) is a scale to measure students’ behavior in solving mathematical problems. One hundred and twenty students from Faculty of Education and Faculty of Sciences participated in the study. CAS and PACT were employed at the start of the lesson without any special intervention in the course. The results indicate that, on average, prospective teachers (N = 120) preferred relevance of student responses to Creative Attitude Scale and the Problem for Activating Creative Thinking. Prospective mathematics teachers were rather creative mathematical problem solvers (average score 96.77). The average of response to PACT was 1–2 patterns, with rarely any originality. Keywords: Assessment, Mathematical Creativity, Prospective Mathematics Teacher, Creative Attitude Scale, Problem for Activating Creative Thinking

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Student Intern’s Role of Working together with Teachers in School using Lesson Study and Open Approach a

Weerasuk KANAUANa, Narumol INPRASITHAb Master Student in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Khon kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Lesson Study refers to a process in which teachers progressively strive to improve their teaching methods by working with other teachers in a highly structured process of teacher collaboration, observation, reflection, and practice (Baba, 2007; White & Lim, 2008) that can develop teachers’ content knowledge and content knowledge for teaching (Yoshida, 2008). In Thailand schools using lesson study with student interns, there is a collaboration between them and teachers in the three phases of lesson study and open approach based on Inprasitha (2010). The object of this research was to study the role of a student intern who worked together with teachers in school using lesson study. The target group consisted of the first grade lesson study team including the student intern and two teachers. Data were collected by participatory observation and using a questionnaire, an interview, and video recording. The results showed that in collaboratively designed research lessons, the student intern revised research lessons and brought to discuss with the teachers. During collaborative observation of the research lesson, the student intern was an instructor and the teachers were observers. During the period of collaborative reflection on the teaching practice, the student intern always reflected on the result and evaluation of the teaching, the effectiveness and problem of the material, and students’ ideas, and talked about their practice in school once finished. Keywords: Lesson Study, Student Intern, Teacher, Collaboration, Working Together

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Types of Mathematical Tasks Used in Classrooms to Influence Students’ Thinking Katanyuta BANGTHOa, Narumol INPRASITHAb Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected] a

Abstract: Mathematics tasks are important vehicles for classroom instruction that aims to enhance students’ learning (Hiebert & Wearne, 1993). The tasks that teachers assign can determine how students come to understand what is taught. In other words, tasks serve as a context for students’ thinking, during and after instruction (Shimizu, Kaur, Huang, & Clarke , 2010) The types of tasks teachers choose to use in mathematics classrooms have a significant impact on the kind of thinking students are afforded (Stein, Grover, & Henningsen, 1996). The purpose of this study was to study types of mathematical tasks used in classrooms in influencing students’ thinking. The participants in this research were one teacher, two observing teachers, one school coordinator, and 35 first grade students from Demonstration School of Khon Kaen University. The data consisted of the tasks in shapes content. Data were analyzed by using the task types in a mathematical learning project (Sullivan, P., Clarke, D. M., Clarke, B. A., & O’Shea, H., 2009) that used four particular types of mathematical tasks. The research findings revealed that the teacher used tasks of type 3 (students investigate specific mathematical content through open-ended tasks). These tasks provided opportunities for the students to discuss their strategies or ways of solving problems. As a result, the students could find solutions variously and form geometric concepts while they were participating in group activities and whole class discussion. Keywords: Mathematics classroom, Students’ thinking, Types of mathematical tasks

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

What Mathematics Student Teacher Interns Learn through Participation in Lesson Study Nisakorn BOONSENAa, Maitree INPRASITHAa a Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: Lesson Study is a process in which teachers progressively strive to improve their teaching method by working with other teachers (Baba, 2007). The objective of this research was to investigate what the mathematics student teacher interns learned through participation in Lesson Study. This research was a part of the project of teacher professional development with lesson study and open approach run by Center for Research in Mathematics Education (CRME), Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University and this research project was supported by Office of the Higher Education Commission and Office of the Basic Education Commission. We purposively selected Choomchon-bankangkro-nongpai School which is an extension school and Kangkro-wittaya School which is a secondary school because these schools would like to join the research project and allowed the four mathematics student teacher interns to practice at the schools and joined the lesson study team that contained experienced teachers, the school coordinator, and mathematics student teacher interns. We collected data from classroom observation, classrooms’ transcripts, reflection on teaching practices’ observation, reflection on teaching practices’ transcripts and interviews. Mathematics student teacher interns had opportunity for active learning while working with the lesson study team. For example they collaborated in creating the open-ended problem situation and anticipating students’ approach. Moreover, mathematics student teacher interns had opportunity for reflection. They found that other teachers’ ideas and comments were very important to help them to improve their practice. Keywords: Mathematics Student Teacher Intern, Lesson Study

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Learning to Listen to Students’ Mathematical Ideas Kanjana WETBUNPOTa, Narumol INPRASITHAb, Auijit PATTANAJAK b a Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Center for Research in Mathematics Education , Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: While teaching in class, teachers ask questions and students respond with answers that they have learned. Surprisingly, only a few percentage of teachers are actually listening (Black, Harrison, Lee, Marshall, & Wiliam, 2004; Kawanaka & Stigler, 1999). A teacher should actively and closely listen while students are speaking and/or showing something. Yet question remains about how teachers make sense of what they hear and how they use what they hear in teaching (Empson & Jacobs, 2008). The purpose of this study was to survey teachers’ listening to students’ mathematical ideas. The target group was school internship students majoring in mathematics education at the Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, and teaching primary school in the 1st grade. The data were collected by videotaping the interaction between the teacher and the students in the classroom and from students’ written work. Data were analyzed by using demonstration of their knowledge on a blackboard and a protocol for a relationship between the teacher and the students. The research findings that Responsive listening refers to listening in which the teacher actively listens, it shows their attempt to find and present the student’s ideas in the class in order to see and get responses. Keywords: Learning to Listen, Student’s mathematical idea

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Intuition in Problem-Solving Process of Subtraction Problems Kwanta PANBANLAMEa, Kiat SANGAROONb a Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b

Faculty of Science, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: This research aimed to investigate intuition in the problem-solving process of subtraction problems for the first grade students in a mathematics classroom using the lesson study and open approach. Intuition occurs in the solution process called "anticipatory intuitions" that students have to assess through the following steps. 1) The solver attempts to understand the problem meaningfully using information contained in the issue. Consequently, the solver understands the problem and identifies the givens and the requirements of the problem. 2) The solver establishes solutions from a wide variety of previous information and the correlation. 3) The efforts yield well-structured problems that the solver found solutions (Fischbein, 1999). Target group was four students in the first grade at Ban Bueng-niam Bueng-Krainon School in 2010 academic year. This school had been participating in teacher professional development through the project for a professional development using the lesson study and open approach as a method to create a classroom that focuses on the problem-solving process (Inprasitha, 2010). This study used qualitative method. The data were collected by observation, video recording, and student tasks in a classroom. These students were exposed to the open-ended problems designed to stimulate and link with study experiences for solving subtraction problems. The results showed that students in the problem-solving process began with problem understanding. Students were assigned to determine the problems and search for different strategies to solve the problems. Intuition occurred in a situation where students achieved the previous problem solution in order to solve new problems. Keywords: anticipatory intuitions, subtraction

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Exploring Teachers’ Understanding of Lesson Plan in Lesson Study Rungthiwa KHONKARNa, Suladda LOIPHAb, Auijit PATTANAJAKc Doctoral Program in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected] b Centre of Excellence in Mathematics, CHE., Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected] c Center for Research in Mathematics Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected] a

Abstract: Lesson plans are windows into teachers’ understanding of lessons with the role of lesson plans as vehicles for examining and improving lessons in Lesson Study (Shimizu, 2008). Lesson Study is implemented for new challenges and pushes new formats of lesson plans and new ways of teaching approaches (Isoda, 2010). Open Approach is a teaching approach in the Lesson Study process including posing open-ended problem situations, students’ self-learning, whole class discussion and comparison, and summarization through connecting students’ mathematical ideas (Inprasitha, 2010). Teachers’ understanding of lesson plans in Lesson Study may be different among lessons on different topics (Shimizu, 2008). The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ understanding of lesson plans in Lesson Study. Teachers (n=254) from schools in Center for Research in Mathematics Education Project were a target group. The data came from a checklist for implementing Open Approach/Problem Solving Approach (Isoda, 2010). The findings indicated that: 1) 17.48% of teachers understood posing open-ended problem situations, 2) 17.17% of teachers understood students’ self-learning, 3) 27.12% of teachers understood whole class discussion and comparison, and 4) 6.10% of teachers understood summarization through connecting students’ mathematical ideas. Keywords: Lesson Plan, Lesson Study, Open Approach

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Exploring the Students’ Demand for Multimedia Used in Immune SystemTeaching Monamorn PRECHARATTANAa Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: Nowadays multimedia has been recognized as a powerful learning tool in the field of education. They can blend learning and playing into one, reducing the gap between teachers and students and enhancing the learning atmosphere in and outside the classroom. In order to measure the students’ demand for multimedia used for the study in the topic of immune system in a school in Nonthaburi province, Thailand, a paper-based questionnaire is conducted to investigate the attitude of the eleventh-grade students, who have studied the topic in the school, toward their experiences with and demand for multimedia used in the immune system teaching. Items in the questionnaire consist of (i) general information of the student, (ii) availability of technology education to support learning in the school, and (iii) the teacher normal teaching style in the topic and the student’s demand for his/her learning. Moreover, semi-structured interviews also are provided to probe the students for some issues. Keywords: immune system, biology, survey, multimedia, learning tool

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

The Practical Way to Use Collaborative Learning on a Learning Management System Sasithorn CHOOKAEW Computer Engineering,Industrial Education Rajamangala University of technology Phra Nakhon [email protected]

Abstract: Currently, technologies of computer and information have been rapidly developed. For technologies about online instruction, the learning management system (LMS) has been widely used by several teachers around the world. The purpose of this study was to employ an online collaborative strategy on the LMS in the “design and development of computerassisted instruction” course. Participants in this study were 68 undergraduate students of Rajamangala university of technology Phranakorn, Thailand. The promising results showed that students enjoyed sharing, discussing, and learning via the online system and supporting tools based on guiding questions of teachers.

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Supporting Students’ Conceptual Learning and Retention of Light Refraction Concepts by Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model Siriporn KROOTHKEAW, Niwat SRISAWASDI* Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand *[email protected]

Abstract: Although light is an everyday phenomenon that we constantly observe, a numerous researches have reported that students display learning difficulties and hold unscientific conceptions about light wave. This paper presents effects of the teaching method of simulation-based inquiry with dual-situated learning model (SimIn-DSLM) on grade 10 students’ conceptual understanding of light refraction. The result showed that their conceptual scores for the pre-test, the post-test, and the retention test were significantly difference and they gain better conceptual understanding after attending the simulation class. This finding suggests that the SimIn-DSLM method could be used to help students learn science concepts more meaningfully and understandably. Keywords: DSLM, open inquiry, computer simulation, conceptual understanding

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Effect of Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion Prapaporn SORNKHATHA, Niwat SRISAWASDI* Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand *[email protected]

Abstract: Currently, educational research provides promising evidence that the use of computer simulations can enhance student conceptual understanding in science. Built around the finding, simulation-based inquiry learning with Dual-situated Learning Model (DSLM) was developed and implemented to grade 10 students in order to investigate students’ conceptual understanding at the pre-test, the post-test, and the retention test. The result showed that their conceptual understanding scores for the measurements were significantly difference and they gain better conceptual understanding after attending the simulation class. According to the findings, the method of simulation-based inquiry learning could be considered as a pedagogical tool for promoting students’ conceptual understanding. Keywords: DSLM, open inquiry, computer simulation, conceptual change

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Enhancing Pupils’ Understanding of Mathematics Through the Use of Digitized Learning Materials Aida I. YAP University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development (UP NISMED) [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: The Department of Science and Technology through its attached agencies, the Science Education Institute and Advanced Science and Technology Institute, and in collaboration with UP NISMED developed a courseware for grade 1 mathematics under the project Technology Package for Student Learning Empowerment. The courseware is an interactive enhancement material that includes 10 lessons. This study investigated the effectiveness of using the courseware on grade 1 pupils’ learning of selected topics in elementary mathematics. A total of 794 pupils from 10 public schools formed the sample of the study. In each school, two intact classes were chosen. One was assigned as the experimental group while the other as the control group. Only one teacher carried out the lesson in both classes. A lesson may contain one or two activities. An evaluation is included in each activity. Except for the mode of delivery of the lesson, i.e. the experimental group used the courseware that was uploaded in computers while the control group did not, everything else was kept the same. The results of the study showed that there was a significant difference in the mean gain scores of the experimental and control groups. This means that the use of the courseware and computer may have contributed to the pupils’ learning of mathematics. Moreover, there was also a significant correlation between the posttest and the total scores of the pupils in the evaluation.

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Improving Understanding of Fractions in the Early Grades Through Collaborative Lesson Research and Development Teresita R. MAÑALAC University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development (UP NISMED) [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: The University of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development (UP NISMED) implemented with its partner schools a professional development model called Collaborative Lesson and Research Development (CLRD), an adaptation of the Japanese Lesson Study. It aimed to enable science and mathematics teachers to collaboratively engage in innovative teaching practices and document these in terms of teaching and learning materials. The development of lessons followed a cyclic process: (1) planning a research lesson; (2) implementing the lesson to determine its workability and effectiveness; and (3) conducting a post discussion to discuss the lesson’s strong and weak points and how the lesson can be improved. This paper presents an analysis of a lesson on fractions, one of the difficult topics to teach in the elementary grades. Thirteen grade 1 mathematics teachers in a public elementary school collaboratively worked on a research lesson on fractions that used teaching mathematics through problem solving. Significant changes in the behavior and teaching practices of teachers were observed, such as giving more emphasis to thinking processes, improved questioning skills, and being more reflective and open to new ideas on their teaching practices, to name a few.

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How Epidemic Modeling and Simulation Software can Enhance Science Teaching and Learning Sudarat CHADSUTHIa, Charin MODCHANGb, Wannapong TRIAMPOb,c,* Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand b R&D Group of Biological and Environmental Physics (BIOPHYSICS), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand c Institute for Innovation and Development of Learning Process, Mahidol University, Nakhon pathom, Thailand a

Corresponding author: [email protected]

Abstract: In the last decade, the epidemic modeling has been an important tool for giving guidelines for implementing the prevention and intervention measures, including school closure. However there are a few teachers to teach the epidemic modeling in schools, partly because it remains difficult for both teachers and learners to practically use it without a proper training and guideline. In this regard, we introduce epidemic software of influenza for school outbreak to enhance learning of life sciences, project-based learning, or problembased learning. Here we apply a computational approach through simple but practical epidemic software to a high school class for improving students’ knowledge and perspective concerning epidemic and other life sciences. The epidemic software being developed by our biophysics group is an educational software component specific to promoting concepts of epidemic modeling and presented through computer simulation to enhance science teaching and learning. This software can provide an essential support to make more accessible epidemiological activities among students such as how to choose the strategy to control the outbreak in school. It was found that the use of computer simulation positively affects student attitudes towards epidemic modeling. We believe that this approach can help to promote learning process for epidemic and modeling. Keywords: Epidemic software, Computer simulation, Problem-based learning

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Review of Some Free Ising Model Software for Scientific Teaching Kan SORNBUNDITa, Narin NUTTAVUTa, Darapond TRIAMPOb, Wannapong TRIAMPOa,c,d R&D Group of Biological and Environmental Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand b Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand c Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand d ThEP Center, CHE, 328 Si Ayutthaya Road, Thailand [email protected]

a

Abstract: The purpose of this work is to present a comparison study of certain freely available software for two-dimensional Ising model simulation. These programs include Ising model programs (True Basic and Java versions) from the department of Physics at Weber State University (WSU) and the program in C language from the department of Physics at McGill University. User-friendliness interface and capability of visualization and parameter adjustment are used as figures of merit. We have found that the program in True Basic from WSU is the only one that has user friendly interface but parameter adjustment and scope are limited. On the other hand, the Java version of this program and the program from McGill University have no user interface but it allows users to widely tune model parameters. Instructors are recommended to choose a program that meets their criteria for effectiveness in teaching and education. Keywords: Ising model, Free software, Scientific teaching

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Impact of Game-based Learning upon Flow Experience and Cognitive Load

Chih-Hung LAIa, Hsiang-Hsuan LIUa*, Chih-Ming CHUa, Yung-Chih CHENGb a Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Taiwan b Department of English, National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan 1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan, 974, Republic of China [email protected]

Abstract: There are many advantages of Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL), also commonly used in learning, but it does not seem to be attractive enough. If computer games can be included in learning, their video and audio effects may allure more learners and lead them into the flow experience. This study aims at probing into the influence of game-based learning upon learners’ flow experience and cognitive load. English vocabularies are the learning content and the learners are 5th graders. The participants are divided into three groups: a computer game (CG) group, a game-based learning (GBL) group, and a computerassisted learning (CAL) group. The results show that the flow experiences of both the CG group and the GBL group are higher than that of the CAL group. The cognitive loads of both the CG group and the GBL group are higher than that of the CAL group in the first experiment, but there is no significant difference between any two of the three groups in the second experiment. Keywords: Game-based Learning, Flow Experience, Cognitive Load

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Learning material for promoting Newton’s laws of motion conceptual development: What and How? Apinya DHATSUWANa, Monamorn PRECHARATTANAa, Patcharin PANJABUREEa a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Abstract: Newton’s laws of motion are not only three physical laws that are essential for understanding and explaining real-life physical phenomena but also the topic with the most number of misconceptions reported. Previous studies referred to laws of motion as an abstract concept with which students ranging from primary school level to undergraduate level found difficulty. Lack of proper instructional material in the topic and of relating scientific knowledge to real-life phenomena and experiences are reported as causes of weakness in promoting students’ understanding of Newton’s laws of motion. Moreover, the diversity of students is another factor that affects their conceptual development. To cope with these issues, this study aims to explore the learning situation of Thai primary school students in the topic Newton’s laws of motion. Survey questionnaires are developed in two versions for both teachers and students. Both questionnaires include (1) general information of the audience; (2) available technology supporting their learning activity; (3) learning style and classroom environment; (4) required educational technology; and (5) a way to probe the misconception. The analysis of the responses shows that developing game-based learning material might remove students’ alternative concepts resulting in the conceptual development on the concept of Newton’s laws of motion. Keywords: survey, physics education, laws of motion, game-based learning, conceptual change

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Game-based Learning on Fast Food Consumption for Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Nutrition Knowledge Chonlada KHRUTTHAKHAa, Piyachat JITTAMb Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand a [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: The game-based approach has been recognized as an effective strategy to promote students’ learning with fun and also motivate students’ involvement. We thus developed a game-based learning module on fast food consumption for enhancing secondary students’ nutrition knowledge. We conducted the study with 67 eleventh grade students. All participants were engaged with a cartoon multimedia about inappropriate eating. Then they were allowed to play three games: a food pyramid jigsaw, a fat battle card game, and serving fast food. After that they were asked to create a poster about good food consumption and present to class. We assessed their learning achievement by using pre and post conceptual test. Their perceptions toward this game-based learning were gathered by using a questionnaire. The results indicate that students had better knowledge on nutrition. The students were also satisfied with these games and had positive perceptions toward the gamesbased learning. Keywords: Game-based learning, fast food, nutrition

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Attribution of Genetic Disorder Understanding to a Series of Games Thanaporn PIMOUBOLa, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAIa a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The traditional teaching approach could not support present-day students or digital natives, who are growing up with technology, in learning with meaningful experience, especially in the abstract biology topics, i.e., genetics, evolution, etc. An educational game is one of the powerful tools for enhancing students’ conceptual understanding and practicing the two 21st century skills of complex communication and expert problem solving. The purposes of this study therefore are to develop a series of games for promoting students’ understanding of genetic disorder and to determine the effectiveness of the games in motivating students’ understanding and satisfaction. A total of 71 grade 12 students from two classrooms in a school located in eastern Thailand participated in this study. The pretestposttest control group design was adopted in the study. The control group learned by lecture while the experimental group learned by using an intervention following the 5 E learning cycle model. A genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test, worksheets for activities, students’ reports, a questionnaire, semi-structured interview, and classroom observation were used to collect data. From the results, we can summarize here that students who experienced a series of games during studying genetic disorder inheritance achieved conceptual test scores significantly higher than those who experienced the traditional method. The scores from worksheets and students’ reports showed that the understanding of students improved. Moreover the results from the questionnaire, semi-structure interview and classroom observation showed the positive attitude toward the game-based learning. The results hereby demonstrated that a series of games could be an effective tool to promote students’ learning of genetic disorder. Keywords: Game, Genetic disorder, Thalassemia, 5 E learning cycle model

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Development of a Collaborative Learning Environment for Conducting Web-based Problem-Solving Activities Chih-Hsiang WUa, Fan-Ray KUOb, , Gwo-Jen HWANGc Department of Information and Learning Technology, National University of Tainan, Tainan, Taiwan b Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan c Graduate Institute of Digital Learning and Education, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei, Taiwan [email protected] a

Abstract: Internet technology provides fast and abundant resources to students for the potential of solving any problem encountering in learning. However, previous studies found that it is easy for students to get lost on the Internet while searching for information to solve complex problems without assistance or scaffolding from tutors or peers. Consequently, improving students' information searching ability and problem-solving ability on the Internet becomes an essential issue nowadays. This study attempts to develop a web-based collaborative problem-solving and information searching system, in which incorporates a collaborative learning mode to facilitate students' web-based information searching and problem-solving competences. Moreover, a total of 18 quantitative indicators embedded in the learning system are provided to help teachers further understand students' searching portfolios on the Internet so as to offer constructive assistance accordingly. Keywords: Collaborative learning, Collaborative Information searching strategies, Collaborative web-based problem solving instruction, Computer supported collaborative learning, Web-based learning

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Learn to Think Scientifically: Proposing a Framework for Inquiry-based Experimentation through Hybrid Computer-based Laboratory Environment Niwat SRISAWASDI Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: When students learn science they should be able to think scientifically and gain a deeper appreciation of science by its nature. Contemporarily, scientific thinking refers to the synergetic integration of mental processes engaged in science practices and used when reasoning about the content of science. To help students understand the contemporary scientific thinking we need to provide opportunity in an authentic way of scientific knowing under an appropriate learning strategy. Systematically supporting inquiry learning in science by allowing students to perform their own scientific practices and reason about their study until a discovery of a scientific concept is made may be of paramount importance not only to understanding what science is, but also in shaping the future of science education. Computerbased technologies have proved its potential support for science instruction. Therefore, as a relatively new instructional framework, this paper proposes an instructional model for inquiry-based experimentation through hybrid computer-based laboratory environment to emphasize activities that promote students’ scientific thinking. The framework, whose potential strength is derived from integrating already established theoretical constructs, is presented as a proposal with the intention that it will be critiqued, tried, and improved upon where necessary and will ultimately become an innovative part of the existing model of inquiry-based science learning by the way of using computer-based instructional technologies. Keywords: Scientific thinking, scientific reasoning, design of experiment, hands-on computerized experiment, computer simulation

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

Online interactive instruction using a flowchart to support students in a computer programming course Dechawut WANICHSANa, Sasithorn CHOOKAEWb Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Rambhai Barni Rajabhat University, Chanthaburi, Thailand b Faculty of Industrial Education, Rajamangala University of Technology Phranakorn, Bangkok, Thailand a [email protected], [email protected] a

Abstract: “Computer programming” is a fundamental course and has been considered the difficult subject. After finishing the course, many students cannot design and write a programming code. This course requires various skills, i.e., problem solving and remembering programming syntax. For this subject, problem-solving skill is more important skill compared to remembering programming syntax. Therefore, the main purposes of this work were to develop online interactive instruction that emphasized phases of design (based on SDLC), and to observe reflections of students in order to improve the quality of the multimedia for conducting a full-scaled experiment in the future. This multimedia instruction was developed using the constructionism learning theory. The preliminary results from seventeen freshmen revealed several interesting aspects which could be useful for improving the online interactive instruction in the future. Keywords: Computer multimedia instruction, Programming, Flowchart, Online lesson, Constructionism

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ICIE2012 The 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education

An Automatic Diagnostic Assessment System (ADAS) for Computer Programming: A Case Study on PHP Programming Language Suchot SINTHSIRIMANA, Patcharin PANJABUREE, Parames LAOSINCHAI Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: With the importance of computer programming in the organization or industry, the strengths and weaknesses of undergraduate students in this subject need to be identified. Particularly, the weaknesses need to be exposed and remedied. Consequently, this study developed an innovative tool named Automatic Diagnostic Assessment System (ADAS) to help examine the development and performance of a team of students in computer programming. The results analyzed from the source code before and after receiving the guidance from the developed system showed the incremental development in terms of the number of source files at 625.00% while in terms of the number of lines of source code at only 241.90%. In addition, after receiving the guidance from the ADAS, the team replaced text files with a database. These are the evidence for the improvement in the team’s computer programming ability. The ADAS could be used as a supplemental tool for a teacher or a project leader to check programmers’ progression or comparative performances. Keywords: Computer Programming, Automatic Diagnostic Assessment System, Software Engineering

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CONFERENCE PROCEEDING

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Somchai Amornyotin, Wiyada Chalayonnawin, Siriporn Kongphlay (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Efficacy of Anesthetic Trainee–Administered Propofol Deep Sedation for Enteroscopy in Elderly Patients by Using a Syringe Pump Somchai AMORNYOTIN, Wiyada CHALAYONNAWIN, Siriporn KONGPHLAY Department of Anesthesiology and Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700, Thailand [email protected] Abstract: The aim of the study is to compare and evaluate the clinical efficacy of anesthetic trainee–administered propofol deep sedation (PDS) by using a syringe pump for small bowel enteroscopy (SBE) between patients aged < 65 years and patients aged ≥ 65 years in a unit outside the operating room in Thailand. We undertook a retrospective review of patients who underwent SBE. All patients were classified into two groups: group A (age < 65 years) and group B (age ≥ 65 years). The primary outcome variable was the successful completion of the procedure. The secondary outcome variables were complications. After matching patients’ characteristics, and duration and indications of procedures, there were 45 patients in group A and 28 patients in group B. All sedations were successful except for one patient in group A. There were no significant differences in overall, respiratory, and cardiovascular-related complications between the two groups. However, hypotension in group B was significantly higher than that in group A. In the setting of an endoscopy unit outside the operating room, PDS by anesthetic trainees using a syringe pump for SBE procedure in elderly patients with appropriate monitoring was relatively safe and effective. The clinical efficacy of this technique in elderly patients was not different or worse than that in younger patients. Serious adverse events were rare in our population. Keywords: Anesthetic trainee, enteroscopy, elderly, deep sedation, propofol, syringe pump

1. Introduction The small bowel has been a difficult area to examine due to its anatomy, location, and relative tortuosity. Endoscopic accessibility to the small bowel has been a challenge to the gastroenterologists. Enteroscopy describes endoscopic examination of the small bowel, extending into the jejunum and/or the ileum. Many types of enteroscopes are currently available for small bowel enteroscopy (SBE) procedures [1]. However, an SBE procedure is an invasive and time-consuming procedure, requiring special equipment, training, and more staff than standard endoscopic procedures. Patients undergoing SBE usually receive some forms of anesthesia. At Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center, the authors commonly use the deep sedation technique for this procedure [2]. Continuous propofol infusion by using a syringe pump is commonly used for propofol deep sedation (PDS). Little data is known about the clinical efficacy of PDS by anesthetic trainees using a syringe pump for SBE procedure in elderly patients. The sedation-related complication rate in elderly patients is generally higher than that in younger patients. The use of a syringe pump for PDS can reduce the complication rate. However, it may be not true if an anesthetic trainee performs this. We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate and to compare the clinical efficacy of anesthetic trainee–administered PDS by using a syringe pump for SBE procedure in elder (age ≥ 65 years) and younger (age < 65 years) patients in a tertiary-care teaching hospital in Thailand. Our study was also to confirm that in an endoscopy unit outside the operating room, PDS for SBE procedure in the elderly patients by trained anesthetic personnel was safe and effective and was not worse than that in the younger patients. 2. Methods 2.1 Patients 92

Somchai Amornyotin, Wiyada Chalayonnawin, Siriporn Kongphlay (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

The patients who underwent SBE procedure at Siriraj GI Endoscopy Center, Siriraj Hospital between January 2006 and January 2011 were enrolled in the present study. Inclusion criteria were the adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) who underwent SBE procedure by using the PDS technique. The SBE procedures performed in the operating rooms and the procedures performed without sedation, or the procedures performed under monitored anesthesia care and general anesthesia were excluded. This present study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital. 2.2 Study design This study was a retrospective descriptive study. All patients were classified into two groups according to their ages. In group A, the patients were < 65 years old. In group B, the patients were ≥ 65 years old. The primary outcome variable of the study was the successful completion of the procedure. Failed procedure was defined as the procedure that could not be completed by using the PDS technique at a deep sedation level or the one in which sedation-related serious adverse events such as severe hypoxemia (SpO2 < 85% more than 3 minutes and cannot be relieved by airway management) and severe cardiorespiratory instability occurred. The secondary outcome variables were sedation-related complications. 2.3 Endoscopy procedure All SBE procedures were done using a video endoscope compatible with the type of endoscopy. The success rates in both groups were recorded. The successful completion of the procedure was defined as the completion of the procedure as intended without additional general anesthesia once the procedure had started. After the completion of the procedure, admission into the inpatient hospital service was arranged to rule out post-SBE complications. 2.4 Sedation-related procedure The patients were monitored with non-invasive blood pressure, ECG, and pulse oximetry. End-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring with capnography was not used during sedation. No pre-medications were used before the procedure. All patients in both groups were oxygenated with 100% O2 via nasal cannulae (3 liters/minute). All procedures were done by using the PDS technique and all patients were sedated at a deep sedation level, according to guidelines of the American Society of Anesthesiologists [3]. The doses of sedative and analgesic agents were assessed. When the procedure failed, general anesthesia was carried out. All PDS was given by anesthetic trainees which included residents in the anesthesiology residency program and anesthetic nurse students. The use of PDS was described in the standard learning course. Additionally, the trainees learned to practice in real situations supervised by a staff anesthesiologist. Sedation-related complications All sedation-related complications were recorded. Sedation-related complications were defined as follows: hypertension or hypotension (increase or decrease in blood pressure by 25% from baseline); tachycardia or bradycardia (increase or decrease in heart rate by 25% from baseline); any cardiac arrhythmias; hypoxia (oxygen desaturation, SpO2 < 90%); airway obstruction.

2.5 Statistical analysis Results were expressed as mean ± SD or percentage (%), when appropriate. Comparisons between groups A and B were performed by using the Chi-square test (for categorical variables), the Chi-square test for trend (for ordinal variables), and the two-sample independent t-test (for continuous variables). The statistical software package SPSS for Windows Version 11 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL) 93

Somchai Amornyotin, Wiyada Chalayonnawin, Siriporn Kongphlay (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

was used to analyze the data. All statistical comparisons were made at the two-sided 5% level of significance. 3. Results One hundred and sixty-two patients who underwent SBE procedures during the study period were enrolled in the study. After matching age, gender, indication of procedure, as well as type of anesthetic technique and type of sedative agent, 45 patients were in group A and 28 patients were in Group B. There were no statistically significant differences in gender, weight, height, ASA physical status, procedure time, and indications of the procedure between the two groups. Table 1 shows the success rates, the types of enteroscopy, the routes of intubation, and the sedative/analgesic agents used in the two groups. All patients in both groups went through the successful completion of the procedure except one patient in group A (p=0.427). Failed procedure was successfully completed by using general anesthesia with an endotracheal tube. Combination of fentanyl, propofol, and midazolam was used in the PDS technique. There were no significant differences in the types of enteroscopy, the routes of intubation, and the mean doses of fentanyl, propofol, and midazolam between the two groups. Table 1: Success rate, type of enteroscopy, route of intubation and sedative/analgesic agents used in both groups Group A Group B P value (n=45) (n=28) 44 (97.8) 28 (100.0) 0.427 Success rate (n, %) 0.086 Type of enteroscopy (n, %) Single balloon 23 (51.1) 20 (71.4) Push 22 (48.9) 8 (28.6) 0.748 Route of intubation (n, %) Antegrade (Oral) 29 (64.4) 17 (60.7) Retrograde (Anal) 16 (35.6) 11 (39.3) Sedative/analgesic agents (mean, SD) Fentanyl Dose/Body weight (mg/kg) 0.001 (0.001) 0.001 (0.001) 0.120 Propofol Dose/Body weight (mg/kg) 3.24 (1.19) 2.25 (1.05) 0.200 Midazolam Dose/Body weight (mg/kg) 0.06 (0.05) 0.05 (0.04) 0.258 Group A: Age < 65 years, Group B: Age ≥ 65 years Table 2 demonstrates sedation-related complications. Overall, 11 patients (24.4%) in group A and 13 patients (46.4%) in group B experienced sedation-related complications. There were no significant differences in overall, respiratory, and cardiovascular-related complications between the two groups. However, hypotension in group B was significantly higher than that in group A. Procedure-related complications were nonexistent in both groups. All sedation-related complications were under the care of an anesthesiologist. No serious complications occurred.

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Table 2: Comparison of sedation-related complications (n, %). Complications Group A Group B P value (n=45) (n=28) 11 (24.4) 13 (46.4) 0.052 Overall 1 (2.2) 1 (3.6) 0.731 Respiratory Hypoxia (SpO2 < 90%) 1 (2.2) 1 (3.6) 0.731 10 (22.2) 12 (42.9) 0.062 Cardiovascular Hypotension 9 (20.0) 12 (42.9) 0.036* Bradycardia 1 (2.2) 0 0.427 Group A: Age < 65 years, Group B: Age ≥ 65 years * considered statistically significant 4. Discussion The present study shows that PDS using a syringe pump for SBE procedure in elderly patients by anesthetic trainees with appropriate monitoring is relatively safe and effective, even in an endoscopy unit outside the operating room in Thailand. Our observations confirm and extend the previous studies [2, 4]. All SBE procedures were able to be completed. Our report of PDS practice in elderly patients demonstrates that it can be conducted safely using various sedative combinations, with proper monitoring and supervision. Our study also shows that clinical education on routine practice is effective and easy. SBE is an essential procedure for small bowel abnormality diagnoses and treatments. At our institution, we observe an increase in the number of these procedures every year. Therefore, it is mandatory to standardize a safe, easy, well-tolerated anesthetic procedure which is feasible in an endoscopy unit outside the operating room. In our previous experiences, we have noted that topical anesthesia or minimal to moderate sedation is not sufficient for pain-free procedures [2]. In contrast, a deep sedation or general anesthesia technique, which may be of benefit for the patient and endoscopist comforts, may be difficult to administer, especially in elderly patients with co-morbidity diseases. Additionally, the lack of experience in anesthesia care among endoscopy personnel might increase the risk of complications. At our hospital, the authors normally use deep sedation for various endoscopic procedures because of the given reasons in conjunction with the preference of anesthesiologists [5-7]. At our GI Endoscopy Center, there are a few end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitors. So, the end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring was not routinely used during deep sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy procedure. Consequently, there are no special anesthetic techniques needed for this kind of anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary and other diseases that are more frequent in elderly patients have been regarded as the major risk factors in complications associated with endoscopy or sedation [8, 9]. In the present study, the elderly patients developed hypotension more frequently than the younger patients. However, old age and high ASA physical status did not represent an indication for providing general anesthesia more frequently for SBE at our institution. In our experience, we recommend that general anesthesia with an endotracheal tube should be performed for patients underwent SBE by using the antegrade (oral) intubation route. The authors usually use propofol, combined with short acting benzodiazepine, with or without fentanyl, for deep sedation in several gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. Propofol is widely employed for sedation outside the operating room because it is easy to use, has a good safety and efficacy profile due to its quick onset of action, rapid metabolism, and significantly shorter recovery time, and has some anti-emetic effects [10]. It also has been shown to be safe when used in elderly patients [11,12]. Midazolam and fentanyl have short half-lives and rapid onset of actions, which may benefit geriatric patients. In this study, we have shown that PDS with low-dose midazolam and 95

Somchai Amornyotin, Wiyada Chalayonnawin, Siriporn Kongphlay (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

fentanyl, and low-dose propofol, is safe and well tolerated by the patients. Furthermore, it is well accepted by endoscopists. The present study used only standard monitoring, including an assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, respiratory rate and pulse oximetry, as well as electrocardiogram. We detected a relatively high overall rate of adverse events in both groups. This rate is higher than that commonly reported, and there may be several explanations. We used these criteria in defining adverse events: hypo/hypertension and brady/tachycardia measured as the changes of blood pressure and heart rate of more than 25% of base line values. Hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation < 90%. Hypercapnia (ETCO2 > 50 mmHg) could not be detected directly in this study. Data from our previous study showed that both patient and endoscopist satisfaction in sedated cases was higher than that in non-sedated ones. The use of sedation was the major determinant of patient satisfaction and willingness to repeat [13]. However, deep sedation contributed to an increased recovery room time. We believe that appropriate selection of patients for sedation is very important for everyday practice and will most likely reduce the rate of adverse events. Finally, the use of pulse oximetry to monitor hypoxemia is important, especially in cases where supplemental oxygen is administered. Limitations of this study exist. First, there is the wide range in age of the patients in our study. Drug requirements and side effects can be related to the patient’s age. Second, inaccurate and incomplete documentation of certain measures, as occurs with many chart reviews, also occurred in this study. Third, the limitation of monitoring, for example of end-tidal carbon dioxide, could affect the outcome. Fourth, different anesthesiologists define complications differently. Despite these limitations, we are confident that these findings are generalizable to the practice of SBE procedure using PDS. Finally, because the sample size in our study was small, further studies in larger prospective groups of patients are therefore needed. In summary, we report the performance of the clinical efficacy of the PDS regimen utilizing anesthetic trainees with appropriate basic monitoring for SBE procedure in elderly patients in an endoscopy unit outside the operating room from a tertiary-care teaching hospital in a developing country. The findings of the present study show that the SBE procedure done by the PDS technique for elderly patients was relatively safe and effective. Hypotension in the elderly patients is significantly higher than that in the younger patients. However, this adverse event is transient and easily treated with no adverse sequelae. The combination of low dose fentanyl, midazolam, and propofol may be beneficial. References [1] Sidhu, R., Sanders, D. S., Morris, A. J., McAlindon, M. E. (2008) Guidelines on small bowel enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy in adults. Gut, 57(1), 125-136. [2] Amornyotin, S., Kachintorn, U., Kongphlay, S. (2012) Anesthetic management for small bowel enteroscopy in a World Gastroenterology Organizing Endoscopy Training Center. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 4(5), 189-193. [3] American Society of Anesthesiologists. (2002) Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. An update report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology, 96(4), 1004-1017. [4] He, Q., Zhang, Q., Li, J. D., Wang, Y. D., Wan, T. M., Chen, Z. Y., Pan, D. S., Cai, J. Q., Liu, S. D., Xiao, B., Zhang, Y. L., Jiang, B., Bai, Y., Zhi, F. C. (2012) Double balloon enteroscopy in the old: experience from China. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 18(22), 2859-2866. [5] Amornyotin, S., Srikureja, W., Pausawasdi, N., Prakanrattana, U., Kachintorn, U. (2011) Intravenous sedation for gastrointestinal endoscopy in very elderly patients of Thailand. Asian Biomedicine, 5(4), 485-491. [6] Amornyotin, S., Kachintorn, U., Chalayonnawin, W., Kongphlay, S. (2011) Propofol-based deep sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure in sick elderly patients in a developing country. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 7, 251-255. [7] Amornyotin, S., Kongphlay, S. (2012) Esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure in sick pediatric 96

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patients: a comparison between deep sedation and general anesthesia technique. Journal of Anesthesia and Clinical Research, 3, 185 doi:10.4712/2155-6148.1000185. [9] Singh, H., Penfold, R. B., De Coster, C., Au, W., Bernstein, C. N., Moffatt, M. (2010) Predictors of serious complications associated with lower gastrointestinal endoscopy in a major city-wide health region. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 24(7), 425-430. [9] Amornyotin, S., Leelakusolvong, S., Chalayonnawin, W., Kongphlay, S. (2012) Age-dependent safety analysis of propofol-based deep sedation for ERCP and EUS procedures at an Endoscopy Training Center in a developing country. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 5, 123-128. [10] Chutkan, R., Cohen, J., Abedi, M., Cruz-Correa, M., Dominitz, J., Keith Gersin K., Greenwald, D., Kantsevoy, S., Kowdley, K., Nguyen, M., Soetikno, R., Jennifer Telford, J., Vargo, J. (2004) Training guideline for use of propofol in gastrointestinal endoscopy. Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, 60(2), 167-172. [11] Amornyotin, S., Srikureja, W., Chalayonnawin, W., Kongphlay, S. (2011) Dose requirement and complication of diluted and undiluted propofol for deep sedation for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Diseases International, 10(3), 313-318. [12] Amornyotin, S., Chalayonnawin, W., Kongphlay, S. (2011) Propofol-based sedation does not increase rate of complication during percutaneous endosopic gastrostomy procedure. Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Article ID 134819, doi: 10.1155/2011/134819. [13] Amornyotin, S., Lertakayamanee, N., Wongyingsinn, M., Pimukmanuskit, P., Chalayonnavin, V. (2007) The effectiveness of intravenous sedation in diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, 90(2), 301-306.

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Benjamaporn Wongprasert and Piyachat Jittam (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Exploring Glomerular Modeling Activity to Enhance Diabetes Patients’ Understanding of Nephropathy Benjamaporn WONGPRASERT1, Piyachat JITTAM2 Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand 1 [email protected], [email protected] Abstract: This paper reports the effectiveness of a new glomerular modeling activity in enhancing patients’ understanding of nephropathy. Twenty-six diabetes patients actively participated in the glomerular modeling activity which was designed based on the experiential learning cycle. All participants did not suffer from diabetes as detected by the feeling test before experiencing the learning. This study investigates their learning achievement by using pre and post conceptual tests. Their perceptions toward the learning were gathered by using both a questionnaire and an interview. The results indicate that participants had better knowledge on nephropathy and related concepts. They also had awareness on self care. Additionally, they were satisfied the model they had experienced and had positive perceptions toward the experiential learning. Keywords: diabetes, experiential learning, hand-held model, nephropathy

1. Introduction Nowadays, diabetes is a serious medical problem worldwide [7]. People with diabetes have high blood sugar and are at high risk from serious complications such as cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and retinal damage [10]. About 20–40 percent of all diabetes patients have incidence of diabetic nephropathy [9,12] which is the most common cause of chronic kidney failure and end-stage kidney disease [7]. This may eventually pose a major health care and economic problem [7]. Globally, educating people about self management have become the focus of attention among healthcare professionals and are advocated for people [1]. This research focuses on implementing a hands-on activity called “Glomerular Modeling”, which was designed based on the concept of Kolb’s learning cycle, to provide comprehension of renal complications among diabetes patients. The effectiveness of this intervention on patients’ understanding of nephropathy and their awareness to prevent the risk factors is reported. 2. Objective and Research Questions The objective of this study is to use the glomerular modeling activity, which was designed based on Kolb’s experiential learning [8], to enhance diabetes patients’ understanding of nephropathy as a result of diabetes. Two research questions frame this study:  Can the glomerular modeling activity enhance diabetes patients’ understanding of nephropathy? What are diabetes patients’ perceptions toward the glomerular modeling activity? 3. Methodology and Methods 3.1 Participants 98

Benjamaporn Wongprasert and Piyachat Jittam (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Twenty-six people with diabetes from a local hospital in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, volunteered to participate in the study with an understanding that their participation would have no consequence on their medical treatment and they could drop out without recrimination. Table 1 presents the characteristics of these participants. Table 1: Characteristics of Diabetes Patients Who Participated in the Study Characteristics Age (Year) 50–59 60–69 70–79 Over 80 No data Duration of diabetes 1 year 2–5 years 6–10 years No data Level of Blood Sugar (mg/dL) < 126 126–199 ≥ 200 No data

Total sample 4 9 5 2 6 2 7 11 6 15 4 1 6

3.2 Design of the Glomerular Modeling Activity Based on Kolb’s Experiential Learning As the experiential learning approach has been used extensively in many research areas including health science education and it has been found to be an effective approach to develop deeper understanding of concepts associated with their major programs of study [2,4,5,; Gerstner & Bogner, 2010; 6] this approach therefore was used in this study. The glomerular modeling activity which was designed for a 90-minute session based on Kolb’s experiential learning cycle [8] consisted of four steps: concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation (Table 2). Table 2: The Learning Steps of the Glomerular Modeling Activity Learning step Concrete experience (15 min)

Reflective observation (15 min) Abstract conceptualization (15 min)

Learning activity - Participants used a prepared ribbon wire set (Figure 1) to build a glomerulus model. - They investigated the characteristics of the glomerulus which is a small tuft of blood capillaries in the kidney. - Participants were encouraged to share what they had observed and discuss the features of the model related to how kidney works. - Participants conceptualized from knowledge they had newly acquired, especially the concept of how kidney works. - The instructor wrapped up the discussion to ensure 99

Benjamaporn Wongprasert and Piyachat Jittam (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Learning step Active experimentation (45 min)

Learning activity comprehensive and broader understanding. - Patients examined the flow of plastic beads in the glomerulus model set (Figure 1). - They were encouraged to discuss the function of kidneys in abnormal condition with high blood sugar compared to those in normal condition. Afterward, they were asked to share their ideas of preventing the risk of nephropathy. - The instructor wrapped up at the end.

Figure1: Ribbon Wire Set (Left) Used for Building a Glomerulus Model (Right)

Figure2: Glomerulus Model Set Used to Demonstrate the Filtering Capacity of the Kidney 3.3 Data Collection and Analysis The assessment tools used in this study were a feeling test, a conceptual test, a questionnaire on perception, and an interview. 3.3.1 Feeling test The WHO (Five) Well-Being Index [11] was used to examine the well being of diabetes patients who participated in the study. The test consisted of five items which were translated into Thai by the research unit. The test was administered to participants before experiencing the glomerular modeling activity. The participants must answer by selecting one of six responses—all of the time, most of the time, more than half of the time, less than half of the time, some of the time, and at no time—which was closest to how they have been feeling over the last two weeks. The Cronbach’s alpha reliability for this questionnaire was 0.86. To analyze participants’ responses to this feeling test, their responses on a Likert scale of each item statement was coded with numbers, where the “all of the time” 100

Benjamaporn Wongprasert and Piyachat Jittam (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

choice would receive 5, moving to the “at no time” choice which would receive 0. The raw score was calculated by totaling the figures of the five answers. The raw score ranged from 0 to 25, 0 representing the worst possible and 25 representing the best possible quality of life. A score below 13 indicated poor well-being [11]. 3.3.2 Conceptual test Pre and post conceptual tests were used to evaluate participants’ understanding of the nephropathy as a result of diabetes. The pretest was administered before and the posttest after the activity. The questions in the pretest and posttest were parallel. The Cronbach’s alpha reliabilities for the pretest and posttest were 0.76 and 0.88. The paired t-test statistics (p 0.05 which entails that there were no significant differences in the proficiency of the control and experimental in both languages. One factor which might be attributed to the level of proficiency of the students in the English language is that most of the students have already enrolled in two English courses prior to enrolment in Organic chemistry. Due to increasing enrolment of foreign students in the university especially in the medical courses like Dentistry, Physical Therapy and Medical Laboratory Science, the university has been advocating the use of English as medium of instruction at all levels of education except in Filipino subjects. In fact, the university offers a total of five English courses for almost all degrees. English is also sometimes used as a language of communication even outside the classroom because of the foreign students around the university and in Baguio City. In terms of the proficiency in Filipino, most students have already enrolled in one Filipino course before enrolment in organic chemistry which might also had an effect on the results obtained. Another reason would be that aside from Ilokano, Filipino is the lingua franca in Baguio City. These observations are supported by the findings of the study of Guzman et.al. 140

Marilou M. Saong and Amelia E. Punzalan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

[1] that students’ proficiency in English was attributed by most of the respondents to school training (elementary and high school) whereas their proficiency in Filipino was attributed to home and peers. What the foregoing also implies is that English is taught and learned in the formal and structured environment of the school and Filipino was understood to be the language of daily life in its myriad aspects. 3.2. Preferred Language in Teaching and Learning Organic Chemistry At the end of the semester, students belonging to the experimental and control groups were interviewed about their preferred language in teaching and learning organic chemistry. Due to time constraints, no oral interviews were conducted, instead, the students were asked to answer an interview guide after answering the final examinations. Experimental Group. The interview conducted in the experimental group was to verify if, after being exposed to bilingual teaching, the students were comfortable or really preferred the medium of instruction employed. The majority of the group (77.78%) preferred bilingual mode in teaching the subject while 11.11% preferred English and 11.11% preferred Filipino. The findings for language preference in teaching were fairly consistent with preferred language in learning survey. When asked about the preferred language in learning organic chemistry, 74.07% answered bilingual, 18.52% English and 7.40% Filipino language. One student in the experimental group shared that the Filipino language would be more effective in teaching organic chemistry than the other medium of instruction because it is easier to understand the lesson if the language used in teaching is similar to the language used at home. On the other hand, another student in the group believed that English would be more effective in teaching because there are words in organic chemistry that can not be translated to Filipino. But the same student said that she learned the subject better in both English and Filipino languages. Another student also considered bilingual instruction to be more effective in teaching the subject because there are some or few English words that are hard to understand and should be translated to Filipino. But in his/her opinion, bilingual can only be used if all students understand the Filipino language. Control Group. The interview carried out in the control group was to determine what language would be more effective in teaching organic chemistry, if given an opportunity to be taught in another medium of instruction. The interview also determined the language the students learned the subject matter better. Surprisingly, even without being exposed to bilingual teaching, the highest percentage of the control group (55.17%) believed that bilingual teaching would be more effective in teaching the subject while 37.93% and 6.90% believed that English and Filipino would be better, respectively. In terms of the language the students learned the subject, 55.17% believed that they learn in English while 41.38% learned using a combination of English and Filipino (bilingual mode) and 3.45% in pure Filipino. The higher percentage of the control group who thought that they learned in English was not surprising considering that the students were taught solely in English and were not exposed to bilingual or Filipino language during classroom discussions. The instructional and evaluation materials used in the control group were all expressed in English. Despite the fact that the control group was not taught in bilingual instruction or pure Filipino, it is surprising to discover that 41.38% of the control group believed that they learn better in both English and Filipino languages. One student in the control group believed that English was more effective in teaching and learning Organic chemistry for the sole reason that terms in chemistry are mostly in the English language and it is easier to understand the language. The student thought that learning the subject matter is more 141

Marilou M. Saong and Amelia E. Punzalan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

effective in English because for instance, how can the name 2-chloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethyldimethyl ether be expressed in Filipino? The same perception was also held by another student who in his/her opinion thought that there are some chemistry terms that have no equivalent word in the Filipino language and thus, held the same language preference in teaching and learning organic chemistry. Seemingly, these students shared the common view that all words must be translated when in fact languages are enriched in borrowing terms especially in science and technology. The responses also provide an insight of the common notion that the Filipino language is the Tagalog-based Pilipino. Dr. Ernesto A. Constantino, a distinguished Filipino linguist, cites the differences between Pilipino and Filipino, which are: Filipino (1) has more phonemes; (2) has a different system of ortography; (3) manifests a heavy borrowing from English; (4) has a different grammatical construction. The distinctions cited justify that some English terms, e.g. scientific terms, are used in the Filipino language, thus, not all words must have an equivalent literal translation. Moreover, the Komisyon ng Wikang Filipino National Commission on Culture and Arts (NCCA) defined Filipino as that native language spoken and written in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region, and other urban centers in the archipelago, which is used as the language of communication between ethnic groups. Filipino is further characterized as being in the process of development through loans from Philippine and non-native languages through the evolution of different varieties of the language for various social situations, among speakers of different social backgrounds, and for topics of conversation and scholarly discourse. Two students in the group believed that English was more effective in teaching and learning organic chemistry because students are already used to the language being employed in teaching the subject matter. Students might encounter difficulties adjusting to another medium of instruction. However, it is observed that both students answered these questions in Filipino not in English. Perhaps, this is indicative of the students’ ambivalence toward English and Filipino. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the responses of the control group show that although the group was taught mainly in the English language, the majority of the group preferred to be taught in bilingual mode and many believed that they learn better in the same medium of instruction than pure English or pure Filipino. This entails that if given the opportunity to be taught in bilingual medium of instruction then majority of the students would have learned organic chemistry better using English and Filipino languages. 3.3. Scientific Ideas Two essay questions were used to assess the scientific ideas learned by the two groups. Both groups were allowed to express their answers in English, Filipino, or using both to gather additional information as to what language the students were confident in expressing the scientific ideas learned. This information may support the results gathered from the interview on language preference. The first essay question required the students to expound the slogan of E.I du Pont "Better living through Chemistry". The chemistry ideas learned by the students in class discussions and reports were the bases in conveying their scientific ideas. One of the strategies employed to promote active participation of the students in class was group reporting. Both the experimental and the control group were divided into four groups. Each group was assigned a topic from alcohol, carboxylic acid, esters; and amines and amides. Each member of the group was required to present to the class any product or material encountered everyday or in the market containing an organic compound classified under the topic assigned. Each member discussed in not more than five minutes the properties and usefulness or disadvantages of the organic compound present in the product brought. This 142

Marilou M. Saong and Amelia E. Punzalan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

strategy was done to enhance students’ appreciation and awareness of the organic compounds encountered everyday. The strategy employed was also guided by the findings of Ross and Munby [17] that when chemistry concepts were related to everyday life during teaching, their retention in the learner’s mind was greater. They found that the students retain everyday concepts more than scientific concepts. Students in the experimental group were given the choice to deliver their reports in English, Filipino or both while the students in the control group were required to present their reports in English only. Observation by the researcher confirmed differences between the bilingual and non-bilingual class during group reporting. Bilingual students in the experimental group demonstrated greater self-confidence in presenting their reports than most students in the control group. Specifically, the former showed no shyness and nervousness in front of the class because they were given the opportunity to express their ideas in the language they were comfortable using. Consequently, this facilitated active classroom participation among the members of the class since students showed no hesitance in raising questions to the reporters most especially when the questions were in Filipino. In contrast, some students in the control group who were not proficient in the English language tended to memorize what they had to report not necessarily understanding what they presented to the class. This observation discouraged other members of the class to participate or raise questions perhaps with the thought that the reporters may not be able to answer the questions well because as observed, they simply memorized the report. Since most of the responses were limited due to English language difficulty, some students decided on not raising more questions. One student in the experimental group with an “average proficiency” in the English language opted to use the Filipino language in expressing his/her scientific idea. The response provided another insight that the use of bilingual instruction facilitated student’s learning especially for a student whose mother tongue is Filipino and with an average level of proficiency in the second language (English). Clearly, the affective domain, involving confidence and self-esteem was strengthened by the use of Filipino. The observations were also consistent with the findings of Alidou [18], Ministry of Education of Ethiopia [19], Ouedraogo [20], Sampa [21] and Brock-Utne [22] that effective teaching practices, active participation of students and better learning outcomes were observed in classes where a familiar language in which students and teachers are proficient was used. The responses of some students in the control group to the scientific idea test echoed the results of the preferred language for learning and teaching survey. Take for example one student in the control group who opted to express her/his scientific idea in English and Filipino. The language used was consistent with the surveyed language preference wherein he/she preferred to be taught and to learn in bilingual mode. The choice of language in expressing the scientific idea might also be explained by the student’s average proficiency in English and high proficiency in Filipino. Compared to most responses in the experimental group the response of the student to essay question one was not as comprehensive to reflect the overall learning process throughout the course or a deeper learning effect from the reports. A similar observation was also noted from the response of another student who used a combination of English and Filipino in conveying the scientific ideas learned which was consistent with the student’s surveyed language preference in learning and teaching. Proficiency tests also revealed average proficiencies in English and Filipino of the cited student. For the second essay question, the students were asked to compose their own slogan regarding Chemistry after finishing the course. They have to explain the slogan in order to convince someone who had not taken yet Chemistry why he or she should or should not enroll in the course. Students who utilized English and Filipino in answering question number one also used the same for the second question. 143

Marilou M. Saong and Amelia E. Punzalan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

For the first essay question, the experimental group attained a higher mean score (87.04) than the control group (80.00). Using independent sample t-test, the mean scores were significantly different (p < .05). This implies that the bilingual teaching and bilingual type of reporting in the experimental group provided the students with a more profound learning of scientific ideas. The knowledge served as a framework for students to expound the slogan of E.I du Pont "Better living through Chemistry". Most students in the experimental group gave a more comprehensive discussion of the scientific ideas learned than most of the students in the control group as also revealed in the preceding pages. Students in the control group who were not proficient in the English language opted to use Filipino in expressing their scientific ideas. This confirmed that there were students in the control group, although not exposed to bilingual teaching that preferred the use of English and Filipino (bilingual) in learning scientific ideas. For the second essay question, the experimental group got a mean score of 88.15 while the control group got 83.22. Although the experimental group got a higher mean, the difference was not statistically significant. The result can be attributed to the type of question given. Since the students were to compose a slogan about chemistry and to explain the slogan to convince someone to enroll or not to enroll in the course, the responses of the students may be based on their perception and attitude toward the course and not mainly on the scientific ideas learned and the language used in class. The overall mean score from the two essay questions of the experimental group (87.70) is higher than the overall mean score of the control group (82.62). But using the t-test, the difference is not statistically significant. This entails that although the experimental group outdid the control group in question number one, the overall performance of the two groups may be viewed to be more affected by non-linguistic factors like attitude towards the course and entry knowledge of chemistry than linguistic characteristics like students competence in English and Filipino and teacher’s language of instruction. The results of the proficiency tests in English and Filipino showed that the levels of proficiency of the students in the two languages were high although the level of proficiency in the English language was not sufficient to achieve high content knowledge of the course taught in English. The data gathered in this study unveiled the use of bilingual instruction to be more effective in facilitating the teaching and learning of organic chemistry than the monolingual English instruction. For students who were not proficient in the English language, the freedom to communicate their answers in Filipino helped them to improve their scientific learning as they were more confident in their own language. Bilingual students participated more often in classroom discussions and demonstrated greater self-confidence and higher motivation, as also established by ADAE [23], Dalby [24] and Dutcher [25]. The use of Filipino language allowed the student to express their full range of knowledge and experiences and to fully demonstrate their competence. 3.4. Academic Achievement One of the advantages of using both English and Filipino during the assessment and evaluation process as realized in this study was that a student who was not proficient in English but proficient in the latter, as displayed in the subsequent pages, was able to express her/his ideas confidently and clearly in the said language. Although the scoring rubrics utilized for the essay questions focused solely on students’ achievement with respect to the topic being assessed and not on their ability to write well, students needed to communicate in a manner that will be clear to those scoring their responses. Comparing the responses of one student from the experimental group and another from the control group who had comparable proficiencies in the English and Filipino languages, it was noted that the 144

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responses of the student from the experimental group were more comprehensible than the responses expressed in English by a student from the control group. Undoubtedly, language used in examinations has a great impact on students’ performance in examinations. Several studies proved [26, 27] that in all subject disciplines, students’ scores reflect their proficiency in the language used in the examination and that difficulties with, for example, English impair performance in tests and classes. Wilmot [28] tested students who gave average performance with mathematics examinations in English. Using the same examination but asking them to answer in the mother tongue, he found that students’ level of knowledge was better than in the test conducted in English. Students whose language competencies do not correspond to their knowledge in the subject matter are thus disadvantaged, a fact that will also continue to be reflected in international comparative studies such as TIMSS [29]. The academic performances (AP) of the control and experimental groups in organic chemistry were determined through the scores of the students from the seven quizzes and three examinations administered throughout the semester. The total raw scores were converted to percentage values and the mean of each group was analyzed. The data gathered at the end of the semester produced a mean rating of 65.51 (High) by the experimental group and 62.98 (High) by the control group as shown in Table 1. Using the independent sample t-test, the mean ratings of the two groups were not significantly different (p > .05). But the two groups were not simply compared in terms of their AP since they were not equivalent at the beginning of the semester or before the treatment. Since the control group performed better than the other group at the Chemistry Diagnostic Test (CDT), which was given at the beginning of the semester, the two groups were compared in terms of academic achievement instead which was equivalent to the mean gain scores or the difference between the CDT results and academic performance (AP). As shown in Table 1 the mean gain score (CDT-AP) of the experimental group is 21.71, higher than the mean gain score of the control group which is 9.10. Using difference in difference (DID), the mean gain scores were significantly different as shown by the p < .05. This implies that the experimental group had a higher academic achievement than the control group. This evidently demonstrates that bilingual instruction was more effective than mono-linguistic instruction in organic chemistry. The result contradicts negative perceptions about bilingualism, the most prominent is that bilingualism results in “cognitive overload” and thus, disadvantages the learner [30]. Apparently, students in the experimental group were not disadvantaged by bilingual instruction. The result of this study is also consistent with the findings of Hovens [31, 32] who tested bilingual and non-bilingual students in Africa in both L1 (home language) and L2 (English language). The findings clearly demonstrated that those who did best were bilingual students tested in the L1, while those who did least well were non-bilingual students tested in the L2. Clearly the result is consistent with the review of researches conducted over the last three decades by Corson [33] and Cummins and Danesi [34] that linguistic, cognitive, and affective advantages accrue to students who have developed a high degree of bilingual proficiency when compared with their monolingual counterparts. Table 1 Difference in Difference Analysis for Academic Achievement Between the Control and Experimental Groups Class Experimental Group

N

CDT Mean 27 43.80

Sig. AP (2-tailed) Mean .033* 65.51

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Sig. AA Mean Sig. (2-tailed) (CDT-AP) (2-tailed) .500 -21.71 .004*

Marilou M. Saong and Amelia E. Punzalan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Control Group 29 53.88 * significant p < .05

62.98

-9.10

Research findings of Ríordáin and O’Donoghue [35], Cummins [36] and Dawe [37] have demonstrated that there are cognitive advantages to be obtained from being bilingual, which is largely determined by the level of proficiency that a student attained in both his or her languages. Although both the experimental and control groups were quite proficient in the English language, students’ level of proficiency was not sufficient to use English language alone to learn the subject content as also confirmed by William [38]. International research shows that students learn simple conversational skills in a new language quickly, that is, within one to two years. However, even in well-resourced environments, it takes at least six years to learn abstract academic language skills that characterize the teaching and the learning [39, 40]. What is important to note here is that, while second-language learners may pick up oral proficiency in basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS) in their new language in as little as two years, it may take up to seven years to acquire the decontextualized language skills or cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP) necessary to function successfully in a second-language classroom [41, 42]. 3.5. Correlation and Regression Analyses (Experimental Group) Multiple regression analysis in the experimental group showed that English and Filipino proficiencies have direct effects on the academic performance. Preferred language in teaching and learning organic chemistry has no direct effect upon academic performance, but has an indirect effect through Filipino proficiency. Bilingual preference in teaching is positively correlated to proficiency in the Filipino language while preference for English language in teaching is negatively correlated to Filipino proficiency. Learning in bilingual mode is also correlated to Filipino proficiency. Proficiency in English language was correlated to the proficiency in the Filipino language. The positive correlation between English and Filipino proficiency is consistent with the “developmental interdependence hypothesis” by Cummins [36]. This hypothesis suggested that bilingual students’ first and second languages acted on each other. It asserted that students’ level of competence in one language was a function of his or her competence in the other language. Thus, exposure in one language contributed to the deeper conceptual and linguistic development of the other language. Ocampo [43] also concluded that although literacy development in English and Filipino seems to progress at different rates, underlying skills in literacy show a high degree of cross-language interdependence. 3.6. Correlation and Regression Analyses (Control Group) Correlation and regression analyses revealed a positive correlation between AP and English proficiency. Filipino proficiency has no direct effect upon academic performance, but has an indirect effect through English proficiency. English proficiency is positively correlated to proficiency in the Filipino language. The results imply that in order to attain higher academic achievement in monolingual English instruction, proficiency in the same language is very important. The Filipino proficiency has no direct effect on academic achievement thus making the proficiency in the national language less significant compared to its effect on bilingual instruction. But still the positive correlation between English and Filipino proficiency is consistent with the “developmental interdependence hypothesis” by Cummins [36].

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4. Conclusions and Recommendations The results of the study revealed that students in the experimental group were not disadvantaged by bilingual teaching. Bilingual instruction resulted in several benefits on the part of the bilingual Filipino learner. Students in the experimental group showed greater self-confidence and more active classroom participation compared to the control group hence, the affective domain involving confidence and self-esteem was strengthened by the use of the Filipino language. The significant positive correlation between the academic performance of the experimental group and the proficiencies in Filipino and English proved that language plays an important role in learning organic chemistry. In particular, the relationship implies that students who have high proficiencies in English and Filipino also have high academic performance in the course. The use of both Filipino and English languages in the experimental group, in which the students and teachers were familiar and proficient, resulted in effective teaching practices, active participation of students, and better academic achievement. The significant positive correlation between academic performance and English language proficiency of the control group further confirms the previously discussed relationship between high academic performance in the course and the requirement of students to possess a high proficiency in the language used for instruction. Thus, for students in the monolingual English instruction, attainment of high academic performance in organic chemistry necessitates high proficiency in the English language. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are given: 1) the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) may develop a dual language program in Baguio City employing English and Filipino languages in teaching tertiary level science subjects. Baguio City is known to be the educational center of the north hence, it is a good area to develop a bilingual program. Taking advantage of the proficiencies of the students in the mother tongue and the second language, a careful balance must also be made to enable students to use local languages in learning, and providing access to global languages of communication through education as also highlighted by UNESCO [10]. 2) policy makers and school administrators may implement the bilingual program and allocate appropriate resources for teacher training and development of instructional materials; 3) curriculum developers may develop more teaching materials for tertiary level chemistry written in the Filipino language; and 4) science education researchers may undertake other studies using larger samples in other Science Education institutions in Baguio City or in the Northern part of Luzon to obtain more conclusive databases. References [1] Guzman, M., Alcantara, R., Arinto, P., Barrios, E., Malicsi, J., Ocampo, N. and Marcial, M.C. (1998). Living language. Assessment of language proficiency and needs in the professions and in the workplace. UP Office of Research Coordination. Quezon City. [2] Gonzales, A. and Bautista, M. L. (1986). Language surveys in the Philippines (1966-1984). Manila: De La Salle University Press. [3] Dumatog, R and Dekker, D. (2003). First language education in Lubuagan, Northern Philippines. Retrieved on June 3, 2011 from http://www.sil.org/asia/ldc/parallel_papers/dumatog_and_dekker.pdf [4] Gonzales, A. (1983). Linguistic and Conceptual Problems Learning Science. In the Symposium on the Role of Language in Science Learning. Ministry of Education, Culture and Sports and the National Science Technology Authority, Makati City. [5] Sibayan, B. (1983). English and Pilipino in Science Teaching and Learning: Some Theoretical and Pragmatic Considerations (Symposium on the Role of Language in Science Learning). Ministry of Education, Culture & Sports and the National Science Technology Authority, Makati City.

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[6] Batomalaque, A.E. (n.d.). Basic science development program of the Philippines for international cooperation. Retrieved on September 28, 2008 from http://www.criced.tsukuba.ac.jp/pdf/09_Philippines_Antonio.pdf. [7] Ibe, M. and Ogena, B. (no date). Science Education in the Philippines: An Overview. UP-CIDS Chronicle. Retrieved on July 7, 2011 from http://cids.upd.edu.ph/chronicle/articles/chronv3n2/chronv3n2_infocus05_pg1.html. [8] Punzalan, A. (1996). Rural students’ views vs scientific explanations of some common chemical events. Monograph No.48, Q.C. Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development University of the Philippines Diliman. [9] Dekker, D. and Young, C. (2005). Bridging the Gap: The Development of appropriate educational strategies for minority language communities in the Philippines. SIL International, Philippines. Current Issues in Language Planning. (6)2. [10] UNESCO (2003). Education Position Paper. Education in a Multilingual World. Paris: UNESCO. [11] Callahan, R. (2005). English language proficiency and track placement: Variable effects on academic achievement. Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism, ed. [12] Vizconde, C. (2006). Attitudes of student teachers towards the use of English as language of instruction for science and mathematics in the Philippines. The Linguistic Journal. 1(3). [13] http://www.census.gov.ph/data/census2007/index.html [14] http://www.transparent.com/language-resources/tests.html. [15] Rarana, M. (2007). Masining na pagpapahayag (Para sa antas tersyarya). Minshapers Co. Inc. Manila. [16] Sumera, F. (2007). Kemistri ng Carbon. Quezon City: UP Sentro ng Wikang Filipino. [17] Ross, B. and Munby, H. (1991). Concept Mapping and Misconceptions: A Study of High-School Students' Understandings of Acids and Bases. International Journal of Science Education, 13, 11-24. [18] Alidou, H. (1997). Education Language Policy and Bilingual Education: The Impact of French Language Policy in Primary Education in Niger. Unpublished Thesis. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Ann Arbor, MI: UMI Number: 9737030. [19] Ministry of Education, Ethiopia (MoE) / NOE (National Organization for Examinations) (2001). Ethiopian National Baseline Assessment on Grade Eight Students’ Achievement. Study made in association with the Project BESO (USAID). Addis Ababa. February 2001. [20] Ouédraogo, M.R. (2002). L’Utilisation des Langues Nationales dans les Systèmes Éducatifs en Afrique. IICBA-UNESCO Bulletin. December 4(4). [21] Sampa, F. (2003). Country Case Study: Republic of Zambia. Primary Reading Programme (PRP): Improving Access and Quality Education in Basic Schools. Working Document. ADEA Biennial Meeting, Grand Baie, Mauritius, 3–6 December 2003. [21] Sampa, F. (2003). Country Case Study: Republic of Zambia. Primary Reading Programme (PRP): Improving Access and Quality Education in Basic Schools. Working Document. ADEA Biennial Meeting, Grand Baie, Mauritius, 3–6 December 2003. [22] Brock-Utne, B. (2005). Learning through a Familiar Language versus Learning through a Foreign Language – a Look into some Secondary School Classrooms in Tanzania. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Comparative International Education Society, Stanford University, California USA, 2225 March 2005. [23] ADAE (1996) A synopsis of research findings on languages of instruction and their policy implications for education in Africa. Working paper for the Meeting of African Ministers of Education and the Seminar on Languages of Instruction, Accra, Ghana, August 26-30 1996. Accra: Association for the Development of African Education/Working Group on Educational Research and Policy Analysis. [24] Dalby, D. (1985) The Educational Use of African Languages in Sub-Saharan Africa: The State of the Art. Paris: UNESCO. [25] Dutcher, N. (1995) The Use of First and Second Languages in Education. A Review of International Experience. Pacific Island Discussion Paper Series No.1. Washington DC: World Bank. [26] Kalole, S. A. M. (2004). Answering Essay and Summary Type Questions in English and Kiswahili: Problems in the Certificate of Secondary Education Examination in Tanzania. Master Thesis. University of Oslo: Institute for Educational Research. Unit for Comparative and International Education. [27] Makelela, L. (2005). We Speak Eleven Tongues”: Reconstructing Multilingualism in South Africa. In: Languages of Instruction for African Emancipation: Focus on Postcolonial Contexts and Consideration, ed. By Birgit Brock-Utne and Rodney Kofi Hopson, 147-174. Cape Town: CASAS, Dares Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota. [28] Wilmot, E. M. (2003). Stepping Outside the Ordinary Expectations of Schooling: Effect of School Language on the Assessment of Educational Achievement in Ghana. Paper presented at the 47th Annual Meeting of Comparative and International Education Society, New Orleans, USA, 12-16 March 2003. [29] Fredua-Kwarteng, Y. and Francis Ahia (2004). Reckless Abandon: Education Divide in Ghana. Feature article. Ghana News 25 April 2004. [30] May, S., Hill, R. and Tiakiwai, S. (2004). Bilingual/Immersion education: Indicators of good practice.

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Final Report to the Ministry of Education. New Zealand: Wilf Malcolm Institute of Educational Research, School of Education, University of Waikato. [31] Hovens, M. (2002) Bilingual education in West Africa: Does it work? International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 5: 5, 249-266. [32] Hovens, M. (2003) Enseignement primaire bilingue: Deux expériences ouest-africaines. [Primary bilingual instruction: Two West African experiences.] Niamey: Albasa. [33] Corson, D. (1993). Language, minority education, and gender: Linking social justice and power. Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters. [34] Cummins, J. and Danesi, M. (1990). Heritage languages: The development and denial of Canada’s linguistic resources. Toronto: Our Schools Our Selves/Garamond. [35] Ríordáin, M. N. and O’Donoghue, J. (2009). The relationship between performance on mathematical word problems and language proficiency for students learning through the medium of Irish. Educ Stud Math 71:43–64 [36] Cummins, J. (1981). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222-251. [37] Dawe, L. (1983). Bilingualism and mathematical reasoning in English as a second language. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 14, 325-353. [38] Williams, E. (1998) Investigating Bilingual Literacy: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia. Serial No. 24. London: DFID. [39] Alidou, H., Aliou B., Brock-Utne, B., Diallo, Y., Heugh,K. and Wolff, E. (2006). Optimizing learning and education in Africa – the Language factor. A Stock-taking Research on Mother-tongue and Bilingual Education in Sub-Saharan Africa. Association for the Development of Education in Africa, UNESCO Institute for Education, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit [40] Cummins, J. (2000) Language, Power and Pedagogy. Bilingual Children in the Crossfire. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [41] Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49(2), 222-251. [42] Tucker, G. (1999). A Global Perspective on Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Online Resources: Digest. Retrieved on June 23, 2011 from http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/digestglobal.html [43] Ocampo,D. (2002). Effects of Bilingualism on Literacy Development. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. University of Surrey.

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Piyachat Jittam and Bhinya Panijpan (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Chemistry of the Thyroid Hormone: Biosynthesis and Active Atropisomeric Conformer Piyachat JITTAMa, Bhinyo PANIJPANb Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand a [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: To add relevancy and interest to the teaching / learning of chemical biology, the examples of the unusual biosynthesis and active conformation of the thyroid hormone are described in this review article. Triiodothyronine (T 3) is hormonally more active than the better known thyroxine (T4). In fact, the latter is likely to be the prohormone of the former. Both T3, and T4 are biosynthesized from a large protein (thyroglobulin, Tg) by iodide activation and substitution of the iodine atoms at the Tg tyrosyl rings, all catalyzed by the thyroperoxidase (TPO) enzyme. Coupling of iodinated tyrosyl residues to the protein is aided by theTPO iron-heme coenzyme having the iron in the form of a Fe(IV) and a putative Fe(V). The more active conformer of T3 and T4 at the hormonal receptor site is the transoid atropisomer. Since atropisomerism is a type of isomerism that is not commonly associated with biological action, we thus propose that authors and teachers may use the thyroid hormone, and two other biologically important molecules to instruct students in the matter of stereoisomerism.

Keywords: Upper-Division Undergraduate, Biochemistry, Conformational Analysis, Biosynthesis, Bioinorganic Chemistry, Bioorganic Chemistry, Mechanisms of Reactions

Introduction The thyroid hormone is vital to our normal body function. Deficiency of this hormone in the fetus, newborn, and the young results in permanent mental deficiency; goiter is a mere disfigurement, an affliction much less serious than that of lowered intelligence [29]. Thyroxine, the well-known thyroid hormone, is derived from two L-tyrosine residues, which are diiodinated at the ortho-positions (3, 5, 3′, 5′) of the two phenolic rings [23] (Figure 1).

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Figure 1: Molecular structural formulas of (a) tyrosine (b) tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4) and (c) triiodothyronine (T3) 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine (T3), which is derivable from thyroxine (3, 5, 3′, 5′-tetraiodothyronine or T4), is now recognized by many as the hormone and T4 as the prohormone [25-27]. However, only one T3’s diastereomeric conformer (a possible atropisomer) binds specifically with the nuclear protein receptor [25]. Because of the steric hindrance of the substituents on the rings linked by a single bond(s), rotation around the bond (s) becomes less free giving rise to isolable stereoisomers, called atropisomers ("Atropisomer,"), in which the chiral atom(s) need not be present. General organic chemistry and stereochemistry textbooks [1-12] that carry examples of atropisomerism usually include synthetic compounds of substituted aromatic and non-aromatic rings linked together directly by a C – C single bond. However, atropisomerism of the biaryls or biaryl ethers, especially, of biomolecules are usually not mentioned. Apart from a relative dearth of detailed presentations in bioscience textbooks about how the hormone acts at the molecular level, at a time of our survey, only one popular textbook of general biochemistry was found to depict the coupling of the iodinated phenolic rings mechanistically [27]. We therefore present in this review two important aspects of thyroid hormone chemistry which should evoke sufficient interest of textbook authors to include the thyroid hormone chemistry as biological examples to engage their readership. Also chemistry teachers and students are expected to be fascinated by the rather convoluted mechanism of thyroid hormone biosynthesis and nature’s preference for a particular atropisomer (not isomer due to chiral center(s’)) for biological activity.

Iodination of tyrosyl residues and the formation of iodothyronines The parental protein molecule (a dimeric glycoprotein with a MW of about 660,000) that produces multiple smaller thyroid hormone molecules (MW of only 777) is the protein thyroglobulin found in the thyrocytes of the thyroid gland [11-15]. The thyroglobulin (Tg) has about 132 tyrosine residues of which about 1/3 tyrosine residues are iodinated [23] to become monoiodotyrosine (MIT) or diiodothyrosine (DIT) [10] residues that are covalently linked to the protein. Upon further enzymatic catalysis, these iodinated tyrosines of the thyroglobulin (acting as substrate in this case) then interact intramolecularly by ring coupling to yield the precursors of iodothyronines still attached to the parental protein molecule as illustrated in Figure 2 [17-18-23-27]. Subsequent extensive proteolytic enzyme’s breaking up of the peptide bonds then yield the iodothyronines including T3 and T4 [23-27]. The structure of the non-ring remainder of the transferred tyrosyl side chain, has been proven to be aminomalonic semialdehyde [17-18], as shown in Figure 2, rather than dehydroalanine [14].

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Figure 2: Biosynthetic steps of tetraiodothyronine (T4) in the thyroid gland. The pathway involves (1) enzyme-catalyzed iodination, (2a) intramolecular coupling (2b) of iodinated tyrosyl residues giving rise to a tetraiodothyronyl residue and an aminomalonic semialdehyde residue (inside the dotted line) and (3) proteolytic breakdown products of iodinated thyroglobulin. (I) tyrosine residues on one small part of thyroglobulin; (II) showing two diiodotyrosyl (DIT) side-chains on the polypeptide backbone of the thyroglobulin; (III) the part in the box (defined by the dotted line) is the aminomalonic semialdehyde moiety being formed; (IV) the tetraiodothyronine residue on the thyroglobulin polypeptide chain (left) plus the released aminomalonic semialdehyde (right); and (V) the released tetraiodothyronine (thyroxine) (a) and aminomalonic semialdehyde (b) and breakdown products of thyroglobulin. The enzyme responsible for the oxidation of iodine, is the thyroperoxidase (TPO), which has the heme (iron-protoporphyrin IX) as the prosthetic group supporting the catalytic steps [13-21-24-26] as shown in Figure 3. It can be seen from Figure 3a that H2O2 plays an essential role in the heme iron-aided oxidative activation of the iodide ion to substitute at the ortho-position(s) of the tyrosyl oxygen. Apart from activating iodide, E¶* FeIV=O also plays 152

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a role in coupling the tyrosyl residues. An intermediate step in the substitution of iodine atom(s) on the benzene ring may, in this case, involve the formation of a putative Fe(V)–OI[21], a step similar to that proposed for some other peroxidases [7-26]. Figure 3 legend should make each mechanistic step clearer. Students may also be asked how the Fe(V) and Fe (IV) can help the transfer of I- and the coupling of the phenolic rings respectively. Biomimetic works can be found in the literature attempting to answer these questions [20-21-26]. If thyroglobulin coupled with iodinated tyrosyl moieties, is hydrolyzed by proteolytic enzyme activity at the peptide bonds, the thyroid hormone(s) are released and leave the gland to exert its hormonal action on the cellular receptor.

Figure 3: Proposed reaction mechanism for iodination and coupling on the thyroglobulin (Tg) substrate catalyzed by thyroperoxidase, the enzyme (E). E(FeV)-OI is the putative Fe(V) intermediate. From top left, iron (III) of E(FeIII) (a) is oxidized by H2O2 to give E¶* -FeIV=O (b) which then oxidizes iodide to produce an activated iodine atom as the OI intermediate. The E(FeV)-OI (c) intermediate then iodinates the tyrosines (Tyr) on the thyroglobulin (Tg) molecule releasing E(FeIII) and leaving diiodinated tyrosines (DIT) on Tg (d). From top middle to the right, the E¶ FeIV=O (b) helps in the coupling of iodotyrosyl (Tyr) residues on the thyroglobulin parental molecule (DIT-Tg-DIT) to give the attached T4 and goes back to become E(FeIII) (e).

Conformation of the active triiodothyronine The 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine molecule has two inner ring 3,5- iodine atoms which are bulky (single bond linking a carbon to iodine atom is 213 picometers and the Van der Waals radius of iodine atom is 198 picometers) [6-16]. As a result, the inner and outer benzene rings cannot rotate freely around the non-linear –O– bond linking the two rings. This is because the iodine atoms being substituted on the inner benzene ring are so bulky that they can occupy the same space as the atoms on the outer ring when the two rings rotate relative to each other. Thus the two main possible conformers cannot interconvert easily at low temperatures giving rise to two stereoisomers which have cisoid and transoid atropisomeric relationships between the two rings [5-6] (see the following paragraph or Figure 4 for explanation). Advanced students may be challenged to have a closer look into this steric effect.

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Figure 4. Interconversion of the cisoid and transoid forms of 3, 5, 3′-triiodothyronine. In the cisoid form the outer ring and the alanyl side-chain are on the same face of the inner ring. The cisoid form can convert, overcoming steric hindrance, to the transoid conformer via rotation around the diaryl ether bond to yield its atropisomer with the outer ring now on the other face of the inner ring. Rotation of alanyl side-chain from one face of the inner ring to the other also involves an energy barrier. It is the transoid conformer that binds to the ligand-binding domain of the rat thyroid hormone receptor.

X-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance studies at different temperatures as well as conformational analysis have shed light on the possible conformer(s) which interacts preferably with the receptor protein [3-5-6-8-9]. The cisoid to transoid conformer interconversion involves either the rotation of the outer ring around the diaryl oxygens from one face of the inner ring to the outer or the rotation of the alanyl side-chain [9]. At present, the consensus is that transoid T3 should be considered to be the active hormone conformer interacting with the receptor as supported by a recent report [28]. Incidentally, the cisoid and the transoid forms can also be considered diastereomers: their iodinated diaryl ether parts have a non-superimposable mirror-image relationship, whereas the alanyl side-chain of both forms has an S chiral center at the α-carbon. This review presents two interesting aspects in the chemical biology of the thyroid hormone, especially, the preferred conformer of T3, a bi- or diaryl ether. This fact should encourage the pharmaceutical industry to synthesize a medicinal analog(s) of the hormone with the desired stereochemical properties. Mechanism(s) involved in the coupling of benzene rings of iodinated tyrosine residues should enhance student fascination with the bioinorganic chemistry of living things. Textbook authors wishing to engage students with good examples in chemical biology should cite the active T3 as a biomolecule with an interesting atropisomerism. If desired other biologically active molecules with atropisomeric features can also be used, e.g., vancomycin (an antibiotic), and NK1-antagonist (an antidepressant) [4-19].

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References [1] Anslyn, E. V., & Dougherty, D. A. (2006). Modern Physical Organic Chemistry. California: University Science Books. [2] Atropisomer. Retrieved August 27, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atropisomer [3] Ciszak, E., Cody, V., & Luft, J. R. (1992). Crystal structure determination at 2.3-A resolution of human transthyretin-3',5'-dibromo-2',4,4',6-tetrahydroxyaurone complex.Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, 89, 6644-6648. [4] Clayden, J., Moran, W. J., Edwards, P. J., & LaPlante, S. R. (2009). The challenge of atropisomerism in drug discovery. Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 48, 6398-6401. [5] Cody, V. (1975). Distal conformation of thyroid hormones. Crystal and molecular structure of 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine methyl ester. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 18, 126-129. [6] Cody, V. (1978). Molecular conformation of a halogen-free thyroxine analog: 4-methoxy-3,5,3-trimethyl-L-thyronine N-acetyl ethyl ester. Science, 201, 1131-1133. [7] Dolphin, D., Forman, A., Borg, D. C., Fajer, J., & Felton, R. H. (1971). Compounds I of catalase and horse radish peroxidase: pi-cation radicals. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, 68, 614-618. [8] Duggan, B. M., & Craik, D. J. (1996). H-1 and C-13 NMR relaxation studies of molecular dynamics of the thyroid hormones thyroxine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and 3,5-diiodothyronine. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 39, 4007-4016. [9] Duggan, B. M., & Craik, D. J. (1997). Conformational dynamics of thyroid hormones by variable temperature nuclear magnetic resonance: The role of side chain rotations and cisoid/transoid interconversions. Journal of Medical Chemistry, 40, 2259-2265. [10] Dunn, A. D., Corsi, C. M., Myers, H. E., & Dunn, J. T. (1998). Tyrosine 130 is an important outer ring donor for thyroxine formation in thyroglobulin. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 273, 25223-25229. [11] Dziadik-Turner, C., Hamilton, J. W., Taurog, A., & Rawitch, A. B. (1988). Hormone-containing peptides from normal and goiter human thyroglobulins. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 266, 377-385. [12] Eliel, E. L., Wilen, S. H., & Doyle, M. P. (2001). Basic Organic Stereochemistry. New York: Wiley Interscience. [13] Fayadat, L., Niccoli-Sire, P., Lanet, J., & Franc, J. L. (1999). Role of heme in intracellular trafficking of thyroperoxidase and involvement of H2O2 generated at the apical surface of thyroid cells in autocatalytic covalent heme binding. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274, 10533-10538. [14] Gavaret, J. M., Cahnmann, H. J., & Nunez, J. (1981). Thyroid hormone synthesis in thyroglobulin. The mechanism of the coupling reaction. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 256, 9167-9173. [15] Gentile, F., & Salvatore, G. (1993). Preferential sites of proteolytic cleavage of bovine, human and rat thyroglobulin. European Journal of Biochemistry, 218, 603-621. [16] Kobayashi, T., Kobayashi, K., Kobayashi, T., Sekine, R., Kelly, V.P., Kamata, K., Nishimura, S., & Yokoyama, S. (2005). Structural basis of nonnatural amino acid recognition by an engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for genetic code expansion. Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, 102, 1366-1371. [17] Ma, Y. A., & Sih, C. J. (1999). Mechanism of thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Enzymatic oxidative coupling of 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine derivatives. Tetrahedron Letters, 40, 9211-9214. [18] Ma, Y. A., Sih, C. J., & Harms, A. (1999). Enzymatic mechanism of thyroxine biosynthesis. Identification of the "lostthree-carbon fragment. Journal of American Chemical Society, 121, 8967-8968. [19] Mori, Y., McAtee, J. J., Rogel, O., & Boger, D. L. (2001). Alternative synthesis and thermal atropisomerism of a fully functionalized DEFG ring system of teicoplanin. Tetrahedral Letters, 42, 6061-6064. [20] Nakamura, M., Yamazaki, I., Kotani, T., & Ohtaki, S. (1985). Thyroid peroxidase selects the mechanism of either 1- or 2-electron oxidation of phenols, depending on their substituen. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 260, 13546-13552. [21] Ohtaki, S., Nakagawa, H., Nakamura, M., & Kotani, T. (1996). Thyroid peroxidase: Experimental and clinical integration. Endocrine Journal, 43, 1-14. [22] Ohtaki, S., Nakagawa, H., Nakamura, M., & Yamazaki, I. (1982). Reactions of purified hog thyroid peroxidase with H2O2, tyrosine, and methylmercaptoimidazole (goitrogen) in comparison with bovine lactoperoxidase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 257, 761-766. [23] Rousset, B. A., & Dunn, J. T. (2009). Thyroid Hormone Synthesis and Secretion. Retrived from www.thyroidmanager.org [24] Roy, G., & Muges. (2006). Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs: A bioinorganic chemistry approach Journal of Chemical Science, 118(6), 619-625. [25] Somack, R., Andrea, T. A., & Jorgensen, E. C. (1982). Biochemistry. 21, 163-170. [26] Taurog, A., Dorris, M. L., & Doerge, D. (1996). Mechanism of simultaneous iodination and coupling catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 330, 24-32.

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[27] Voet, D., & Voet, J. G. (2004). Biochemistry (4 ed.). New York: John Wiley & Son. [28] Wagner, R. L., Apriletti, J. W., McGrath, M. E., West, B. L., Baxter, J. D., & Fletterick, R. J. (1995). A structural role for hormone in the thyroid hormone receptor. Nature 378, 690-697. [29] Yen, P. M. (2001). Physiological and molecular basis of thyroid hormone action. Physiological Reviews, 81(3), 1097-1142.

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Exploring the Use of Analogy and K-W-L Chart on Thai Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs Waraporn YOTHAPHAKDEEa, Romklao ARTDEJb a Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: Analogy is an instructional approach which assists students in understanding an abstract concept. To assess their understanding of abstract concepts, the K-W-L chart is a formative assessment tool which is used to provide students with feedback during the teaching and learning activity. The present study aimed to explore the use of analogy and K-W-L chart on Thai grade 11 students to improve their understanding of conjugate acid-base pairs. Data from the acid-base conceptual test were gathered and analyzed to differentiate levels of students’ understanding. The difference in the pre- and post-test was compared by using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Further interview analysis helped researchers to clarify students’ understanding. The findings showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the pre- and post-test scores (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that analogy and the K-W-L chart facilitated the students’ learning in the above mentioned subject. Keywords: Analogy, Formative assessment, Conceptual understanding, Acids and bases

1. Introduction Acids and bases have been reported to be a difficult concept for teaching and learning chemistry in school science [1]. The nature of acids and bases is associated with abstract concepts (e.g., conjugate acid-base pairs) such that students need to construct images in their mind [2-3]. However, research studies reported that many high school students have difficulties in constructing images [4-6]. This can lead to obstructions in the learning progress by confusion with alternative conceptions (e.g., students mistakenly thought pairs of positively and negatively charged ions as conjugate acid-base pairs). Therefore, science educators have attempted to develop instructional strategies that are based on students’ approaches to learning as a conceptual development which enables students to accommodate their prior conceptions into scientific conceptions. An alternative approach which enables students to visualize and understand abstract concepts and prevent them to confuse conceptions with alternative ones, is the Analogy. It is an instructional approach identifying similarities of two concepts: the familiar concept is called analog and the unfamiliar scientific concept is called target [7]. Previous research studies indicated that an analogy helps students to compare a new concept with phenomena of the real world and in addition, it may also enhance learning motivation [8]. Therefore, the implementation of an analogy in the science classroom is known to support 157

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the learning process and has been reported over the past decades [9]. Moreover, it has been accepted as a process of establishing conceptual development [10]. To seek information whether students develop conceptual understanding, the evaluation of students’ learning at the end of an instructional unit is not sufficient. The use of formative assessment is required in the classroom in order to monitor students’ conceptual understanding. The main goal of formative assessment is to gain information about students’ understanding and provide them with feedback during the teaching and the learning activity [11-12]. Generally, formative assessment has been incorporated in the classroom to gather information on student learning in many ways (e.g., short quizzes, self-assessment). However, it seems that the implementation of formative assessment using an analogy as a more efficient teaching approach was not explicitly used in Thai science classroom. Prior studies demonstrated that the K-W-L chart is a tool enabling students to connect their existing knowledge with the new knowledge [13-14] that helps them to improve their conceptual understanding [15]. In this study, the K-W-L chart (What I already know/what I want to know/what I have learned) was also utilized. Consequently, this study highlights the importance of the use of Analogy and K-W-L chart to enhance students’ understanding on conjugate acid-base pair concepts. 2. Research questions The research question that guided this study is: Do Analogy and K-W-L chart promote the students’ conceptual understanding of conjugate acid-base pairs? 3. Methodological approach 3.1 Research design A pre-experimental study in a one group pre- and post-test design was performed. This research was part of a larger project work investigating the effects of Analogy and K-W-L chart on grade 11 students’ conceptual understanding of acids and bases. This article presents the results that are related to the understanding of conjugate acid-base pair concept. 3.2 Participants The participants were 41 grade 11 students (14 males and 27 females) who studied in the second semester of the 2011 academic year at a small high school in Buriram province. 3.3 Instruments The instruments used in this study were as follows: 1) Acids and Bases Test (ABT) which consisted of an open ended question constructed by the researchers, 2) Lesson plans designed to incorporate the Analogy and the K-W-L chart. A framework that outlined the analogy activities was the Focus-Action-Reflection (FAR) guide [16], and 3) Semi-structured interviews. All instruments were examined by three chemistry educators and piloted prior to the gathering of data. 3.4 Data collection In the focus phase, abstract acid-base concepts were considered to define the scope of this investigation. The ABT was used to explore students’ conceptual understanding. Two students representing each category based on their conceptual understanding were randomly 158

Waraporn Yothaphakdee, Romklao Artdej (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

selected to complete a semi-structured interview. The analogy was selected to help students understand target concepts. An example of such an analogy is shown in Figure 1. This phase was carried out before the learning started. During the action phase, students discussed the similarities and differences between the analogy and the target. The reflection phase was carried out to allow students to consider the clarity of the analogy and the possible improvements for further learning. After completing the analogy activities, the K-W-L chart was used as a self-assessment tool. The ABT was used to evaluate students’ conceptual understanding. Semi-structured interviews were also implemented, similar to the pre-interview. All data collections were conducted throughout the semester.

+

fl A pair of shoes

A conjugate acid-base pair

A conjugate acid-base pair

+

+

+

HF H2O Figure 1. An example of an analog and a target.

F-

+ H3O+

+

3.5 Data analysis

Students’ responses from the ABT were analyzed in order to differentiate levels of conceptual understanding. The category framed this study and was derived from the literature [17]: Sound understanding (SU): responses that indicated both the correct answer and the reasoning based on scientific principles (4 points), Partial understanding (PU): responses that had some components of the validated answer and the reasoning, but not all of the components (3 points), Partial understanding with specific alternative conception (PUSAC): responses that indicated an incorrect statement being either answers or reasoning (2 points), Specific alternative conception (SAC): responses that indicated both an incorrect answer and reasoning (1 point), and No understanding (NU): responses that indicated a repeated question, or unclear response, or blank (0 point). The data derived from categorizing students’ conceptual understandings revealed in both pre- and post-test were measured using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation (SD), and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Data from semi-structured interviews were transcribed verbatim and interpreted to support the ABT data. 4. Results and discussion Results of students’ responses from the pre- and post-test are shown in Table 1. Bold type indicates the majority of students’ responses. Most of the students’ responses in the preTable 1. Frequency and percentages of students’ responses. Pre-test Levels of understanding Frequency Percentage SU 0 0 PU 7 17.07 PUSAC 0 0 SAC 0 0 NU 34 82.93

Post-test Frequency Percentage 38 92.69 2 4.88 1 2.43 0 0 0 0

test had no understanding (82.93%), seemingly failing to understand the concept of conjugate acid-base pairs. Furthermore, the interview results showed that some students had no prior idea what a conjugate acid-base pair was. In the post-test, a majority of the students exhibited sound understanding (92.69%). This suggested that they understood 159

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conjugate acid - base pairs. Therefore, they were able to draw diagrams and identify the conjugate acid - base pairs correctly. The post-test clearly showed that the students had a better understanding of conjugate acid - base pairs afterwards. As can be seen in Table 2, pre- and post-test are statistically significantly different (p=0.8 large effect 1

3. Conclusion This preliminary study is crucial to a larger project that tries to implement a new instructional design by using mobile computers in the classroom. The overwhelming usage and acceptance of Google search by students in this study shows that this web service is the best tool for a new technological pedagogical framework. Over 83 percent of the participants in this research said that they used Google’s searching function very often and a cumulative 98 percent have used this medium in some ways on a mobile device. The results tend to suggest that skills in literature searching could become the key to academic success in modern tertiary programs. mirroring current research literature in this area in that the focus has shifted from computers literacy to information literacy. A clear difference between students with basic software skills and those with research skills was the researching students’ solid skills in finding relevant journal articles in a library database instead of just using the first website that pops up as a source. Students with research software skills tend to use media on their mobile learning applications more often than lesser skilled students. The label advance software skill was avoided on purpose to stay away from an unintentional bias. Yet the students that exhibited research software skills considered themselves in general as better students with advanced academic skills. The difference between the two groups of students may be expressed in figures measuring a 66.7 percent increased use of 48 media on mobile devices for learning. In all of these cases, the research software-skills students used the media more often than their basic software-skills counterparts. Our preliminary data suggest that lecturers should consider allowing students the use of their mobile devices during classes however, in a channeled and constructive manner to aid their education. One way to handle this issue is to have clearly defined periods where students can use their smartphones or laptops to look up some more information, possibly 10 minutes before a break where students can summarize their notes with the help of their digital tools. An interesting result was that there was no significant difference between the current GPA of the two groups however, a significant difference in the self-image of their academic and study skills. The research software-skills group was more positive about using a wider range of media that would again, tend to confirm the increased activeness and inquisitiveness of students with advanced research computer skills. One interpretation of 256

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the results is that students with higher confidence in their computer software skills also tended to be more confident about their study and academic ability. In a further study, it may be interesting to parse the GPA scores to gain more insights into skills and knowledge. This means to look in detail in to scores of for example classes taken in majors, or for GPA scores of the upper level classes, or of classes that develop essential skill sets, such as in statistics or writing class. In addition, most Thai lectures use a portion of classroom grades to keep control of the classroom, to encourage attendance and participation or to enforce university policies, so clouding GPA’s ability to reflect students’ academic ability. With Cronbach’s  of .85 for both the mobile computing and the mobile media items (N=55), the Mobile Media Learning Survey shows a high internal consistency, making it a useful measuring tool. It appears to be essential to assess students’ mobile computer usage behavior before developing or adopting a mlearning method. The vocabulary and the grammar were simplified as much as possible and the length of questions has been shortened so that a non-native English speaker can understand the survey clearly. Its Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level is at 5.7 grade level and the Gunning-Fog Score and SMOG Index reflect similar levels at a 6.1 grade level and at a 5.4 grade level, respectively. The original media learning survey went through three rounds of pilot tests and revisions in English, and then the Mobile Media Learning Survey has gone through three small pilot tests and one major pilot test. The streamlined version used for further instructional design is already in its 10th version. A pre and post-test will be carried out to compare changes in usage and to compare a control and an experimental group. For university educators that are interested in incorporating more technology in their classrooms, mobile technology has reached the point of being well accepted and frequently used by undergraduate students to help develop their formal learning. Instead of wasting resources by installing new learning platforms that will be difficult to get both students and teachers to use, we recommend leveraging the technology that is already in their hands, pockets and purses. The best way to start is to firstly identify the learning services and digital devices that are already in use by students. Teachers should spend the time and effort to include the technological features of popular social networking services into the class curriculum. Although the use of such open web services raises new sticky issues about security, privacy and ownership of content, these contemporary issues should be a part of the classroom. The use of social networking sites on mobile devices in education may be the best way to educate all of us of rights and risks in the digital era.

4. References [1] August, K.G., Hansen, M.H. & Shriver, E. (2002) Mobile web searching. Bell Labs Technical Journal, 6(2), 84-98. [2] Bawden, D. (2001). Information and digital literacies: A review of concepts. Journal of Documentation, 57(2), 218-259. [3] Cochrane, T. (2012). Secrets of mlearning failures: Confronting reality. Research in Learning Technology, 20, 1-9. [4] Davis, F. D. (1986). A technology acceptance model for empirically testing new end-user information systems: Theory and results. Doctoral dissertation, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [5] Davis, F. D., Bagozzi, R. P. & Warshaw, P. R. (1989). User acceptance of computer technology: A comparison of two theoretical models. Management Science, 35, 982-1003. [6] Dempsey, J. V. & Reiser, R. (2012). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.

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[7] Doll, W.J. & Torkzadeh, G. (1988). The measurement of end-user computing satisfaction. MIS Quarterly, 12(2), 259-274 [8] Frohberg, D., Göth, C. & G. Schwabe, G. (2009). Mobile learning projects – A critical analysis of the state of the art. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25, 307–331. [9] Fry, G. W. (2002, September 2-5). The evolution of educational reform in Thailand. 2nd International Forum, Education Reform: Key factors in Effective Implementation. Bangkok, Thailand: Office of the National Education Commission of Thailand (ONEC). [10] Grosch, M. (2012). Mediennutzung im Studium. Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Aachen, Germany. [11] Grosch, M & Phillips, B.J. (2012). Media usage by Thai international students – An empirical survey. 3rd International Conference on e-Education, e-Business, e-Management and e-Learning and Paper, IPEDR, 27, 64-68. Singapore: IACSIT Press. [12] Head, A.J. & Eisenberg, M.B. (2009, December 1). Lessons learned: How college students seek information in the digital age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report, the Information School, University Of Washington. Retrieved from http://projectinfolit.org/pdfs/PIL_Fall2010_Survey_FullReport1.pdf [13] Johnson, L., Smith, R., Levine, A., & Haywood, K. (2011). The 2011 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas, USA: The New Medium Consortium. [14] Kaiser, H. (1970, Spring). A second generation little jiffy. Psychometrika, 35(4), 401-415. [15] Kozma, R. B. (2005, October). National policies that connect ICT-based education reform to economic and social development. Human Technology, 1(2), 117-156. [16] Mok, S.M. & Swaminathan, R. (2007, May). Media searching on mobile devices. Electro/Information Technology, IEEE International Conference. Chicago, IL: IEEE. Doi:10.1109/EIT.2007.4374447. [17] Naismith, L., & Corlett, D. (2006). Reflections on success: A retrospective of the mLearn conference series 2002-2005. Paper presented at the mLearn 2006 – Across generations and cultures, Banff, Canada. [18] Pagram, P. & Pagram, J. (2006) Issues in e-learning: A Thai case study. The Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries, 26(6), 1-8. [19] Rowlands, I., Nicholas, D., Williams, P., Fieldhouse, M., Gunter, B., Withey, R., et al. (2008). The Google generation: the information behavior of the researcher of the future. Aslib Proceedings, 60(4), 290-310. [20] Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th ed.).Pearson Education, Inc. [21] UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (2011, September). Annex 4: Broad groups and fields of education International Standard Classification of Education (Vol. C/19). Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

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Game-based learning of fast food consumption for enhancing secondary school students’ nutrition knowledge Chonlada KHRUTTHAKHA1, Piyachat JITTAM2 Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand 1 [email protected].com, [email protected]

Abstract: The game-based approach has been recognized as an effective strategy to promote student’s learning with fun and also promote students’ involvement. We thus developed a game-based learning module in fast food consumption for enhancing secondary students’ nutrition knowledge. We conducted the study with 67 eleventh grade students. All participants were encouraged using a cartoon multimedia about inappropriate eating. Then they were allowed to play three games: food pyramid jigsaw, fat battle card game, and serving fast food. After that they were asked to create a poster about good food consumption and present it to class. We assessed their learning achievement and conceptual understanding by pre/post-test. Their perceptions toward this game-based learning were gathered by using a questionnaire. The results indicate that students had better knowledge of nutrition. The students were also satisfied with these games and had a positive perception toward the game-based learning. Keywords: Game-based learning, fast food, nutrition

Introduction Inappropriate eating has been recognized as a crucial factor to cause chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes [10]. This is a result of insufficient knowledge of nutrition that may correct unhealthy dieting [8-16]. Therefore, nutrition education is needed to motivate learners to establish a balanced diet. In order to improve nutrition knowledge among learners, the use of effective teaching strategies must be employed. Nowadays, games are widely used tools for teaching and learning. Relevant studies have proven that students are more successful in meaningful learning when compared to traditional learning methods [19]. Game-based learning can stimulate enjoyment, motivation, and enjoyment [4]. Games can influence students’ attitude positively toward the learning environment [13]. This approach, therefore, may be an effective vehicle to enhance students’ insights into good food consumption. 1. Objective and research questions The objective of this study is to use our developed game-based learning method to educate secondary students in fast food consumption for a healthy living. Two research questions framed this study:  Can the developed game-based learning promote secondary students’ understanding of good food consumption?

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What are students’ perceptions toward the developed game-based learning?

2. Methodology and Method 2.1 Game-based learning on fast food consumption We developed three games as part of a game-based learning unit on fast food consumption. These three games are; food pyramid jigsaw game, fat battle card game, and serving fast food. 2.1.1 Food Pyramid Jigsaw Game The goal of the jigsaw game was to present information about a food-guide pyramid to students. Playing this game, the students must put together 10 jigsaw pieces to construct the food-guided pyramid (Figure 1) in a limited time. Then they were asked to put a variety of food into the pyramid. After that they were stimulated to discuss a daily diet plan with their friends .

Figure 1: Ten jigsaw pieces to construct food-guided pyramid 2.1.2 Fat Battle Card Game Since fast food intake increases risk of obesity and diabetes, we thus developed the fat battle card game to direct students’ awareness on calorie intake from fast food. The cards were divided into two groups: Quest Card and Food Card. A set of Quest Cards (Figure 2) presents information of a person at different ages, genders, and activities. A set of Food Cards presents a fast food menu (Figure 3) in which calory per one unit is shown. In the game, the players compete for a Food Card that gives information about calories that match with the requirement of a person shown in a Quest Card. The winner in each round would keep the correct Card in their hands, while handing over the higher calories Food Card to the looser. At the end of this game, they were asked to discuss within their group the effects of high caloric intake.

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Figure 2: Quest Card

Figure 3: Food Card 2.1.3 Serving Fast Food Serving fast food is a game-based computer simulation. The objective of this game is to enhance students’ knowledge about good food consumption. We thus developed the computer simulation (Figure 4) to allow students to interact with a simulated real world situation. Animated pictures and graphics with sound were incorporated in the game. Before playing the game, the students were provided with information of the fast food components and the calories per dish. To play this game, the students must consider food nutrients and its calories in order to serve a healthy menu to meet the needs of different persons. In cases such as diabetics, the students must avoid the food which has high sugar content. The students serving an inappropriate menu were provided with an instant feedback and were punished with a negative score.

Figure 4: Serving Fast Food Game 261

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2.2 Implementation of the game-based learning unit We implemented a 2-h game-based learning unit for 67 grade 11 students in a public school in the northern part of Thailand who had already been taught about nutrition at grade 8 as well as at primary school level. At the beginning of the class, a cartoon about inappropriate dieting was used to engage students’ attention to the topic. Then the students were divided into groups of 8-9 to play food pyramid jigsaw game, fat battle card game, and serving fast food, respectively. After that the students participated in the debriefing session which was facilitated by the teacher to ensure that the students met the learning objective. The teacher raised key questions to stimulate students’ reflection on the nutrition knowledge gained from the game activities. Volunteers were asked to contribute to the discussion if someone missed some key points. Then the students were asked to summarize the concepts together. After the debriefing session, they were asked to create a group poster to present their idea about dietary intake to their classmates. 2.3 Data Collection and Analysis 2.3.1 Conceptual knowledge We investigated the effectiveness of the game-based learning unit on fast food consumption for student learning achievement. We constructed 15 two-tier items to evaluate students’ nutrition knowledge. The first tier of each item consists of a content question having three choices; the second part of each item contains four possible reasons for the answer given in the first tier. Included in these reasons are one correct answer and three common alternative conceptions which were previously surveyed by us. We also allowed students to write their own reasons in the second tier. The students’ responses to the test were analyzed by using the following categories: A correct choice with the correct reason (3 points), correct choice with a partially correct reason or incorrect choice with the correct reason (2 points), correct choice with an incorrect reason or incorrect choice with the partial reason (1 point), and incorrect choice with an incorrect reason (0 point). The significant difference of pret/post-test scores was determined using paired t-test statistics analysis. 2.3.2 Group poster presentation Students’ group poster presentations were analyzed to determine their acquired knowledge in order to support the results from conceptual test. The quality of their work was rated based on five attributes – knowledge synthesis, linking to daily life, creativity, audiovisual, and communication – by using the 5-point rubric scale ranging from 5 (excellent) to 1 (poor). 2.3.2 Students’ reflection At the end of the unit, the 8-items Likert scale questionnaire was used to gather students’ reflection on the game-based learning. The students must answer by selecting one of five responses: strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, and strongly disagree. To analyze students’ responses to the questionnaire, their responses on a Likert scale of each item statement was coded with the numbers, the “strongly agree” 262

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choice would receive a 5, moving to the “strongly disagree” choice which would receive 1. 3. Research Findings 3.1 Effect of the Game-based Learning Unit on Students’ Nutrition Knowledge 3.1.1 Pretest and posttest This study investigated the effectiveness of the game-based learning unit on fast food consumption in terms of learning outcomes of grade 11 students. In the learning unit, the students worked in a group of eight to nine to construct a poster from their gained knowledge. They were also tested for their nutrition knowledge before and after participating in the game-based learning. The results in Table 1 show that the students’ mean score of the post-test was significantly higher than that of the pre-test (p < 0.001). Table 1: Pretest and Posttest Mean Score on Nutrition of Grade 11 Students (N=67) Mean Pretest Posttest

18.82 31.06

Standard deviation 3.69 5.09

t-test -20.22*

* Significant difference p < 0.001 3.1.2 Knowledge construction The results in Table 2 show group poster presentation scores which were graded according to five-point Likert scale of five attributes. They had a higher mean score in linking to daily life, audio visual, communication, and highest score in creativity, respectively. The degrees of knowledge synthesis are varied in each group (ranging from 2 to 5). Table 2: Mean scores of group poster presentations (N = 8) Attributions Knowledge synthesis Linking to daily life Creativity Audiovisual Communication

Mean 3.75 4.13 4.75 4.13 4.38

Standard deviation 1.04 0.83 0.46 0.35 0.52

From the details of poster presentations, we could see that each group tried to exploit the knowledge they acquired. Their poster presentation illustrated that they focused on their concern rather than the body of knowledge. Most posters conveyed a message of awareness, i.e. do not eat too much fast food and balance the diet. The examples of their posters were shown in Figure 5.

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Figure 5: Examples of students’ group poster 3.2 Effect of the Game-based Learning Unit on Students’ Perception At the end of the learning unit, the students reflected their perceptions toward the game-based learning as shown in Table 3. The mean of the five point Likert scale ranging from 5 (strongly agree) to 1 (strongly disagree). The mean scores of the eight items ranged from 3.27 to 4.69, indicating that the students had positive perceptions toward the game-based learning on fast food consumption. . Table 3: Students’ reflections to the game-based learning on fast food consumption Statement 1. In this class, I shared my idea with my classmate. 2. The activities in this unit were interesting. 3. I had a better understanding of fast food consumption 4. I enjoyed learning activities. 5. I learned the content knowledge from games. 6. I had more involvement in the learning activities. 7. What I had learned in this unit related to daily life. 8. I knew that too much fast food consumption resulted in obesity

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Mean ± S.D. 4.58 ± 0.49 4.69 ± 0.50 4.55 ± 0.58 4.61 ± 0.60 3.27 ± 1.42 4.36 ± 0.64 4.22 ± 1.16 4.58 ± 0.55

Chonlada Khrutthakha and Piyachat Jittam (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

4. Discussion and Conclusion The results clearly indicate that the game-based learning unit helped the students to construct their own understanding about nutrition. This is evidenced by the significantly higher post than pre-test scores. The students’ awareness and concerns about fast food consumption was also improved as evidenced by their poster presentations. The participants in this study are grade 11 students supposed to have learned about nutrition at grade 8 and at primary school level. Surprisingly, their pre-test scores are low. The results implied that learning by means of traditional teaching without actively participating in the learning activity results in poor understanding and retention. From their response in the two tier test, half of the participating students had little knowledge about adverse affects of inappropriate dieting. Also many participants had misconception about nutritional components. For example, they believed that vegetable and fruit do not contain carbohydrate. Additionally, some students thought that excessive fast food intake will cause nutrition deficiency. They did not know that fast food contains high amounts of calories. However, these ideas were corrected after they had experienced the game-based learning of fast food consumption. The developed game-based learning unit not only promoted the students’ ability to link nutrition knowledge with good diet in real life but also improved students’ positive perception toward learning. The students stated that the games aroused their interest and motivated them to learn actively. They could build up their own understanding about nutrition. The result is in agreement with several other research works that game-based learning has a positive impact on students’ learning and motivation (Baranowski, et al., 2003; Cai, Lu, Zheng, & Li, 2006; Dickey, 2011; Kaveevivitchai, et al., 2009; Marina, 2009; Peng, 2009; Tan, Aziz, Chua, & Teh, 2002; Thompson, et al., 2010; Tüzün, Yılmaz-Soylu, Karakuş, İnal, & Kızılkaya, 2009; Yim & Graham, 2007). These results implied that the game-based learning about fast food consumption is an effective medium for transferring information about nutrition to the student and for enhancing students’ awareness of food consumption for a healthy live. Our approach also can be integrated into mobile technologies to enable learning anytime and anywhere. However, trials with a larger group of students with different backgrounds are also needed.

5. Acknowledgement This study is supported by the Office of Higher Education Commission and Mahidol University under the National Research University Initiative. References [1] [2]

[3]

[4] [5]

Amy, M. (2010). Video Games and the Second Life of Science Class. [doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.03.045]. Cell, 141(2), 201-203. Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Thompson, D. I., & Baranowski, J. (2008). Playing for Real: Video Games and Stories for Health-Related Behavior Change. [doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2007.09.027]. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(1), 74-82.e10. Beale, I. L., Kato, P. M., Marin-Bowling, V. M., Guthrie, N., & Cole, S. W. (2007). Improvement in cancer-related knowledge following use of a psychoeducational video game for adolescents and young adults with cancer. [doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.04.006]. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(3), 263-270. Brug, J. (2008). Determinants of healthy eating: motivation, abilities and environmental opportunities. Family Practice, 25(suppl 1), i50-i55. Cai, Y., Lu, B., Zheng, J., & Li, L. (2006). Immersive protein gaming for bio edutainment. Simulation & Gaming, 37(4), 466-475.

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[6] [7] [8]

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Dickey, M. D. (2011). Murder on Grimm Isle: The impact of game narrative design in an educational game-based learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(3), 456-469. Fengfeng, K. (2008). A case study of computer gaming for math: Engaged learning from gameplay? [doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.03.003]. Computers & Education, 51(4), 1609-1620. França, S., François d’Ivernois, J., Marchand, C., Haenni, C., Ybarra, J., & Golay, A. (2004). Evaluation of nutritional education using concept mapping. [doi: 10.1016/S0738-3991(03)00037-5]. Patient Education and Counseling, 52(2), 183-192. Fu, F.-L., Su, R.-C., & Yu, S.-C. (2009). EGameFlow: A scale to measure learners’ enjoyment of e-learning games. [doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.07.004]. Computers & Education, 52(1), 101-112. Jitnarin, N., Kosulwat, V., Rojroongwasinkul, N., Boonpraderm, A., Haddock, C. K., & Poston, W. S. C. (2010). Risk factors for overweight and obesity among Thai adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey. Nutrients, 2(1), 60-74. Juan C, B. (2010). Using game theory and Competition-based Learning to stimulate student motivation and performance. [doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.02.018]. Computers & Education, 55(2), 566-575. Kaveevivitchai, C., Chuengkriankrai, B., Luecha, Y., Thanooruk, R., Panijpan, B., & Ruenwongsa, P. (2009). Enhancing nursing students’ skills in vital signs assessment by using multimedia computer-assisted learning with integrated content of anatomy and physiology. [doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2008.06.010]. Nurse Education Today, 29(1), 65-72. Leach, G. J., & Sugarman, T. S. (2005). Play to win! Using games in library instruction to enhance student learning. [doi: 10.1016/j.resstr.2006.05.002]. Research Strategies, 20(3), 191-203. Luealamai, S., & Panijpan, B. (2010). Learning about the unit cell and crystal lattice with computerized simulations and games: A pilot study. Simulation & Gaming. Mayo, M. J. (2007). Games for science and engineering education. Communications, 50(7), 30-35. Mowe, M., Bosaeus, I., Rasmussen, H. H., Kondrup, J., Unosson, M., Rothenberg, E., et al. (2008). Insufficient nutritional knowledge among health care workers? [doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2007.10.014]. Clinical Nutrition, 27(2), 196-202. Papastergiou, M. (2009). Digital Game-Based Learning in high school Computer Science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. [doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.004]. Computers & Education, 52(1), 1-12. Pollak, J., Gay, G., Byrne, S., Wagner, E., Retelny, D., & Humphreys, L. (2010). It's Time to Eat! Using Mobile Games to Promote Healthy Eating. Pervasive Computing, IEEE, 9(3), 21-27. Randel, J. M., Morris, B. A., Wetzel, C. D., & Whitehill, B. V. (1992). The Effectiveness of Games for Educational Purposes: A Review of Recent Research. Simulation & Gaming, 23(3), 261-276. Thompson, D. I., Baranowski, T., Buday, R., Baranowski, J., Thompson, V., Jago, R., et al. (2010). Serious video games for health: How behavioral science guides the development of a serious video game. Simulation & Gaming, 41(4), 587-606.

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Attribution of A Series of Games to Genetic Disorder Understanding Thanaporn PIMOUBOLa, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAIa a Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The traditional way of teaching does not support present-day students or digital natives, who are growing up in the digital era in learning and gaining meaningful experience, especially in abstract biology topics, i.e., genetics, evolution, etc. Educational gaming is one of the powerful tools to enhance students’ conceptual understanding of present technology and to practice two skills required in the 21st century, namely complex communication and expert problem solving. The purposes of this study therefore are: to develop a series of games that promote students’ understanding of genetic disorders and learning satisfaction and to determine the effectiveness of the games. A total of 71 grade 12 students from two classrooms in a school located in eastern Thailand participated in this study. The pre/post-test control group design was adopted for this study. A control group was instructed by lectures while the experiment group was instructed by using an intervention following the 5 E learning cycle model. Genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test, worksheet activity, student’s report, questionnaire, semi-structured interview and classroom observation were used to obtain data. The results show in general that those students that had been confronted with a series of games during studying genetic disorder inheritance achieved conceptual test scores being significantly higher than those students that had been instructed using the traditional method. The worksheet activity scores and the student’s reports showed that the students’ understanding has been improved by the gaming method. Moreover the results of the questionnaire, semi-structure interview, and classroom observation indicated a positive attitude toward the game learning. The results hereby demonstrate that a series of games could be an effective tool to promote student learning of genetic disorders. Keywords: Game, Genetic disorder, Thalassemia, 5 E learning cycle model

Introduction According to basic educational curriculums, Genetics plays an important role as an essential topic for developing science. It is a branch of biology that studies heredity and how certain characteristics or traits are passed from parents to offspring. The appearance and behavior of organisms are determined by the combination of genetics and experience. Students should know fundamental concepts of genetics, especially one of the important topics being “genetic disorder” an abnormality in genes or chromosomes and link to their daily live situation. Many researchers explored that one of the most difficult contents in science was genetics [13]. In 2007, Duncan and Reiser found the difficulties in learning genetics which are (1) students have difficulties in the invisibility and inaccessibility of genetics concepts and (2) genetics included complicated structure. Furthermore, genetic has been reported to be a difficult topic to teach effectively and for students to learn at high school level in Zambia, Kenya, United States of America, Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom [10]. Without the help of special instruments, it is difficult to make the ideas be tangible because it is taught at various levels (macro, micro, and symbolic levels) and the mechanism is abstract [15]. There are agreement among some researchers that genetics is quite difficult for students to learn because it is one of the domain that requires learners to 267

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use multilevel thinking and reasoning that is central to higher-order thinking [18]. Therefore it is important for teachers to be aware of students’ misconceptions, presuppositions, and prior knowledge in genetics for developing an instruction to avoid barriers which lead to confusion and incoherence [13]. Genetics content is not only complex but also abstract and difficult to connect to everyday lives and interests of students [2]. Traditional teaching approach could not support present students to learn genetics. Hence, teachers must find ways that will enable students to acquire the creative thinking, flexible problem solving, collaboration and innovative skills they will need to be successful in work and life. Some researchers argue that 21st century learning skills are critical for accomplishing the necessary transformation [17]. It provides a foundation for understanding the world in which student live via an integration of science concepts to day-to-day context. Moreover it empowers the students to become productive, critical thinking citizens in the global community of the 21st century [4]. One of effective teaching strategies called “game-based learning”, and particularly serious games that teach content, are fast becoming utilized in the classroom. The use of games as part of the educational environment fits into the philosophy of active learning and constructivism. In 1994, McKeachie explained that learning is enhanced if students make decisions and then need to respond to the consequences of each decision. Also, in 2004 Becker and Wade, who suggested the characteristics of games map that can solve the problem and related to 21st century skill. Games are able to (1) analyze new situation, (2) interact with characters they don't really know, (3) solve problems quickly and independently, (4) think strategically in a chaotic world, and (5) collaborate effectively in teams. Cheng [6] indicated that educational gaming can increase students’ motivation, permit students to engage in interactive learning, improve students’ information retention and improve students’ problem solving skills. Furthermore, gaming facilitates all domains of learning [9]. Thalassemia is general genetic disorder found over the world, especially in Southeast Asia. Around 30-40% of Thai population carries thalassemia gene and around 1 % are thalassemia patients [11]. Therefore understanding of genetic inheritance will help young adults be aware of the disorder severity, make a decision to take a blood-screening test prior to their marriage, and choose a safe partner for safe conception or low risk for having children with Thalassemia [5]. The purposes of this study thus are: 1. To develop a series of game for promoting students understanding of genetic disorder. 2. To determine effectiveness of learning unit consists of a series of game to motivate students’ understanding and satisfaction. The research questions are as follows: 1. Does a series of game enhance students understanding of genetic disorder? 2. What is students’ satisfaction after implementing learning unit consists of a series of game?

Methodology and research design 1. Research design To determine the effectiveness of learning unit consists of a series of games on genetic disorder, pre/post-test control group design was adopted. Seventy-one grade 12 students from two classrooms in an eastern Thailand public-school participated in this 268

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study. All students had learned this topic by traditional approach at secondary school. The two classrooms were grouped into an experimental group comprising 33 students (E1) and control group (C1) comprising 38 students by purposive sampling. To assess students’ understanding of genetic disorder inheritance, genetic disorder conceptual test, worksheet activity and students’ report were used. Groups E1 and C1 did a pre-conceptual test one week before implementation. There were two-hour implementation period, group C1 used traditional approach while group E1 used an intervention following 5E learning cycle model. Finally post-conceptual test and questionnaire immediately administered after the implementation to both groups. Classroom observation was collected during two-hour implementation period. Moreover semi-structured interview was used to assess students’ satisfaction at the end.

2. A learning unit on genetic disorder A learning unit was developed based on 5 E learning cycle model which is based on research oriented constructivist learning theory and experimental activities [8]. 5E model enables learning a new concept or trying to understand a concept that has been known indepth. Students use their prior knowledge in discovering new concepts for the concepts to gain a meaning. A series of games in this study consists of pedigree game and thalassemia card game which were used as hands-on activity during engagement and exploration phase, respectively. Pedigree game was used to explore students’ prior knowledge of basic principles of inheritance while thalassemia card game was used to enhance learning about thalassemia, one of genetic disorder, by applying knowledge in variety of problem-solving situation. The 5E learning unit on genetic disorder is summarized bellowed. Learning step

Time (min)

Engagement

20

Exploration

30

Explanation

25

Elaboration

25

Evaluation

20

Learning activity - Engage students into learning by using pedigree games. - Debrief after game over. - Each group of students learns thalassemia through the problemsolving situation in thalassemia card game. There is a fact sheet providing an information need in the game. - Students are encouraged to share what they have learned in small groups, and in the whole class. - Teacher acts as facilitator to help students to discuss together. - Students are asked to do worksheet about other genetic disorders. - Teacher acts as facilitator to help students to answer those questions. - Each group of students is asked to do report as homework. The report consists of information of selected genetic disorder and the scenario story related to the disease. They have to draw a pedigree diagram from that story and also include genotype, phenotype, and the probability of inheritance in the report.

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3. Tools and data analysis Triangulation method was used in this study. The students’ understanding was evaluated by using pre/post genetic disorder conceptual test, worksheet activity, students’ report, whereas students’ satisfaction was evaluated by questionnaire, classroom observation and semi-structured interview. Tools used in this study are;

3.1 Genetic disorder conceptual test Genetic disorder conceptual test (the reliability test score using Cronbach's alpha for the overall value = 0.55) includes two parts; fifteen multiple-choice questions and five two-tier questions for assess students’ understanding in three categories, (1) Mendel’s law, (2) genetic inheritance, and (3) probability of inheritance. Pre- conceptual test was administrated to student one week before implementation. The same genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test was used as post-test after the implementation. To analyze genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test score, t-test was used to determine the difference gained scores between two groups by SPSS program version 20.

3.2 Worksheet activity and report Worksheet activity was administered during the elaboration phase. A supposed story contains genetic disorder inheritance and genetic disorder’s knowledge is included in worksheet. Each student was asked to draw a pedigree diagram, calculate probability of inheritance, and determine genotype and phenotype of each generation after reading the story. During evaluation phase, each group of students was asked to do report as homework. The report consists of information of selected genetic disorder and the scenario story related to the disease. They had to draw a pedigree diagram from that story, calculate the probability of inheritance, and determine genotype and phenotype of each generation in the same way of worksheet activity. Worksheet activity and report were analyzed by using rubric score with the maximum point of 20 and 25, respectively.

3.3 Questionnaire on satisfaction The questionnaire on satisfaction of the learning unit was developed. The 14-item questionnaire with Cronbach's alpha of 0.89 consists of three criteria: perception of genetic disorder game on knowledge, perception on amusement and perception on genetic disorder game on daily life. Questionnaire was used the Likert scales: I totally agree (5), I mostly agree (4), I do not know (3), I mostly disagree (2) and I totally disagree (1). The questionnaire was analyzed by using descriptive statistic.

3.4 Semi-structured interview Five voluntarily students were participated in semi-structured interview consisting the questions to determine perception on knowledge, satisfaction of students and improvement of a learning unit. The interview data was recorded by tape-recorder and fully transcribe. Data from interview was analyzed by using thematic approach. 270

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3.5 Classroom observation This study used naked eyes and took note to observe the behaviors and responses of the students during implementation. Data from classroom observation and students’ response was analyzed by using thematic approach.

Results 1. Results on students’ understanding 1.1 Genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test The results of 71 students from group E1 and C1 on genetic disorder inheritance conceptual test was shown in table 1. Table 1: Mean scores of pre-test and post-test on genetic disorder inheritance conceptual Group

N

C1 E1

38 33

Mean ± SD Pre-test 10.31 ± 3.15 12.48 ± 2.93

Post-test 15.61 ± 2.61 18.76 ± 2.66

The differences of gained scores between two groups by using t-test revealed that group E1 gained statistically higher score than group C1 (p-value = 0.00, α = 0.05).

1.2 Worksheet activity and report Worksheet score was given based on the extent and depth of knowledge of four categories (5 points per category); concept of pedigree, probability of inheritance, Mendelian inheritance, phenotype and genotype. The report score was also given as the same as worksheet score except the genetic disorder concept was added. The average scores from worksheet and report of six groups were given in table 2. The mean score on each category in worksheet ranges from 3.73 to 4.33 (out of total of 5) whereas in report ranges from 3.83 to 4.83 (out of total of 5). Table 2: Average scores of worksheet activity and report Individual average score Criteria (Mean ± SD) 1. Concept of pedigree 2. Probability of inheritance 3. Mendelian inheritance 4. Phenotype, genotype 5. Concept of genetic disorder (only student’s report) Total

Groups report average score (Mean ± SD)

4.33 ± 0.69 3.73 ± 0.57 4.24 ± 0.79 4.06 ± 0.75

4.17 ± 0.75 3.83 ± 0.75 4.67 ± 0.52 3.83 ± 0.75

-

4.83 ± 0.41

16.36 ± 1.75

21.33 ± 2.34

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2. Results on students’ satisfaction The mean score of student’s perception from questionnaire was shown in table 3. The highest mean scores were perception on amusement (4.17 ± 0.13), especially in motivate learning. The second was perception on genetic disorder game on daily life (3.95 ± 0.10), the highest mean scores in this criterion was a learning unit help to plan and protect genetic disorder in their offspring. The latter was on perception of genetic disorder game on knowledge (3.89 ± 0.10) with the highest mean scores in helping students to link prior knowledge to the new knowledge. Table 3: Average scores and standard deviations of student perception from questionnaire Criteria Average score (Mean ± SD) 1. Perception of genetic disorder game on knowledge

3.89 ± 0.10

2. Perception on amusement 3. Perception on genetic disorder game on daily life

4.17 ± 0.13 3.95 ± 0.10

From semi-structured interview of five volunteer students, most of them were satisfied with the learning unit. They agreed that game help them to link and construct their knowledge. Most students (about 80%) stated that they received the knowledge in genetic disorder inheritance and thalassemia disease from a series of games. They agreed that game could help them to recall and built up their knowledge. Excerpts from the interview are as followed: “I gained knowledge from playing the pedigree game. Pedigree game helped me to illustrate the order of inheritance which supported me to predict probability of inheritance, to write genotype and phenotype of offspring.” “I gained knowledge about causes, type, symptoms, prevention and treatments of thalassemia from playing the thalassemia card game. It let me to think about the future when I married.” Moreover most students were satisfied with the learning unit. They stated that learning by using games was interesting and appealing. They preferred learning by game to traditional approach within every discipline as shown in following excerpts: “I think learning by using game made me more interesting in the classroom. From usual, teacher only taught in the front of the class, I felt bored and slept. But herein this learning unit I did actively work with friends as teamwork.” “I prefer to learn by using game in every subject because when I learned by traditional way teacher just only talk, sometime I didn’t understand and it made me bore. In the other hand when I learned by using game I felt fun and happy” In addition, students realized the importance of learning genetic inheritance on their daily life as followed excerpts: “I can made my family’s pedigree and calculated the probability of my family” “I gained knowledge about thalassemia and I can suggest other people how to prevent and treat thalassemia” The observation result supported above conclusion. All students paid attention to do activities, listening and studying during implementation period. A series of game supported students working as teamwork as observed by their interaction to reach a goal, discussion within and between groups, and asking help from teacher during game playing.

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Discussion and Conclusion This study presents a series of herein developed games to promote students’ understanding of genetic disorders and their learning motivation and to determine the effectiveness of the learning concept. The developed learning concept was experimented on 33 grade 12 students, hence grouped into the experimental group while the traditional way of learning was applied to 38 grade 12 students of the same school being the control group. All participants scored low in the pre-test of genetic disorders. After being taught, the post-test scores of all students were increased. However, the t-test results showed that scores of experimental group were significantly higher than of the control group. The worksheet and the report scores also supported our finding of advancement in understanding in the experimental group. We therefore conclude the superiority of the game learning concept for studying genetic disorder inheritance over the traditional lecture method. This is supported by previous studies (Fratto and Morris [9] and Klassen and Willoughby [12]). It was proposed that an effective game helped students understand concepts more quickly and remember them better than from a lecture. Furthermore it can improve the learning achievements and learning attitudes of students [19]. The results from the questionnaire, the semi-structured interview, and the classroom observation showed a similar high degree of satisfaction toward the game learning concept. Students felt happy and enjoyed learning through a series of games. Similarly, Li and Cruz [14] showed that all students positively perceived the teachings using games as a refreshing way of instruction that contributes to the students’ cognitive development. Games allow students to experience ways of learning that focuses on the immersion in practice leading to expertise, critical thinking, problem solving ability, and innovative thinking. Akinsola [1], found that computer simulation based on gaming is an important method of teaching which affects students’ achievement in and attitude towards mathematics. However, not every game could improve students’ attitude toward learning. A previous studies concluded that computer game-based instruction did not enhance the attitudes of students towards learning more than multimedia PowerPoint instruction [19]. The results of this study could be used to confirm several other findings that an effective game can help students understand concepts better than the traditional lecture. The games are tools to promote a positive attitude and motivate students in learning. For successful implementation of this learning concept, teachers have to consider students’ prior knowledge, especially of the pedigree concept unless engagement could not truly engage the students. When a barrier is being created limitations in learning occurs.

Acknowledgements This study was supported by the conference fees from the Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand.

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Becker, J. C., & Wade, M. (2004). Got game: How the gamer generation is reshaping business forever. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Brevard Public Schools. (2011). 21st Century Integrated Science. Retrieved from http://www.brevard.k12.fl.us/index.html Chaimung, G. (2009). Thalassemia Education for Thai High School Students: Evaluation Tool (Ph.D. thesis, University of Illinois, Chicago, United State of America). Retrieved from http://www.grin.com/en/doc/278028/thalassemiaeducation-for-thai- high-school-students evaluation-tool. Cheng, G. (2009). Using game making pedagogy to facilitate student learning of interactive multimedia. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(2), 204-220. Duncan, R.G., & Reiser, B.J. (2007). Reasoning across ontologically distinct levels: students’ understandings of molecular genetics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44, 938–959. Ergin, I., Kanli, U., & Unsal, Y. (2008). An Example for the Effect of 5E Model on the Academic Success and Attitude Levels of Students’: “Inclined Projectile Motion”. Journal of Turkish Science Education, 5(3), 47-59. Fratto, V. A., & Morris, R. (2011). Enhance Student Learning with PowerPoint Games: Using Twenty Questions to Promote Active Learning in Managerial Accounting. International Journal of Information and Communication Technology Education, 7(2), 13-20. Haambokoma, C. (2007). Nature and causes of learning difficulties in genetics at high school level in Zabia. Journal of Interaction Development and Cooperative, 13(1), 1-9. Infectious and vectors of diseases center. (2002). Basic Knowledge of Thalassemia. Retrieved from http://webdb.dmsc.moph.go.th/ifc_nih/ez_001_001.asp Klassen, J. K., & Willoughby, A. K. (2003). In-Class Simulation Games: Assessing Student Learning. Journal of Information Technology Education, 2, 113. Lewis, J., & Kattmann, U. (2004). Traits, genes, particles and information: revisiting students’ understanding of genetics. International Journal of Science Education, 26(2), 195-206 Li, C., & Cruz, A. (2008). Pre-service PE teachers' occupational socialization experiences on teaching games for understanding. New Horizons in Education, 56(3), 20-30. Mbajiorgu, N., Ezechi, N., & Idoko, C. (2006). Addressing nonscientific presuppositions in genetics using a conceptual change strategy. Science Education, 419-438. McKeachie, W. (1994). Teaching tips: Strategies, research, and theory for college and university teachers. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company. Pacific Policy Research Center. (2010). 21st Century Skills for Students and Teachers. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools, Research & Evaluation Division. Tsui, C., & Treagust, D. F. (2003). Genetics reasoning with multiple external representations. Research in Science Education, 33, 111-135. Yien, J. M., Hung, C. M., Hwang, G. J., & Lin, Y. C. (2011). A Game-Based Learning Approach to Improving Students’ Learning Achievements in a Nutrition Course. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(2), 1-10.

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Impact of Game-based Learning upon Flow Experience and Cognitive Load Chih-Hung Laia, Hsiang-Hsuan Liua*, Chih-Ming Chua ,Yung-Chih Chengb Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Dong-Hwa University, Taiwan b Department of English, National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan1, Sec. 2, Da Hsueh Rd., Shou-Feng, Hualien, Taiwan, 974, Republic of China [email protected] a

Abstract: The study aims at probing into the impact of game-based learning upon ‘Flow Experience’ and ‘Cognitive Load’ to expectedly introduce the attractiveness of computer games into computer-assisted learning and to further create an active learning environment for learners. The content of learning was English vocabulary, and the subjects were 5th graders. The participants were divided into three groups, Computer Game (CG) group, Game-Based Learning (GBL) group, and Computer-Assisted Learning (CAL) group. Two experiments were carried out measuring the scale of flow experience and cognitive load. The result shows that the flow experience and the cognitive load of the CG and GBL group was higher than that of the CAL group in the first experiment. There was no significant difference between any two of the three groups in the second experiment. Keywords: Game-based learning, Flow experience, Cognitive load

Introduction ‘Computer-Assisted Learning’ (CAL) has become increasingly common in the present era when computer technology was full of vitality and application. CAL has certain advantages, such as improving the academic results, enhancing the learning attitude, advancing the learning outcome of students [1-2], and appear be rather attractive in the beginning, the concentration. However, concentration, and freshness of the students involved start to decline when the frequency of operating the program increases. In light of that, other mechanisms were required to assist students in learning actively. “The next management generation will be one gaming generation”[3];computer games were already everywhere from the society to the mass media, even in the schools [4]. They were able to stimulate internal motivation, to enhance interests, to retain memories, and to offer practice, feedback, and high-level thinking [5]. They were also regarded as contests, challenges, or tests for technical competence [6], which were the key factors creating the flow [7]. A great deal of studies have proved that computer games were no longer a pastime but something beneficial to learning [8-11]. Commercial games for instance were conductive to visual-spatial skills [12] as well as concepts [13]; educational games can help establish mathematical concepts [14], develop health education [15-16], and learning of mechanical engineering [17]. If to learn something by playing games, then learning something through playing games was a good learning method [18]. The incorporation of computer games into learning has received many good academic reviews. For instance, the learning with computer games on the one hand is associated with practice, imagination, and rules; on the other hand, gaming requires constant and repeated operations for completion [19]. Furthermore, the repetitive process in question can deepen the effectiveness of learning [20], give students the power of control and the sense of achievement [21], enhance active participation and competitive learning to further strengthen the learning outcome [22], and provide students 275

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with learning methods that are more interesting than conventional textbooks [23]. More and more school teachers incorporate computer games into their classroom as teaching material [24-25] due to the fact that computer games can assist them in offering guiding strategies and teaching decisions, accomplishing teaching/learning objectives, facilitating teamwork, and stimulating students [26] while engaging students in active learning to further create a collective learning mood [27-28]. Previous studies also discovered that students, who had learned with computer games, showed higher learning motivation [20], and stronger self-esteem when compared to those without gaming[29-31]. This was explained by the sound and the special effects of computer games that caught their attention easily [32], the images and the plots aroused their feelings and therefore created the flow [33]. Since elementary school students are particularly attracted to computer games [34], the incorporation of computer games into elementary school education is expected to improve the learning outcome [35]. However, studies on the impact of the learning by computer games upon the flow experience and the cognitive load have been rarely conducted so far or were focussed only on the comparisons between the two groups [2-36]. Based on self-designed and developed computer game systems, this study divided its subjects into three groups, ‘Computer Game’ (CG) group, ‘Game-Based Learning’ (GBL) group, and ‘Computer-Assisted Learning’ (CAL) group, all undergoing two experiments to know whether or not the incorporation of computer games in the classroom can increase students’ flow experience, and whether or not the repeated operations of the game-based learning system can still give students the flow experience and therefore catch their attention. This study also aims to find out the impact of such incorporation upon the cognitive load, and whether or not there was any difference between the flow experience of the CG group and that of the GBL group.

1. Literature review 1.1 Game-Based Learning and Flow Theory The term, ‘Flow Theory’ was presented by Csikszentmihalyi, who defined the flow as ‘the holistic experience that people feel when they act with total involvement’ [37]. The theory was then modified by Massimini and Carli [7] to become a model applied to studies of the flow experience, in which the degree of match between individual skills and challenges was regarded as the major factor creating individual flow experience whereas the state of equilibrium between low skills and low challenges not only prevented the acquisition of the flow experience, but also created boring experience. In other words, the flow experience occurs only when the balance was reached between high skills and high challenges [38]. Csikszentmihalyi [39] concluded in his theory that eight factors contribute would to the flow state; they are: clear goals and unambiguous feedback, challenge-skills balance, concentration on task, sense of control, action-awareness merging, loss of self-consciousness, altered sense of time, and autotelic experience. Sherry [40] stated that computer games could create that flow experience. Computer games were in fact the most powerful activity in terms of ‘Flow State’ for there were four parts involved: (1) computer games have clear and definite goals and rules, (2) computer games can be manually or automatically adjusted to suitable levels based on the competence of individual players, (3) computer games give concrete feedback through constantly increased scores, collection of treasure, and rate of progress, and (4) computer games have a large number of virtual images and sound effects to increase the concentration of individual players; all four factors can assist players in getting into the flow state [40]. Choi and Kim [41] also found the activities stated in Csikszentmihalyi’s flow theory closer to computer 276

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games. Since most previous studies employed ‘Concentration’, ‘Sense of Control’, and ‘Enjoyment’ as the criteria for assessing whether or not students had acquired their flow experience [42], this study chose the same constructs as well.

1.2 Game-Based Learning and Cognitive Load The game may lead to higher interest in learning computer-assisted learning, but also cause negative effects such as cognitive load. Sweller proposed in the 1980s ‘Cognitive Load Theory’ as one theoretic structure to explore the cognitive process, and for teaching design as well [43]. Since the theory particularly focuses on the close relationship between the working memory load and the design of teaching. Cognitive load was included of extraneous, intrinsic, and germane. [44] Each of these types would affect learning. Reducing irrelevant activities will reduce cognitive load and increase comprehension [45]. This study aims to find out if the incorporation of computer games into learning affects students’ cognitive load through identifying both extraneous and intrinsic mindsets of students, who want to challenge the missions in computer games [46].

2. Methods 2.1 Participants Since this study aims to probe the impact of game-based learning on the flow experience and the cognitive load, three groups (CG, GBL, and CAL) were involved in the experiments, whose 76 subjects were 5th graders from three classes of some elementary school in Taipei City (see Table 1. for the grouping). To understand whether repeated using influences the extent of the flow experience and cognitive load, there were two experiments conducted in two consecutive weeks – one in each week – with the exact same procedure, i.e. explaining how to operate the system, playing the computer game for five minutes, and ask students to fill out both ‘flow experience scale’ and ‘cognitive load scale’ right after playing the game. Prior to the start of the game, GBL and CAL groups have practiced vocabulary learning system. Table 1. Grouping Groups boy girl total

CG 15 13 28

GBL 13 11 24

CAL 12 12 24

2.2 Game-Based Learning System The game-based learning system (see Fig. 1) was written by Microsoft C# and consists of six marked areas order by (1) to (6). The scenario of game system was similar to the gems game. The aim was to erase three of the same color blocks. If player was fail to answer (or input) the right word, the system will let these blocks undeletable. Before the game start, the system presents the English vocabulary for learners to learn. Area (1) displays Cloze Tests, word classes, and Chinese explanations of the English words produced by the system as questions, Area (2) is where the students key in their answers, i.e. English words, Area (3) displays the students’ 277

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general information, Area (4) displays game-related information, such as clocking, scores, number of blocks, number of correct answers, levels, and rate of accuracy, Area (5) displays the next block coming, and Area (6) displays the game. Different combinations of the above six areas were represented three different interfaces for the three groups. The game-based learning group consist of game and English vocabulary test (ie, (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) six areas combined). The computer game group just game without the English vocabularies test (ie, (3) (5) (6) three areas combined). The computer-assisted learning group had no game, just let the learners did the English vocabulary test (ie, (1) (2) (3) (4) four areas combined).

Fig. 1. Game-Based Learning system

2.3 Measures This study employs ‘Flow Experience Scale’ and ‘Cognitive Load Scale’ to measure the flow experience and the cognitive load of the three groups. The ‘Flow Experience Scale’ containing three constructs, ‘Concentration,’ ‘Sense of Control,’ and ‘Enjoyment,’ was developed based on the scales of Pearce, Ainley and Howard (2005). This particular scale was a Likert-type 7-point scale ranging from ‘Strongly matched’ (7 points) to ‘Strongly Unmatched’ (1 point) and reviewed by 10 experts in order to acquire satisfying expert validity. Furthermore, having deleted the items whose Cronbach α<0.7, this scale contains seven items with an entire consistency of Cronbach α = 0.907; the Cronbach α of the three constructs were ‘Concentration’ = 0.801, ‘Sense of Control’ = 0.820, and ‘Enjoyment’ = 0.720. The ‘Cognitive Load Scale’ was also a Likert-type 7-point scale adopted from Sung (2000). This scale contains two items ranging from ‘Extremely Difficult’ (7 points) to ‘ Extremely Easy’ (1 point) for Question 1; from ‘Strongly Agree’ (7 points) to ‘Strongly Disagree’ (1 point) for Question 2, and reviewed by ten experts as well for satisfying expert validity.

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3. Results The finding of this study, i.e. the data collected from both the flow experience scale and the cognitive load scale has been statistically analyzed via One-way ANOVA. If the homogeneity test showed no significance, LSD was used for the post hoc test; otherwise, Dunnett T3 was used. The statistics software was SPSS (version 19.0). Table 2 and Tables 3 show the three groups’ statistics of the flow experience from both experiments. The results of the three groups from both experiments were significant (F = 7.428**, 10.838***). The post hoc test results show that the flow experience of both CG group (M = 39.4444, M = 37.8846) and GBL group (M = 34.4545, M = 35.3750) were significantly higher than that of the CAL group (M = 27.6522, M = 24.0435). In order to probe into the change of the flow experience in both experiments, ANOVA was also applied to the three constructs; the results show that the flow experience of all three constructs from both experiments were significant (Concentration, F = 3.799**, F = 8.296**; Sense of Control, F = 5.403**, F = 7.413**; Enjoyment, F=9.302***, F=12.493***). Table 4 and Table 5 show the three groups’ statistics of the cognitive load from both experiments. The results show that only the first experiment was significant (F = 7.385**, F = 1.897). The post hoc test results show that the cognitive load of both GBL group (M = 8.3636, M = 7.2500) and CAL group (M = 8.3478, M = 7.9130) were significantly higher than that of the CG group (M = 5.9630, M = 6.5769). Table 2. Comparison of flow experience in the first experiment. Items Groups Number Average SD Concentration CG 27 11.3704 2.45181 GBL 22 12.6364 10.50871 CAL 23 7.6522 3.77322 Sense of Control CG 27 11.5556 2.35884 GBL 22 9.0000 3.54562 CAL 23 9.0435 3.58632 Enjoyment CG 27 16.5185 4.04180 GBL 22 12.8182 4.43618 CAL 23 10.9565 5.48119 Total of flow CG 27 39.4444 7.92917 GBL 22 34.4545 13.00816 CAL 23 27.6522 11.37625 *pCAL CG>GBL

9.302*** CG>CAL CG>GBL 7.428**

CG>CAL GBL>CAL

Chih-Hung Lai, Hsiang-Hsuan Liu, Chih-Ming Chu,Yung-Chih Cheng (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Table 3. Comparison of flow experience in the second experiment. Items Groups Number Average SD F Concentration CG 26 10.3846 2.88551 8.296** GBL 24 10.2500 2.45392 CAL 23 6.7826 4.69968 Sense of Control CG 26 11.1538 2.64866 7.413** GBL 24 9.7500 2.41823 CAL 23 7.6087 4.36660 Enjoyment CG 26 16.3462 4.57771 GBL 24 15.3750 3.94321 12.493*** CAL 23 9.6522 6.26396 Total of flow CG 26 37.8846 9.65537 10.838*** GBL 24 35.3750 8.21352 CAL 23 24.0435 14.29392 **pCAL

CG>CAL GBL>CAL CG>CAL GBL>CAL

Post hoc GBL>CG CAL>CG

Table 5. Comparison of flow cognitive load in the second experiment. Item Groups Number Average SD F Cognitive load CG 26 6.5769 2.30084 1.897 GBL 24 7.2500 2.36367 CAL 23 7.9130 2.53902 Total 73 7.2192 2.42811

4. Discussions and Conclusions This study conducted two experiments with 5th graders probing their learning of English vocabulary via a self-designed and developed computer game system and covering three learning groups; ‘Computer Game,’ ‘Game-Based Learning,’ and ‘Computer-Assisted Learning’. The experiments probe into the impact of game-based learning upon the flow experience and the cognitive load. The result shows that under the circumstance of using the system repeatedly, the (computer) game-based learning was more attractive than the computer-assisted learning. As long as the game’s approach to learning was the highest concentration. The CG was highest in the sense of control but after the second sense of control of the GBL was comparable to CG. Although, the CG maintained a high fun-factor, the GBL in the reuse the system, its enjoyment comparable to the CG. The comparison and analysis of the first ‘Flow Sum’ from the flow experience shows no significant difference between the CG and the GBL group; the CAL group was significantly different from the CG and the GBL group. The second flow sum shows no difference to the first one. The comparison and analysis of the first ‘Flow Experience’ shows 280

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no significant difference between the CG and the GBL group; the CAL group was significantly different from the CG and GBL groups. The second flow experience shows no difference from the first one; in other words, increasing the frequency of playing games does not affect ‘Flow Experience’. The first comparison and analysis of ‘Concentration’ shows no significant difference between the CG and the GBL group; the CAL group was significantly different to the CG and GBL groups. The second comparison and analysis is invariant to the first one; therefore, increasing the frequency of playing games does not affect ‘Concentration’. The first comparison and analysis of ‘Sense of Control’ shows significant differences between the CG and the GBL group; the CAL group was not significantly different from the CG and the GBL group; the second comparison and analysis shows the same result. Since the operation of the GBL interface was more difficult than that of the CG, the sense of control was lower. The first comparison and analysis of ‘Enjoyment’ shows significant differences between the CG and the GBL group, CG and CAL group as well; no significant difference between the GBL and the CAL group. The second comparison and analysis shows significant differences between the CG and the CAL group, GBL and CAL group as well; no significant difference between the CG and the GBL group. Since the operation of the GBL interface was more difficult, the enjoyment of the subjects would be jeopardized in the beginning due to unfamiliarity, but slightly increased during the second operation. The first comparison and analysis of ‘cognitive load’ shows significant differences between the CG and the GBL group, CG and CAL group as well; no significant difference between the GBL and the CAL group. The second comparison and analysis shows no significant difference at all. Increasing the frequency of using computers reduces the differences between any two of the three groups in terms of cognitive load. Hence, a rule of thumb could be formed stating that the more familiar the subjects were with the system, the lower the cognitive load. If more experiments could be conducted or more game types added, it was highly likely to observe more changes in terms of both flow experience and cognitive load. In addition, if a specific factor, typing speed, could be excluded from the experiments, the data collected would be more accurate.

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[10] Shaffer, D. W. (2004). Pedagogical prxis: The professions as models for post-industrial education. Teachers College Record,106(7), 1401-1421. [11] Shaffer, D. W., Squire, K., Halverson, R., & Gee, J. P. (2008). Video games and the future of learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(2),104-111. [12] Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2007). Action-video-game experience alters the spatial resolution of vision. Psychological Science, 18(1), 88-94. [13] Boot, W. R., Kramer, A. F., Simons, D. J., Fabiani, M., & Gratton, G. (2008). The effects of video game playing on attention, memory, and executive control. Acta Psychologica, 129(3), 387-398. [14] Kebritchi, M., Hirumi, A., & Bai, H. (2010). The effects of modern mathematics computer games on mathematics achievement and class motivation. Computers & Education, 55(2), 427–443. [15] Bartholomew, L. K., Gold, R. S., Parcel, G. S., Czyzewski, D. I., Sockrider, M. M., Fernandez, M., . . . Swank, P. (2000). Watch, Discover, Think, and Act: evaluation of computer-assisted instruction to improve asthma self-management in inner-city children. Patient Education and Counseling, 39(2-3), 269-280. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991(99)00046-4 [16] Kato, P. M., Cole, S. W., Bradlyn, A. S., & Pollock, B. H. (2008). A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 122(2), 305–317. [17] Coller, B. D., & Scott, M. J. (2009). Effectiveness of using a video game to teach a course in mechanical engineering. Computers & Education, 53(3), 900–912. [18] Ang C. S., & Radha K. R., (2003), Theories of Learning: A Computer Game Perspective, the IEEE Fifth International Symposium on Multimedia Software Engineering, Multimedia Univ., Selangor, Malaysia. [19] Forst, J. L., Wortham, S. C., & Reifel, S. (2001). Play and child development. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. [20] Ebner, M. & Holzinger, A. (2007). Successful implementation of user-centered game based learning in higher education: An example from civil engineering. Computers & Education, 49(3),873–890. [21] Selnow, G. W., & Reynolds, H. (1984). Some opportunity costs of television viewing. Journal of Broadcasting, 28(3), 315-322. [22] Alessi, S. M., & Trollip, S. R. (1985). Computer-based instruction: Methods and development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. [23] Z. C. Embi and H. Hussain(2005), Analysis of local and foreign edutainment products - An effort to implement the design framework for an edutainment environment in Malaysia. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching, 24(1), 27-42,. [24] Futurelab. (2009). NFER teacher voice omnibus February 2009 survey using computer games in the classroom. Bristol: Futurelab. [25] Groff, J., Howells, C., & Cranmer, S. (2010). The impact of console games in the classroom: Evidence from schools in Scotland. Learning. Bristol: Futurelab. [26] Faria, A.J., Hutchinson, D., Wellington, W.J., & Gold, S. (2009). Developments in business gaming: A review of the past 40 years. Simulation Gaming, 40(4), 464-487. [27] Oblinger D. (2004). The next generation of educational engagement, Journal of Interactive Media in Education, Retrieved from http://jime.open.ac.uk/jime/article/viewArticle/2004-8-oblinger/198 [28] Hsiao H. C. (2007). A brief review of digital games and learning. Paper appears in: the First IEEE International Workshop on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning(DIGITEL 2007), Jhongli, Taiwan. [29] Bryant, J., & Davies, J. (2006). Selective exposure to video games. In P. Vorderer & J. Bryant (Eds.). Playing computer games: Motives, responses, and consequences (pp. 181-194). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. [30] Grodal, T. (2000). Videogames and the pleasure of control. In D. Zillmann & P. Vorderer (Eds.). Media entertainment: The psychology of its appeal (pp. 197-213). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum. [31] Ryan, R. M., Rigby, C. S., & Przybylski, A. (2006). The motivational pull of video games: A self-determination theory approach. Motivation and Emotion, 30(4), 347-363. [32] Sweetser, P. & Wyeth, P. (2005). Gameflow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. ACM Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), 1-24. [33] Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. New York: McGraw-Hill. [34] Lenhart, A., & Kahne, J. (2008). Teens, video games, and civics. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2008/Teens-Video-Games-and-Civics.aspx. [35] Huang, Z. & Cappel, J. (2005). Assessment of a Web-Based Learning Game in an Information Systems Course. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 45(4), 42-49. [36] Garris, R., Ahlers. R. & Driskell, J.(2002). Games, motivation, and learning: a research and practice model. Simulation & Gaming, 33(4), 441-467. [37] Csikszentmihalyi, M.(1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 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[39] Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row. [40] Sherry, John L. (2004). Flow and Media Enjoyment. Communication Theory, 14(4), 328-347. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00318.x [41] Choi, D., & Kim, J.(2004). Why people continue to play online games: in search of critical design factors to increase customer loyalty to online contents. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7(1), 11-24. [42] Pearce, J.M., Ainley, M. & Howard, S. (2005). The Ebb and Flow of Online Learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(5), 745-771. [43] Paas, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J. (2003). Cognitive Load Theory and Instructional Design: Recent Developments. Educational Psychologist, 38(1), 1-4 [44] Sweller, J. (2010). Element interactivity and intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Educational Psychology Review, 22(2), 123-138. [45] Ray, P. (2012). The effects of time-compressed instruction and redundancy on learning and learners perceptions of cognitive load. Computers & Education, 58(1), 641-651. [46] Karla R. H. (2012). Stochastic Frontier Estimation of Efficient Learning in Video Games. Computers & Education, 58(1), 534-541.

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Developing multimedia for hearing-impaired children in Reum An-re, a famous folk dancing of Surin province Wijittra POTISARNa, Nawuttagorn POTISARNb a Computer Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology ISAN, Surin Campus, Surin, Thailand b Computer Technology, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Surindra Rajabhat University, Surin, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: A multimedia courseware has been developed to help hearing-impaired children understand Reum An-re, a famous folk dancing of Surin province. The purposes of this work were to develop the educational multimedia of Reum An-re for hearing-impaired children and investigate the satisfaction level of participating children. The multimedia included text, graphics, photography, sound, video, and animation. However, the audio instruction was expected to have little benefit for the hearing-impaired children. The multimedia was scrutinized by experts to verify the correctness of content. The sampling using purposive sampling consisted of 20 students who studied in the first semester of the academic year 2012 in the school for the deaf in Surin province. We found that the students’ satisfaction was good ( = 2.33). In conclusion, the hearing-impaired children knew more about Reum An-re of Surin Province after the multimedia instruction. Equally important, they enjoyed learning and playing with the assistance of multimedia. Keywords: Reum An-re of Surin province, hearing-impaired children, multimedia

Introduction Reum An-re is a famous type of folk dancing of Surin province. The dancing is performed in Surin Elephant Roundup & Red Cross Fair almost every year [4]. Although, there were many forms of multimedia presentations of the Reum An-re such as video, song or text, they were designed for people without hearing disability. If a hearing-impaired person wishes to learn Reum An-re, they can only read the text or watch the video. The hard-of-hearing children need to know more about the traditional dancing of Surin and, therefore, need to be taught. There were many studies about teaching and multimedia for hearing-impaired children. For example, Sangtong [6] which said that the animation was used to develop an instruction media for loss-of-hearing children found the result of an extensive imagination of children that would be with them forever. In addition, it could describe as a complex step or procedure that could be easier to understand. Moreover, Wachirakomen (2010) has developed a multimedia of Thai sign language in computer words for hearing-impaired students. It was found that the multimedia also was 284

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verified by the experts who perform to determine the correction of content and multimedia. Furthermore, the level of children’s’ satisfaction with the multimedia was good. From the studies above, the teaching of Reum An-re, using the multimedia for hearing-impaired children would be beneficial. Resulting from the passing down from generation to generation of Reum An-re it would continue and be visible. Teachers of traditional dancing should teach their own children Reum An-re and in so doing, keep alive the tradition in Surin province. [4] For this reason, this research developed a multimedia for hard-of-hearing children in Reum An-re of Surin Province. In addition, this research studied the satisfaction of children with the multimedia. So that the hearing-impaired children will gain more understanding in the traditional way of dancing and enjoy learning and playing with the multimedia. Finally, Reum An-re will be kept alive in Surin province forever. 1. Purpose of research 1.1 1.2

To develop a multimedia of Reum An-re for hearing impaired children To study the satisfaction of children with the multimedia

2. Scope of research 2.1

Population

Childrens studied at the school for the deaf in Surin province. There were 337 students in the first semester of the academic year 2012. 2.2

Sample group

The sampling using purposive sampling consisted of 20 students. They studied in the first semester of the academic year 2012 in the school for the deaf in Surin province. 2.3

Content of Reum An-re

There are six steps of Reum An-re which have been shown in this research: Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong and Jeung Pir. However, there was no flail for dancing in the 3D animation. This study was only interested in the dancing steps. In addition, there were six videos from the teachers of the deaf which explain the 3D animation of the six steps of Reum An-re. 2.4

Type of Multimedia

There were six types of the multimedia such as text, graphics, photography, sound, video, and animation.

3. Literature Review 3.1

Reum An-re

Satanpong [7] said that Reum An-re or Lood An-re is a heritage of Thai people who are of Khmer lineage. They live in the South of Northeast Thailand such as Surin, Buriram, Sisaket, Roi-Et and Nakhonrachasima province. "Lood" means jumping or dancing. 285

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"An-re" means the flail. So that "Lood An-re" is translated as jumping with flail or dancing with the flail. Jantong [1] explained that the history of the dancing which had mostly free steps. The steps were designed to philander between a man and a woman while playing with the flails. Historically, there were only three steps; Jeung Mui, Malopdong and Jeung Pir. Later and remaining, until now, there are seven steps such as Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong, Jeung Pir and flexible moving. Jantong [1] described that Thaok is the first step where the dancers begin to move and dance around the flails. The second step is Prakumkru, which means the dancer's honors their teachers. Katpaka is the next step which means that they pick flowers for each other. The fourth step is Jeung Mui, which is stepping in and then out of the flails. The leading leg steps between the flails followed by the other leg crossing the flails to the opposite side, and the following leg comes out from between the flails. Malopdong completes the process by mimicking the movement of a coconut tree swaying in the wind. The sixth step is Jeung Pir which is stepping between the flails. The major leg such as left-side steps between the flails and the following leg such as a right side is placed beside the first leg. The main leg such as the left side then steps out from between the flails followed by the other leg. Finally, the flexible moving, or the free step which is walking between the flails in a random manner. Reum An-re’s costume is shown in Fig 1.

Fig 1. Reum An-re’s costume (Niwatbanharn, 2011) 3.2

Hearing-Impaired children

Nortshern and Downs (2002) defined that the hearing-impaired children include all children with hearing loss. Children who are handicapped to such an extent that some form of special education is required. Teresita et al. [8] said that the hearing impaired or disability refers to the reduced function or loss of the regular function of hearing mechanism. The impairment or disability limits person’s sensitivity to tasks like listening, understanding speech and speaking. Children engage in viewing activities to develop skills in understanding, learning, and examining various sources. They tried genres through interactions, live presentations, videos, contests, and other sources. [2] In conclusion, hearing-impaired children are children whose hearing loss or disability limits their ability to listening, understanding speech, and speaking. They need to develop their skills by using various different media.

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3.3

Multimedia

McGraw-Hill [3] said that multimedia was the combination of two or more media. The media comes in different forms: text, graphics, photography, sound, video and animation. See Fig 2

Fig 2. Disparate multimedia elements funneling into one unit [3] From Fig 2, it can be seen that one interactive multimedia includes graphics, animation, photography, sound, video, or text. In conclusion, the multimedia is a thing which consisted of at least two or more different media types. There is much media such as graphics, animation, photography, sound, video or text. 4. Methodologies The steps of development of this research were as follows: 4.1 Studying documents, research, or method 4.2 Analysis and design the multimedia such as character animation, scene, storyboard and framework. 4.3 Developing The first step was using motion capture to catch two dancers: a man and a woman. See Fig 3. The second was a creation of two models: the man and woman and drawing the scene. The matching data from motion capture and models together are the fourth step. The fifth step was animating the character animation with manual. The sixth step was composing image: scene and audio. The seventh step was rendering video of the teacher and the 3D animation. The eighth step was writing the explanation of Ruem An-re. Finally, the ninth step was making an interaction between the user and the program.

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4.4 4.5 4.6

Testing of the multimedia by experts in content and multimedia Fig 3. Using motion capture to catch two dancers: a man and a woman The results found that the verification of the content in total was good ( = 3.83). Moreover, the checking of multimedia in total was good ( = 3.85). Studying the satisfaction of hearing-impaired children to the multimedia

All participants watched the multimedia and received the questions from the teacher of the deaf. A summary of responses to questions was presented in Table 1. Students’ feedback and score from the program evaluation were presented in Table 2. The students rated their satisfaction using a 3-point scale (1= not good, 2=moderate, 3 = good). Table 1 Characteristics of participants Variable Sex Age

Period

Experience with Reum An-re

Girls Boys 7–9 10 – 12 13 – 15 16 – 18 More than 19 Prathom 1 - 3 Prathom 4 - 6 Mattayom 1 - 3 Mattayom 4 - 6 Never heard Heard but never dance Heard and used to dance

N 12 8 1 1 5 7 6 1 3 7 9 20 0 0

% 60 40 5 5 25 35 30 5 15 35 45 100 0 0

From Table 1, most students were female (0.60) and 16-18 years old (0.35). They studied in Mattayom 4 – 6 (0.45). Furthermore, there are 100% had no experience with Ruem An-re. They had never heard about it. 5. Results The result of this research were as follows: 5.1 5.2

User Interface design Designing was shown in Fig

4. The multimedia includes two parts of the main 288

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5.3

5.4

menu such as top menu and group of dancing. The top menu consists of The history, producer and cooperation. In addition, dancing group menu consist of six steps of Reum An-re; Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong and Jeung Pir. The window of explanation for each step can be seen in Fig 5.

Top Menu

Click for dancing

3

4

2

5 6

1

Fig 4. Main menu of the multimedia

Graphic

Text

Photography Video

3D animation Sound

5.5 5.6

Fig.5 Window of dancing in the first step, Thaok Explanation of 6 steps The explanation of Reum An-re steps found in Table 2.

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Table 2 Explanation of 6 steps 3D animation

Deaf Teacher

Step

Thaok

Table 2 Explanation of 6 steps (cont.) 3D animation

Deaf Teacher

Step

Prakumkru

Katpaka

Jeung Mui

Malopdong

Jeung Pir

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5.7

From Table 2, this research tested the multimedia by experts in content and multimedia. It was found that the average opinion of three experts in contents was 3.83. Moreover, the average of the multimedia verification was 3.85. In conclusion, the total of checking was good. 5.8 Moreover, it was found that the 3D animation was realistic when compared with the real picture and the dancing steps were correct and truly natural for Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong and Jeung Pir. 5.9 The satisfaction of hearing-impaired children to the multimedia 5.10 The sampling consisted of 20 students in the school for the deaf, Surin province. This research used purposive sampling. The result of satisfaction found in Table 3. Table 3 Result of satisfaction of hearing impaired children to the multimedia Items 1. Text easy to read 2. Proper alphabets 3. Proper background color 4. Proper alphabets color 5. Obvious videos 6. Obvious animation 7 Animation easy to watch 8 size of video 9. Understand more in Reum An-re 10. Proper time to present Total

x 2.00 2.00 2.40 2.75 2.75 1.95 2.05 2.00 1.90 2.50 2.23

S.D 0.00 0.00 0.88 0.55 0.55 0.22 0.51 0.00 0.31 0.51 0.55

Meaning good good good good good moderate good good moderate good good

5.11 From Table 3, the satisfaction of hearing-impaired children with the multimedia in total was good ( = 2.33). When each individual item was considered, we found that the proper ‘alphabets color' item and ‘obvious videos’ item was the highest average of all items ( = 2.75). 6. Results The research aimed to develop a multimedia learning of Reum An-re for hearing-impaired children and to study the satisfaction of children to the multimedia. The results found that the experts of content and multimedia verified that the 3D animation was realistic when compared with the real picture. Moreover, the six dancing steps, Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong and Jeung Pir were all lifelike. The multimedia includes six types of media such as graphics, animation, photography, sound, video, and text. Finally, the research tested the satisfaction of students and found that the total level of satisfaction was good ( = 2.33). They understood more about Reum An-re and know that there are six dancing steps. 7. Conclusion This study proposes a multimedia to help hearing–impaired children learn and understand a local traditional folk dance, in particular the Reun An-re of the Surin province. The multimedia learning presented the six steps of the dance, Thaok, Prakumkru, Katpaka, Jeung Mui, Malopdong, and Jeung Pir. The multimedia instruction comprised graphics, animation, photography, sound, video, and text. Finally, the students’ satisfaction with the multimedia in total was good. Equally important, the teacher of the deaf can use this 291

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multimedia courseware for teaching Reum An-re and in so doing, preserve the Surin traditional dancing for future generations. Acknowledgements This work was supported under grant by the faculty of Agriculture and Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology ISAN, Surin campus. References [1] Jantong, P. (2004). An Evolution of Ruem An-re. Thesis, Chulalongkorn University: Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. [2] Kansas State Department of Education. (2009). Guide to Education of Children who are Deaf or Hardod Hearing. Special Education Servives. Retrieved 21 July, 2012, from http://www.ksde.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=zx2msZjP5YQ%3D&tabid=3757&. [3] McGraw-Hill. Chapter 1 Introduction to Multimedia. Retrieved 21 July, 2012, from http://www.mhprofessional.com/downloads/products/007177064X/007177064x_chap01.pdf [4] Niwatbanharn, K. (2011). Learning Management of Traditional Thai Teacher generation 6. Ministry of Education: Office of the Education Council. [5] Northern, J. L., & Downs, M. P. (2001). Hearing in Children. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. [6] Sangtong, A. (2006). Animation Design for Sign Language of Number and Fruis. Chandrakasem Rajabhat University: Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. [7] Satanpong, Y. (2007). Lood An-re South ISAN tranditional Dancing. Retrieved 21 Mar, 2011, from http://www.muangboranjournal.com/modules.php?name=Sections&op=viewarticle& artid=159 [8] Teresita G. Inciong, Yolanda S. Quijano, & Yolanda T. Capulong. (2007). Introduction to Special Education’ 2007 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc.

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Effect of Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model on Students’ Conceptual Understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion Prapaporn SORNKHATHA, Niwat SRISAWASDI* Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand *[email protected]

Abstract: Currently, educational research provides promising evidence that the use of computer simulations can enhance students’ conceptual understanding of science. Building on this finding, simulation-based inquiry learning with Dual-situated Learning Model (DSLM) was developed and testing on grade 10 students. The students’ conceptual understanding was investigated using the pre/post-test approach and the retention test. The scoring showed that their conceptual understanding could be significantly increased after attending the simulation class. According to our findings, the method of simulation-based inquiry learning could be considered as a pedagogical tool for promoting student’s conceptual understanding. Keywords: DSLM, open inquiry, computer simulation, conceptual change

1. Introduction Newton’s laws of motion play a fundamental role in explaining real life physical phenomena such that these laws have been thaught at many levels of physics education such as primary school level, secondary school level and university level. Several researchers have designed and put into practice studies of the process of conceptual change through the teaching of the Newton’s laws of motion [1-4-6]. Previous studies reported that most students have misconceptions about Newton’s laws of motion. There are several factors making students poorly learning understanding on Newton’s laws of motion. For example, they had the negative attitude toward physics education. Time limitation of class discussion was also mentioned to be a main factor for students’ poor learning and conceptual understanding [5]. In addition, the inability to relate theoretical scientific knowledge with real life phenomena and experiences can stem from the weaknesses in conceptual understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion [6]. To take into account the above misconceptions, recent years have seen the development of a new research trend, in which efforts are made to use computers and technologies, as well as computer simulation, for teaching of the Three Laws of Newton. Based on the computer simulation, these developments could help students visualize the scientific phenomena and gain scientific conceptual understanding [11]. New research also seems to promote the development of conceptual change strategies during the teaching–learning process of Newton’s Laws of Motion because it can engage students to inquiry scientific concepts by adjusting variable values and observe effects to form 293

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conclusions by themselves [3-12]. Among teaching and learning methods/models in the recent years, the dual-situated learning model, which is proposed by She [8], could facilitate the conceptual change during the simulation-inquiry learning [12]. Consequently, in this study, the dual-situated learning model was used to frame the learning activities during the simulation, inquiry-based learning environment to facilitate the conceptual development of Newton’s Laws of Motion. In this paper, we focus on that part of research which concerns the development of the simulation, inquiry-based learning environment, implementation in the real science classroom for the secondary school students, and evaluation the learning outcome on Newton’s Laws of Motion.

2. Literature Review 2.1 Computer simulation for Newton’s Laws of Motion Over the past three decades, the study on conceptual change has been a major research area of science education (Duit & Treagust, 2003), especially on topic Newton’s Laws of Motion on both major and non-physics major by using computer simulation to develop students conceptions (Spyrtou, Hatzikraniotis, & Kariotoglou, 2009) [13]. From physics classroom studies, researchers concluded consentanously that the computer simulation could develop students’ conceptual learning on Newton’s Laws of Motion. Because, the developed computer simulations was used extensively as a visual representation tool to advocate presenting dynamic theoretical or simplified models of real-world components, phenomena, or processes, enabling students to observe and explore by changing variables, and receive immediate feedback about real objects, phenomena, and processes. However, computer simulation alone is not enough to eliminate misconception. It may need the instructional model to facilitate the conceptual change during the use of computer simulation [12].

2.2 The Dual-situated Learning Model (DSLM) for the Learning Process of Conceptual Change The Dual-situated Learning Model (DSLM) provides a unique direction to emphasize that the learning process of conceptual change should be situated in the nature of science concepts and students’ beliefs of these science concepts in order to determine, design, and instruct them essential mental sets needed for constructing a more scientific view of the concepts [8-9]. There are six stages of this model used for the scientific classroom teaching practice as follows [10]:  Stage 1 Examining the attributes of the science concept: the nature of scientific concepts is the crucial part of the dual-situated learning model that determines whether conceptual change can be achieved. These attributes of science concepts should be analyzed before the planning of dual situated learning events.  Stage 2 Probing students’ alternative scientific conceptions: students’ beliefs of scientific concepts are another crucial part of the dual-situated learning model, which determine whether conceptual change can be successful. These would pinpoint what alternative conceptions students have.  Stage 3 Analyzing mental sets that students lack: the nature of science concepts and students’ belief of science concepts provide the basis for determining particular mental sets students need for conceptual change. 294

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 Stage 4 Designing dual situated learning events: the design of each event needs to emphasize creating dissonance with students’ original beliefs of science concept, and providing a new mental set.  Stage 5 Instructing with dual situated learning events: during the instruction, each event allows students to confront their beliefs of science concepts, and stimulates their curiosity and interest by challenging their epistemological and ontological beliefs of science concepts. Moreover, each event also provides students new mental sets where knowledge reconstruction can occur.  Stage 6 Instructing with challenging situated learning event: the design of a challenging situated learning event needs to combine all of the particular mental sets that students previously lacked and that now have been reconstructed through a series of dual situated learning events.

3. Methods 3.1 Study Participants The participants of this study included 36 of Grade 10 students in a local public school in the Northeastern region of Thailand. They were attending a physics course at the basic education level and they were invited to participate in this research. The participants were aged 16 years. All of them did have satisfactory basic computer and information and communication technology skills but they had not any experience with using computer in physics learning before.

3.2 Domain of Conceptual Learning Events Based on DSLM instructional procedures, there were four designed learning events of laws of motion that used to cover students’ alternative conceptions of the concept consisting of: Newton’s first law (C1); Newton’s second law (C2(; Newton’s third law )C3(; and Integration of Newton’s laws of motion )C4).

3.3 The Interactive Computer-simulated Laboratory Environment based on Dual-situated Learning Model In this study, Yenka served as an interactive computer simulation, a conceptual tool for student’s inquiry learning in the laboratory environment. Based on the dual-situated learning instructional procedures, the interactive computer-simulated laboratory environment was developed to cover students’ alternative conceptions of Newton’s Laws of Motion as follows. Table 1 shows information details of Yenka simulation used for the Newton’s Laws of Motion learning in this study.

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Table 1. Details of computer-simulated laboratory environment for physics concepts of Newton’s laws of motion Code

Concept

C1

Newton’s First Law of Motion

C2

Newton’s Second Law of Motion

C3

Newton’s Third Law of Motion

C4

Integrated Newton’s Laws of Motion

Description

Illustrative example of computer simulation

After the students were probed their alternative concepts in this law, the interactive computer simulation was used to allow students to explore the visual representation of the interaction between time and velocity. After the students were probed their alternative concepts in this law, the interactive computer simulation was used to allow students to adjust force and mass of each object, then, they are asked to explore the simulation graph of each object. After the students were probed their alternative concepts in this law, the interactive computer simulation was used to allow students to adjust driving force of each object, then, they are asked to explore the simulation graph of each object to challenge their beliefs of the concepts Newton’s Third Law. The interactive simulation was designed for a challenging situated learning event that combines all of the particular mental sets of three laws of Newton. The students were asked to adjust force and mass of each object, then, they were asked to explore the graph representation of the interaction between time and acceleration of each object.

3.4 Data Collection For investigating students’ conceptual abilities in this study, a series of open-ended question items was administered to examine their conceptual understanding before their attending with the SimIn-DSLM teaching method. The SimIn-DSLM method was implemented to them four three-hour weekly lecture in classroom and there were included four conceptual learning events on Newton’ laws of motion. After that, the same question items were administered to them again for exploring their existing conceptual understanding and also investigate the change of their conceptual understanding initiated by the intervention. Moreover, the same question items, one month after the post-test, were administered to them for examining their conceptual retention.

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3.5 Data Analysis To investigate impacts of the SimIn-DSLM teaching method on students’ conceptual learning of the laws of motion, both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were conducted for verification. For analysis of students’ conceptual understanding on laws of motion, the content analysis was primarily used for writing a protocol of their answers to each open-ended question item both pre-test, post-test, and retention test. After, a rubric scoring was used to evaluate conceptual quality of their understanding. The normal distribution of data were not met for the students’ conceptual understanding scores and nonparametric statistics of Friedman test and Wilcoxon sign-ranked test were used to examine significantly differences for their conceptual understanding scores. Students’ conceptual change was assessed using the qualitative changes of their conceptual understanding between pre-test to post-test, and pre-test to retention-test and grouped into five categories [10] including: (1) Progress (PG) - to what extent the student’s conceptions improved; (2) Maintain-correct (MTC) - to what extent the student’s conceptions were maintained correctly: (3) Maintain-partial correct (MTPC) - to what extent the student’s conceptions were maintained as partially correct; (4) Maintain-incorrect (MTIC) - to what extent the student’s conceptions were maintained as partially incorrect; (5) Retrogression (RTG) - to what extent the student’s conceptions retrogressed. Each student’s conceptual understanding in the tests was analyzed by the percentage for PG, MTC, MTPC, MTIC, and RTG from pre-test to post-test, and then post-test to retention-test.

4. Results and Discussions We investigated the potential of simulation-based inquiry learning for students’ physics conceptual understanding of Newton’s laws of motion. A pre-post-retention repeated-measures design was conducted with 36 of Grade 10 students in the real science classroom. A series of open-ended question items was administered to examine their conceptual understanding before attending the interactive computer-simulated laboratory environment based on the dual-situated learning model (pre-test). After that, the same question items were administered to them again to explore their existing conceptual understanding and also to investigate the change of their conceptual understanding caused by the intervention (post-test). Moreover, the same question items, two months after the post-test, were administered to them for examining their conceptual retention (retention test). The conceptual scores for pretest, posttest, and retention test of each concept are shown in Table 2. Table 2. Friedman Test for pre-test, post-test, and retention test of Newton’s Laws of Motion Concepts C1

C2

Test Pre-test Post-test Retention-test Pre-test Post-test Retention-test

Mean 0.81 1.44 1.19 1.11 1.56 1.14

Median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00

297

SD 0.47 0.56 0.40 0.46 0.50 0.35

Chi-Square Asymp.sig. 26.82

0.000*

22.95

0.000*

Prapaporn Sornkhatha & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Pre-test C3 Post-test Retention-test Pre-test C4 Post-test Retention-test * p value < 0.05

0.81 1.19 1.14 0.14 0.39 0.83

1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00

0.40 0.47 0.54 0.42 0.77 0.74

14.48

0.001*

20.08

0.000*

Table 2 shows that there is significant difference among conceptual scores for pre-test, post-test, and retention test in each concept. Moreover, another data analysis was used to examine whether there is a significant difference between pre- and post-test and between post and retention test in each concept. Table 3 shows that, in each concept, there was a significant difference between pre- and post-test and between post and retention test. Table 3. Wilcoxon Test for pre-test, post-test, and retention test of Newton’s Laws of Motion Concepts

Test Pre-test C1 Post-test Retention-test Pre-test C2 Post-test Retention-test Pre-test C3 Post-test Retention-test Pre-test C4 Post-test Retention-test * p value < 0.05

Mean 0.81 1.44 1.19 1.11 1.56 1.14 0.81 1.19 1.14 0.14 0.39 0.83

Median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00

SD 0.47 0.56 0.40 0.46 0.50 0.35 0.40 0.47 0.54 0.42 0.77 0.74

Z 3.957* 2.496* 3.398* 3.873* 3.071* 0.707* 1.937* 2.610*

These results show consentaneously that the interactive computer-simulated laboratory environment based on the dual-situated learning model could support students’ conceptual development in Newton’s Laws of Motion. This finding is consistent with previous studies reporting that the use of the dual-situated learning model can improve students’ conceptual learning in the scientific concept of Newton’s Laws of Motion [7-8-9-14]. Because the interactive simulation emphasizes visualization and challenge their beliefs of the Newton’s Laws of Motion phenomenon to help them build more scientific views of Newton’s Laws of Motion.

5. Conclusion The results of this present study reveal that the incorporation of the dual-situated learning model and the interactive simulation into the learning concept has potential to support the development of students’ conceptual understanding in science through the mechanical process of conceptual change in the Newton’s Laws of Motion. This is because the learning environment provides students with the opportunity to visualize the force, action, and reaction phenomenon. This enables students to view each law from different 298

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perspectives. Moreover, the change of their conception was a deep process of adopting alternative conceptions into the scientific conception. This implies that students can more quickly and efficiently recall correct scientific concepts once their conceptual change has been successful. In view of the study’s results, we may conclude that the interactive computer-simulated laboratory environment based on the dual-situated learning model could be an alternative way for developing conceptual understanding of Newton’s Laws of Motion.

Acknowledgements This work is financially supported by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) on the year 2012-2013.

References [1] Atasoy, Ş., & Akdenız, A. R. (2007). Developing and Applying a Test Related to Appearing Misconceptions about Newtonian Laws of Motion. Journal of Turkish Science Education (TUSED), 4(1), 45-50. [2] de Jong, T. & van Joolingen, W.R. (1998). “Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains”. Review of Educational Research, 68, 179-202. [3] Hennessy, S., Deaney, R. & Ruthven, K. (2006). “Situated expertise in integrating use of multimedia simulation into secondary science teaching”. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (7), 701-732. [4] Macabebe, E. Q. B., Culaba, I. B., & Maquiling, J. T. (2010). Pre-conceptions of Newton’s Laws of Motion of Students in Introductory Physics. AIP Conference Proceedings, 1263(1), 106-109. [5] Obaidat, I., & Malkawi, E. (2009). The Grasp of Physics Concepts of Motion: Identifying Particular Patterns in Students' Thinking. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 3(1), 1-16. [6] Saglam-Arslan, A., & Devecioglu, Y. (2010). Student teachers' levels of understanding and model of understanding about Newton's laws of motion. Asia-Pacific Forum on Science Learning & Teaching, 11(1), 1-20. [7] She, H.C. (2002). “Concepts of higher hierarchical level required more dual situational learning events for conceptual change: A study of students’ conceptual changes on air pressure and buoyancy”. International Journal of Science Education, 24(9), 981–996. [8] She, H.C. (2003). “DSLM instructional approach to conceptual change involving thermal expansion”. Research in Science and Technological Education, 21(1), 43–54. [9] She, H.C. (2004). “Fostering ‘‘radical’’ conceptual change through dual situated learning model”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 41(2), 142–164. [10] She, H.C., Liao, Y.W. (2010). “Bridging Scientific Reasoning and Conceptual Change through Adaptive Web-based Learning”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 47(1), 91–119. [11] Srisawasdi, N., Kerdcharoen, T. & Suits, J. P. (2008). “Turning scientific laboratory research into innovative instructional material for science education: Case studies from practical experience”. The International Journal of Learning, 15(5), 201-210. [12] Srisawasdi, N. (2012). “Student teachers’ perceptions of computerized laboratory practice for science teaching: a comparative analysis”. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, (in press). [13] Tao, P., & Gunstone, R. (1999a). The process of conceptual change in force and motion during computer supported physics instruction. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(17), 859–882. [14] Tang, H. Y., She, H. C. & Lee, Y. M. (2005). “The impact of DSLM instruction on middle school students’ conceptual change involving mitosis and Meiosis”. Paper presented at the National Association for Research in Science Teaching Conference (April 4-7), Dallas, Texas. [15] Winberg, T.M., & Berg, C.A.R. (2007). “Students’ cognitive focus during a chemistry laboratory exercise: Effects of a computer-simulated prelab”. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 44(8), 1108-1133.

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Learning With Fun Through Science and Math Thinker Motivators (SMTM) Ramil F. BOLIVARa , Leah A. BOLIVARa, Joena B. PARCOb Mariel F. BOLIVARb, Fe T. APOLONIOc a Altavas National School, Altavas, Aklan 5616 Philippines b Man-up Elementary School, Man-up, Batan, Aklan 5615Philippines c Lucas R. Pascual Memorial Elementary School, Baesa, Quezon City Philippines [email protected]

Abstract : Teaching Science and Mathematics should be made interesting and enjoyable for students. If not, instructors may not teach effectively producing boredom and monotony in the classroom. Teachers should ensure that students’ scientific skills, analytical thinking, and creativity are promoted. A science and mathematical concept can be more exciting and fun if presented in form of a physical model that can be seen, manipulated, and, if possible, heard. This paper presents selected science and mathematics concepts that consist of simple learning activities using simple and readily available materials that enhance students’ learning and raise their interest into the subject/s at different learners levels. It features the Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to Higher Order Learning Tasks Skills (HOLTS), multi-modal approach, applications, connections, and strategy in the learning process using the Science and Mathematics Thinker Motivators (SMTM). Therefore, the SMTM is an excellent material for the curriculum enrichment in basic education. It can be used as motivator at the beginning of lessons to focus students’ attention. It provides the student with learning activities that maximize the time of engagement with the subject; it can be used as an assignment/homework and it can be used as an activity to enrich instructions that can be done in the classroom, at home, or anywhere. Keywords: Travel Game, Teaching Approaches, Teaching Strategies

Introduction Teaching and learning is a complex system, not only a matter of transferring knowledge from teachers to students. A good teacher should be able to create a conducive environment for the students to learn joyfully and meaningfully. Hence, innovation in education is essential for teachers, educators, and others related to the field [18]. Education, especially public education, is always in one crisis or another. Some complain about the lowering quality of the high school graduates. The reasons for this are: textbooks contain misinformation and are outdated which can totally destroy the conceptual mind starting to bloom; lack of qualified teachers; teachers do not have sufficient instructional materials and less improvement in the teaching/learning styles. Before being able to improve their methods, instructors must admit to occasional teaching failures [12]. Science and Mathematics are essential for the development of the critical and the logical mind even in the early school grades. It allows our young children to give value to their environment and its effect on us. It will help them to make better decisions and judgments. Because of this importance, there is a need to innovate teaching through high quality learning resources and effective teaching methods, hence to enhance the knowledge 300

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transfer in these courses. Answers to basic questions like what comes after algebra? Geometry and then what? Mathematics is good for what? All these questions must lead to knowledge that can find applications and meaning to the learner; learning that will contribute to his/her self-development [9]. In the learning process, students and teachers should encourage the forming of ideas, increased perceptions of connectivity and provide continued new experiences. The learning starts from the very basic matter and is peaks in the study of the most complex systems. The expansion is unlimited. Teaching students science and mathematics should be amazing, interesting, fun and enjoyable. If not, instructors may not teach effectively producing boredom and monotony in the classroom. Teachers should ensure that scientific skills, analytical thinking, and creativity are gained by our students. To develop students’ creativity, students must be in a state of wonderment about science and mathematics. What does it take to get them there [1]? What does it takes to appreciate a musical piece? Most people must hear the music playing. And if it is played by a full orchestra, then perhaps there will be excitement. What does it takes to appreciate a recipe? The dish must be prepared and tasted. If it is beautifully presented and taken in the ambiance of a great restaurant, then maybe there will be excitement. The senses must be fully engaged. It is the same with science and mathematics. A science and mathematical concept can be more exciting and fun if it can be presented physically in a model that can be seen, manipulated, and, if possible, heard [1]. This work presents some selected science and mathematics concepts using simple activities that can be brought into the classroom so students can work with them with fun and enjoyment. The experiment, hence discoveries and gain of deeper understanding of science and math concepts can be varied in correspondence to the different levels of learners. 1. Origami Paper folding activities provide the learners with experiences of creating and manipulating basic geometric shapes. This experience may lead to the discovery of relationships between constructing, visualizing, comparing, and transforming. As the learners interpret, discuss, and explore the procedures, pose and solve problems, and make and test conjectures, their understanding and appreciation of geometry is deepened and their communication skills are developed [2]. Math teachers have found that they can use origami to develop math lessons in geometry, fractions, and problem solving. Language Arts teachers have found that they can use origami to introduce units in literature, poetry, and creative writing. Science and social studies teachers are using origami to introduce lessons as well. Origami has become a very useful teaching tool in education [3]. Not only can origami be an effective teaching tool, but it also has real-world applications in everything from your box of french fries and road maps to satellites orbiting earth and the proteins in our bodies. Origami projects also act as a gateway to higher level concepts, such as those found in topology, architecture, engineering, and biology [7]. Howard Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences as a base means that using origami in math instruction combines elements of spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, and logical-mathematical learning styles. Since students have many diverse learning styles, it is a great benefit to be able to appeal to so many at once. There are many designs freely 301

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available on the Internet wich are easy to follow and anyone can master. There are also textbooks designed to teach math through origami, which would also be of great benefit [7]. Small Scale Models are made in a competition as an exercise in improving the skills of medical specialists who were engaged in sewing individual blood vessels [10]. Parachutes must be folded and packed in precise arrangements or it’s a quick drop. And landing a space probe on Mars, which NASA did, involves the same challenges- only this time, with considerations of weaker gravity and bitterly cold temperatures. From getting airbags into narrow steering columns, to anticipating the way cars crumple during serious accidents, how materials fold compactly- and the shapes they take while reopening- is the essence of computational origami [15].

1.1 Knots Knot tying using strips of paper have an agreeable appearance, they are in the form of regular geometric shapes. Thumb Knot. Using one strip about one-half inch wide, form a loop, bring one end through it from behind (Figure 1a). Tighten the knot gradually, allowing the leaf to flatten. If you cut off the ends, you will find that the knot forms a regular pentagon (Figure 1b)- a difficult figure to draw but so simple to fold. If the knot is held against the light, you will see the shadow of a perfectly formed five-pointed star (Figure 1c).

Figure 1a

Figure 1b

Figure 1c

Reef Knot. Using two strips about one-half inch wide each, form a loop with one strip. Introduce the second strip from the front (Figure 2a). Take it through and behind the loop, then bring it forward and thread it through the lower part of the loop. Tighten carefully, keeping the strip flat. If the ends are cut off in this instance, you will see the knot forms a perfect hexagon (Figure 2b).

Figure 2a

Figure 2b

Figure-of-Eight-Knot. Using one strip about one-half inch wide, form a loop. Take the vertical strip down behind the horizontal one end and then through the loop from the front. Gradually tighten and flatten(Figure 3a). If the ends are cut off the knot will form a six-sided figure with unequal angles (Figure 3b). By knotting the strip repeatedly makes a continuous braid. This is done by tucking the end of one knotted strip into the end pocket of another.

Figure 3a

Figure 3b

1.2 Modular Origami An activity involving modular origami is constructing modular Bucky Balls using Tom’s PHiZZ units. The units are very easy to fold and putting them together to form, say, a dodecahedron (Figure 4) is like doing a fun puzzle. Especially challenging is to try and put it 302

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together with only three colors such that no two colors touch. The students learn the real geometric restrictions that these structures must obey. It is useful to point out that Bucky Balls (also known as geodesic domes) are used in nanotechnology, architecture and design. Mathematically, students use Euler’s formula, do some counting of vertices, edges and faces and then solve a system of linear equations to arrive at the required relationships between the number of pentagon faces, hexagon faces, edges and vertices [8]. Bucky Balls are a class of pure carbon molecules which has a molecular structure of C60 and can be resembled in the pattern found in the soccer ball (Figure 5). It contains 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons arranged in a pattern similar to that of a soccer ball [4].

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6 shows dodecahedrons made of paper cut into 12 pieces in modules and join them by tucking the flap of one into the pocket of the other. When the third flap is tucked in, the form of the final structure will start to emerge. Using two strips of paper, a cube (Figure 7) is made by weaving until a ball forms and creased on its sides.

Figure 6

Figure 7

2. Puzzles and Dissections Puzzles are a great way to make science and math fun. After all, a puzzle is nothing but a problem that is fun to solve. Primary level teachers commonly use puzzle manipulatives like tangrams to teach concepts like shapes, fractions, and area. Secondary and high school teachers often use puzzles to introduce concepts and spice up homework. College entrance exams and competitions are mainly collections of puzzles as well. Puzzles can be used in classrooms which most of the resources work with upper elementary through high school levels as: (1) classroom resource, (2) arts & crafts, (3) to introduce ideas, (4) to illustrate strategies, (5) physical manipulatives, (6) livelier homework, (7) public events, (8) skill testing, (9) problem posing, and (10) original research [11].

2.1 Pythagorean Theorem Any two squares of different sizes can be dissected (Figure 8a), and the resulting parts, rearranged to form a square (Figure 8b), which is larger than both. This is the principle used in the Pythagora’s Stool. The topside consists of two adjacent squares of different sizes and can be viewed as hexagon. Figure 8c is another way to dissect the two squares as a whole hexagon into three parts only. To further dissect small squares in two hexagons, we can obtain a big square and two small squares (Figure 8d).

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Figure 8a

Figure 8b

Figure 8c

Figure 8d

2.2 Dudeney’s Triangle This involves the dissection of an equilateral triangle (Figure 9a) transformed into a square (Figure 9b). It can be dissected again into seven pieces by dissecting A, B and D into smaller triangles (Figure 9c).

Figure 9a

Figure 9b

Figure 9c

2.3 Tangrams Origami can be considered a form of puzzle-solving. A tangram puzzle is made by folding a square into seven pieces (Figure 10a) and cut to recombine and create a variety of forms (Figure 10b). In figure 10c the two figures are a paradox, they seem to look the same and two sets of tangrams can form a single figure (Figure 10d).

Figure 10a

Figure10b

Figure 10c

Figure 10d

TangraMagic is a 10-piece puzzle in a frame that can be configured into 15 original tangram paradoxes invented by G. Sarcone. It is formed from 1 set of Tangram puzzle and 2 L-shaped pieces (Figure11a). One of the puzzle pieces is a small square with or without which the puzzle can be assembled (Figure 11b). It somehow seems to take up the same amount of space either way [16].

Figure 11a

Figure 11b

3. Tops Tops are popular toys all over the world and believed to have originated from Japan. The first tops were made of bamboo decorated with ferns and bamboo leaves. Later, Japanese tops were designed with holes on the sides so that they whistle while they spin. From Japan, the popularity of tops extended to other parts of the world [17].

3.1 Improvised Tops Using discarded cartons as tops with a toothpick, one can observe different science and mathematics concepts. The tops spins because of centripetal force, which stabilizes the 304

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spinning disk. When the top slows down enough, it loses its stability and falls over. You can observe this same thing with a bicycle wheel. When a bicycle is going fast enough, it stays upright. However, when it goes too slow, the bicycle falls over, since the spinning wheels can no longer counteract the force of gravity, which wants to pull the bike over onto its side to give the lowest possible center of gravity [14]. Every Triangle has an inscribed circle (Figure 12). A circle is formed touching the line has been observed in a spinning tops. A tangent line always touches a circle at one point (Figure 13).

Figure 12

Figure 13

3.2 Tetrahedron This incredible top, when spun on its base will tip itself over automatically and continue spinning on its "stem" - a behavior caused by sliding friction effects with the ground. 4. Topology Topology has a wide application in computer graphics, economics, dynamical systems, condensed matter physics, biology, robotics, chemistry, cosmology, material science, computational topology, and population modeling, as well as other areas of science and engineering. Other applications include liquid crystals, space probe data, and computer graphics. It is becoming increasingly clear that algebraic topology can be applied effectively in to a number of applied problems in science and engineering. Some of these problems are: protein docking, algorithmic and geometric problems in robotics, exploratory and qualitative analysis of high-dimensional data sets, coverage and routing problems for networks of sensors, and analysis of chaotic non-linear dynamical systems.

4.1 Paper-stretcher coin push By bending the paper, the hole is made just large enough to accommodate the diameter of the larger coin. Although the circle does not change in its overall circumference, by distorting the circle into an ellipse, in which one axis (distance across the ellipse through the center) is longer than the other axis, you provide enough room for the larger coin to be pushed through. The long axis of the ellipse is wider than the diameter of the larger coin. And since the larger coin is thin compared to the shorter axis of the now elliptical hole, it can pass through [14].

4.2 Mobius Strip Giant Mobius Strips have been used as conveyor belts that lasts longer because the entire surface area of the belt gets the same amount of wear, and as continuous-loop recording tapes (to double the playing time. It can also represent the symbol infinity [5]. 305

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 As molecular knots with special characteristics  As molecular engines  As graphene volume (nano-graphite) with new electronic characteristics, like helical magnetism  In a special type of aromaticity.  Charged particles, which were caught in the magnetic field of the earth, can move on a Mobius band  The cyclotide (cyclic protein) Kalata B1, active substance of the Plant Oldenlandia affinis, contains Mobius topology for the peptide backbone.

4.3 Magic Transformation Two interlaced rings of paper can be transformed into a square using a pair of scissors and two pieces of tape and no paper off-cuts should be left and only two straight cuts are allowed. 5. Travel Game

Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. A game should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do [13]. Games also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. Even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence [19]. The objectives of the game are to enhance the strategy skills, engage the students/players in meaningful activity and develop students’ knowledge in chemistry. The goal of the game is to be the first player to finish and wins the game. The materials used are the template of the board, the dice/dodecahedron/crisscross cards, marker such as coins, cards and answer sheets. Dice can be made by cutting some 2cm wood bead and write on the faces, or purchase commercial blank coloured plastic dice that come in packs of one hundred. Place markers can come out of the centicubes or other games. Coins of different value can be used as markers [20]. The travel game was adapted from the Book of Allan S. White’s The Travel Game. The games are used in Mathematics in a wide variety of topics from elementary to secondary levels. However, we discovered that the game was highly adaptable to other subject areas like chemistry and physics. White presented examples of how the travel game can be adapted for use in school classrooms in the curriculum and uses a template for the games in every topic as shown in Figure 14. One example for this is the topic on ionic compounds. Here, combining a cation with anion forms ionic compounds. Figure 15 shows answer sheet using a crisscross method [6]. While playing, the student will be able to form the ionic compounds with the correct chemical formula and oxidation number assigned.

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Figure 14. Template for travel game board

Figure 15. Crisscross Method on Ionic Compounds

There are six cards that provide the uncertainty and the fun for each travel game (Figure 16). The cards CHANGE PLACES WITH ANY PLAYER and CHANGE PLACES WITH THE LAST PLAYER ensure that any player has a chance of winning until the very end of the game. Figure 17 shown below is the answer sheet in naming the chemical formula given in the cards.

Figure 16. The Cards

Figure 17. Answer Sheet for the Cards

6. Features of SMTM SMTM can be used as a motivational tool at the beginning of the lesson to obtain the students attention in the class. The SMTM is an activity that helps deepen the students engagement in certain subjects as it can be used as an assignment/homework inside or outside the classroom. Any fun activities are possible for the training at Olympics, science/math camps, etc. It provides a curriculum enrichment to enhance and expand the learning process. 6.1 SMTM from HOTS to HOLTS To develop higher order thinking skills (HOTS) the mind needs to engage in higher order learning tasks skills (HOLTS). A good task for developing higher order thinking skills is a problem solving task. But not all problems are created equal. Some problems are best suited for evaluating learning while others are best suited for assessing learning that would inform teaching. The difference between these two sets of problems is not the content and skills needed to solve them but the way they are constructed. 307

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6.2 Multi-modal Approach Mathematical and Science ideas are abstract and mental constructs, i.e., force. To help students grasp these ideas, they must be represented in a more concrete way using external representations. These external representations replace abstract, mental concepts, and they embody the key properties of the concepts. Since a particular mode of representation cannot embody an abstract concept completely, it is necessary to have more than one representation for each concept. In science and mathematics there are six commonly used modes of representation, namely, numbers, words, symbols, diagrams, stories, and real thing. This multi-modal strategy can translate these modes of representation into a systematic and practical technique for teaching science and mathematics. This technique will stress linkages among different modes of representation, thus, deepening understanding. It will also focus on a variety of experiences to make the learning of science and mathematics more enjoyable and challenging to the students. These six modes assess the quality of science and mathematical understanding by highlighting the connections among different representations of the same concept or skill [21].

7. Concluding Remarks and Recommendations Origami, puzzles, topology experiments, and travel games can often be more fun for students than simply solving problems using their books. Students are also encouraged to help their classmates in projects or learning new designs, which creates a positive cooperative learning environment. These should be used more widely at all levels of science and math education. Students and teachers must be encouraged to read field-related magazines or websites to come up with new creations and to better connect with Science and Mathematics. Teachers should create and bring manipulatives into the classroom. The travel game can be adapted to other subject areas such as language, arts, and social sciences. Learning through gaming is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classroom. Games are used not only for the mere fun, but more importantly, for the useful practice and review of lessons, thus leading toward the goal of improving learners' subject competence. Teachers should be equipped with techniques in making science and mathematics learning more fun, develop students’ creative thinking, improve skills both on problem-based and inquiry-based teaching and be encouraged to produce more teaching aids and utilize local and low-cost materials perhaps to re-use already discarded material. References [1]

[2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Akiyama, J., Hirano, Y. and Sakai, T. (1999). Nonstandard Ways of Teaching Standard Mathematics. Proceedings of 8th Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematics Education. Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines. Almaden, G., Bautista, E, Fonacier, J. & Ronda, E.(2000). Paper Folding- Art and Mathematics. Quezon City: UP-ISMED. Andy (1999). The Uses and Benefits of Origami. http://library.thinkquest.org/5402/uses.html Angel, A. and Porter, S. (2001). A Survey of Mathematics with Applications(6th ed). New York. Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Blum, Raymond(1997). Mathemania. New York. Sterling Publishing. Distasio, Joan. Reproducible Activities in Chemistry. School Specialty publishing. USA. Duncan, R., Mulhollan, T., Kharel, B.(2010). Math in Origami.

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[8] [9]

[10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18]

[19] [20] [21]

http://www.education.txtstate.edu/ci/faculty/dickinson/PBI/PBISpring05/Origami/content/gr ant.htm Feldman, O. (2011) Origami in the Geometry Classroom. http://www.maa.org/t_and_l/exchange/ite14/Feldman Origami.html Francisco, Felizardo Y. (2010). Science and Math Learning Innovations. Message given to the 2010 International Conference on Science and Mathematics Education at UPNISMED. [email protected] Kenneway, E. (1993). Complete Origami. London: Ebury Press. Kim, S. ( 2002). Ten Ways to Use Puzzles in Math Education http://www.puzzles.com/ Lee-Chua, Q. (2002). Millennium Notes. The Philippine Journal of Education.80, 20:397. Mei, Yin Yong and Yu-jing, , Jang (2000). Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Moje, S. (2000). 100 Science Experiments with Paper. New York: Sterling Publishing. Roberts, S. (2010). Gift-wrapping for Geniuses. Reader’s Digest. Quebec: Reader’s Digest Magazine Canada Ltd. Sarcone, G. (2010). Tangramagic. http://www.archimedes- lab.org/ Science and Mathematics of Toys (2000). Quezon City:UP-ISMED. Subanar (2011). Director’s Address. Proceedings. First International Symposium on Mathematics Education Innovation. SEAMEO-QITEP in Mathematics. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Uberman, Agnieszka (1998). Forum. Vol. 36. No.1. p. 20. White, Allan S. (2011). The Travel Game. SEAMEO-QITEP in Mathematics. Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Yoong, Wong Khoon (1999). Multi-modal Approach of Teaching Mathematics in a Technological Age. Proceedings of 8th Southeast Asian Conference on Mathematics Education. Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.

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Learning Aggressive Behavior and Courting Behavior through Computer Game-based Instructional Unit Tadsanai JEENTHONGa, Namkang SRIWATTANAROTHAIa Pintip RUENWONGSAb, Bhinyo PANIJPANb a Institute for Innovation Learning, Mahidol University, Thailand b Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected], [email protected]

Abstract: Traditional learning only could not provide appropriate environment for present-day students to learn. They have developed ability to multitask or ability to operate more than one task at the same time. Therefore instructional unit which integrate technology to challenging situation could engage those students learn academic content. A well-designed simulations and games have been recognized as an effective strategy to enhance students’ conceptual understanding, skills, and learning attitude. This study thus aims to determine the effectiveness of a computer game-based instructional unit to enhance students’ understanding of aggressive behavior and courting behavior and students’ perception toward instructional unit. An instructional unit consisting of four instructional games on the aggression and courtship displaying of fighting fish and an information to introduce the basic knowledge of fighting fish were implemented to 77 grade eleven from one secondary school in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand via Kolb’s learning cycle. Students were experienced four computer games during reflective observation and active experimentation phases. They then participated in small group discussion, whole class presentation and debriefing during concrete experience and abstract conceptualization phases. The results from conceptual test, students’ presentation and interview show that students gained knowledge of an aggression behavior and courting behavior in animal, especially in fighting fish. Moreover they showed positive attitude toward an instructional unit as shown in questionnaire and interview results. Keywords: Computer-based game, experiential learning cycle, fighting fishes, aggressive behavior, courting behavior

Introduction The Siamese fighting fish is native to most ASEAN countries. They are one of the most popular species of freshwater aquarium fish and easily obtained in pet shops around the world [20-27]. Because of their two other noticeable behaviors viz., aggression and courtship display, many teachers have been used the Siamese fighting fish for classroom activity and laboratory experiment [14-30]. As for education, many researchers have used the Siamese fighting fish for enhancing students’ understanding of animal behavior such as territorial behavior, and animal social behavior in biology classroom [1-12-13-21]. Nevertheless the lived fish have limitations for behavior studies, for example, the ethical issues for use in schools and difficultly for take care. Then visual aids such as computer games and/or simulations can offer an alternative way of learning about animal behavior. 310

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Currently, many educational learning units employing simulations and games have been developed for educational purpose in many disciplines e.g., mathematics, science, engineering, humanities, and social sciences [2-4-19]. Because of educational games serve as nearly realistic situations that allow students to interact and to gain from the learning experience. Most students prefer learning by using computer games because the latter may agree better with students’ habits and interests [7-24]. As a result, students’ cognitive abilities and expectations about learning are promoted. Integration of games and simulations with contents help to teach concepts through the transformation of experiences [22]. For educational game design is including interactive-learning environment with problem-oriented learning, based on experiential learning theory, flow theory and game design, has been adopted [9]. The learners are engaged and motivated via direct experiences by using games which should be appropriate reflective exploration, testing hypotheses, and producing objects. In addition, accompanied by Kolb’s experiential learning model [10-11] is integrated into the model. The experiential learning theory consists of a four- stage learning cycle or learning spiral; experiencing, reflecting, conceptualize and acting. At first, the learning spiral begins with immediate or concrete experience followed by collection of data and reflective observations of the experience. Then abstract concepts are assimilated and distilled. Finally there is active experimentation in new circumstances. In general, the experiential learning model stresses the continuous cyclical nature of learning and the appropriate feedback which provides the basis for the process of goal-directed action. Many research works on simulations and game in biology education have been shown to enhance students’ understanding in biology learning without the limitations involved in using living organisms [23-2]. Tan and Biswas [29] have developed a simulation-based game learning environment on building and sustaining a fish tank. Their preliminary experiment showed the effectiveness of the simulations. Facer, Joiner, Stanton, Reid, Hull and Kirk [5] developed the animal behavioral game for secondary students based on animals in savannah. However, there is a little research work on the effectiveness of game and simulations on students’ learning on animal behavior. We found that, despite aggressive and courting behaviors of the Siamese fighting fish being interesting topics, there was still no educational game/simulations on this topic. Thus we had been already developed the computer-based instructional game on aggressive and courting behaviors of the Siamese fighting fish [8] and we had been used to pilot study with undergraduate students who had visiting the National Science Museum, Thailand. Nevertheless the efficiency of this computer-based game was not improved for aid to secondary students who just directly learning about animal behavior in their curriculum. The objective of this study is to develope computer game-based instructional unit on Siamese fighting fish to enable students to construct their own knowledge on aggressive and courting behaviors of the Siamese fighting fish. These Siamese fighting fish games should allow the students to refine and/or to recall the previously acquired knowledge as well as to develop relationship between concepts. The students would be expected to be in control of their actions, and be involved in the learning through active participation. 1. Research objectives and research questions This study investigated the effectiveness of students’ achievement and students’ attitudes on the newly developed computer game-based instructional unit of Siamese fighting fish. Two research questions were framed this study;

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1. Can the computer game-based instructional unit on aggression and courtship behavior of Siamese fighting fish enhance students’ understanding of the animal behavior? 2. What are the students’ perceptions toward the computer game-based instructional unit? 2. Research Methods 2.1 Participants Participants in this study were 77 grade eleven students, aged 15-17 years, from a secondary school in Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand, who have already been taught the basic biology and general animal behavior. 2.2 Development of computer game-based instructional unit on aggressive and courting behaviors of Siamese fighting fish The theory of experiential learning [10] was used as a framework in devising the computer game-based instructional unit on the Siamese fighting fish. Contents in the games (Figure 1) were developed based on data from direct observation of Siamese fighting fish behaviors connecting to the standard biology curriculum on animal behavior. Sound and text were put together with animated pictures to promote understanding. The learning unit comprised of activities based on the experiential learning theory including a four- stage learning cycle or learning spiral; experiencing, reflecting, conceptualize and acting. At first, students were introduced to game playing and general information of fighting fish. After that they were experienced with computer game-based learning unit, the learning spiral began with concrete experiences by starting to play games, following to collect data by trial and error method during game playing. They could repeatedly play games with the discussion until their abstract concepts would be assimilated and distilled. At the end of game playing, students were divided in small group and discussed from their own group before classroom discussion. Students were asked to recall and reflect what did they catch from games in reflective observations. They also participated in debriefing session with the teacher’s help to ensure that all students could construct knowledge from the computer-based game on the Siamese fighting fish. Finally students applied their gathering conept to the new situations in the end of debriefing session, students had to link their knowledge to the animal behaviors concept.

Figure 1: Siamese fighting fish computer game.

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2.3 Implementation of the computer game-based instructional unit The computer game-based instructional unit was implemented to the students as shown in Table 1. Students took a ten-minute pretest, and then learned and played the games of Siamese fighting fish for two hours. The researchers and the students joined a debriefing session after finishing the four games for one hour. Then students took the ten-minute posttest and responded to the questionnaire about their perceptions on the games-based learning for ten minutes. Finally five volunteer students were individually interviewed (ten minutes each) for their perception of the games. Table 1: Implementation of the computer game-based instructional unit Objectives 1. To assess prior understanding of Siamese fighting fish aggressive and courting behaviors (10 min)

Student Activities Assessment Tools - Students took Siamese fighting -Pre conceptual test fish conceptual test

2. To introduce game playing and - Introductory session of games on -Classroom general information of fighting Siamese fighting fish observation fish (30 min) 3. To implement and experience - The fighting fish in the glass bowl -Classroom with computer game-based game observation learning unit (90 min) - Aggressive behavior game - Betta reaction game - Betta breeding game 4. To discuss the concept learned - Debriefing session through computer-based game learning unit (60 min)

-Classroom observation

5. To assess the knowledge gain - Students take posttest of Siamese -Post conceptual test after participation (10 min) fighting fish conceptual test 6. To assess the attitude toward - Perception questionnaire computer-based game learning - Semi-structured interview unit (20 min)

-Perception questionnaire -Semi-structured interview

Debriefing session: After participating in the two-hour computer game-based learning unit, students participated in the debriefing session for an hour. The three debriefing phases according to Steinwachs [28] and Leualami and Panijpan [17] were employed. This session aims to capitalize on the developed ideas and group interchange to ensure that the students will achieve the learning objectives. A combination of small-group (4-5 persons) and large-group (whole class) discussion was used throughout the debriefing session.

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2.4 Data Collection The students were assessed for their understanding of Siamese fighting fish aggression and courting behavior and for perception of the game learning unit by using three assessment tools, i.e., Siamese fighting fish conceptual test (pretest/posttest), perception questionnaire and semi-structured interview. 2.4.1 Siamese fighting fish conceptual test The conceptual test was developed based on concepts of animal behavior in general including aggressive behavior according to the science curriculum for secondary school. The multiple-choices test items were divided into three categories: characteristics of Siamese fighting fish, aggressive behavior, and courting behavior. The ten-minute pretest was administered to the students before participating in the games. The same conceptual test was used as posttest administered after the debriefing session. 2.4.2 Normalized gain For the score of conceptual pretest and posttest were used to improve the conceptual dimensional normalized gain of students in each concept of animal behavior. The normalized gain () was developed by Hake (1998) that the score of the normalized gain was be 0-1 and it was divided in 3 levels, the high gain is ≥ 0.7, the medium gain is 0.7 ≤ ≥ 0.3 and the low gain is 0.0 ≤ >0.3. 2.4.3 Questionnaire on perception of the learning unit The questionnaire was developed to assess students’ perception of the computer game-based instructional unit. The questionnaire consists of three criteria: perception on thirst of knowledge, perception on enjoyment, and perception on time duration. Each item comprised of five responses on the Likert scales: strongly agree (5), agree (4), have no opinion (3), disagree (2), and strongly disagree (1). Questionnaire was administered to the students after completion of the game. 2.4.4 Semi-structured interview The ten-minute semi-structured interview was carried out with five volunteer students. The interview questions focus on perception of the computer game-based instructional unit on Siamese fighting fish. The interview data were audio-taped and fully transcribed. 2.4.5 Classroom observation Both of a video-camera and an audio-recorder were used to record in classroom observation as a supplementary tool to the student’s behavior in the activity class. We mainly observed between student-student interaction during activity. These data provided more information to be eventually triangulated with another assessment tools.

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3. Data analyses The quantitative data from Siamese fighting fish conceptual test and questionnaire for perception were analyzed by using the SPSS program to obtain means and standard deviations, and the differences in mean values were put in a t-test for determining significance. The qualitative analysis approach was employed to interpret the transcription and the data gathered from semi-structured interview was analyzed by thematic approach. 4. Result In order to determine the effectiveness of the computer game-based instructional unit on student achievement, results from the Siamese fighting fish conceptual test, conceptual dimensional normalized gain and the questionnaire on perception of the learning unit were evaluated. 4.1 Behavioral Conceptual understanding of Siamese fighting fish Results in Table 2 shows that the posttest scores on conceptual understanding (n=77), were significantly higher than those of the pretest in all three sub topics. Therefore we can concluded that participants gained more understanding about Siamese fighting fish behaviors after they had gone through the active learning module consisting of four games. Table 2: Mean scores of pretest and posttest on the Siamese fighting fish conceptual test. Sub topic

Average score (Mean ± SD) Pretest Posttest 1.79 ± 0.61 2.97 ± 0.16

1. Introduction to Siamese fighting fish (three points) 2. Aggressive behavior (three 1.61 ± 0.81 points) 3. Courting behavior (four 2.32 ± 0.83 points ) Total (ten points) 5.73 ± 1.43 **Significant difference at p < 0.05

-16.12**

Normalized Gain 0.98

2.99 ± 0.11

-14.88**

0.99

3.97 ± 0.16

-17.25**

0.98

9.94 ± 0.25

-24.79**

0.98

t-test

4.2 Normalized gain The result of the normalized gain (Table 2) showed that students had a high level of those conceptual dimensional in animal behavior. This could be use to support an enhancement of conceptual understanding of animal behaviors after using an intervention. 4.3 Students’ perception of the computer game-based instructional unit Results in table 3 shows that students had a positive attitude toward the computer game-based instructional unit. The highest mean scores were on perception on knowledge (4.27±0.06), followed by perception on enjoyment and on time duration.

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Table 3: Mean scores and standard deviations of responses to the questionnaire. Criteria 1. Perception on knowledge 2. Perception on enjoyment 3. Perception on time duration

Average score (Mean ± SD) 4.27 ± 0.06 4.10 ± 0.09 3.97 ± 0.09

4.4 Semi-structured interview Results from the semi-structured interview of five volunteer students suggested that most of them satisfied with the computer game-based instructional unit. They agreed that games helped them build up their knowledge. Excerpts from the interview are as follows: “The game made me understand the Siamese fighting fish and their behaviors better, because I learned through doing during playing game and this should help me to retain my knowledge.” “I would rather learned by game playing than listening to lecture or even doing the laboratory experiment because it is much easier to understand by visualization and simulations.” “I gained knowledge from playing the games of the Siamese fighting fish. The clear objectives of the games helped me answering my curiosity and thereby constructing the knowledge accordingly.” Debriefing session after participating in games helped the students understand better. An excerpt from the interview is as follows: “After debriefing, I learned with better understanding about the Siamese fighting fish and their behaviors” “I could link the knowledge from Siamese fighting fish behaviors to animal behaviors during debriefing phase. Most participants had the positive attitude toward the learning unit, for example: “I enjoyed learning through the games. The fantasy pictures and scenes in the games aroused my interest and motivated me to learn” However, some students said that the allocated time for each game was too short, more time should be given. 5. Discussion and conclusion This study developed computer game-based instructional unit by using the Siamese fighting fish as a module for enhancing students’ understanding about the aggression and courting behavior of Siamese fighting fish. To enable the player to construct the knowledge from games, theory of experiential learning was used as the framework. The games were trialed with the secondary students who had already studied these topics traditionally in biology classroom. These students showed poor retention of what they had learned as evidenced by the pretest scores. After participating in the intervention, their posttest scores on conceptual knowledge were significantly higher than those of the pretest. As same as the results of normalized gain the students have been add more knowledge in each three concept of Siamese fighting fish, aggressive behavior and 316

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courting behavior by their high level of of conceptual dimensional normalize gain. From the interview data, most participants had little knowledge as well as harbored misconceptions about behaviors of the fighting fish, both the aggressive and courting ones. They stated that after playing the interactive games on Siamese fighting fish they could build up their own understanding and correct the alternative conceptions. Here, even without the hands-on activity on lived Siamese fighting fish, they could just as well gained experience by repeatedly playing the games until they found the right answers. Moreover learning by game playing aroused their interest and motivated them to learn. The result is in agreement with several other research works that educational games have positive impact on student learning and motivation [15]. Regarding games on animal behavior, Facer, Joiner, Stanton, Reid, Hull and Kirk [5] developed a mobile gaming experience to encourage students to build up their understanding of animal behavior. They suggested that mobile gaming might be employed as a tool to support learning. As same as the result of Liu, Cheng and Huang [16] show that the games enable students to further develop their curiosities for their learning resulting in better concept building and problem solving abilities. For the students, Siamese fighting fish games provided an engaging and motivating environment which is entirely different from the experience in the traditional lecture or laboratory. Motivation is an important factor to extend learning capacity. Motivation is a significant characteristic of educational video games [3-6]. Because of the limitation of working memory, apart from motivating, learning games lessen the mental load by providing an extra dimension. Squire, Barnett, Grant and Higginbotham [26] and other study [15] found better mastery of abstract and conceptual knowledge through game playing. The success of Siamese fighting fish games in promoting students to construct their own knowledge on fish behavior is due to the incorporation of the experiential learning theory [10]. In such a game, the framework of experiential learning provides the player with concrete experience about the fish behavior. The participants observed and collected data as well as reflected on what they had observed about the aggressive and courting behaviors. In the next step on abstract conceptualization, the participant drew conclusions and hypothesized from the experience gained. Lastly the participants tested their hypothesis in a new situation, i.e., levels of aggression, responses to various induction circumstances including video and mirror image of other fish. Results from interview indicated the participants felt that each step of the games that incorporated the experiential learning theory helped gradually to construct their knowledge. There was an introduction providing interesting background about the fighting fish to arouse student interest in this study. In all four games, there were clear goals and immediate feedback to help student learning. All games facilitated an experiential learning in students’ conceptualization The educational games in this study was not only incorporated with an experiential learning but also included motivational and socio-cultural perspectives. Fortunately the Siamese fighting fish is well known among the ASEAN people, the fantasy scenes close to their real-life and culture were provided to arouse their curiosity and thereby interest. This was done according to the intrinsic motivation theory of Malone [18] that challenge, fantasy, control, curiosity, cooperation, recognition and competition are the significant elements that cause fun and engage and sustain motives of the players. From the results on perception questionnaire and interview, participants had positive attitude toward an instructional unit especially games was not surprising. They enjoyed learning by using games. Students stated that they learned and constructed knowledge from active participation in the games and from their experience and debriefing with the researchers. The results confirmed several other findings that well designed educational games can have positive impact on students’ learning and motivation. The 317

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Siamese fighting fish games might be used as an integral part of biology education and it can alternatively way for mobile learning. However computer games should be improved to be more complex, if using at higher level or in mobile apparatus. More attractive games should be added, with an up to date technology. 6. Acknowledgement This study is supported by a grant from Office of the Higher Education Commission, Thailand (allocated to National Research University project -Mahidol University). References [1]

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fighting Betta sp. Mahachai and reveals new species of Betta from Thailand. Journal of Fish Biology. 77. 414-424. [28] Steinwachs, B. (1992). How to facilitate a debriefing. Simulation & Gaming: An International Journal, 23, 186-195. [29] Tan, J., & Biswas, G. (2007). Simulation-based game learning environments: Building and sustaining a fish tank. Paper presented at the First IEEE International Workshop on Digital Game and Intelligent Toy Enhanced Learning, Jhongli, Taiwan. [30] Wersinger, S. R., & Martin, L. B. (2009). Optimization of laboratory conditions for the study of social behavior. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources Journal, 50(1), 64-80.

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Collaborative Research on the Construction of Science Teaching and Learning Modules for Developing Reasoning Ability of Mattayomsuksa Students Surintorn WANGKHAD Science Education Subjects, Phongthongpattanawittaya School, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The purposes of this study was 1) to construct the knowledge and understanding in reasoning ability development for the research team in order to construct science teaching and learning activities modules for reasoning ability development of Mattayomsuksa Students of RoiEt Education Service Area Office 3 and investigate student’ s reasoning ability for Roi-et Education Service Area Office 3. 2) to compare reasoning ability and learning achievement of the students before and after using the Science Teaching and Learning Activity Modules. The research team consisted of the present researcher herself and nineteen of science teachers. Collection data was done through multiple procedures and checked for completeness and quality by means of triangular examination. Then data were analyzed by way of interpretation. The research findings were summarized as follows: The CDSC MODEL had efficiency of 72.45/71.77 and had effectiveness index of 51.28. )The students who learned by using the CDSC MODEL and others experiment on Science teaching and Learning Activities Module showed gains in learning achievement and higher percentage of formal reasoning ability students. Keywords: Reasoning Ability, Strategies Development, Collaborative Research

Introduction It is essential that educational administration put an emphasis on developing reasoning ability. This awareness has been incorporated into processes by educational organizations to enhance thinking skills and reasoning skills. However, the existing teaching and learning management has not completely adapted the concept. This is due to the fact that the teaching and learning activities focuses more on giving lessons than experiences, thinking skills, and knowledge self-searching skills. Based on research into thinking skill development in the classroom, it was discovered that academic conferences, trainings, workshops, discussions, consultations, seminars, field studies, classroom visits and observations, and action research raised the teacher’s awareness of learners’ thinking skill development and built greater understanding of integrated learning. It was also found that the teacher’s progress in designing thinking-based integrated learning activities was slow. The student’s behavior to search for knowledge and development had not been successfully activated. In line with research findings on science and technology teaching and learning management, Thailand has not been able to drive the country to be the leader of science and technology in the region since Thai students lack science learning skills and have low achievements in science subjects. In comparison, the national achievements are 321

Surintorn WANGKHAD (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

lower than students’ in other regional countries. For these reasons, it is worth doing research to further develop thinking skill teaching via a constructed science teaching and learning activity module for reasoning ability development for students. In this study, [2] was applied to the science teaching and learning module to enhance reasoning ability [4]. The purposes of the study were : To construct the knowledge and understanding in reasoning ability and the construction of a science teaching and learning activity modules for reasoning ability development. To study the construction process and the use of the constructed science teaching and learning activity modules for reasoning ability development. To compare reasoning ability and learning achievements of the students before and after using the constructed science teaching and learning activity modules. Significance of the Study The constructed module can be use as an actual effective science teaching and learning modules for students between the age of 11 and 16. Teachers have better knowledge and ability to manage teaching and learning activities to enhance thinking skills and develop teaching and learning through researching. This study is a further development of reasoning ability for students between the age of 11 and 16. Scope of the Study The target group consisted of 18 science teachers and 2,493 students between the ages of 11-16 in grades 7-12 at Phontongpattanawittaya School of Roi-Et Education Service Area Office 3 during semester 1 in the academic year 2010, and 18 co-teacher researchers. The sample group included 356 students between the ages of 11-16 in grades 7-11 at Phontongpattanawittaya School during semester 1 in the academic year 2010. The students were sampled by Taro Yamane. The students were attending regular classes of the researchers and the co-researchers at the school.

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Research Methodology Figure 1 Conceptual framework facilitators

Research team

Academic, budget and others Supporting or monitoring

Construct understanding, knowledge, created teaching and learning modules to develop reasoning ability

Reflecting Data

Target group

Analysis resources, data, select the best way : Collaborative

Action, Participation, Reflection, Plan

Participation Observation

Teaching and Learning Activities

Evaluation Reflection

A workshop on knowledge and understanding of reasoning ability and the construction of the science teaching and learning activity module for reasoning ability development was conducted. Follow-ups were administered by means of meetings during the whole research process. A preliminary study of the existing state, problems, and needs in constructing such a modules was conducted. Then the construction process and use of the module was also studied. The actual constructional process of the science teaching and learning activity module for reasoning ability development was launched through collaborative research. The constructional process included studying development of modules, analyzing curriculum to design learning activities, examining the effectiveness of the module, trying out and assessing the module with the 356 samples, evaluating the samples’ satisfaction, reflecting the research team work, doing a report and exchanging and expanding the use of the module. In the experiment, the One-Group Pretest was conducted. It was done with the single sample group. Observations of the samples’ behaviors before, during, and after the experiment were made. The results of the pre-experiment and the post-experiment observations were compared and reported. Research Result Phase 1 The analysis of the existing state, problems, and needs to constructing science teaching and learning activity module. 323

Surintorn WANGKHAD (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Figure 2 The preliminary study of student’s reasoning ability 60 50 preliminary study reasoning ability (concrect)

40 30

preliminary study reasoning ability (formal)

20 10 0 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 total

The preliminary study of the existing state, problems, and needs in constructing a science teaching and learning activity module made use of a science teaching kit based on [4] with non-sample students. The students’ answers were then checked and analyzed. The result of the analysis showed more of the students (54.78%) had a concrete development level of reasoning ability whereas less than of them (45.91%) had an abstract development level. According to the classification of their ages, it was found that the highest development levels of concrete reasoning ability belonged to the students at the ages of 15 (15.61%), 13 (11.78%), and 16 (10.96%) respectively. They were all in grade 9. In contrast, based on Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory, the highest development levels of abstract reasoning ability belonged to the students at the ages of 14 (16.71%) in grade 8, 16 (9.04%), and 13 (7.32%) respectively. Phase 2 The construction of the science teaching and learning activity module for reasoning ability development through collaborative research. The teaching and the activity kits to develop reasoning activity were constructed from each teacher’s experiences as well as those of the 356 samples. The kits for different levels of the students are as follows : The activity kit for grade 7 was mind mapping. The kit for grade 8 was an integrated CDSC MODEL developed by the researcher and concept mapping. The kit for grade 9 was a creative use activity, body of knowledge theory, and science projects. The kit for grade 10 included thinking ability development activities in physics and CAI media in basic chemistry. The kit of grade 11 consisted of science experiment activities to develop thinking ability in biology and thinking skill activities on stoichiometry. The researcher proposed a case study of the constructional process of a module which integrates the King’s Sufficiency Economy Philosophy into the lessons called CDSC MODEL. This module included 4 learning phases; 1) Comprehensive Allegory Phase, 2) Hypothetical Deductive Thinking Phase, 3) Sufficiency Phase, and 4) Meaningful Assessment and Conclusion Phase.

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Figure 3 Conceptual framework of CDSC MODEL applied form [1]

Introduce

C

Comprehensive Allegory Phase

-Define of reasoning dilemma. -Establish the context

D

Hypothetical Deductive Thinking Phase

S

Sufficiency Phase

reasoning strategy dilemma

Concept of Sufficiency Economy Philosophy The MiddleWays Moderation Reasonale

Immunity Knowledge

Mindfulness

(omniscience,,Prud ence, Carefulness

C

(Harmony, Harmlessness Patience, Perseverance, help)

Individual choice of action

Meaningful Assessment and Conclusion Phase

Choose and give reason for choice; What principles can be applied ?,What Agreements are relevant? ,How could Virtues be applied? What are all of the End Consequences?

-Evaluate

all possible courses of action and choice of action and their justifications

- Review own prior choice

to reconsider or to re – establish own position

-Community

of

inquiry

discussion in small groups and whole class

-Individual Refection

on process, all choices, presented and reasons given

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Phase 3 compare reasoning ability and learning achievement of the students Before and after using the Science Teaching and Learning Activity Modules. Figure 4 compare reasoning ability and learning achievement of the students before and after using the Science Teaching and Learning Activity Modules.

100 percent of student befor using modules (concrect)

90 80 70

percent of student befor using modules (formal)

60 50 40

percent of student affter using modules (concrect)

30 20

percent of student affter using modules (formal)

10 0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

After using the constructed module, the research team make observations and measurements of the samples’ reasoning abilities before, during, and after the experiment. The results of the observations and measurements of the reasoning abilities before and after the experiment were analyzed. The results of the analysis, revealed that the students had better reasoning ability (11.51%). The students who were 16 and 14 years of age had reasoning ability. The 16 year-old students had the greatest development, followed by 15 and 14 year-old students respectively. Results and Discussions The Constructional Process and Use of the Science Teaching and Learning Activity Module for Reasoning Ability Development This collaborative research to construct a science teaching and learning activity module for reasoning ability development of secondary school students was achieved because of the followings reason : There was good collaboration between the researcher and the team members )Multiple Authorship and Collaboration). Such collaboration was generated through positive inter-personal relationships which brought willingness for effective co-operation. It is suggested that the researcher be highly self-disciplined. He or she must have self-control. The researcher must also have abundance of academic skills and express leadership during the whole collaborative research process. The researcher must be a good planner and listener. Reliability, patience, and determination are accepted 326

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as admirable qualifications. In addition, experience and practice in decision making, analyzing, and considering, effects, and possibilities are important. The external factors contributing to collaboration can : 1)Amend the type or goals quantity in the research can happen in collaboration research. The case in this research was that the researcher decreased the quantitative goals of the research due to the collaborative state, time limit, and possibility. The research had more search for prior studies and found the CDSC MODEL. This caused a shift to expand and apply the CDSC MODEL for the sample students. 2)The ability to raise the belief that actions are caused more by reasons than by emotions, building collaborative power of searching for knowledge such as holistic approach, increasing opportunity and power to make a decision, planning and operating, observing processes and results, reflecting opinions on the process and results critically. The freedom of opinions and creative imaginations under rules and regulations plays an important role. Only commanding or unaccepted working cannot bring a success to any mission. The roles of the support staff of the school are needed to build atmosphere that helps develop opinion exchanging skills and knowledge management. [3-6] In conclusion, the success of applying collaborative research is a result of deliberate planning and variable estimating. This leaves an impact on further research or future workload planning, amending, or renewing. The researcher and the team have to make a decision on problems or group leaning to bring about collaboration and evaluation process. Recommendations Collaborative research to construct the science teaching and learning activity modules for reasoning ability development was accomplished. However, there need to be a joint refer to complete the work to confirm the effectiveness. References [1]

[2] [3]

[4] [5]

Lesley Henderson. )2005) “Combining moral phlilosophy and moral reasoning” : The PAVE moral strategy International Education Journal, )6)2 ,184-193. ISSN 1443-1475 shanoon research press . Jean Piaget. )1972) “Intellectual Evaluation form Adolescence to Adulthood” Human Development, 15, 1-12. Opatpatanakit, Avorn. )1995). “Collaborative Action Research : An Alternative Approach to Empower Rural Women in Higher Education ”Paper presentation at the ASAIHL Seminar on Higher Education for All. Bangkok University, Thailand. 21-23 June 1991. Robert Karplus and others. )1977). Science Teaching and The Development of Reasoning Lawrence Hall of Science University of California. J. Sylvan Katz and Ben R. Martin. )1995) “What is research collaboration? ” Science Policy and Research Evaluation Group ESRC Center for Science, Technology, Energy and Environment Policy University of Susssex, Falmer, Brighton ; UK.

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The Effects of Celestial Motion Model on Pre-service teachers’ Conceptual Understanding on Basic Concepts of Astronomy. Sopita JANSRI Institute for Innovative learning, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: In this paper, author investigated the impact of celestial motion model on pre-service teachers’ understanding of astronomy concepts. Twenty pre-service teachers in university were taking a required astronomy course. One hundred and eighty minutes provided for hands-on inquiry based astronomy workshop. These pre-service teachers were explored the concepts using developed celestial motion model. Two-tier test was used to measure conceptual understanding about astronomy concepts. Questionnaires were used to ask for a perception towards using the celestial motion model. A qualitative approach was used to gain qualitative data to support quantitative data. The t-test results of comparisons between Pre-test and Post-test of two tier score indicated that pre-service teachers after participating in workshop had Post-test scores higher than Pre-test scores significantly. Pre-service teachers agreed that the developed model could help them to improve the understanding of astronomy concepts. Keywords: Astronomy, Celestial motion, Inquiry, Model, Pre-service teacher

Introduction In 2001, Thailand’s science standards curriculum was separated into eight sub-strands and one of the sub-strands, which are section seven to be exact, is about Astronomy and Space. One recommendation in this sub-stand stated that secondary school children should learn the actual motions and relative positions of celestial object and should be able to explain what they can see from an earth-based perspective. An understanding of celestial motion is one of the essential ingredients to continue learning of other standard topic such as the phases of the moon and the seasons in astronomy. In addition, astronomers make sense of the world by looking for explanatory models to explain their human centric observations. [8] The Basic Education Curriculum [6] also specifies that teachers should be used a student-centered approach in the classroom. Teachers must encourage students to develop themselves to their highest potential. To accomplish this aim, teachers have to change their role from a knowledge transmitter to a learning facilitator [6]. Teachers need to prepare themselves helping students to develop science concepts. In order to help student, teachers should equip with a deep and rich understanding of celestial motion as well as strategies they can use to teach those concepts. Teachers have used spheres of varying sizes and colors to model the solar system. Hansen, Barnett and MaKinster, [3] found the models allow for the understanding of complex problems through simplification and idealization of the real 328

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world into more manageable abstractions. For example, scientists build simplified models to test theories and to improve their understanding of complex systems. Due to their simplicity, when compared to the real world phenomena to which they are related. From a learning perspective, the act of modeling allows students to engage in a design process that begins with a set of tentatively accepted theories that can evolve into coherent understandings represented in their models (Roth, 1996; Sabelli, 1994). As a result, computational modeling activities have become more commonplace in inquiry-based science classrooms, in part because educators have recognized that an important activity of scientists is building, designing, testing, and evaluating models of natural phenomena [4]. The use of model has been found to be a successful strategy in teaching and also helped science teachers develop their knowledge and ability. Literature review When comparing contents of the sub-strands 6 and 7 of the Education Curriculum (revised version 1990) with the Basic Education Curriculum [6], the new curriculum has more contents than the previous one. In addition to the change teachers will need a deep and rich understanding concept of astronomy as well as teaching strategies. Surveys with large numbers of pre-service and practicing teachers suggest that most teachers seem to lack the scientific conception for many sun-earth-moon concepts [2]; Schoon 1995; [14]. Celestial motion includes both what we can see from an earth-based perspective (apparent motions) and the explanations for those motions. Vosniadou and Brewer [15] found that children do not accurately combine the apparent motion of the Moon due to the Earth’s rotation with the actual orbit of the Moon around the Earth, leading some students to believe that the Moon does not move while others state that it appears to move in some unspecified way. Some children believe that the Moon is in some way responsible or necessary for night, tying its motion opposite to that of the Sun. Vosniadou and Brewer also found that children may believe that the stars go to some other location during the day and that children who believe that the stars are still in the sky during the day also believe that the stars never move. Previous research on first, third and eight grade in the USA suggests that most children’s understanding of the apparent motion of the sun and star will not improve significantly after mid-elementary school [9]. Student’s description in middle grades of the Sun’s apparent motion is unlikely to include the scientific understanding that the sun does not pass directly overhead everyday or that the sun’s path changes the seasons [9-13]. Many pre service teachers do not hold scientific concepts of the patterns of the sun moon or star’s daily motion or the season change in the sun’s path, and cannot give scientific explanation for these patterns, especially for the moon and the stars. This limited understanding is likely to have a negative impact on their future astronomy teaching [10]. Astronomers have always used mental models and models [11] to understand phenomena and to transmit that understanding to others [16] For example, attempts to understand the place of Earth within the universe have been articulated by a series of mental models beginning with a flat Earth on a sea enclosed within a solid celestial firmament, progressing to Ptolemy’s and then Copernicus’ concentric spheres [1]. For a three-dimensional model make Student can understand better phenomena which cannot be adequately represented in a two-dimensional format, such as eclipses; it is much easier to understand how eclipses are caused by the tilt of the Moon’s orbital plane in relation to the Earth and Sun in three-dimensions than in two. The model not only describes the mechanism and dynamics of conceptual change as an everyday phenomenon but also offers instructional strategies for improving conceptual learning in science education [4]. A model 329

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is defined as a tool (mental or physical) used to describe, explain, predict, and communicate with others a natural phenomenon, an event or an entity. Shen and Confrey [12] have argued that, in the course, the activities of making a transformation among various physical models helped the teachers to enhance their conceptual understanding. In summary, astronomy model does indeed appear to help teachers improve understanding in the celestial motion. Research purpose and questions The purpose of this research is to investigate the effects of using Celestial Motion Model in pre-service teachers. Specifically, the research attempted to find out the effectiveness of using the celestial motion model to improve pre-service teachers’ understanding. This research addresses two research questions: 1. Does the celestial motion model improve conceptual understanding of pre-service teachers in basic concepts of apparent celestial motion? 2. What are the perceptions of pre-service teachers towards using the celestial motion model? Methodology and research design This research gathers both quantitative and qualitative data in order to answer research question. Quantitative data were measured by using two-tier test for investigating pre-service teacher’s understanding. Qualitative data were measure by using questionnaire and semi-structure interview for measuring perception toward the use of celestial motion model. 1. Participants This research involved 20 pre-service teachers (5 males and 15 females( in astronomy courses offered in Second semester of 2011 from Faculty of Education in Srinakharinwirot University. Pre-service teachers were attended a required astronomy course, 180 minute workshop on hands-on astronomy run by the researcher. These students were explored the concepts by using celestial motion model, followed by discussing, and attempting to explain their observations on inquiry process. 2. Research design Pre-test and post-test design Twenty pre-service teachers were randomly divided into seven groups. Each group was required to follow workshop on hands-on astronomy approach. Pre-test based on two-tier test and perception test were used to assess pre-service teacher’s conceptual understanding in basic concepts of apparent celestial motion. Post-test by two tier test, perception test and interview random 5 pre-service teacher to get qualitative data in perception toward usage of celestial motion model after they were explored the concepts of celestial motion model.

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3. data collection and analysis Instruments of data collection and analysis are 1. Celestial motion model (see appendix A) 2. Two tier test (see appendix B) 3. Questionnaires (see appendix C) 4. Semi-structure interview questions (see appendix D) In this research, the pre - post conceptual test were designed based on 20 two-tier diagnostic test. In this test, the first tier of each item contain 3 options multiple choice, the second tier consisted of four possible reasons for the answer give to the first tier question. The test concepts were composed of four topics which consist of the celestial sphere, sun apparent motion, equator and ecliptic line and seasons. Thirty item of questionnaires were composed of two parts, the first part )10( asked about perception in astronomy background and in second part )20( asked about perception towards using the celestial motion model. After pre-service teachers attended the workshop, just to explore the celestial motion model, random five pre-service teachers were selected for the interview. The semi-structured interview questions about 10 questions that covered a wide range of astronomy concepts, five questions in terms of knowledge and five questions in term of effectiveness of celestial motion model to gain qualitative data to support quantitative data. Interviewer collected data by audio; video and the pre-service teacher’s demonstration were drawn on plastic cup. The questions were validated by three experts )IOC(, one in physics astronomer, and one in astronomical education and astronomy teacher in secondary school. For reliability measured by pilot test consisted of 40 science teachers )13 males and 27 females(. The instrument reliability was calculated using the Kuder-Richardson 20 formula was found to be 0.74 and validity was 0.92 For the questioners had Conbach’s alpha reliability 0.67. To analyze the two tier test results, pre-service teachers were given one point if they answered the first tier question correctly. If pre-service teachers answered correctly on the second tier, they were received an additional point. Therefore, the total score for the first tier were 20 point, and for both tiers were 40 point.

Results The results in Table 1 show the mean score of Pre-Post test of pre-service teachers for Pre-Test of the first tier mean score dropping to 9.35 and the second tier mean score dropping to 6.75. For Post-Test of the first tier mean score dropping to 15.2 and the second tier mean score dropping to 11.1. These results mean that Pre-service teachers answered correctly on first tier more than the second tier. But mean score only 3.85 of pre-service teachers could do for correct answer both tiers before participating in the workshop and up to 9.24 after that. The result showed that after Pre-service teachers participating in the workshop on hands-on astronomy by using celestial motion model, they had good understanding of the second topic on sun apparent motion and third topic on equator and ecliptic line. Table 1: Mean score of Per-test and Post-test of pre-service teachers

Pre-test Pose-test

The first-tier item

The second-tier item

9.35 15.2

6.75 11.10 331

Correct answer both-tier item 3.85 9.24

Sopita JANSRI (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Topic

1.celestial sphere 2.sun apparent motion 3.equator and ecliptic line 4.seasons Mean

Pre-Test The second-tier The first-tier item item )20( )20( (reason) Mean SD Mean SD

Post-Test The second-tier The first-tier item )20( item )20( (reason) Mean SD Mean SD

9.60

5.90

7.80

3.77

13.20

4.76

12.00

4.80

9.20

6.38

6.40

2.41

16.60

2.70

11.80

1.64

8.60

3.85

6.60

4.77

15.80

2.39

12.20

2.49

10.00

3.50

7.20

3.03

15.20

3.70

8.40

5.13

9.35

4.68

6.75

3.46

15.20

3.47

11.10

3.85

The t-test results of comparisons between Pre-test and Post-test two tier scores. The Post-test mean score is 26.30  5.52 and the pre-test mean score is 16.1  6.96 . The results indicated that pre-service teachers after participating in the hand-on workshop by using celestial motion model had significantly higher score on Post-test scores than Pre-test scores.

The result of astronomy background questionnaires with pre-service teachers )n=20) about the astronomy topic that you think it difficult found that 75 % of pre-service teachers gave the celestial sphere topic most difficult, 35% of pre-service teachers gave the season and solar system topic difficult, 30% of pre-service teachers gave the direction and phase of moon topic difficult, 20% of pre-service teachers gave the tide, moon eclipse and solar eclipse topic difficult and 5% of pre-service teachers gave the day and night topic difficult. The result in Table 2 show the percentages that pre-service teachers answered correctly of question about background in astronomy, most of pre-service teachers (100%( know “Viewed looking down upon the North Pole, the Earth would be seen rotating in clockwise” and 10 % of pre-service teachers know “Moon phase occurs when the Earth blocks the Sun rays from striking the Moon” but 90% miss understand about it.

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Table 2 : Show the results of astronomy background and perception about celestial motion model from 30 questionnaires. First : Astronomy background Pre-service teacher score )%(

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Viewed looking down upon the North Pole, the Earth would be seen rotating in clockwise Sun appears rises in the exact east and sets in the exact west direction every day. Sun directly overhead at noon every day. The season causes the earth axis that's tilted 23 degrees accurate different the intensity of sunlight that reaches the Earth's surface. Moon phase occurs when the Earth blocks the Sun rays from striking the Moon The sun's path tilted southward in the winter for the Northern Hemisphere in winter In winter the day shorter than night because of the earth far from the sun. If you are in high latitude ,the sun part will appear near the horizon 2 day of the year everyone have 12 hours of daylight. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon in the middle of the earth and the sun

100 35 60 75 10 95 45 80 85 25

The perception towards using the celestial motion model of pre-service teachers ) n=20) the item 1-5 indicate that pre-service teachers interesting in astronomy but they have a few knowledge about astronomy and difficult for them .They agree that VDO, picture, model and multimedia help them improve the understanding in astronomy concept. For item 6-10 show pre-service teachers agree that model is modern, creative, used available material and more efficient than learning by computer program. For item 11-20 show pre-service teachers agree that this model were able to explain astronomy phenomenon, increase understanding and engage student in classroom. Also they do not agree that this model would make students to have misunderstanding in celestial concept. Second: Perception towards using the celestial motion model Mean Score )%(

Question 1

2 3 4 5

6 7

SD

I had very much knowledge of astronomy before 2.90

0.55

4.05 4.10 4.00

0.60 0.45 0.56

3.55

0.69

I think this model help students explain the astronomy phenomenon. 3.95 I think this model is a good assisted learning for astronomy courses. 4.30

0.69 0.47

I think the astronomy subjects are interesting. I think picture and VDO help students to understand science concept. I think astronomy is difficult to teach in the classroom. I think the multimedia program help student to understand astronomy than real model.

333

Explain Neither Agree Nor Disagree Agree Agree Agree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Agree Agree

Sopita JANSRI (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Question 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

I think this model is modern and creative. I think this model can increase understanding in astronomy I think learning through this model is more efficient and more interesting than learning by computer program. I think this model is appropriate to the students ‘learning in high school. I think this model can explain sun rise and sun set phenomena I would be glad to recommend this model to using in the classroom. I think this model can increase interesting in learning. I think this model used available material and beautiful. I think this model allows me to observe the desired phenomenon. I have been seen celestial model like this before. I think this model is difficult to use. I think this model make miss understanding about celestial concept to students. I thinks I can understand this topic without this model.

Mean Score )%( 4.15 4.00

0.59 0.56

Agree Agree

3.80

0.62

Agree

4.00

0.73

Agree

4.30 4.05 4.15 4.25 3.95 2.05 1.95

0.73 0.83 0.59 0.72 0.60 0.89 0.83

Agree Agree Agree Agree Agree Disagree Disagree

2.10

0.85

Disagree

2.20

1.20

Disagree

SD

Explain

The result of interview with 5 pre-service teachers about astronomy background and the perception towards using the celestial motion model as illustrated in the interview transcript below: 1. Interviewer: 4 topics in the workshop. In your opinion, which astronomy topic is the most difficult to study? Why?

2. Interviewer: If we are to stay in Bangkok on 21 March. Can you draw the Sun’s path during the day?

2 pre-service teachers gave the celestial sphere topic, 2 pre-service teachers gave the sun apparent motion and 1 pre-service teacher gave the equator and ecliptic line topic. For example Student 3 : “celestial sphere” Student 3 : “I can’t see celestial sphere” Student 3 : “I never study about it before” 3 pre-service teachers can draw sun‘s path correct, but 1 pre-service teachers draw sun pass through the zenith , and 1 pre-service teacher draw sun’s path shifts to the north. Example drawing picture :

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3. Interviewer: Can you use model to explain the sun’s path in the winter?

Student 5 : “Yes” Interviewer: Which the position on model was a winter. Student 5 : Position 4 Interviewer: Can you explain the sun path on this day? Student 5 : “The sun will rise on southeast and the sun set on the southwest” Interviewer: Does the sun pass on the zenith? Student 5 : “No”

4. Interviewer: Can you use celestial model to explain about equator and ecliptic line?

Student 4 : “Yes” Interviewer: What is a green line? Student 4 : “It is equator line” Interviewer: Can you explain me about the meaning of equator line? Student 4 : “The line from the earth” Interviewer: What is a pink line? Student 4 : “It is ecliptic line” Interviewer: Can you explain? Student 4 : “It is the sun’s path on one year ” Interviewer: why this line it tilted? Student 4: “Because of the earth’s axis is tilt 23.5 degree.

5. Interviewer: Can you use celestial model to explain the equator and ecliptic? including draw: 5.1 Vernal Equinox 5.2 Autumnal Equinox 5.3 Summer Solstice 5.4 Winter Solstice

Student 3 : “The number one on model was Vernal Equinox, number two was Summer Solstice, number three was Autumnal Equinox, and number four was Winter Solstice”

6. Interviewer: Do you like celestial motion model?

Most of student like this model Interviewer: Why? Student 1 : “easy to do it , it’s cheap, and I believe student can do it ” Student 4: “I can do by myself and help I understand Where I am on the earth. And this model makes I can imagine easily”

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7. Interviewer: Can you tell me a strengths and weaknesses of this model? )Size /Shape/Material/Understanding concept/Creative(

Student 5 : strengths are “easy to do and easy to find materials ” Interviewer: How about it size? Student 5 : I think this size good, If it is bigger than it is difficult to carry” Interviewer: weaknesses? Student 5 : “Accuracy about measuring the angle”

8. Interviewer: Do you think that this model is easy to use and able to help students to understand the astronomy concept?

Student 4 : “I think it easy to do and use .This model is good for student to study astronomy subject and student will easy to imagine and understand”

9. Interviewer: Do you think this model can use in classroom? Do you want to use this model in your classroom? Why? Why not?

Student 3 : “Yes ,I want it” Student 3 : “I think This model can help student to understand and easy to use it”

10. Interviewer: Do you think the Celestial model can improve better understanding in astronomy concept of students? Which model that you want?

Student 4: “I think This model improve student’ understanding” Interviewer: Do you think this model or animation can improve student’s understanding? Student 4: “I like this model than animation because I can create, touch and move it”

Discussion Two tier test were used to collect the conceptual understanding of pre-service teachers in basic concepts of apparent celestial motion, the result indicate that per-service teachers could answer the first tier question correctly more than second tier. And also pre-service teachers were able to answer quickly at first tier questions; usually consists of a real case scenario and asking then to agree or not agree. But they spent more time on choices in the second tier reasons. Which mean pre-service teachers may be able to answer “Right or wrong” in a given situation but they were unable to answer the exact reason of why. And first tier question were also in yes/no format so that it is easy to guess the answer. Through a workshop on hands-on astronomy by using celestial motion model , inquiry investigation, most pre-service teacher (90%) increased their level of understanding of celestial motion and the opportunity for participants to engage in inquiry practices. This limited understanding is pre-service teacher had lack or little prior knowledge of Astronomy Concept, such as celestial sphere, sun’ path and phases of moon and it might be because of generality pre-service teachers only attended courses of astronomy in 1-2 course. However, they are going to be science teachers and need to teach in astronomy topic after they graduate. ]5[ found that most of the teachers felt their content knowledge in understanding of the sub-stand 7 was less than that of sub-strand 6 and 8. Pre-service teachers agreed that this model is easy to use and understand .The model could help students to improve their understanding in astronomy. They like this celestial model more than the animation model because of the real model can be touched, moved, experiment and observed phenomena by themselves independently. Students often develop 336

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scientific understandings as a result of their own observations and what they can see to be true when the phenomena under investigation are unseen or at least unobservable in the confines of the classroom. Pre-service teachers who participate in open inquiry experiences believe they will use similar Experiences with their future students [7]. Thus, I hope that this experiences will encourage these future teacher to seek out new resources for develop celestial model and analysis of their observation in conjuncture with modeling of the celestial motion. Significance of research Astronomy is a pure science, driven by human curiosity. Advances in understanding of the Sun and of the climates of other planets help illuminate critical issues and inform thinking about climate change here on Earth. The basis for understanding many aspects of astronomy is the ability to use the actual motions and relative positions of celestial objects to describe observed phenomenon and make predictions about the future. An understanding of celestial motion is necessary for our life for example day and night phases of the moon and the seasons. Acknowledgements The author appreciate advice from Watcharee Ketpichainarong with reviewing the analysis of research and comments on an early version of manuscript. References [1]

Black, D. and Solomon, J. (1987). Can pupils use taught analogies for electric current? School Science Review, 69(247), 249–254 [2] Brunsell, E., & Marcks, J. (2005). Identifying a baseline for teachers’ astronomical concept knowledge. Astronomy Education Review, 3, 38–46. [3] Hansen, J. A., Barnett, M.,MaKinster, J. G., & Keating, T. (2004). The impact of three dimention computational modeling on student understanding of astronomical concepts: A quantitative analysis. International journal of science Education. [4] Hestenes, D. (1987). Toward a modeling theory of physics instruction. American Journal of Physics, 55, 440 – 454. [5] Khajornsak Buaraphan, and Chatree Faikhamta,Kusalin Musikul. (2008) Current Practice, Problems and Needs of Primary Science Teachers for Teaching “Processes that Shape the Earth”, “Astronomy and Space”, and“Nature of Science and Technology” in Learning Reform. by Emphasizing Learners as Being Most Important. International Conference of Educational Research (ICER) 2008. [6] Ministry of Education. (2001). Basic Education Curriculum B.E. 2544. Bangkok: Kurusapa Business Organization. [7] Morrison, J. A. (2008). Individual inquiry investigations in an elementary science methods course. Journal of science Teacher Education, 19, 117-134 [8] Plummer.J.D. (2009). Children Explaining Celestial Motion: Development of a learning Progression. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Nationnal Association for Research in Science Teaching, Garden Grove, C.A. [9] Plummer.J.D. (2009a). A cross-age study of children’s knowledge of apparent celestial motion. Internationnal Journal of science Education, 31(12), 1571-1606. [10] Plummer , Sahm and Rice. (2010). Inquiry and astronomy : Preservice Teacher’s Investigations of celestial Motion, 21, 471-493. 337

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[11] Sutter, D., Sneider, C., Gould, A., Wiallard, C. and DE VORE, E. (1993). Moons of Jupiter.Teacher’s Guide (Berkeley, CA: University of California at Berkeley). [12] Shen, J. & Confrey, J. (2007). From Conceptual Change to Transformative Modeling: A Case Study of an Elementary Teacher in Learning Astronomy. Science Education, 91(6), 948-966. [13] Trumper, R. (2001). A cross-age study of junior high school students’ conceptions of basic astronomy concepts. International journal of science education, 23(11), 1111-1123 [14] Trumper, R. (2006). Teaching future teachers basic astronomy concepts—seasonal change—at a time of reform in science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 43, 879–906. [15] Vosniadou, S., & Brewer, W. F. (1994). Mental models of the day/night cycle. Cognitive Science,18, 123–183. [16] WELLER, C. M. (1970). The role of analogy in teaching science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 7(2), 113–119.

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Comparison of Two Formative Assessment Tools for Analogy Teaching Approach on Solid, Liquid, and Gas Chamaiphorn LARBPHOa, Romklao ARTDEJb a Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand b Department of Science Education, Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: The objective of research study was to compare the Frayer model and the K-W-L chart which were formative assessment tools for analogy teaching approach on solid, liquid, and gas. The participants were grade 11 students who studied in chemistry course from the two classes at a medium-sized high school in Khon Kaen province, Thailand. This study utilized the pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison group and group A was assigned to study the analogy and Frayer model and group B was assigned to study the analogy and K-W-L chart. The Solid, Liquid, and Gas Test (SLGT) was used to examine students’ conceptual understanding. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference of mean score between two groups. The findings demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in the post test score for a group of students experienced the analogy and Frayer model versus a group of students experienced the analogy and K-W-L chart in learning solid, liquid, gas. This suggests that the analogy teaching approach and Frayer model and the analogy teaching approach and K-W-L chart were able to promote students’ conceptual understanding of solid, liquid, and gas. Keywords: Analogy, Formative assessment, Conceptual understanding, Solid, liquid, and gas

1. Introduction Research in science education reveals that chemistry includes a number of abstract concepts that are difficult to understand [1]. Solid, liquid, and gas is one chemistry topic which most high school students in many countries, for example United States, Turkey, and Thailand, have experienced difficulty in learning [2-4]. Furthermore, previous research indicates that those students failed to understand several concepts of solid, liquid, and gas (e.g., particle arrangements in solids, kinds of crystals, and surface tension) [5-7]. Such problems in learning chemistry seem to result from student alternative conceptions. The characteristic of solid, liquid, and gas, particularly at the high school level, emphasize molecular explanation of three main states of matter. Students therefore cannot construct their image at microscopic level. Over the past three decades, alternative conception is an issue that many science education researchers found that it hinders the subsequent concept [8-10]. For this reason, they have sought solutions for helping students change their understanding toward scientific concepts to prevent these alternative conceptions and to resolve difficulties in learning. An instructional approach which has been frequently argued to facilitate a process of scientific concept construction based on the concepts that students are already available 339

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is an analogy [11]. It is a process identifying the similarity between two concepts: one is referred to an analog (a familiar concept) and another is referred to a target (an unfamiliar idea). Both concepts have the some attributes and relational features which help students clearly understand an abstract target concept or invisible phenomena from the familiar ones [12-13]. Several prior studies have been reported that an analogy provides opportunity for students to collaboratively think and consider the similarities and differences between an analog and a target [14]. Therefore, it is effective to stimulate meaningful learning as well as to promote conceptual growth [13, 15-16.]. Literature reveals that it has been used to enhance conceptual understanding in many conceptual areas in chemistry, for example chemical bonding, chemical reaction, and solid, liquid, and gas [17-18], but previous research relating to solid, liquid, and gas only focused on phase of matters. The current study aims to use an analogy approach to help students understand the concept of solid, liquid, and gas. To follow students build more accurate understandings of this topic, an assessment of student understanding is important. A way that enables teachers to continually evaluate student understanding in each scientific concept during the course of learning is formative assessment. The primary purpose of formative assessment is to provide students with feedback on their own learning [19-20]. Although previous international studies about formative assessment have been conducted in science courses, such research studies in Thailand are very limited. A combination of the analogy and formative assessment was highlighted in this research study. In this investigation, the Frayer model and K-W-L chart were particularly utilized to follow students’ conceptual understanding of solid, liquid, and gas. The Frayer model emphasizes describing a scientific term with giving characteristics of the concept and providing students to clarify examples and non-examples. As a result, it helps students clarify their conceptual understanding [21]. Moreover, it enables teachers to be aware of student alternative conceptions and also reflects student thinking [22]. The K-W-L chart is a formative assessment tool designed to encourage students to reflect in three columns: what I already know (K), what I want to know (W), and what I have learned (L). Previous research indicates that the K-W-L chart helps students connect their prior knowledge with the new knowledge [23-24] and also assists teachers in improving their student ideas [25]. Due to the features of the Frayer model and K-W-L chart, this study was interested in using both formative assessment tools after students experienced the analogy teaching approach to find out whether the Frayer model or K-W-L chart was able to promote students’ conceptual understanding of solid, liquid, and gas. 2. Research question The research question guided this study is that: Is there a statistically significant difference in scored responses for a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and Frayer model versus a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart in learning solid, liquid, and gas? 3. Methodology 3.1 Research design A quasi – experimental research design, specifically the pretest-posttest nonequivalent comparison group design was utilized for this study.

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3.2 Participants The participants were 72 grade 11 students from two classes at a public high school which located at Khon Kaen province, Thailand. Group A consisted of 36 students was randomly assigned to study with a combination of the analogy and Frayer model and group B consisted of 36 students was randomly assigned to study with a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart. All participants studied in the science and mathematics program during the 2012 academic year. 3.3 Teaching interventions The first teaching intervention is a combination of the analogy and Frayer model. The Focus-Action-Refection (FAR) guide was used as an outline to design the analogy activities [14]. The Frayer model was used after students experienced analogy activities. The second teaching intervention is a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart. The FAR guide was employed, similar to the first one. The K and W column required students to write what they already know and what they want to know before starting analogy activities. The L column required them to reflect what they learned after finishing analogy activities. To give feedback for students within each class period (50 minutes), the teacher needed to evaluate students’ response quickly. Two teaching interventions were administered over four weeks by the same teacher. 3.4 Instruments The Solid, Liquid, and Gas Test (SLGT) was employed to examine students’ conceptual understanding as the pre and post test. It consisted of seven two-tier multiple test questions covering seven conceptual areas (i.e., 1) states of matter, 2) particle arrangements in solids, 3) evaporation, 4) vapour pressure, 5) Bolye’s law, 6) Charles’ law, and 7) diffusion of gases). The content validity of the SLGT was examined by three experts in science education. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the instrument was 0.93. An example of the test questions are presented below. Item 1.

The symbol (O) is indicated a particle of matter.

A

B

C

A B C In the figure above, what is the particle arrangement of iron, water, and chlorine gas, respectively? a. A, B, C b. B, A, C c. B, C, A d. C, B, A The reason for my answer is: …………………………………………………………....

3.5 Data collection 1. Analyzed concepts underlying solid, liquid, and gas which were abstract or difficult to understand. 2. Elicited students’ conceptual understanding before the teaching intervention by using the SLGT. 341

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3. Selected analogs which were used to explain scientific concepts. All analogs (e.g., stacked stools and the particle arrangements in solids, see Figure 1) which were created covering seven concepts identified in the SLGT by the researchers. They also were checked by three experts in science education. 4. A combination of the analogy and Frayer model was administered on group A as well as a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart was administered on group B. 5. Examined students’ conceptual understanding after the teaching intervention with the same conceptual test.

Monoclinic sulfur

Rhombic sulfur

Figure 1. Stacked stools analogy for the particle arrangements in solids. 3.6 Data analysis Data from the pre and post test from both classes was classified into five categories: sound understanding (SU), partial understanding (PU), partial understanding with specific alternative conception (PUSAC), specific alternative conception (SAC), and no understanding (NU) [17]. Details of each category are presented in Table 1. Table 1. The categories for the classification of the students’ responses. Category SU PU PUSAC SAC NU

Criteria Responses that indicated both correct answer and reasoning based on scientific principles (4 points). Responses that had some components of the validated answer and reasoning, but not all the components (3 points). Responses that indicated an incorrect statement either answers or reasoning (2 points). Responses that indicated both incorrect answer and reasoning (1 point). Responses that indicated repeat question, or unclear response, or blank (0 point).

The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference of mean score between a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and Frayer model and a group of that experienced a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart. 4. Results and discussion Before learning started, the pre test scores between group A and B were investigated. The results in Table 2 showed that the results of Mann-Whitney U Test of pre test scores. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in the pre test scores (U = 587, p > 0.05). This suggests that students’ prior knowledge for both groups of students were similar.

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Table 2. Mann-Whitney U Test results of pre test scores between group A and B. Group A B

n 36 36

x 10.19 9.06

Mean Rank 38.19 34.81

Sum of rank 1375.00 1253.00

U 587

p 0.484

Table 3 shows the results of Mann-Whitney U Test of post test scores between group A and B. It was found that there was no statistically significant difference in the SLGT scored for a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and Frayer model and a group of that experienced a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart on solid, liquid, and gas (U = 512, p > 0.05). The data suggests that a combination of analogy and Frayer model as well as a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart could promote students’ conceptual understanding. Table 3. Mann-Whitney U Test results of post test scores between group A and B. Group A B

n 36 36

x 24.22 22.75

Mean Rank 40.28 32.72

Sum of rank 1450.00 1178.00

U

p

512

0.123

These findings may have arisen from the analogy teaching approach and formative assessment. The analogy aided students to make a meaningful connection between the familiar concept (e.g., stacking stools) and the unfamiliar scientific concept (e.g., the particle arrangement of sulfur). This finding is similar to the literature which indicates that analogy activities enable to improve students’ understanding toward scientific concepts [15, 26]. The numerical findings above seemed to result from the Frayer model. As shown in Figure 2, the Frayer model helped the teacher examine what the students understand through reflection into four components (i.e., definition, characteristics, examples and non-examples) based on the given scientific terms (e.g., solids). On the other hand, when the teacher found that the students failed to understand or held alternative conceptions, the students were required to revise the scientific concept within class period immediately. This supported previous findings that the Frayer model is a way for the teachers to know students’ ideas through giving them demonstrate their understanding of scientific concepts [27].

Figure 2. Example of the Frayer model (group A). 343

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In addition, the K-W-L chart helped the teacher to know the students prior ideas (K column), what the students wanted to learn (W column), and what the students learned (L column). It is a strategy assisting teachers in identifying gaps on students’ conceptual understanding [28-29]. As shown in Figure 3, the K-W-L chart also stimulated students to think carefully about the relationships among three columns mentioned above. Based on the findings, it suggests that the Frayer model was able to promote students’ conceptual understanding of solid, liquid, and gas, similar to the K-W-L chart. However, the Frayer model was recommended to be used, particularly when the concepts required the students to explain the meaning of the scientific concept with giving what examples were and what examples were not (e.g., states of matter), rather than the K-W-L chart. The K-W-L chart helps students confirm what they know on such topics and encourage them to think what they want to focus. Sometimes, the data in each column was redundant. Therefore, it is quite difficult for the teachers to give feedback or change students’ alternative conception within the class. These provide important information for teachers in using formative assessment in the science classroom.

Figure 3. Example of the K-W-L chart (group B).

5. Conclusions The findings from this study showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the post test score for a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and Frayer model versus a group of students experienced a combination of the analogy and K-W-L chart in learning solid, liquid, gas. This concluded that the analogy teaching approach enable the students to visualize abstract concepts of solid, liquid, and gas and the formative assessments also support them in developing their understanding on this concept.

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Acknowledgement A scholarship from the Promotion of Science and Mathematics Talented Teachers (PSMT) are gratefully acknowledged. References [1]

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[3]

[4] [5]

[6]

[7]

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[9]

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Zoller, U., (1990). Students’ Misunderstandings and Alternative Conceptions in College Freshman Chemistry (General and Organic). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 27(10), 1053-1065. Basungnoen, A. (1998). A construction of instructional in chemistry on gases, liquid and solid for Mathayomsuksa IV students. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Çalik, M., & Ayas, A. (2005). A comparison of level of understanding of eighth-grade students and science student teachers related to selected chemistry concepts. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(2), 638-667. Mayer, K. (2011). Addressing students’ misconceptions about gases, mass, and composition. Journal of Chemical Education, 88(1), 111-115. Canpolat, N. (2006). Turkish undergraduates’ misconceptions of evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. International Journal of Science Education, 28(15), 1757-1770. Lapboonrueng, W. (2000). The effect of remedial tutoring on the change of alternative conceptions of Mathayomsuksa IV students regarding chemical bond. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Poomchoung, S. (2010). A study of Mathayomsuksa 4 students’ conception about solid, liquid, gas. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand. Nakiboglu, C. (2003). Instructional misconceptions of Turkish prospective chemistry teachers about atomic orbitals and hybridization. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 4(2), 171-188. Özmen, H. (2008). Determination of students’ alternative conceptions about chemical equilibrium: A review of research and the case of Turkey. Chemistry Education Research and Practice, 9(3), 225-233. Treagust, D. F., & Chandrasegaran, A. L. (2007).The Taiwan national science concept learning study in an international perspective. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 29(4), 391-403. Duit, R. (1991). The role of analogies and metaphors in learning science. Science Education, 75(6), 649-672. Glynn, S. (2007). Analogy: Explanatory tools in web-based science instruction. Education Technology, 47(5), 45-50. Orgill, M., & Bordner, G. (2004). What research tells us about using analogies to teaching chemistry. Journal of Chemical Education, 5(1), 15-32. Venville, G. J. (2008). The focus-action-reflection (FAR) guide-science teaching analogies. In A. G. Harrison & R. K. Coll, (Eds.). Using analogies in middle and secondary science classrooms (pp. 22- 31).Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Harrison, A. G., & Coll, R. (2008). Using analogies in middle and secondary science classroom: The FAR Guide-an interesting way to reach with analogies. United States of America: Carwin Press. Paatz, R., Ryder, J., Sehwedes, H., & Scott, P. (2004). A case study analyzing the process of analogy-based learning in a teaching unit about simple electric circuits. International Journal of Science Education, 26(9), 1065-1081. 345

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[17]

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Çalik, M., Ayas, A., & Coll, R. K. (2009). Investigating the effectiveness of an analogy activity in improving student’ conceptual change for solution chemistry concepts. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(4), 651-676. Orgill, M., & Thomas, M. (2007). Analogies and the 5E model. The Science Teacher, 74(1), 40-45. Bell, B., & Cowie, B. (2001). Formative assessment and science education. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Press. Heritage, M. (2008). Learning progressions: Supporting instruction and formative assessment. Washington, DC: Council of Chief State School Officers. Bishop, M., & McIntosh, K. (2009). Differentiated learning in science. Educator’s Voice, 2, 28-35. A Partnership between Houston ISD and Houston A+Challenge. (2005). Literacy strategies: A collection to support instruction across the curriculum. Retrieved September 10, 2012, from http://www.houstonisd.org/vgn/images/portal/cit_23015118/121240125Literacy%20 Strategies%20book.pdf. Khammanee, T. (1998). Science teaching knowledge to the learning process effective. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Printing House. Ogle, D. M. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 564-570. Manson, L. H., Meadan, H., Hedin, L., & Corso, L. (2006). Self-regulated strategy development instruction for expository text comprehension. Teaching Exceptional Children, 38(2), 47- 52. Naseriazar, A., Özmen, H., & Badrian, A. (2011). Effectiveness of analogies on students’ understanding of chemical equilibrium. Western Anatolia Journal of Educational Science. Special Issue, 491-497. Allen, J. (2007). Inside words: Tools for teaching academic vocabulary grades 4-12. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Al-Khateeb, O. S. M., & Idrees, M. W. K. (2010). The impact of using KWL strategy on grade ten female students' reading comprehension of religious concepts in Ma’an city. European Journal of Social Sciences, 12(3), 472-489. Fengjuan, Z. (2010). The integration of the Know-Want-Learn (KWL) strategy into English language teaching for non-English Majors. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics, 33(4), 77-86.

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Using Illustrations and Motion Pictures by the Mathematica Programming to Develop Teaching Statistics Sangtien YOUTHAO Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand [email protected]

Abstract: This study of Using illustrations and Motion Pictures by the Mathematica Programming to Develop Teaching Statistics had the main aims were the first, to study the problems about illustrations and motion pictures that used for teaching and learning Statistics and the second, to study guideline to apply generating illustration and motion pictures in statistics class. Using the Mathematica program version 8 (Copyright of Mahidol University) created the illustrations and motion pictures. This study was the mix method quantity and quality research by using the questionnaire from 67 students and instructors. It used deep interviews methodology from 15 students after teaching and 3 statistical instructors at Mahidol University in 2012. The results showed that most of the students wanted to see the pictures about data distribution and secondary was the different picture between Z and t. In section that using the most of pictures to learning and teaching statistics was the chapter of testing hypothesis the both of one and two population. From this study about using Mathematica programming founded that the command Manipulate in the program can be plotted the good pictures and can be displayed from the varies of interval data. It can be displayed pictures the truth of values from theory of statistics. All of students have the high satisfaction after class of statistics and they can be understood about comparison between Z and t and testing hypothesis more than normal learning. The results from statistical instructors’ interviews showed that all of them have the high satisfaction. They thought that it can be helped to teaching the difficult things in statistics from explaining by using the illustrations and motion pictures and should be developing in the all of chapters that teaching in statistics classes. Keywords: Mathematica Programming, Develop Teaching, Teaching Statistics.

Introduction Teaching statistics and statistical analysis was very difficult to take satisfaction to the most students. From my observation while I taught in statistics class, founded that about 10 percent can be understood about main idea of content. The main cause that they talk to me about they thought the statistics was difficult subject. Jame B. Ramsey wrote about teaching statistics that It is a common experience for statisticians when introducing themselves to a nonstatistician at a reception to be greeted with the observation; “I took statistics once and hated it; all those formulae to memorise.” The questions are why we get this reaction and what can we do about it. [6] Utts Jessica had the papers shown the big idea of statistics that structors must understand the big ideas of statistics what they are and how to help integrate and highlight these ideas in a first statistics course. Some of these ideas are concepts, such as variability, distribution, trend, and model. Others are understandings, such as distinguishing causation from correlation, practical significance from statistical 347

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significance, and finding no effect from finding no significant effect. [8] Moore and Grafield, Chance and Snell wrote in technology for teaching and learning statistics that Technology includes calculators and statistical software to graph and analyze data, as well as special types of software to illustrate abstract ideas. The software for illustrating sampling distributions and confidence intervals can be help statistics teaching. [7] [4] The paper of activities and active learning from shown that these resources help guide instructors to effectively use activities in their statistics classes. This is important, because there is an art to using activities in a way to promote student learning and not just to give students an enjoyable experience during class. [7] The motion pictures form mathematica programming can be took the activities in the statistics class. The good teaching in class of statistics must to know the main concepts and finding new technique or technology to help in class. The mathematica programming is a technique that can help students understand statistics contents more in the future.

1. Materials and Methods This study used mix method quantitative and quality research methodology. 1.1 Medthodologies - Content Analysis This study used content analysis that contents include statistics training and teaching, statistics course or subject, and Mathematica program. It used the mathematica program version 8 that copyright of Mahidol University. - Questionnaire It used the Questionnaires methodology from 67 students and instructors. - Deep Interviews It used the deep interviews methodology from 15 students after teaching and 3 statistical instructors at Mahidol University in 2012.

2. Results 2.1 Programming study results Mathematica integrates many aspects of statistical data analysis, from getting and exploring data to building high-quality models and deducing consequences. Mathematica provided multiple ways to get data, importing from a variety of file formats, or connecting to databases. Basic processing of data, including computing statistical quantities, smoothing, testing, and visualizing, gave a first level of analysis by adding models to the mix, such as distributional or regression models, it can be answered a wider range of analysis questions or even provide predictive capabilities. [9] Form this study founded that the command “Manipulate” used in programming that can be shown the pictures and the motion pictures from statistics equation. After it ran and plotted already the results of this study can be shown the good pictures in the contents of statistics (Figure 1).

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Figure 1 Manipulate command in Mathematica programming

2.2 Results of Distribution The results shown that the comparison of illustration of Z, t, F and X2 Distribution by using the different percentile. The manipulate of mathematica program plotted the results that can be changed the value of percentile and choose the Z, t, F or X2 (Figure 2).

Figure 2 Comparison of illustration by using 75 percentile of (1) Z distribution (2) t distribution (3) F distribution and (4) X2 Distribution 349

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2.3 Results of Normal, Standard Normal Distribution, and Descriptive Statistics The first curve represents the standard normal density function with mean and standard deviation . Use the sliders to see how normal density functions with other means and standard deviations compare to the standard normal density function (Figure 3 and 4). [3]

Figure 3 Comparison of illustration by change value mean of normal distribution and standard normal (1) mean equal 10 and (2) mean equal 17 [3]

Figure 4 Comparison of illustration by change value standard deviation of normal distribution and standard normal (1) standard deviation equal 0.7 and (2) standard deviation equal 2.9 [3] 2.4 Results of the comparison with Z and t The standard normal or Z distribution (blue) with mean 0 and standard deviation 1 and Student's t-distribution (red) become very similar as the degrees of freedom or the number of sample minus 1 for the t-distribution increase (Figure 5). [5]

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Figure 5 Show the different from Z and t distribution (1) the number of sampling equal 3 and (2) the number of sampling equal 20 [5]

2.5 Results of the testing Hypothesis Hypothesis tests about a population mean in this result pictures, the test statistic is marked the P-value is the critical area, that had the line marks the boundary of the rejection region when the significance level is. Samples are drawn from a uniformly distributed population with mean zero and variance controlled by the slider. A statistical hypothesis of one population test about the mean of an unknown population tests one of three alternative or research hypotheses against the null hypothesis which serves as a benchmark of sorts. The statistic, when computed from a random sample drawn from the population, follows approximately a Z or t-distribution with degrees of freedom if the null hypothesis is true. The degree to which the value of this statistic obtained from a given sample falls into the tail(s) of the t-distribution measures our lack of confidence in the truth of the null hypothesis and support for the research hypothesis. The tail area determined by the statistic is called the P-value of the test hypothesis the smaller the P-value, the greater the support for the research hypothesis. For the sake of a clear decision, sometimes a boundary P-value is specified. If the P-value of the test is smaller than then the null hypothesis is rejected (Figure 6). [2] In the result of testing hypothesis of two populations, it used the command in mathematic programming similar. The value of most variables in programming used equal the variables in one population but it had the two values of the means and variances. It different from slide bar of the value of Z or t from calculation in two population only but in one population it had the constant value that used for testing with mean (Figure 7). [2]

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Figure 6 Illustration of testing hypothesis one populations [2]

Figure 7 Illustration of testing hypothesis two populations [2] 352

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2.6 The results of Questionnaire and interviews The results from the sample show the ranking top five of the contents that the students want to have the Illustrations and Motion Pictures. 1. Data Distribution at mean 4.68 from highest score equal 5 2. Different between Z and t at mean 4.46 from highest score equal 5 3. Testing Hypothesis 2 populations at mean 4.23 from highest score equal 5 4. Values of Descriptive statistics at mean 4.21 from highest score equal 5 5. Testing Hypothesis 1 population at mean 4.18 from highest score equal 5 In section that using the most of pictures to learning and teaching statistics was the chapter of testing hypothesis the both of one population at mean 4.48 from highest score equal 5 and two population at mean 4.32 from highest score equal 5. The Mathematica programming had the command name “Manipulate” in the program. It can be plotted the graph to showing pictures and motion pictures look like movies. It can be set of the interval parameter or statistic data that varies from minimum to maximum about mean, standard deviation, alpha, and other the values of descriptive statistic. Results from the students have the similar comment below that. - High satisfaction - Can be understood about comparison between Z and t and testing hypothesis - Can be participated with instructors in class - Wanted to see the Illustrations and Motion Pictures in all chapters Results from the instructors have the similar comment below that. - High satisfaction - Can be helped to teaching the difficult things in statistics - Wanted to see the Illustrations and Motion Pictures in all chapters

3. Conclusion Illustrations and motion pictures was useful for teaching and learning statistics. From this study the Mathematica program was the one of good program that can be applied for teaching and learning statistics. Using the Mathematica program that include the command “Manipulate” was easy to programming for plot distribution or equation graph in statistical model. The command or function name manipulate that the Mathematica program included since version 6.0. This command can be made to show the graph and can be changed the some interesting values of variables in this calculation. Mathematica program can be used the CDF player to install for display the program that wrote by using this program. But it cannot edited the program by CDF player, it must be used Mathematica program for editing only. In the study of Channing Ding to taking the program for Sciences and engineering students since 2002. [1] The results of their study shown that the Mathematica program was a good program and can be used for support teaching and learning sciences and engineering students. If more programming for teaching and learning statistics are being developed, it will improve teaching and learning statistics of instructors and students together.

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Acknowledgements We thank all of the students and statistics instructors in Mahidol University who provided information to me. This study was supported by the Integrity Research Unit (IRU), and Medical Record Science curriculum, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, Mahidol University, Thailand.

References [1] Channing, D., Hiroyuki, H. and Masaaki, Y. (2002). A CAI System Incorporated with Mathematica for Science and Engineering Students. Proceeding ICCE’02 Proceeding of International Conference on Computer in Education: 160. [2] Chris, B. (2012). Online Document. Hypothesis Tests about a Population Mean" from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project. From http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/HypothesisTestsAboutA Population Mean/. Retrieved on 20 August 2012. [3] Eric, S. (2007). Online Document. "Area of a Normal Distribution" from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project. From http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/AreaOfANormalDistribution/. Retrieved on 5 August 2012. [4] Garfield, J., B. Chance, and J. L. Snell. (2000). Technology in college statistics courses. The Teaching and Learning of Mathematics at University Level: An ICMI Study. Edited by Derek Holton, et al. (Kluwer Academic Publishers).Technology in College Statistics Courses. [5] Gary H. M. C. (2012). Online Document. "The Normal Distribution" from the Wolfram Demonstrations Project. From http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/TheNormalDistribution/. Retrieved on 12 August 2012. [6] Jame, B. R. (2012). Why do students find Statistics so difficult?. Department of Economic New York University. [7] Moore, T. (2001). Teaching Statistics. (Mathematics Association of America) MAA Notes no. 52. [8] Utts, J. (2003). What educated citizens should know about statistics and probability? The American Statistician. 57 (2): 74-79. [9] Website wolfram.com. (2012). Online Document. About Mathematica From MATHEMATICA GUIDE. http://www.wolfram.com. Retrieved on 22 August 2012.

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Monitoring and Predicting Air Pollution in Industrial Estate Area Using Modify Multiple Linear Regression Khwansiri SIRIMANGKHALA 1,4 , Busayamas PIMPUNCHAT 1,4* , Isabel ALPGÜNER 2 , Suwannee JUNYAPOON 3 1 Industrial Mathematics Research Unit & Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand 2 Department of Mathematics, University of Leicester, UK 3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand 1 Centre of Excellence in Mathematics, CHE, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand

Abstract : Industrial goods are used daily by people worldwide. Although many changes that occurred as a result of industrial expansion were beneficial there are also a number of adverse effects, one being an increase in air pollution. The air quality index (AQI) provides us with a way of monitoring air pollution. In general 5 parameters are considered when calculating AQI but in this study we will use only 3; O3, NO2 and SO2. These will be used for mathematical modeling, utilizing multiple regressions and finding unknown variables using by genetic algorithms technique compared with least square method. We use data during 2003-2010 from the Pollution Control Department for prediction AQI in 2011. The results of this study show that the predicted value of the genetic algorithm technique is closer to the real value than the predicted value of least square method. Keywords : Air Pollution, Air Quality Index, AQI, Industrial Estate Area, Multiple Regression, Genetic Algorithm.

1. Introduction Air pollution occurs when the air contains gases, dust, fumes or odour in harmful amounts. That is, amounts which could be harmful to the health or comfort of humans and animals or which could cause damage to plants and materials. The substances that cause air pollution are called pollutants. Pollutants that are pumped into our atmosphere and directly pollute the air are called primary pollutants. Primary pollutant examples include carbon monoxide from car exhausts and sulfur dioxide from the combustion of coal. Air pollutants mainly occur as a result of gaseous discharges from industry and motor vehicles. There are also natural sources such as wind-blown dust and smoke from fires. [1] Genetic algorithms (GA) are programs used to find the optimal solution to problems through a process which parallels biological concepts such as genetic crossover, natural selection and mutation. The genetic algorithm model was shown to be the best method for predicting quantity of organic matter when compared to the multiple linear regression and feed-forward artificial neural network methods [2]. It tests multiple 355

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potential solutions, which are initially created with randomly generated ‘genes’. Optimization problems have many possible solutions but finding the optimal solution is fairly complex and time-consuming. The GA has a comparatively simple process and takes less time as it finds optimal solutions randomly rather than checking all possible solutions [3]. It is an appropriate method to use for problems which search for better solutions and can also be adapted for wider problems, such as mixed model assembly lines. These are a type of production line where a variety of product models with similar characteristics are assembled. [4] introduces the use of GA to solve mixed model assembly line balancing problems. Here, two important aspects of the problem- minimizing number of work stations and minimizing total idle time are considered simultaneously. Experimental designs are set up to test the significance of several parameters of GA, including problem size, population size, crossover types, probability of crossover and probability of mutation. It was found that the factors which significantly affect the performance of GA are population size, crossover type and probability of mutation. As a result it is necessary to define appropriate parameters while using GA, which can be used as guidelines in practice. Comparing the performance of the proposed GA and the known heuristic technique, Computer Method of Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines (COMSOAL), we see that GA perform significantly better than COMSOAL. The research finds that GA is a powerful and efficient method that can find a good solution within an acceptable time limit. Air pollution is the release of chemicals, particulate matter or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans and other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural or built environment, into the atmosphere. Some air pollutants are poisonous and inhaling them can increase the likelihood of health problems. People with heart or lung disease, the elderly and children are the most susceptible to air pollution. Air pollution isn't just found outside - the air inside buildings can also be polluted and cause adverse health effects. Industrial pollution is that which can be directly linked to industry above other pollution sources. This form is one of the leading causes of pollution worldwide. There are many forms of industrial pollution, one of the most common being air pollution, caused by releasing pollutants into airways and resulting in widespread health and environmental problems. Air pollution is a growing problem in most cities. From the problems outlined above, we found that the air quality index (AQI) is very important to check weather conditions in industrial areas. To calculate the AQI in the Pollution Control Department of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment in Thailand we use the concentration of the pollutants ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10). This paper is to create a mathematical model which can be used to calculate the AQI using multiple regression. We use multiple linear regression (MLR) by using the least square method and genetic algorithm technique to find the parameters of MLR. We use only three types, O3, NO2 and SO2, to predict the AQI and determine whether any of the indices of air quality are close to the value calculated using the actual data.

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2. Methodology In this paper, we present the methods for calculating AQI by using multiple linear regression. We find the coefficient of multiple linear regressions by using genetic algorithms and the least square method. In general 5 parameters are used for calculating AQI but in this study we use only 3 as using GA can reduce parameters. We check the reliability of the model by using the root mean square error (RMSE). First we calculate the monthly AQI average from the concentration of 3 gases in 2003 - 2010 by the following procedure. 2.1 Air Quality Index (AQI) The air quality index is an indicator of air quality, based on air pollutants that have adverse effects on human health and environment. In general the AQI in Thailand used five pollutants that are O3, NO2, SO2, CO and PM10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter). The maximum air pollutant value is taken as the overall AQI [5]. AQI helps inform the public of ambient pollution levels, summarizing complex situations in a single figure. To make it easier to understand, the AQI is divided into five categories as seen in Table 1. Table 1. Air Quality Index Criterion for Thailand [6] AQI Values

Levels of Health Concern

Colors

0-50

Good

Blue

Meaning

Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little or no risk

Moderate

Air quality is acceptable; however, for some pollutants there may be a Green moderate health concern for a very small number of people who are unusually sensitive to air pollution.

101-200

Unhealthy

Members of sensitive groups may experience Yellow health effects. The general public is not likely to be affected.

201 to 300

Very Unhealthy

Everyone may begin to experience health effects; Orange members of sensitive groups may experience more serious health effects.

Over 300

Hazardous

51-100

Red

Health alert: everyone may experience more serious

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Source: United States Environmental Protection Agency, July 1999, Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality - Air Quality Index (AQI), 40 CFR Part 58, Appendix G. The Air Quality Index is calculated from the concentration of air pollutants; the average level of O3 in 1 hour, the average level of NO2 in 1 hour, the average level of SO2 in 24 hours, the average level of CO in 8 hours and the average level of PM10 in 24 hours. We compare data with the AQI in Table 2 and use the following formula.

Ii 

I ij 1  I ij X ij 1  X ij

X

i



 X ij  I ij

Xi

=

the pollutant concentration,

X ij

=

the concentration breakpoint that is  X i ,

X ij 1 =

the concentration breakpoint that is  X i

Ii I ij I ij 1

=

the (Air Quality) index,

=

the index breakpoint corresponding to X ij

=

the index breakpoint corresponding to

X ij 1

Table 2. Concentration of air pollutant compare with AQI

AQI 50 100 200 300 400 500

PM10 (24 hr.) µg./m3 40 120 350 420 500 600

O3 (1 hr.) µg./m3 100 200 400 800 1,000 1,200

ppb 51 100 203 405 509 611

SO2 (24 hr.)

NO2 (1 hr.)

CO (8 hr.)

µg./m3 ppb µg./m3 ppb µg./m3 65 25 160 85 5.13 300 120 320 170 10.26 800 305 1,130 600 17.00 1,600 610 2,260 1,202 34.00 2,100 802 3,000 1,594 46.00 2,620 1,000 3,750 1,993 57.50

ppb 4.48 9.00 14.84 29.69 40.17 50.21

2.2 Multiple linear regression Regression analysis is widely used for prediction. Multiple linear regression is used to explain the relationship between two or more explanatory variables (or independent variables) and a response variable (or dependent variable) by fitting a linear equation to the observed data. The general form of multiple linear regression is the following

Y i  0  1X 1i  2X 2i  ...  k X ki  ei

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(1)

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where Y is the dependent variable,  0 is a constant coefficient, 1,..., k are the regression coefficients of the independent variables X 1, X 2,..., X k and e is the residual error (the difference between observed and predicted values). We attempt to model the relationship between the three independent variables and the dependent variable by fitting a linear equation to the observed data with a multiple linear regression model, because graph of each independent variables with dependent variable has linear. Multiple linear regression models set as follows

i  1, 2,..., n

Yˆi  a  b1X 1i  b2X 2i  b3X 3i

(2)

where the dependent variable Yˆi is an AQI of the nth month, X 1 is the monthly average concentration of O3, X 2 is the monthly average concentration of NO2,

X 3 is the monthly average concentration of SO2 and a1, b1, b2,..., bk are partial regression coefficients. [7] We have two methods to find the partial regression coefficients by comparing least square method with the genetic algorithm technique. 2.2.1 Least square method The goal of finding parameters of the equation (2) by the least square method is to minimize the sum of the squared error. We wish to find a , b1 , b2 and b3 such n

that

e i 1

n

2 i

 i 1



Y i  Yˆi



2

For the case with 3 independents, we have a formula as follows

 n   X 1   X 2   X 3 

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 1

2

2 1

3

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

3

2

2

2

2

3

3

 a  Y       XY 3  b1  1      b2   X 2Y     b3   X 3Y  

      

Using MATLAB you can calculate a , b1 , b2 and b3 respectively. 2.2.2 Genetic Algorithm (GA) Genetic algorithm models the concept of evolution of species in biological systems by computer calculations. It allows us to find the best selection on the basis of principles of natural species. GA is based on the theory of "evolution", that is the process of searching for an optimal solution, and has been recognized as a means of evolutionary computation. The current performance is acceptable and has been applied widely to solve optimization problems by the GA, as shown in Figure 1. Finding the optimal solution by using genetic algorithms [8] can be classified into five major components as follows. 359

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1. Genetic representation Genetic representation is a way of representing solutions through evolutionary computation methods. Genetic representation can encode appearance, behavior and physical qualities of individuals. Chromosome encoding is used to present an alternative to each problem. In this study, we want to find the weight of the equation, i  1, 2,..., n that is a , b , b and b of Yˆ  a  b X  b X  b X 1

2

3

i

1

1i

2

2i

3

3i

Initial Population Fitness Function

No

Select

Stop Condition

Yes

Stop

Crossover Mutation

Figure 1. The flowchart of genetic algorithm. 2. Genetic representation Genetic representation is a way of representing solutions through evolutionary computation methods. Genetic representation can encode appearance, behavior and physical qualities of individuals. Chromosome encoding is used to present an alternative to each problem. In this study, we want to find the weight of the equation, that is a , b1 , b2 and b3 of Yˆi  a  b1X 1i  b2X 2i  b3X 3i i  1, 2,..., n 3. Initial generation or Population Population origins of possible populations are randomly selected to create a template that is used as the starting point of the analysis process and will be randomly selected from all groups of the population. In this research a number of answers are possible depending on the size of the population as the parameters of methods.

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4. Evaluation of fitness function Suitability of each chosen function is evaluated to score answers of every chromosome problem set. The objective function of this paper is defined to find the least RMSE. 5. Generation Operation Genetic evolution is used to modify elements of data throughout the process to allow evolution for a better answer:  Chromosomes are selected from the population to the chromosome parents for crossover. In general, selecting a chromosome can be done in several ways which rely on the concept of probability and statistics.  The crossover method creates a new version of the chromosomal differences from parents to make the switch, which will make the new version of the 2 chromosome by controlling the ferry and will bring greater probability (crossover probability : Pc).  Mutation is performed by exchanging genes within each chromosome. The genes in each chromosome are likely to choose to switch positions. It is generally determined by the mutation probability (Pm), which is similar to the case of crossover. 6. Parameters that must be used for the genetic algorithm are factors that affect the calculation of the solution, such as the size of the population and the probability of crossover or mutation. Computer programs can be included in the calculation of solution by genetic algorithm. 3. Results The result and analysis of air quality index by least square method and genetic algorithm. The prediction of monthly air quality index by the least square method.

Yˆ  0.780  0.845X 1  0.064X 2  0.501X 3 The prediction of monthly air quality index by genetic algorithm.

Yˆ  1  0.846X 1  0.083X 2  0.508X 3 Coefficient of determination value (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) as shown in Table 3 shows R2 of genetic algorithm is greater than the least squares method and RMSE of genetic algorithm is the less than least squares method. So we see the genetic algorithm is very close to the AQI values calculated from the actual data. [9]

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Table 3. Coefficient of determination value (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of this study Method Genetic Algorithm (GA) Least Square Method (LSM)

Coefficient of determination (R2) 0.9106 0.9094

RMSE 1.9402 1.9797

AQI by Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Least Squares Method (LSM) in 2003-2011 35 30

AQI

25 20 Data 15

GA LSM

10 5 0 0

2003 2004 12 24

2005 2006 2007 36 48 60

2008 2009 2010 72 84 96

2011 108

120

Year Figure 2. The graph shows real value and predicted value during 2003 – 2011 4. Conclusion The results of the predicted values of AQI using genetic algorithms and the least square method show that the prediction by the genetic algorithm provide more accurate results than the least square method, although genetic algorithms are relatively complex computational methods. The genetic algorithm is a method used to find the most appropriate solution. Genetic algorithm is best for application modeling environment to describe data or information that has changed constantly. This means their applications in prediction can be used in other problems for models in predicting performance and accuracy. Acknowledgement The authors would like to thank Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand for the actual data used in this study. 362

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Reference [1] [2]

[3] [4]

[5]

[6] [7]

[8] [9]

What is Air Pollution? [Online] available at: [Accessed 20 June 2011] Pramuan, S. et al., 2009. Comparisons of Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Algorithm based on Principal Components for Predicting Soil Organic Matter: A Case Study from Fruit Farming Agricultural Locations in Western Region of Thailand. Bachelor’s Thesis, Department of Statistic, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University. Rattanamanee, W. and Patumnakul, S., 2003. Finding Solution by Genetic Algorithm. Khon Kean University Engineering journal, 4 : 319-336. Iammi, J., 2000. Application of genetic algorithms in mixed model assembly line balancing. Bachelor’s Thesis, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ckulalongkorn University. Air Quality and Noise Management. Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, 2009. Situation and Problems of Air Pollution and Noise. Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. [Online] available at: [Accessed 20 June 2011] Shu, Y. and Lam, N., 2011, Spatial disaggregation of carbon dioxide emissions from road traffic based on multiple linear regression model. Atmopheric Environment 45, 634-640. Pimpunchat, B. 2010. Monitoring Water Quality Index with Less Parameters using Genetic Algorithm. Journal of Science-Ladkrabang 19(2), 69-82. Vlachogianni, A .et al., 2011, Evaluation of a multiple regression model for the forecasting of the concentration of NOX and PM10 in Athens and Helsinki. Science of the Total Environment 409, 1559-1571

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Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

Supporting Students’ Conceptual Learning and Retention of Light Refraction Concepts by Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model Siriporn Kroothkeaw, Niwat SRISAWASDI* Faculty of Education, Khon Kaen University, Thailand *[email protected]

Abstract: Although light is an everyday phenomenon that we constantly observe, A numerous researches have reported that students displayed learning difficulties and hold unscientific conceptions about light wave. This paper presents effects of the teaching method of simulation-based inquiry with dual-situated learning model (SimIn-DSLM) on Grade 10 student’s conceptual understanding of light refraction. The result showed that their conceptual scores for pre-test, post-test, and retention test were significantly difference and they gain better conceptual understanding after attending the simulation class. This finding suggests that the SimIn-DSLM method could be used to help student learn science concepts more meaningful and understandable. Keywords: DSLM, open inquiry, computer simulation, conceptual understanding

1. Introduction In the recent years, to promoting students' understanding and conceptual change, several researchers have attempted to develop materials and researches on teaching techniques to teach the concepts in the field of physics, for example, Newton’s Laws of Motion (Tao & Gunstone 1999; Savinainen and Scott 2002; Atasoy & Akdenız, 2007; Spyrtou, Hatzikraniotis, & Kariotoglou, 2009; Macabebe,., Culaba, & Maquiling, 2010; Saglam-Arslan & Devecioglu, 2010), optics (Sandra & Abell, 2007; Fadaei, 2009), Light and atom (Kaya & Buyukkasap, 2004). These researchers showed the importance of affective domain on students’ conceptual change. However, few studies have provided empirical evidence to support it. With the importance of studying the alternative conceptual change for science learning research trend, researchers have proposed several models of teaching and learning for promoting conceptual change, for example, the cooperative learning model (Tao & Gunstone, 1999), the conceptual change model (Posner, Strike, Hewson, & Gertzog, 1982) and the developing concept map (Rice, Ryan, & Samson, 1998), in which these teaching and learning models introduce cognitive conflicts that will allow the student to develop conceptual changes through the process of adjustment alternative conceptions. She (2003) designed the Dual-Situated Learning Model (DSLM) to facilitate a radical change of concepts and showed the effective results in empirical research topics such as buoyancy (She, 2002), thermal expansion (She, 2003), heat spread (She, 2004), and atmospheric pressure (She, 2002). 364

Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

The concepts of light refraction is a basic and yet important concept in physics education. Students need to gain this scientific concept properly in order to understand advanced concepts in the future. The misconceptions of light refraction, therefore, must be established and removed (Aydin, Keles, & Hasiloglu, 2012). A computer simulation might provide students’ opportunity to visualize the refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light ray toward the normal to the boundary between the two media and to confront their alternative concepts of light refraction. However, only a computer simulation is not enough to promote students' understanding and conceptual change (Srisawasdi, 2012); the instructional model is needed to incorporate in that computer simulation. Therefore, in this study, a simulation-based inquiry learning context, named Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model (SimIn-DSLM), was developed for the topic light refraction by using the DSLM to frame the teaching and learning activities. This study aims to investigate students’ development in conceptual understanding after learning from the SimIn-DSLM context, and to examine the retention of students’ conceptual understanding. Accordingly, this study, therefore, seeks to first answer the questions that: 1) Does simulation-based inquiry with dual-situated learning model (SimIn-DSLM) affect secondary school students’ conceptual understanding of light refraction? 2) Does simulation-based inquiry with dual-situated learning model (SimIn-DSLM) result in the retention of students’ conceptual understanding of light refraction?

2. Literature Review 2.1 Dual-situated Learning Model (DSLM) In the past decade, researches have proposed a variety of theories regarding conceptual change in teaching and learning process implying that the conceptual change has been a major research area in science education (Duit & Treagust, 2003). Posner and Strike’s work described that a change can be taken place when disequilibrium must arise in the form of dissatisfaction with the current concept, intelligibility, plausibility, and fruitfulness of the new concept (Strike & Posner, 1985). The alternative concepts are needed to be established and removed. In 2003, Sinatra and Pintrich indicated that the conceptual change can be a process of intentional learning consisting aspects “goal-directed” and “under learner’s control” (Sinatra & Pintrich, 2003). The students must have mastery goal and intrinsic motivation for successfully learn in the conceptual change process. Thus, motivation and encourage are needed to consider during the teaching and learning process for the conceptual change. The Dual-Situated Learning Model (DSLM) is one of the teaching and learning models which promote student conceptual development when alternative concept exists (She, 2003, 2004). To implement the DSLM into classroom teaching and learning practice, there are six major stages in DSLM (She & Liao, 2010) examining the attributes of the science concept to provide information in which essential mental sets are needed to construct a scientific view of the concepts; 2) probing students’ misconception on the concept; 3) analyzing for mental sets which the students lack of to pinpoint which and how many particular mental sets students lack for restructuring the science concepts based upon the first pair of DSLM theory; 4) designing dual situated learning events including the ideas of second and third dual of DSLM; 5) instructing with dual situated learning events to provide students an opportunity to make predictions and provide explanations before and after the event, and to further explain why they changed their conceptions or retained their original conceptions and 6) instructing with challenging situated learning event to provide 365

Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

an opportunity for the students to apply the mental sets they have acquired to a new situation, ensuring that successful conceptual change to occur.

2.2 Computer Simulation in Open-ended Inquiry-based Learning Environment Computer simulation is a computer-based visualization technology which can imitate dynamic systems of objects in a real or imginated world supporting to the quality of the visual aids. Computer simulation has been used extensively as a visual representation tool to advocate presenting dynamic theoretical or simplified models of real-world components, phenomena, or processes, enlarging students to observe, explore, recreate, and receive immediate feedback about real objects, phenomena, and processes. There are several educational values that computer simulation adds into science learning activities (Hennessy, Deaney & Ruthven, 2006), especially in activity type of inquiry-based science. In recent years, more and more evidence indicates that structured inquiry, highly structured laboratory practices that provide questions, theory, experimental and analytical procedures, is not sufficient in developing scientific thinking (Zion & Sadeh, 2007). This type of investigation produces a robotic style of thinking that is less effective than teaching deductive reasoning, detailed in-depth thought processes, and logic (Srisawasdi, 2012). According to the evidence, engaging learners into more flexible of scientific inquiry through conducting laboratory experiment is more emphasizing in recent science education. Recently, the meaning of open inquiry is quite not clear yet and inquiry practitioners are still discussing about its characterizations. Buck, Bretz, and Towns (2008) described open inquiry in a way that can be used by both secondary school practitioners and university researchers as an investigation where instructor provides the inquiry question or problem and basic background, but the remaining characteristics are left open to the student, in where learners have to develop their own procedure, analysis, communication, and conclusions to address an instructor provided question. In order to creating a unique learning environement of open-inquiry learning with computer simulation technology, a combination of open-inquiry components and computer-based inquiry activities was proposed as seen in Table 1.

Teacher

Pre-lab Open-ended Problem/Question

Computer-based inquiry activities Laboratory

Post-lab

Basic Background/Theory Procedure/Design Result analysis

Student

Open-inquiry components

Table 1 A matrix of open-inquiry science learning with computer-based laboratory environment (Srisawasdi, 2012)

Result communication Conclusion

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Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

3. Methods 3.1 Study Participants 40 of Grade 11 secondary-school students aged 17-18 in a local public school at Northeast region of Thailand were recruited to participate in this study. They were attending a physics course for basic education level. All of them have satisfactory basic computer and information and communication technology skills but they had not any experience with using computer simulation in physics learning before.

3.2 Domain of Conceptual Learning Events Based on DSLM instructional procedures, there were three of designed learning events of light refraction that used to cover students’ alternative conceptions of the concept consisting of: C1: the meaning of refraction of light; C2: the different of light when through same medium; C3: the angle incident ray increase or decrease when through different medium.

3.3 Interactive PhET Simulation on Light Refraction In order to facilitate students’ learning of light refraction concept through the designed learning events as mentioned previously, an interactive simulation on refraction of light from Physics Education Technology (PhET) research group was used as a conceptual tool for students. It is clear that students’ common alternative conceptions refraction of light are due to the invisibility of amount involved and their nature, making it more difficult to construct concepts related to refraction of light. Therefore, the refraction of light simulation was designed and developed on the common alternative conceptions held by students at all level, and emphasizes providing students with visualizations of the refraction of light phenomenon to help them build more scientific views of light refraction concepts. For example, one part of the refraction of light simulation allows students interact with the simulation to understand the introduction of light refraction in which student would be learn how light refract and when through the same medium and different medium as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 An illustrative interface example of the refraction of light simulation from PhET

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Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

3.4 Data Collection For investigating students’ conceptual abilities in this study, a series of open-ended question items was administered to examine their conceptual understanding of light refraction before attending the proposed SimIn-DSLM teaching method. The SimIn-DSLM method was implemented to them for three weeks (three hours in each week) and lecture in classroom. After that, the same conceptual test was administered to the students again for exploring their exiting conceptual understanding and also investigate change of their conceptual understanding happened after receiving the intervention. Moreover, the same conceptual test, two months after the post-test, were administered to them for examining their conceptual retention.

3.5 Data Analysis To investigate impacts of the SimIn-DSLM teaching method on students’ conceptual learning of light refraction, both quantitative and qualitative analysis methods were conducted to verify its impact. For analysis of students’ conceptual understanding on light refraction phenomenon, the content analysis was primarily used for writing protocol of their answers to each open-ended question item both pre-test, post-test, and retention test. After, a rubric scoring was used to evaluate conceptual quality of their understanding. The normal distribution of data were not met for the students’ conceptual understanding scores; thus, nonparametric statistics of Friedman test and Wilcoxon sign-ranked test were used to examine significantly differences for their conceptual understanding scores. Another for students’ conceptual change analysis, the qualitative changes of their conceptual understanding between pre-test and post-test was measured and quantified into five categories based on She’s ideas including: (1) Progress (PG); (2) Maintain-correct (MTC); (3) Maintain-partial correct (MTPC); (4) Maintain-incorrect (MTIC); (5) Retrogression (RTG) (She & Liao, 2010). Each student’s conceptual understanding in test was analyzed by percentage for PG, MTC, MTPC, MTIC, and RTG from pre-test to post-test.

4. Results and Discussions The results of statistical comparative analysis on students’ pre-test, post-test, and retention-test of conceptual understanding of light refraction using nonparametric Friedman test are shown in Table 1. Table 1. Statistical results of Friedman test and Wilcoxon sign-ranked test on conceptual understanding scores Conceptual Test (a) Pre-test (b) Post-test (c) Retention-test * p  0.05

Mean

Median

S.D.

5.05 11.80 10.50

4.00 12.00 11.00

3.02 2.84 2.95

Asymp. Sig. 0.000

*

Pairwise comparison (b) > (a)* (c) < (a)*

From Table 1, there is significant difference among conceptual scores for pretest and posttest implying that the students made a great progression of their conceptual understanding of Light Refraction. Also, a great progression of their conceptual 368

Siriporn Krootkeaw & Niwat Srisawasdi (2012). Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Innovation in Education. Thailand: Institute for Innovative Learning, Mahidol University

understanding was found on a difference between pre-test and retention-test significantly. This finding could be argued that their understanding on concepts of light refraction made progress throughout their learning by the SimIn-DSLM. The result is consistent with the research findings that students performed better achievements with learning from computer simulation (Bell & Trundle, 2008). A possible explanation for why students made progress on conceptual understanding from pre-test to post-test is that learning with the SimIn-DSLM could induce students into the process of conceptual change.

5. Conclusion This present study results revealed that incorporation of learning by simulation-based inquiry into the DSLM, called Simulation-based Inquiry with Dual-situated Learning Model (SimIn-DSLM), has potential on the development of students’ conceptual understanding in science through the mechanical process of conceptual change. Moreover, the change of their conception was a deep process of repairing students’ alternative conceptions into scientific conception, called radical conceptual change. This implies that the DSLM can be effective in fostering students’ radical conceptual change in simulation-based inquiry learning environment as well as in web-based learning environment or in the classroom. The results from this study could conclude that the simulation-based inquiry learning environment based on the DSLM could be an alternative way for developing conceptual understanding of light refraction.

Acknowledgements This work is financially supported by the National Research Council of Thailand (NRCT) on the year 2012-2013.

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