Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

0 downloads 4 Views 2MB Size Report
communicate about experiences” (Luckner & Nadler, 1997, p 8). Processing ...... http://www.massey.ac.nz/~amartin/MartinAJ2001PhD.pdf. Matlock .... Rosenberg, Marshall B. (2001). Nonviolent communication: A language of compassion.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

1

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Molly Bigknife Antonio

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters of Arts from Prescott College in Adventure Education

June 2006

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Jane Dally, M.S. Gregory A. Cajete, Ph.D. Rick Medrick, Ed.D. Graduate Advisor Second Reader Third Reader

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Date Date Date

1456710 Copyright 2006 by Bigknife Antonio, Molly All rights reserved

2006

1456710

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

2

Copyright

Copyright (c) 2006 by Molly Bigknife Antonio

All right reserved. No parts of this thesis may be used, reproduced, stored, recorded, or transmitted in any form or manner whatsoever without written permission from the copyright holder or her agent(s), except in the case of brief quotations embodied in the papers of students, and in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Requests for such permission should be addressed to: Molly Bigknife Antonio P.O. Box 4985 Window Rock, AZ 86515

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

3

Acknowledgements First and foremost, I want to thank my husband Gino Antonio, my sons Kaene Eagle and Atsatsa’ Thunder, and my daughter Olathe Littlewing for the love and support that they continually provide to me. They are all sources of eternal inspiration and healing. I want to thank the Diné (Navajo) individuals who have touched my life in a myriad of ways, including my husband’s extended family and the wonderful friends we have made over the years in and around our community. I also wanted to thank my mother Lucy Bigknife Shackelford and father John Shackelford. My ever-evolving work with children, the outdoors, and Native culture is sourced in the spiritual and creative foundations that my parents provided for my brother Sean and me throughout our childhoods. It was a pleasure to have Jane Dally as my advisor for my graduate studies. Jane’s expertise in the field of Adventure Education, as well as her exceptional academic skills and knowledge, has greatly enhanced my ability to produce scholarly works. I also appreciate Jane’s respect and sensitivity to the Native cultural aspects that informed much of my graduate studies. It has also been an honor and a privilege to have Dr. Gregory Cajete, Tewa scholar from Santa Clara Pueblo, as my thesis second-reader. I have known Dr. Cajete since 1989 when I was his student at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, NM. His teachings and scholarly works based on Native lifeways and ancient, scientific knowledge have influenced and guided me over the years. In addition, I also appreciate the support and expertise provided by my core faculty, Dr. Rick Medrick, throughout my graduate studies at Prescott College. Dr. Medrick, as well, demonstrated respect and sensitivity to issues related to Native culture.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

4

Abstract Traditional Indigenous education paradigms have always been experiential and place-based (Cajete, 1994). However, these paradigms have been challenged over the past century due to the dominant presence of Western educational practices within Indigenous communities (Szasz, 1999). It is this author’s argument that Indigenous Peoples’ learning process is unique because their identity is inseparably connected to their tribal history, family, community, and place (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Given that, this author believes that a learning model designed to facilitate Indigenous learning should reflect these important connections and components. Further, this author believes that the fields of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education offer experiential learning models and paradigms that parallel Indigenous educational paradigms. This thesis endeavors to combine these three educational perspectives to create an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model appropriate for use with Native populations.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model Table of Contents Chapter One: Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Foundational Indigenous Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Authors Qualifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intended Thesis Benefits and Audience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Organization of Paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 6 11 12 13 23

Chapter Two: Literature Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part One: Indigenous Educational Perspectives Related to Family, Community, Place, and Natural Interrelationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part Two: Diné (Navajo) Educational Perspectives Related to Family, Community, Place, and Natural Interrelationships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part Three: Transitional Education – The Effects of Forced Western Education on Traditional Indigenous Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Part Four: Examining Complementary Aspects of Western and Traditional Indigenous Educational Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experiential Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Experiential Learning Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Place-Based Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

26 28 36 48 57 60 62 71 74

Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model . . . . Experiential, Place-Based, and Indigenous Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indigenous Learning Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indigenous Holistic Learning Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Indigenous Experiential Learning Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applications and Benefits of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

77 79 83 92 104

Chapter Four: Discussion and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Summary of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Closing Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

126 126 128 135

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

137

120

5

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

6

Chapter One: Introduction Foundational Indigenous Learning The learning environment found in traditional Indigenous settings has been described as naturally experiential and place-based (Cajete, 1994). Historically, Native American children learned through daily involvement in activities around the home, community, and natural environment. They were also encouraged by adults and elders to continually hone their observation and listening skills (Blaeser, 1999; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Gulliford, 2004; Krech, 2002; Nelson, 1993; Rybak, Eastin, & Robbins, 2004). Further, children and other tribal members were encouraged to explore and enhance their learning through creative endeavors, such as “ritual, ceremony, art, and appropriate technology” (Cajete, 2005a, p. 70). Native American scholar Dr. Gregory Cajete (2005a), Tewa from Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico, calls this Indigenous approach to learning “education for life’s sake” (p. 70), whereby knowledge is learned and applied “in the context of everyday living” (Cajete, 2005a, p. 70). This traditional experiential learning environment still exists today among many Native Peoples (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Mihesuah 2003b; Wilson, 2004; Simpson, 2004), although Western cultural influences may also be present in these settings (Cajete, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Krech, 2002; McNeley, 1994; Mihesuah 2003b; Wilson, 2004; Simpson, 2004). Indigenous and Western Education Many contemporary Native American communities are characterized by an environment where traditional and western beliefs and practices both coincide and conflict (McNeley, 1994). One example of this dichotomous situation is present in the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

7

school systems that exist in Native communities that teach Indigenous students based on western academic models (McNeley, 1994). By “western”, the author is referring to cultural beliefs and practices that are of Euro-American origin and character, as opposed to cultural beliefs and practices that are Indigenous in origin and character. Many Native communities, such as those on the Navajo Nation, have maintained strong traditional and place-based values in spite of the infiltration of western cultural influences, such as the western education system (Benally, 1994; Fixico, 2003; Matlock & House, 1989). Although most Native Americans value western education, they also express the desire to teach their children and community members’ traditional cultural values and practices in culturally appropriate ways (Cajete, 1994, 2005a). It has been this author’s experience that some schools in Indigenous communities, including the Navajo Nation, do indeed teach traditional beliefs, values and activities by providing cultural curricula for their students. Youth organizations, tribally-based programs, and other groups may also sponsor cultural activities within their respective communities. The presence of traditional activities in Indigenous communities, such as the Navajo Nation, reinforces a sense of cultural pride and identity in individuals within the greater context of a tribal community. Further, given that sense of place is an inherent component of traditional Indigenous activities, these activities also contribute to a Native person’s connectedness to the natural environment. Although traditional activities occur in many contemporary Native American communities, the education system in these same communities can be heavily dependent on western educational paradigms. This author has observed that the dominant learning paradigm within many school systems on

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

8

the Navajo Nation continues to be weighted toward western-cultural values and practices despite the presence of culturally relevant curricula. This author believes that one reason for western-dominated curricula in Native communities lies in the fact that many Indigenous community schools are state-funded and must, therefore, strive to meet state-mandated educational standards. These standards are founded on non-Native values and paradigms and may not adequately address the cultural diversity present in each respective school district (Barlow, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002). This results in a cultural bias toward western, non-Indigenous educational systems. This author also believes that some educators in Native communities may not possess the cultural knowledge, flexibility, materials, or administrative support to weave community-based cultural values, activities, and practices into school curricula. In any case, many Indigenous students receive a limited educational experience that is westernfocused in its methods and perspectives. Perhaps, if there existed a flexible, place-based learning model conducive to the learning styles of Indigenous Peoples, then educators could facilitate more culturallyappropriate educational activities and Native students would benefit from receiving both a western-oriented and a Native–based education. As well, within the school setting, this author believes that cultural teachings, values, and practices could be aligned with many of the federal, state and/or regional learning objectives, as needed. This author’s children attend a public, Navajo immersion school on the Navajo Nation that has bridged Navajo cultural curricula and language with many Arizona state-mandated learning objectives. The children attending this school are not only gaining skills that will help them succeed

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

9

in western culture, but are also acquiring skills that will help them remain connected with their own traditional culture. This author believes that a learning model that honors traditional Indigenous learning philosophies and practices can serve as a beneficial tool for educators of Indigenous learners. It is this author’s argument that Indigenous Peoples’ learning process is unique due to the fact that their identity is closely tied to their connections with tribal history, family, community, and place (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Given that, this author believes that a learning model designed to facilitate Indigenous learning should reflect these important components and perspectives. Further, this author believes that there exists within the fields of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education, experiential learning models that could be adapted to reflect Indigenous learning paradigms. Indigenous and Experiential Learning Traditional Indigenous education, in this author’s opinion, contains components that are reflected within both Experiential and Place-Based Education. This premise is based on the fact that traditional Indigenous learning is based on real-life situations anchored to a sense of place with the intention of facilitating transference of the learning to many situations outside of the original learning environment (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). The very same components are present in Experiential and Place-Based Education. Specifically, there are several western experiential learning models that mirror traditional Indigenous learning paradigms and processes, including the Experiential Learning Cycle model, developed by David A. Kolb, Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Weatheread School of Management, and his associate Roger Fry in the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

10

1970’s (Smith, 2005), as well as Project Adventure’s Adventure Wave model (Schoel, Prouty, & Radcliffe, 1988). In addition, Place-Based Education emphasizes experiential learning within local, “natural and cultural” environments (Knapp, 2005, p. 277; Baker, 2005), as Indigenous learning systems do. Under the context of this thesis, this author will compare modern Experiential and Place-Based learning models with the holistic learning models of Indigenous Native American cultures in general (Cajete, 1994), and of the Navajo (Diné), specifically. Based on this synoptic analysis, this author will propose an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) that combines elements of both western experiential learning paradigms and traditional, holistic Indigenous learning philosophies. It is this author’s belief that the modification and integration of existing western experiential learning models with those of Indigenous Peoples will allow Native students access to a learning paradigm that is culturally relevant in its design and applications. It is also this author’s belief that Experiential learning activities that incorporate the IELM can enhance Native students’ sense of identity, culture, community and place via a culturally appropriate approach to learning experiences (Cajete, 1994; Hall, 1991). Although the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model will be originally designed for use on the Navajo Nation, this model will be adaptable for other tribal communities that would facilitate learning experiences for Indigenous Peoples. Suggestions for specific applications of the IELM will be made at the end of Chapter Three of this thesis: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

11

Author’s Qualifications This author is uniquely qualified to develop and carry out this thesis project for a number of pertinent reasons. This author has worked with youth and community members on the Navajo Nation for thirteen (13) years. Specifically, this author has been a substitute teacher on the Navajo Nation, and has worked with local and visiting Indigenous youth on wilderness outings, community service-learning projects, and cultural camps. This author is currently employed as a Human Ecology Coordinator with the Indian Health Services on the Navajo Nation, co-coordinating a Wilderness, Cultural, and Community Enhancement Program. Through these connections, this author has developed a good rapport with many local schools, traditional elders, grassroots cultural educators, and community organizations on the Navajo Nation. As well, this author has lived on the Navajo Nation for 13 years, is married to a Diné man, and has three children attending a Navajo immersion school. This author, herself, is also Native American (Shawnee, Delaware, and Cherokee), whose interests lie in the areas of youth development, Experiential and Adventure Education, Indigenous cultural histories and values, wilderness skills, environmental awareness, alternative building techniques, permaculture, sustainability practices, and creative arts. It is this author’s belief that the above factors provide her with the appropriate qualifications to competently and successfully carry out this project-based thesis focused on the development of an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. This thesis project integrates many diverse fields of study. Related fields include Ethnology, American Indian Studies, Native Science, Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, Environmental Education, Adventure Education, Service-Learning, Sustainable

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

12

Community Development, and others. Each of these topic areas has been investigated in depth by the author throughout her Masters of Arts studies, making her uniquely qualified to discuss the interdependent relationships between all of these fields.

Intended Thesis Benefits and Audience This thesis will add to the knowledge base concerning Indigenous learning processes, and culturally appropriate pedagogical philosophies and techniques. It is this author’s belief that this thesis project will benefit many individuals and organizational entities in numerous ways. Namely, this thesis will provide foundational information for creating and evaluating Indigenous experiential learning projects in Native communities. Further, the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM), which integrates contemporary experiential learning models with traditional learning philosophies, will be a tool that Native community members and organizations can utilize and modify to appropriately reflect their own cultural and community values and activities. This author sees the IELM being utilized in Indigenous communities by Native and non-Native educators to facilitate more culturally appropriate classroom experiences, school-based projects, community service-learning projects, adventure activities, teambuilding activities, behavioral health projects, adjudicated youth projects, and other activities. Indigenous learners who will be participants in learning experiences based on the IELM will benefit with more relevant transference and retention of learning, a greater sense of individual and cultural identity, an enhanced sense of community and greater community cohesion, and an overall greater level of holistic wellness.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

13

Definition of Terms Pertinent to the myriad of related fields of study involved in this thesis topic, there are numerous terms that the author will utilize throughout this thesis, which should be defined here before proceeding. These terms have been divided below into two broad categories: non-Navajo (non-Diné) terms and Navajo (Diné) terms. Non-Navajo (non-Diné) terms: Adventure-Based Counseling (ABC) – A form of therapeutic intervention that utilizes adventure and experiential learning processes and activities as programmatic modalities (Schoel et al., 1988). Adventure Wave – A learning model that demonstrates “the ongoing Adventure process of Briefing/Activity/Debriefing, in operation throughout the Adventure experience” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 31). American Indian - see Indigenous. Briefing – Briefing is a discourse that takes place between facilitators and participants prior to an experiential learning activity. “To Brief is to inform. In the briefing discussion period there are two levels of ‘information,’ 1) instructions that the leader gives the group, much of it non-negotiable safety information and 2) shared information, where there is give and take, goal setting, clarification, and framing [of an activity].…[W]hat goes on in the briefing relates directly to what goes on during the upcoming activity” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 32). However, according to Frank and Panico (2000), briefing prior to providing an experiential activity is optional. Challenge by Choice –A concept from Project Adventure’s Adventure-Based Counseling

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

14

paradigm (Frank, 2004), whereby participants in learning settings first decide whether to participate in presented activities. If individual participants choose to participate, then they can choose at what level they will participate. Frank (2004) explains that this approach allows participants to have deeper learning experiences because “the student [is] in control of…[his/her] learning” (p. 7). Culture – For the purposes of this thesis, this author will refer to culture as the collective beliefs and practices of Indigenous Peoples, or Native Americans, as accepted by the greater community of such groups. Debriefing – Debriefing is a discourse that takes place between facilitators and participants following an experiential learning activity. “To Debrief is to evaluate. Everyone gets his/her chance to have input. Some Debriefs need to be directive, where the instructor talks and the students listen. Most Debriefs, however, operate on the group process model, using the activity as the central focus of the discussion. What did we do? What does it mean? What are we going to do about it? What are we going to do next?” (Schoel et al,, 1988, p. 32). Also see Processing. Experiential Learning – A process of “learning by doing” (Frank, 2001, p. 4) that strives to extract meaning from an experience by “taking the time to reflect upon the experience in order to gain insight, and transfer that insight into the rest of one’s life” (Frank, 2001, p. 4). Experiential Learning Cycle – An experiential learning model created by David Kolb and Roger Fry in the mid-1970’s. This cycle has four components or stages that include experiencing, reflecting, generalizing, and applying (Frank, 2004, p. 234).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

15

The Experiential Learning Cycle is a mechanism that “provides for the application, or transfer, of learning to participant’s lives” (Frank, 2004, p. 236). Experiential Learning Model – A systematic construct of experience-based education that serves as a guide to facilitate experiential learning activities throughout various phases. Some experiential learning models include the Experiential Learning Cycle developed by Kolb and Fry (Frank, 2004), and Project Adventure’s Adventure Wave (Schoel et al., 1988). Also see Experiential Learning Cycle, and Adventure Wave. Experiential Education - Experiential Education is a theoretical and practical system of learning (Quay, 2003), which asserts that the learner actively engages in experiences, “gain[s] insight and understanding from those experiences”, and “appl[ies] present learning to future experiences” (Frank, 2001, p. 2). An early proponent of the Experiential Education movement was John Dewey, whose contributions arose around the turn of the 20th century (Frank, 2004). Dewey believed that reality was dynamic, not fixed, therefore a “process-oriented approach” to education that emphasized “how to solve problems” (Frank, 2004, p. 6) was more conducive to learning than “the ‘assign-study-recite’ technique” that is utilized in many school systems in the United States (Frank, 2004, p. 6). Framing – Framing is an optional technique that can be utilized in the experiential learning process. Framing is described as a “[f]ocus time for the group where they are asked to consider the parameters of the task at hand” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 34). “Framing…the experience sets the stage for what is about to take place. Framing provides individuals with lead time before an activity or experience so

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

16

that they have an opportunity to think about it and prepare for it” (Luckner & Nadler, 1997, p. 114). Framing prior to an experiential activity can place the activity into a given context by using metaphors and/or scenarios (Frank, 2001). Also see Frontloading. Frontloading – Frontloading is an experiential learning technique that can be used prior to beginning an experiential activity. With frontloading, learning objectives can be put into place before an activity takes place. These defined objectives guide the experiential activity, as well as the debriefing process. Frontloading differs from framing in that it is more concrete, whereas framing is more abstract. Frank and Panico (2000) include frontloading with other “briefing” strategies, such as explaining rules and safety guidelines, and answering questions. As with framing, frontloading an activity is optional in the Experiential Learning paradigm. Also see Framing. Full Value Contract – A component of Project Adventure’s Adventure-Based Counseling paradigm (Frank, 2004), whereby “a group agrees [prior to an activity or program] to find positive value in the efforts of its members. This positive value is expressed in encouragement, goal setting, group discussion, a spirit of forgiveness, and confrontation” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 33). Goal Setting – A component of Project Adventure’s Adventure-Based Counseling paradigm (Frank, 2004) that entails “[t]he conscious effort of participants to set short- and long-term accomplishable benchmarks for themselves. It implies the ability to consciously transfer the specific skills learned in the activity/program to life situations outside the situation” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 34).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

17

Holistic – For the purposes of this thesis, this author will utilize the term “holistic” in reference to a comprehensive philosophy of thinking and doing that integrates emotional, mental, physical and spiritual aspects of any particular entity, i.e. person, environment, educational system, etc. Indigenous - For the purposes of this thesis, this author will utilize the terms Indigenous, American Indian, Native, and Native American to refer to a race of human beings whose ancestors inhabited North America prior to the arrival of Europeans in the late 15th century (L. T. Smith, 2002). Native - see Indigenous. Native American – see Indigenous. Navajo – An anglicized word that refers to the southwestern United States Native American tribe, who call themselves the Diné. The origin of the word “Navajo” is debated, however one reference explains that this word may have been derived from navaju, a pueblo (Tewa) word that refers to “Great Planted Fields” (Acrey, 1996, p. 64). Navajo Nation – The term Navajo Nation refers to the contemporary sovereign Diné tribe, and the modern Diné reservation land-base (McPherson, 1992) The Navajo Nation encompasses a large portion of northeastern Arizona in the United States, as well as parts of southeastern Utah and northwestern New Mexico. Outward Bound (OB) – An experiential learning school system developed by Kurt Hahn Around the 1940s that is based on particular pedagogical philosophies and applied through modern-day Outward Bound Schools and other adventure and experiential learning-based schools and programs. OB philosophy and practices

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

18

emphasize direct experience, compassion, and service to one’s greater community (Frank, 2004). Place-Based Education – Described by Clifford E. Knapp (2005) as “a label recently applied to a curricular and instructional approach designed to help students learn about immediate surroundings by capitalizing on their lived experiences” (p. 278). Place-Based learning recognizes one’s immediate environment as a valuable educational resource and draws upon local histories, grassroots educators, local cultures and natural landscapes as sources for inspiration and experiential learning (Baker, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002; Knapp, 2005). Processing – Also called debriefing, processing “is best viewed as an activity that is structured to encourage individuals to plan, reflect, describe, analyze, and communicate about experiences” (Luckner & Nadler, 1997, p 8). Processing affords the opportunity for participants to reflect upon their experiences in experiential learning activities and transfer their learning into real life situations (Frank, 2004). One processing formula asks the questions “What? So What? Now What?” (Frank, 2001, p. 168), as mentioned by experiential educators Jim Schoel, Dick Prouty, and Paul Radcliffe (1988) in The Art and Science of Processing Experience. By asking these three questions following an experiential activity, the facilitator assists learners to anchor their experiences and apply the lessons they have learned to real-life scenarios (Frank, 2001). Also see Debriefing. Progressive Education – Reformist education emerging at the turn of the 20th century in the United States that made learners the focus of the educational process. Progressive education practices included hands-on learning,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

19

laboratory learning, open discussion among learners, and curricula relevant to learners’ real lives (Dykhuizen, 1973). Project Adventure – An adventure-based experiential learning model and program, first developed in 1971 by Jerry Pieh and his staff at Hamilton-Wenham High School (Schoel et al., 1988) in Massachusetts. Project Adventure arose out of Outward Bound philosophies, creating a basis for one of the first Adventure Education models (Frank, 2004). The primary foundational concepts of Project Adventure include challenge by choice, the full value contract, and goal setting (Frank, 2004). Referencing – The process of orienting participants to known information and/or their surrounding environment prior to beginning an experiential activity. This author differentiates this concept from framing in that framing makes use of metaphors and/or scenarios prior to an activity, while referencing draws upon learners’ objective knowledge and physical surroundings. Native students internalize knowledge more effectively when the task at hand is built on, or referenced to, current knowledge and observations (Rhodes, 1989). This author proposes that when working with an Indigenous group of people on an experiential learning activity, referencing should occur prior to any activity. This author envisions referencing as a link to classroom objectives, group objectives, or other objectives defined cooperatively by the facilitator and participants. In addition, when it is appropriate for a group to utilize cultural values and beliefs as an orientation point, this author sees storytelling or other known culturally relevant processes as valuable referencing tools.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

20

Reflecting – Reflecting is part of the experiential learning process whereby participants are provided opportunities to look back upon activities and gain insight from their experiences and their responses to them. Reflecting “can involve quiet time, discussion, writing, drawing, working with clay, etc. People can look back on what they did, thought, saw, and how they behaved” (Frank, 2004, p. 234). Service-Learning – Service-learning, ideally, encourages individuals to develop and maintain communal relations by working with a community on projects designed to enhance local social and/or environmental programs or facilities (Rhodes, 1997). Sequencing – Sequencing, in the context of Experiential Education, involves “paying attention to the order of activities so that the order is appropriate to the needs of the group” (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 35). Synthesis – This author will define synthesis for the purposes of this thesis as a process whereby the transference of learning is so complete that the learning becomes an integral part of the individual learner’s being and known reality. Team-Building – This author will utilize the term team-building to refer to experiential learning activities within which an individual recognizes him/herself as an integral part of a greater whole: a team. Team-building activities generally require input and/or consensus from all members to successfully accomplish tasks at hand (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). Traditional - This author will utilize the term “traditional” in this thesis to refer to Indigenous learning approaches and/or activities that are derived and originate from a respective Indigenous culture.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

21

Transference – A process linked to participation in an experiential activity, which involves reflecting upon the learning gained from an activity and projecting these new concepts and skills into one’s life situation. Transference entails “transferring the skills and knowledge obtained through…experience to work, school, other activities, and to life in general” (Goldenberg, McAvoy, & Klenosky, 2005). Western – For the purposes of this thesis, this author will utilize the term “western” to refer to generalized American beliefs and practices that are non-Native in origin and character.

Navajo (Diné) language terms: a[ha’1n1’oo’n77[ - “the gathering of family” (Benally, 1994, p. 25). Herbert J. Benally (1994), former Curriculum Specialist at Diné College, divides the foundation of Navajo knowledge into four elements. A[ha’1n1’oo’n77[ is the third element and reveals the source of emotional stability (Benally, 1994). bee sih dinisdzin doolee[ - A Diné concept of the complete synthesis of knowledge that states, “the knowledge, skills, and discipline will culminate in my actualization and contentment and will become my prayers, my songs, and my teachings” (Benally, 1994, p. 30). b7k’ehgo da’iin1anii – “that which gives direction to life” (Benally, 1994, p. 25). Herbert Benally (1994) divides the foundation of Navajo knowledge into four elements. B7k’ehgo da’iin1anii is the first element and is associated with mental and spiritual aspects of the human being (Benally, 1994). Diné – An indigenous tribe residing in the southwestern region of the United States. The

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

22

term Diné roughly translates as “Earth People” (Underhill, 1989). The Spaniards referred to the Diné as Navajo, based on a pueblo (Tewa) word, navaju, which refers to “Great Planted Fields” (Acrey, 1996, p. 64). Also see Navajo. Dinetah – The original ancestral lands of the Diné (Lock, 1986). h11’1y99h d00 hod7lzin – “rest and reverence for all creation” (Benally, 1994, p. 25). Herbert Benally (1994) divides the foundation of Navajo knowledge into four elements. The fourth element, h11’1y99h d00 hod7lzin , relates to one’s connection and subsequent responsibility to place: home and environment (Benally, 1994). H0zh=0go Iin1 – “a way of happiness” (Benally, 1994, p. 29); balance. According to Herbert Benally (1994), when the Navajo’s “four areas of knowledge converge”, then balance, or “H0zh=0go Iin1” is achieved (p. 29). For these four areas of knowledge, see b7k’ehgo da’iin1anii, nihig11l, a[ha’1n1’oo’n77[, and h11’1y99h d00 hod7lzin. iin1 – “life” (Benally, 1994, p.29); “taking action” (Matlock, 1995, p. 19). The third stage of the four stages of internalizing knowledge, according to Navajo philosophy (Benally, 1994). nahat’1 – “planning” (Benally, 1994, p.29). The second stage of the four stages of internalizing knowledge, according to Navajo philosophy (Benally, 1994). nihig11l – “sustenance” (Benally, 1994, p. 25). Herbert Benally (1994) divides the foundation of Navajo knowledge into four elements. Nihig11l is the second element, which relates to one’s physical needs (Benally, 1994, p. 25). nits1h1kees – “thinking” (Benally, 1994, p.29). The first stage of the four stages of internalizing knowledge, according to Navajo philosophy (Benally, 1994).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

23

s2’a nagh1i bik’e h00zh= - “wholeness” (Farella, 1996, p. 178); “an understanding of the whole” (Farella, 1996, p. 17). Seated within s2’a nagh1i bik’e h00zh= is the source of Navajo wisdom (Benally, 1994). she’iina’ doolee[ - A Diné concept of the complete synthesis of knowledge that states, “the knowledge will enable me to manage my life affairs in a meaningful and fruitful way” (Benally, 1994, p. 30). shinahat’1 doolee[ - A Diné concept of the complete synthesis of knowledge that states, “the knowledge will pervade my concept structures and action schemes” (Benally, 1994, p. 30). shinits4kees doolee[ - A Diné concept of the complete synthesis of knowledge that states, “the knowledge will become my thoughts” (Benally, 1994, p. 30). siihasin – “fulfillment” (Benally, 1994, p.29); “completeness, confidence, and stability” (Matlock, 1995, p. 19). The forth stage of the four stages of internalizing knowledge, according to Navajo philosophy (Benally, 1994).

Organization of Paper The following synoptic overview of this thesis will aid the reader in grasping the flow of this paper. Chapter One, the Introduction, has provided the reader with an overview of why this author feels that it is necessary to develop an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) and how it can be a viable experiential learning tool for teaching culturally relevant material to Indigenous learners, in culturally appropriate ways.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

24

Chapter Two, the Literature Review, will identify literary resources that support this author’s views. The literature review will be composed of four parts that address the following topics. Part One will introduce Indigenous teaching/learning perspectives centered around family, community, sense of place, and natural world contexts. Part Two will present Diné (Navajo) traditional cultural teaching/learning philosophies related to kinship, the cardinal directions and holistic interrelatedness. Part Three of the literature review will describe a transition period, during the turn of the 20th century, where forced western educational practices were intended to replace Indigenous cultural practices. The subsequent detrimental effects related to such acculturation agendas by the United States government will also be discussed. And finally, Part Four of the literature review will look at experiential- and place-based learning, which are facets of western education that closely parallel traditional Indigenous learning paradigms. Part Four will also explore key western experiential learning models. Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model will begin by identifying important aspects of Indigenous learning philosophies, including holistic educational perspectives related to family, community, place and natural interrelationships. Chapter Three will then compare these Indigenous learning philosophies to the theoretical models of the western educational fields of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education. This author will then suggest how these western experiential learning models can be adapted and combined with Native pedagogies to produce an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) appropriate for Indigenous populations. Finally, an IELM created by this author will be presented along with suggested applications of the model. Chapter Four, the Discussion and Recommendations

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

25

section, will provide a summary of the IELM, identify the strengths and limitations of the model, and present recommendations for further research. Following Chapter Four, literary references will be provided. This thesis will now move into the Literature Review section. The literature review will lead the reader through the cultural foundations of traditional Indigenous education, followed by a description of how traditional Indigenous education was altered during the 20th century under the pretense of assimilating the Native American into western culture. Also to be described will be a brief period of time in the 1930s when the Commission of Indian Education began to implement experiential educational practices and cultural curriculum in Indian community schools. This movement occurred in conjunction with the progressive educational efforts happening in American public schools at the time. These experiential education philosophies and practices evolved from the holistic educational paradigms of education theorist John Dewey. Though shortlived, this innovative approach to western education was more reflective of Indigenous learning practices. Finally, the literature review will reveal how experiential learning, place-based learning, and traditional Indigenous learning philosophies and practices complement one another in such ways that, if combined, a viable mechanism can emerge that can provide Indigenous populations with a culturally-appropriate, culturallyenhancing, experiential learning paradigm: the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

26

Chapter Two: Literature Review Prior to European contact in the late 15th century, indigenous inhabitants of North America comprised myriad diverse, self-sustaining, cultural groups (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Bearcrane, Dodd, Nelson, & Ostwald, 1990; Rybak, Eastin, & Robbins, 2004; Krech, 2002). Each group, or tribe, had unique cultural attributes and specific teachings pertinent to physical and spiritual aspects of the family, community, and one’s relationship to the land (Basso, 1996; Beck & Walters, 1977; Blaeser 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria, 1994, 1997; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Gulliford, 2004; Krech, 2002). Over the past 500 years, these traditional Native American lifeways have been challenged and threatened through assimilation and acculturation agendas imposed by the United States (U.S.) government (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Prucha, 1986; Mihesuah, 2003b; Simpson, 2004; Szasz, 1999; Wilson, 2004), various religious sects (Adams, 1995; Grinde, 2004; Lomawaima, 1994; Mihesuah, 2003a; Prucha, 1986; Tharp, Lewis, Hilberg, Bird, Epaloose, Dalton, et al., 2000; Szasz, 1999), as well as individuals and groups aiming to control and privatize tribal lands and natural resources located within tribal land-boundaries (Adams, 1995; Churchill & Vander Wall, 1990; Simpson, 2004; Wilson, 2004). In particular, from the late-nineteenth century forward, the field of Education has been a conduit through which the U.S. government has implemented its formalized assimilation and acculturation methods intended to replace traditional Indigenous cultural lifeways with western cultural practices (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Gross, 2003; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Simpson, 2004; Szasz, 1999; Tharp et al., 2000).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

27

As a result of these various pressures, drastic changes have indeed occurred within traditional Native American cultures since the time of contact with non-Natives, exacerbated by forced western education imposed upon Indigenous Peoples over the past century (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Gross, 2003; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Simpson, 2004; Szasz, 1999; Tharp et al., 2000). And yet at the same time, traditional cultural beliefs and practices have persevered and even been strengthened in many Native American communities, such as the Navajo Nation (Adams, 1995; Barlow, 2005; Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1994; Senese, 1991; Szasz, 1999). These surviving beliefs and practices include traditional methods and paradigms, which exist side by side with modern Western philosophies and ways of life. Examining the western educational system and its relationship to the traditional learning practices of Indigenous cultures is a keystone of this literature review and this thesis. It is this author’s intention to explore the history and practices of both western and traditional Indigenous educational systems so that a holistic foundation can be identified upon which an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) can be built. In laying this foundation, this literature review will first examine Native American cultural learning practices related to family, community, place, spirituality, and natural interrelationships. Next, the literature review will focus on Diné (Navajo) traditional education philosophies related to kinship, sacred boundaries, and interrelations. Then, a transitional period in Indigenous Peoples educational history will be explored. This transitional period entailed western educational practices being forced upon Native American children with the intent of cultural assimilation. Finally, this literature review will provide a comparison of the western-educational paradigms of Experiential

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

28

Education and Place-Based Education with traditional Indigenous experiential learning philosophies and practices. Through these literary explorations, this author will identify key experiential learning themes and practices from both western and Native educational paradigms that can be appropriately formulated into an Indigenous experiential learning format, presented as an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. Traditional Indigenous educational philosophies and practices will be examined now.

Part One: Indigenous Educational Perspectives Related to Family, Community, Place, and Natural Interrelationships Indigenous educational paradigms are inherently holistic, experiential, and placebased, and foster individual and communal awareness. This reality has been true historically and is still true today (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This section will first examine how Indigenous learning paradigms recognize that each individual possesses internal creative qualities that interact with external factors, which together promote the transference of new knowledge, skill, and wisdom to the individuals’ reallife situations. Next, this author will examine how Indigenous learning techniques, such as the sharing of oral narratives, encourage each individual to utilize his/her individual gifts to enrich his/her greater social community, i.e. family, tribe. Then, this section will reveal the importance of interrelationships, both human and non-human, to Indigenous educational practices. Finally, this author will explore how all of the above concepts create a pedagogical system based on holistic spatial relationships centered in a sense of place.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

29

For Native Americans, traditional education transpires through participation with family and extended family, culturally-based communal activities, and one’s physical and spiritual environments (Basso, 1996; Blaeser, 1999; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a, 2005b; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Graham, 2002; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Grinde, 2004; Nelson, 1993; Rybak et al., 2004; Silko, 1986; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). It is a multi-dimensional learning system that recognizes everyone and everything as a teacher (Brascoupe, 1998, Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, Krech, 2002; Silko 1986). By multi-dimensional, this author means that learning not only occurs as a physical and mental activity, but also incorporates spiritual and creative realms that are present within a learner’s body and psyche, as well as outside of the body in one’s respective environment. In his book Look to the Mountain: An Ecology of Indigenous Education (1994), Tewa scholar Dr. Gregory Cajete offers that Indigenous teaching and learning operate in both internal and external dimensions, based upon an Indigenous philosophy he calls “Spiritual Ecology” (p. 39). This system of knowledge, which Cajete (1994) presents in his model called “The Ebb and Flow of Tribal Education” (p. 38), is shown in Figure 1 below. Through this model, Cajete (1994) explains that the internal foundations of Native learning include “Mythic, Visionary, and Artistic [archetypes, which]…form a…deep understanding of our inner being” (p. 39). These internal dimensions embody each individual’s unique personality and gifts, as well as the self-actualization that results from the creative expression of these gifts. The internal foundations of Native learning are complemented and balanced by “Affective, Communal, and Environmental foundations, [which represent the]…highly interactive and external dimension of Tribal education”

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

30

(Cajete, 1994, p. 39). The external aspects of education are reflective of how individual gifts transform and enhance the greater community when applied to one’s human and

MYTHIC

ENVIRONMENTAL

SPIRITUAL ECOLOGY

VISIONARY

ARTISTIC

EFFECTIVE

COMMUNAL

Figure 1. The Ebb and Flow of Tribal Education, as shown by Cajete, 1994, p. 38.

non-human surroundings. This holistic Indigenous learning model of Dr. Cajete’s will again be revisited in Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. Dr. Cajete’s (1994, 2000) discussion of internal and external learning dimensions is supported in the works of Anishinaabe scholar and poet Kimberly Blaeser (1999), Keith Basso (1996), Professor of Anthropology at the University of New Mexico, and Standing Rock Sioux scholar and philosopher Vine Deloria, Jr. with Yuchi scholar Daniel Wildcat (2001), who all recognize that personal Indigenous evolution through learning occurs in context with direct participation with one’s environment, defined by place. Blaeser (1999) describes the interacting forces embodying and surrounding each individual as internal and external “landscapes” (p. 97), which inform one’s learning

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

31

through “storied” rather than “instructed” ways (p. 101). In a storied learning setting, one’s entire environment becomes the teacher and the learner is an active participant throughout the learning process, which evolves over one’s lifetime as one grows and matures. In an instructed learning setting, where learners are told what they should know, the subtle teachings present in their surroundings may be excluded and learners may not be able to bridge such compartmentalized teachings with their living reality, thus suppressing the learning process and the transference of new knowledge (Deloria & Wildcat; Reyhner, 1996). Storied learning indicates that teachings are modeled by human and non-human teachers alike (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Grinde, 2004; Krech, 2002; Nelson, 1993), and requires the learner to listen, observe, participate, and emulate the teachings (Blaeser, 1999; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 2004, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gulliford, 2004; Krech, 2002; Running Wolf & Rickard, 2003). That is to say, Indigenous learning environments are naturally experiential and place-based, and involve not only the learner, but also the learners’ communal environments. A review of the literature indicates that in addition to creating awareness of an individual’s internal and external landscapes, Indigenous educational practices also promote awareness of one’s role within his/her larger social community. Indigenous learning environments facilitate sharing, cooperation, respect, and responsibility among family members and community members of all ages, and also promote acknowledgement of and respect for one’s natural environment (Belone et al., 2002; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hynd & Garcia, 1979; Krech, 2002; Running Wolf & Rickard, 2003; Struthers, 2001). One Indigenous practice that promotes one’s awareness of and connection to one’s cultural environment is found

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

32

within the context of teaching and learning via oral conveyance of information (Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Tohe, 2000; Wilson 1996a, 1996b). The very act of utilizing oral histories and narratives as a mode of education implies that responsibility is assumed by the storyteller to perpetuate cultural knowledge. At the same time, respect and cooperation are necessary on the part of the “audience” as they participate through listening (Cajete, 1994; Deloria, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gross, 2003; Jenson, 2000; Krech, 2002). The sharing of oral narratives generally brings multiple generations together in one setting (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, Deloria, 1994; Grinde, 2004; Krech, 2002), as well as solidifies human and non-human interrelationships through the content of the narrative itself (Blaeser, 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1998; Gross 2003; Jenson, 2000; Silko, 1986). Thus, the practice of conveying oral narratives is a form of Indigenous experiential and place-based education that facilitates cooperative interaction while also perpetuating and strengthening cultural beliefs and activities. Sharing oral narratives represents one dynamic mode of sharing knowledge in Indigenous cultures where the teachings are related and relevant to one’s life and one’s surroundings (Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Rybak et al., 2004; Simpson, 2004). As mentioned in Chapter One of this thesis, Dr. Cajete (2005a) refers to this life-centered approach to education as “education for life’s sake” (p. 70). Within this context of lived-learning, it is recognized that learners are intimately connected with and dependent upon everything within their environment (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994; 2000, 2005a, 2005b; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Graham, 2002; Gross, 2003; Nelson, 1993; Rybak et al., 2004; Silko, 1986; Szasz 1999). Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico poet

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

33

and novelist Leslie Marmon Silko (1986) explains that “only through interdependence could the human beings survive” (p. 92). Indigenous philosophies of interconnection between human and non-human entities are important to Native educational practices and are in direct contrast with conventional western education. Whereas Native learning fosters communal identity, western education promotes individuality (Adams, 1995; Bearcrane et al., 1990; Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hynd & Garcia, 1979; Krech, 2002). This does not mean that Native communities do not honor the individual, in fact, personal development is of utmost importance as supported by the “internal” elements of Dr. Cajete’s (2004, 2005a) “Spiritual Ecology” paradigm mentioned above. What the Native educational paradigm does emphasize is that in conjunction with personal development, “the individual takes into consideration and acts on the needs of the community, and does not act on the basis of selfish interest alone” (Gross, 2003, p. 129). Indigenous people recognize their inclusion and participation within a complex web of interrelationships between human and non-human forces (Cajete, 1994). For Native Americans, interrelationships go beyond one’s family and extended family. Indigenous People’s believe that all things are related and interdependent on one another. These interdependent relationships extend to the plant kingdom (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1999; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001), animals, insects and birds (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1999, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Silko, 1986), as well as lunar, solar, and celestial cycles (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1999, 2000; Griffin-Pierce, 1998; Gross, 2003; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). Dr. Cajete (2005a) states, “Indigenous education is at its very essence learning about life through participation and relationship to community,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

34

including not only people, but plants, animals, and the whole of nature” (p. 70). By acknowledging and understanding this vast network of living inter-relationships, Native Americans align their daily activities to coincide with natural phenomena and rhythms (Hughes, 1983). J. Donald Hughes (1983) is an ecologist and professor of history at the University of Denver. In his book American Indian Ecology, he states “Indians [regard] things in nature as spiritual beings, not because they [are] seeking some explanation for natural phenomenon, but because human beings experience a spiritual resonance in nature” (Hughes, 1983, p. 16). From this resonance arises great respect and reverence for all things human and non-human and keen observance of, and participation with, natural cycles related to planting, hunting, harvesting, sacred ceremony conduction, etc. (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1999, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Graham, 2002; Hill, 1938; Wilson, 2004). These practices not only facilitate individual learning and growth, but through the individual’s conscious and cohesive connection to family, community, and place, an individual’s respective cultural values and landscapes are nurtured, as well (Blaeser, 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Silko, 1986). Since Indigenous education is directly related to one’s lived culture and sense of place, it is acceptable and appropriate to Native People that other cultures “live” different stories, stories related to their own respective internal and external landscapes (Basso, 1996; Cajete, 2000; Deloria, 1994, 1997; Quinn, 1995). Native people expect that other cultures’ perspectives of the world do differ from, and even starkly contrast with, their own perspectives (Deloria, 1994, 1997). Because Indigenous people understand and respect this reality, it is not a common practice for Native people to force their own

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

35

beliefs and practices upon others (Deloria, 1994, 1997; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; L.T. Smith, 2002). In turn, Native people do not desire culturally inappropriate paradigms and practices forced upon them. Another aspect of the Indigenous educational paradigm is that traditional Native lifeways are space- and event- oriented (Ball, 2002; Cajete, 2000; Deloria, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Thayer-Bacon, 2002), as opposed to western culture’s linear and time focus (Ball, 2002; Bearcrane et al., 1990; Cajete, 2000; Deloria, 1994; Rybak et al., 2004; Szasz, 1999). This author sees the linear/time perspective of western culture as being human-centered, and the spatial (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001) or “spiritual order” (Struthers, 2001, p. 128) orientation of Indigenous cultures as nature-centered. Because this spatial/spiritual order orientation is defined by place, nature, and interdependent relations, one finds cyclic, i.e. non-linear, worldviews occurring in Indigenous cultures (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria, 1997; Griffin-Pierce, 1998; Rybak et al., 2004). Examples of cyclic natural phenomena important to Indigenous People include day to night, birth to death, celestial movements, and seasonal changes (Cajete, 2000; Deloria, 1994; Griffin-Pierce, 1997). Thus, many Indigenous philosophies and practices relate directly to the natural world and its cycles: the seasons, the cosmos, the cardinal directions, i.e. east, south, west, north, above, below, and center (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 1994, 1999, 2000, 2005a; Deloria, 1994; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Farella, 1996; Nelson, 1993). Further, since Native Peoples reside in diverse landscapes and cultures, each Indigenous group presents a unique expression of these natural phenomena within their respective cultures (Basso, 1996; Beck & Walters, 1997; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a;

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

36

Collier, 1962; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1988; Hughes, 1983; ThayerBacon, 2002; Wilson, 2004). This section of the literature review has delineated Indigenous educational paradigms and perspectives. This author has revealed how Indigenous people honor individual growth within the context of communal relationships, both human and nonhuman. These internal and external landscapes create a learning environment based on a sense of place. In addition, Native people view the world as spatial and cyclic, rather than linear, and believe that all things are interconnected. These holistic worldviews provide a construct from which Diné educational paradigms also evolve (Benally, 1994; Matlock, 1995; Matlock & House, 1989; McNeley, 1994; Rhodes, 1989). The proceeding section will focus on holistic Diné educational philosophies and how these philosophies are influenced by and expressed through relationships, such as kinship, the cardinal directions and interrelations with the non-human world.

Part Two: Diné (Navajo) Educational Perspectives Related to Family, Community, Place, and Natural Interrelationships Like many other Indigenous Peoples of America, the Navajo (Diné) recognize the interrelatedness of all things and consider family, community, nature, and environment all as teachers (Belone, Gonzalez-Santin, Gustavsson, MacEachron, & Perry, 2002; Benally, 1994; Farella, 1996; Gold, 1994; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; Hill, 1938; Lewton & Bedone, 2000; Matlock & House, 1989; McNeley, 1994, 1997; Zolbrod, 1991). This section will explore Diné educational principles of interconnectedness to gain greater understanding of the Diné’s holistic approach to acquiring and internalizing

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

37

knowledge. First, this author will examine the Navajo clanship system, which delineates principles of self-actualization through one’s social relationships. Then, this author will look at Diné self-actualization through external orientations, i.e. the Diné’s sacred mountains and the cardinal directions. Following, this author will explore sources of balance for human beings, including their internal and external connections, as well as knowledge and wisdom. For many Indigenous people, including the Diné, education is a holistic process. This holistic paradigm of Indigenous education is referred to by professor and scholar Robert W. Rhodes (1989) at the Center for Excellence in Education at Northern Arizona University, in his book Native American Learning Styles. Dr. Rhodes (1989) states, “the small amount of preliminary research in Native American learning styles tends to support the idea that perception of information is more toward the holistic, intuitive, feeling, concrete experience end of the continuum than toward the abstract conceptualization end” (p. 40). Diné holistic learning perspectives are specifically referenced by Herbert John Benally (1994), former Curriculum Specialist at Diné College, in his journal article Navajo Philosophy of Learning and Pedagogy. Benally (1994) indicates that “for Navajos, knowledge, learning, and life itself are sacred and interwoven parts of a whole. They are holistic principles that determine the quality of each other” (p. 23). Other scholars and researchers who have written about holistic Diné learning concepts include educator Marci Matlock with anthropologist Deborah House (1989), educator and anthropologist James K. McNeley (1994), writer John R. Farella (1996), and Catawba scholar Trudy Griffin-Pierce (1988, 1995, 1997). All of these writers indicate that the Diné learning process is unique and informed by holistic and cyclic cultural paradigms

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

38

that are ever present and interwoven throughout the Diné learner’s living world. One of the most powerful cultural paradigms present for the Diné is their clanship system. Clanship Kinship is expressed beautifully within the cultural contexts of the Navajo. An individual is not just an extension of his or her nuclear family, but is also related to individuals within his or her clan system. In Navajo culture, clans are genealogical groups that represent one’s lineage, and also identify each Diné individual’s present communal relationships (Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001; Roessel, 1973; Tohe, 2000; Zolbrod, 1991). For the Navajo, clans represent a system of extended social relationships of matrilineal origin (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001; Roessel, 1973; Tohe, 2000). American culture has, for the most part, adopted the patrilineal structure of Europeans, where individuals typically carry the last name of the father’s family. The Navajo have a matrilineal culture, where family lines are traced through the mother’s clan, regardless of a person’s last name (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001; Roessel, 1973; Tohe, 2000). Surnames are a new practice for the Navajo and are directly related to EuropeanAmerican contact, particularly within the context of the Western education system (Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962). Many Native children were assigned last names when they entered the Native boarding school system between the late 19th century and the mid-20th century. These assigned last names were either European last names, or anglicized interpretations of their Indigenous names (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003). Today, the practice of adopting a father’s last name is common among the Diné, however, it is

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

39

this author’s observation that this practice has failed to undermine Navajo identity sourced in one’s matrilineal clans. The matrilineal clan system is shown in Figure 2 below. When a Navajo individual introduces himself or herself, he or she will say that they are of the mother’s maternal clan (one’s 1st clan), and born for the father’s maternal clan (one’s 2nd clan) (Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001; Roessel, 1973). Next, he or she will name the maternal grandfather’s mother’s clan (one’s 3rd clan), and his or her paternal grandfather’s mother’s clan (one’s 4th clan) (Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962;

Maternal Grandmother’s

Maternal Grandfather’s

Paternal Grandmother’s

Paternal Grandfather’s

A) 1st Clan

C) 1st Clan

B) 1st Clan

D) 1st Clan

Mother’s A) 1st Clan C) 2nd Clan

Father’s B) 1st Clan D) 2nd Clan

Self A) 1st Clan (Mother’s 1st Clan) B) 2nd Clan (Father’s 1st Clan) C) 3rd Clan (Mother’s 2nd Clan) D) 4th Clan (Father’s 2nd Clan)

Figure 2. Navajo Matrilineal Clan Chart

Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001; Roessel, 1973). It is through these four main clans, which all are matrilineal in origin, that a Navajo individual identifies him/herself. An example of this comes from this author’s husband Gino Antonio (personal communication, February 25, 2006) who may introduce himself by saying, “My clan (1st clan) is T1b33h1 (Water’s

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

40

Edge Clan). I am born for (2nd clan) T0d7ch’7inii (Bitter Water Clan). My cheii (3rd clan) is Dib4 [izhin7 (Black Sheep Clan). My n1l7 (4th clan) is Kin[ich7i’nii (Red House People’s Clan)”. By identifying himself through this clanship system, Mr. Antonio not only expresses who he is, but also, where he comes from, as these clan names are also place-names. Navajo clan names emerge from the original geographic locations where particular groups of Diné historically resided (Kluckhohn & Leighton, 1962; Zolbrod, 1991). Therefore, for Diné knowing one’s clanship not only tracks one’s human lineage, but also traces one’s sense of place upon ancestral lands. So when “sense of place’ is discussed in relation to knowing who one is and where one comes from, Navajo clanship creates and communicates direct relationships between individuals and their family history, as well as their geographic history and orientation to sacred landscapes (Cajete 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001). All of these concepts will prove central to Navajo educational paradigms, as seen later in this thesis. Another important orientation-based aspect of Navajo educational paradigms is rooted in the sacred geographic boundaries of the Diné ancestral lands. These boundaries are defined by six sacred mountains and marked by the sacred cardinal directions (Deloria, 1994; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; McPherson, 1992; Reichard, 1990). These sacred geographic boundaries are examined in detail now. Six Sacred Mountains and the Cardinal Directions The modern day Navajo Nation reservation shown in Figure 3 below is located near the “four-corners” region of the southwestern United States. This area is called the four corners because it is where the northwestern corner of New Mexico, the northeastern

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model corner of Arizona, the southeastern corner of Utah, and the southwestern corner of Colorado converge (McPherson, 1992). Literary sources reveal that the Din4 ancestral homelands, called Dinetah, enveloped the four-corners region and extended far beyond present-day reservation boundary lines (Acrey, 1979, 1996; Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; McPherson, 1992).

Figure 3. Navajo Nation reservation map retrieved May 20, 2006 from http://www.navajonationfair.com/NNF2005/images/navajo_map.jpg. The six sacred mountains added by author. The ancestral Diné landscape has historically been defined by sacred mountains aligned with the four main cardinal directions, i.e. east, south, west, and north. These mountains are still recognized today as important landmarks for the boundaries of Dinetah (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; McPherson, 1992; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). The land boundary to the east, ha’a’ah, is

41

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

42

represented by the sacred mountain Sis Naajin7, or Blanca Peak located near Alamosa, Colorado. The south, sh1d7’11h, is where the mountain Tsoo Dzi[, or Mount Taylor resides near Grants, New Mexico. To the west, e’e’aah, lies the western sacred mountain near Flagstaff, Arizona. It is called Dook’o’oos[77d, or San Francisco Peak. The sacred mountain that defines the northern boundary, n1hookos, is Hesperus Peak or Dib4 Nitsaa near Durango, Colorado. The two sacred mountains that are located in the center of the circle created by the other four sacred mountains are both located in northwestern New Mexico. They are Dzi[ N1’oodi[ii, or Huerfano Mesa, and Ch’0ol’9’9, or Gobernador Knob (Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1995; McPherson, 1992; Reichard, 1990). Refer to Figure 3 above for the location of these sacred mountains. Note that the information provided by the map in Figure 3 is not to scale. The Din4 consider these holy mountains to be powerful, living, breathing, and animated beings (Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1995; McNeley, 1994, 1997; McPherson, 1992; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). The mountains and their relational directions are sources of history, protection, and spiritual connectedness for the Diné. They can be accessed at any time for knowledge, grounding, balancing, and comfort (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Benally, 1994; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; Lewton & Belone, 2000; McPherson, 1992). It is said that when a Navajo is within the sacred landscape defined by these mountains, he/she is home, surrounded by holiness (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Benally, 1994; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997). In addition, the Diné individual is connected to the earth below (the fifth sacred direction), and the sky above (the sixth sacred direction). The individual who is standing at the center of these entities is

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

43

positioned within the seventh sacred direction, or the center (Gold, 1994). This is true for the Diné whether they are outside upon the landscape, or inside their homes. The traditional home of the Diné, the hogan, is also aligned to the cardinal directions and is the embodiment of the sacred mountains, the earth (nadir), and the sky (zenith) (Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995). The hogan door typically faces the east, toward the eastern sacred mountain and the daily sunrise (Beck & Walters, 1977; Griffin-Pierce 1995). The door posts that stand to the left and to the right of this eastern doorway embody the central sacred mountains Dzi[ N1’oodi[ii and Ch’0ol’9’9. The eastern wall of the hogan symbolizes the eastern sacred mountain, while the southern wall represents the southern sacred mountain. Continuing in a clock-wise fashion around the hogan, the western and northern walls embody the western and northern sacred mountains respectively. When an individual enters the hogan through the eastern door during a ceremony, he/she walks in a clockwise, or sun-wise, direction inside the hogan. This is the same way that the light moves through the landscape from dawn, to midday, to twilight, to night. Thus, the hogan is a continuous reference to one’s identity within the broader landscape, creating a sense of place and reminding one of the interconnectedness of all (Alvord & Van Pelt, 1999; Cajete, 2000, 2005a; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; McPherson, 1992). Further, the sacred directions: east, south, west, north, nadir, zenith and center are related to specific aspects of the natural world (Benally, 1994; Farella, 1996; GriffinPierce, 1988, 1995, 1997; Matlock, 1995; McNeley, 1994; Thayer-Bacon, 2002; Zolbrod, 1991). According to anthropologist Gladys Reichard (1990), the eastern direction, ha’a’ah, represents light (fire), the springtime, and the color white. The south, sh1d7’11h,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

44

encompasses the element water, the summer season, and the color blue. To the west, e’e’aah, signifies air, the fall, and the color yellow. The north, n1hookos, embodies earth, the wintertime, and the color black (Reichard, 1990; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). The earth below encompasses nurturing mother attributes, and the sky above contains protective father attributes (Griffin-Pierce, 1998; Cajete, 1994). The significance of these relationships between sacred landmarks and the Diné will become apparent in Chapter Three as they unfold through this author’s Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. This author will now explore the concept of interrelationship among all things as an important component of Diné cultural philosophy, and one that influences Diné educational philosophies and practices. Balance through Interrelatedness This author has shown how family relations and sacred boundaries, such as the cardinally-aligned sacred mountains, are important cultural constructs for the Diné. These entities provide a sense of identity and connectedness to Diné history and belief systems, as well as internal and external cosmological landscapes. In addition, the holistic philosophies of the Diné encourage respect and reverence toward one’s relations, both human and non-human, which promotes balance and harmony within nature and within the human being (Benally, 1994; Cajete, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce 1995; Reichard, 1990). For the Diné these teachings, the constructs of which point to interconnectedness of all things, have their origins within the Navajo concept of wholeness and completeness called S2’a nagh1i Bik’e h00zh=. Let’s examine this concept in more depth, as it is an important keystone of Diné philosophy in general and pedagogy in particular.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

45

Benally (1994) describes Navajo knowledge as a multi-layered entity that begins with the source of all life. For the Navajo, this source is called S2’a nagh1i Bik’e h00zh=, which can be described holistically as balance, wholeness, and/or completeness (Benally, 1994; Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1995; Matlock, 1995; Thayer-Bacon, 2002) and holds “the sacred and spiritual identity of the Navajo” (Benally, 1994). S2’a nagh1i, the first part of the expression, conveys the “male” phenomenon in the universe and represents “indestructible and eternal being” (Benally, 1994, p. 24). This author sees this male entity as “presence” or “potential”. Bik’e h00zh=, the second part of the expression, portrays the “female” phenomenon, which is the “director and cause of all that is good” (Benally, 1994, p. 24). This author views this female entity as “motion” or “animation”. Benally (1994) explains that “life, as we know it, is the interaction of these pairs….It is the life force of the universe” (p. 24). Seated within S2’a nagh1i Bik’e h00zh=, therefore, is the source of all, including Navajo knowledge in perfect wholeness and balance (Benally, 1994). These concepts of wholeness and balance inform both Diné culture and pedagogy as shown in later sections of this thesis. As a continuation of the discussion about factors that influence Diné educational philosophies and practices, this author will now examine the Diné holistic and cyclical process of acquiring, internalizing, and synthesizing knowledge. Source of Knowing The Navajo process of acquiring new knowledge is based on four foundational elements, involves four stages of maturation, and culminates with the complete synthesis of knowledge. This author will begin by examining the four foundational elements of Navajo knowledge. Benally (1994) divides the holistic foundation of Navajo knowledge

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

46

into four elements, which are interconnected and also respectively represented with the four sacred directions: east, south, west, and north. The first element is “b7k’ehgo da’iin1anii (that which gives direction to life)”, and is associated with the east, and the mental and spiritual aspects of the human being (Benally, 1994, p. 25). The second element is “nihig11l (sustenance)”, which relates to the south, and one’s physical needs (Benally, 1994, p. 25). The third element is related to the west and is described as a[ha’1n1’oo’n77[ (the gathering of family)”, revealing the source of Diné emotional stability (Benally, 1994, p. 25). The fourth element is h11’1y99h d00 hod7lzin (rest and reverence for all creation)”, relating to the north, and one’s connection and subsequent responsibility to place: home and environment (Benally, 1994, p. 25). According to Benally (1994), “[t]hese four areas of knowledge converge to create balance or H0zh=0go Iin1 (a way of happiness)” (p. 29) within the Diné individual. Pertinent to the acquisition of knowledge, Benally (1994) further describes as the “four stages in the life process of maturation” (p. 29). Benally (1994) indicates that the four stages of maturation can also be referred to as the “four stages of internalization of knowledge” (p. 29). The processes of internalizing knowledge are “nits1h1kees (thinking),…nahat’1 (planning),…iin1 (life), and…siihasin (fulfillment and contentment)” (Benally, 1994, p. 29; Matlock, 1995). These four stages of maturation, like the four elemental foundations of knowledge listed above, are also aligned respectively with the four sacred directions. Cosmologically, thinking resides in the eastern sacred direction, planning resides in the south, life in the west, and fulfillment and contentment in the north. Benally (1994) emphasizes that “each stage is built upon the other” and that “knowledge that is internalized becomes one’s life” (p. 30).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

47

These concepts are also described by educator Marci Matlock (1995), who translates “iina” as “taking action”, and “siihasin” as “completeness, confidence, and stability” (p. 19). Matlock (1995) indicates that these are the ultimate end-products and evidences of knowledge integration. This author views these stages of maturation or internalization of knowledge as processes of bringing that which was unknown to that which is already known, thereby producing new knowledge. If the new knowledge is valuable and useful, it then becomes internalized and finally synthesized into that individual’s holistic worldview of life (Benally, 1994; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hughes, 1983). Dr. Cajete (2005a) expresses a parallel concept in his statement: “Indigenous education is really endogenous education; that is, it is an educating of the inner self through an enlivening and illumination from one’s own being and the learning of key relationships” (p. 72). Internalized knowledge, in time, becomes synthesized into the life of the individual, according to Benally (1994). Above, Cajete (2005a) referred to this as knowledge for “life’s sake” (p. 70). That is, one learns in order to enrich one’s life, and the life of the world around one. This same concept is poetically portrayed by Benally (1994), as he describes the ultimate expressions of internalized knowledge. shinits4kees doolee[ (the knowledge will become my thoughts)…shinahat’1 doolee[ (the knowledge will pervade my concept structures and action schemes)…she’iina’ doolee[ (the knowledge will enable me to manage my life affairs in a meaningful and fruitful way)…[and] bee sih dinisdzin doolee[ (the knowledge, skills, and discipline

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

48

will culminate in my actualization and contentment and will become my prayers, my songs, and my teachings). (p. 30) Further, according to Benally (1994), when the complete synthesis of knowledge with life occurs, there is beauty, happiness, and balance: H0zh=0go Iin1 or S2’a nagh1i Bik’e h00zh=. In reflection, the first half of this literature review presented a general overview of traditional Indigenous educational philosophies and practices, with special attention given to Diné pedagogies pertinent to the acquisition and synthesis of knowledge. These traditional educational philosophies and practices existed prior to contact with non-Native peoples, and have survived into the present day for many Native Americans (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1995; Mitchell & Frisbie, 2001). However, many Indigenous lifeways have been affected by the influx of western culture, such as institutionalized western educational systems (Adams, 1995; Deloria, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Mihesuah, 2003a; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). The next section of this literature review will provide an historic account of western educational influences that were imposed upon Indigenous Peoples of the United States. Focus will be given to the ways in which these influences, partially with the intention of assimilating and “socializing” Native Peoples into Caucasian culture, affected traditional Indigenous educational systems.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

49

Part Three: Transitional Education – The Effects of Forced Western Education on Traditional Indigenous Culture This section of the literature review will cover over 100 years of Western education policy and practice imposed upon Native Americans as a means to assimilate them into non-Native culture (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). This historic review will also reveal the resilience of the Native Peoples through this period of time and the subsequent emergence of Native self-determination to oversee the education of their children. Native Americans were exposed to Western educational practices as early as the 16th century by various religious sects (Tharp et al., 2000). A goal of many missionary schools, which continues to educate Native children into the 21st century, was to replace Native beliefs and practices with Christian beliefs and practices (Adams, 1995; Deloria, 1994; Ide, 2003; Mihesuah, 2003a; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). By the late 18th century, the United States government started to enforce its own acculturation and assimilation agendas upon Native Peoples through various tactics, including the Western education system (Adams, 1995; Grinde, 2004; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Tharp et al., 2000). Ojibwe scholar Lawrence Gross (2003) and Dr. John H. Ide (2003), scholar and member of the Klamath tribe, both indicate that many tribes were placed within defined geographical boundaries, called reservations, during the last quarter of the 19th century. Reservation boundaries would prove to impact the application of Western educational practices among Native American Peoples (Gross, 2003; Ide, 2003), and define whether schools would be on-reservation or off-reservation, i.e. local and community-based, or

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

50

removed from contact and influences by the Native Peoples (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). Western education would become a “means for the Indians to move from their traditional life to the white man’s civilization – and the goal of the Western education system was to force this change upon the Indians for their own good” (Prucha, 1986, p. 194). By the late 19th century, the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs (B.I.A.) was established under the Department of the Interior and would become a “pre-eminent force in Indian education” (Ide, 2003, p. 25). B.I.A. agency sites were established on or near tribal reservations across the United States (Prucha, 1986). These agency sites would become the locations for many Native American boarding schools (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). In his book Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928 (1995), David Wallace Adams, associate professor of education at Cleveland State University, describes several methods devised by the federal government for Native children to receive Western education. These methods included reservation day schools, reservation boarding schools, and offreservation boarding schools (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). Of these three federally-run institutions, the day schools were more favorable for Native families (Adams, 1995) given that Native children attending these reservation day schools could remain near their home communities and return to their families after each school-day (Adams, 1995). Initially, having a Native American child educated close to home was considered an assimilation strategy, for “the child might become a daily messenger of civilized ways to his[/her] parents” (Adams, 1995, p. 29). However, the reality was that since children did remain in contact with their families, they were also

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

51

continually exposed to traditional beliefs and practices, which was a hindrance to the goal of acculturation (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). In response, federally-run boarding schools were set up with the intention of isolating children from their families and their respective cultures (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Harjo, 2004; Ide, 2003; Mihesuah, 2003b; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999; Tharp et al., 2000). The first boarding schools for Native Americans were called reservation boarding schools, since they were placed on or near the reservations where the various federal B.I.A. agency headquarters were located (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). However, “reformers preferred off-reservation boarding schools where children could be isolated from the ‘contaminating’ influence of…family” (Ide, 2003, p. 28). Off-reservation boarding schools were first opened in 1878 and “it was only after WWII that the number of these school declined” (p. 28-29), As previously stated, United States federal policy was a mechanism for acculturating and assimilating Native American children under the auspices of Western educational models. Ide (2003) states that in “1891, Congress made attendance at boarding schools mandatory, providing regulations to enforce, by proper means, the regular attendance of Indian children” (p. 32). In 1892, “Congress authorized the Indian office to withhold rations and annuities from parents who refused to send their children to school” (Ide, 2003, p. 32). As a result, children could be, and were, taken by force by Indian agents to boarding schools and some parents who tried to stop them were arrested (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

52

Adams (1995) discusses four main priorities of Western education applied to Native Americans: acculturation, individualization, Christianization, and citizenship training. Adams (1995) points out a statement made in 1888 by John Oberly, the superintendent of Indian Schools, who stressed that an aim of the Indian schools was to instill the Native American child with “the exalting egotism of American civilization, so that he will say ‘I’ instead of ‘We’, and ‘This is mine,’ instead of ‘This is ours’” (p. 23). As shown in the first section of this literature review, this concept of individualism starkly contrasted the communal identity carried by Native Peoples. Thus, Western education, emphasizing individualism, created divisions between Native students and their tribal communities (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999) resulting in a fragmented sense of self, community, and place within these Native children. On- and off-reservation boarding schools provided the setting to teach Native children to read, write, and speak the English language; gain vocational skills for participation in Western economy; and adopt the Western philosophies and practices of land ownership and accumulating personal monetary wealth (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). This education system prohibited Native children from speaking their tribal languages, wearing traditional clothing, and participating in religious and any other culturally-related activities (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). In fact, it is well documented in the literature that abuse of Native American children by adults within the boarding school system was common and many Native children who were caught practicing cultural activities, such

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

53

as speaking their tribal language, were severely punished (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). Over time, as Native American children were exposed to the western education system within the boarding schools, they became isolated from their tribal families and communities, sometimes having no contact whatsoever for years at a time (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). Many of the skills they were learning in school were designed for urban living and had no relevance in their tribal communities (Szasz, 1999). When these Native children completed their boarding school training, many either abandoned western culture altogether and returned to their tribal lifeways, or they removed themselves from their communities and found jobs in urban areas, far from their families and their roots (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). It was not until the late 1920s that Secretary of the Interior Herbert Work (Szasz, 1999) hired an independent team of experts, led by Dr. Lewis Meriam, to critically scrutinize the Indian Bureau, including boarding school practices. The resulting Meriam Report of 1928 opened the way for more culturally relevant education to enter into the western education system (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). Independent consultant Dr. Meriam relied on educator W. Carson Ryan, Jr. to oversee the educational component of the investigation (Szasz, 1999). Ryan was a proponent of the Progressive Education movement in the early 20th century, which advocated for child-centered education, meaning that educational content was designed to reflect learners’ needs and living realities, as opposed to a predetermined curriculum

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

54

focused on academic content alone (Reyhner, 1996; Reyhner, Martin, Lockard, & Gilbert, 2001; Szasz, 1999). Professor of history at the University of New Mexico, Margaret Connell Szasz (1999) indicates that following his investigation into the boarding school system, Ryan included in his report that the “Indian service has not appreciated the fundamental importance of a family life and community activities in the social and economic development of a people” (p. 34). In 1930, Ryan was appointed Education Director under Commissioner of Indian Affairs Charles J. Rhoads and changes to the educational systems delivered to Native Americans were soon after initiated (Szasz, 1999). Szasz (1999) indicates that during Ryan’s appointment federal appropriations for Native American students increased and the gradual closures of boarding schools began, with the subsequent opening of more community schools. When John Collier was appointed Commissioner of Indian Affairs (1933-1945), he supported the recommendations of the Meriam Report and in 1934 enacted the Indian Reorganization Act, or the Indian New Deal, which “brought a perspective to the Education Division that went well beyond his Progressive background. His conviction that Indian education should be rooted in the community and …stress the values of native culture” (Szasz, 1999, p. 46) guided his directives toward reforming Native American education. As a result of Ryan’s recommendations in the Meriam Report, and Collier’s push toward educational reform for Native American students, some schools for Native American children implemented courses that reflected Native culture, such as traditional rug-weaving at the Albuquerque Indian School (Szasz, 1999). There was also administrative support from Collier for schools to allow tribal languages and to not

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

55

“[interfere] with Indian religious life or ceremonial expression” (Szasz, 1999, p. 67). However, even though Collier put forth the directive for schools to enact such changes, few schools did. And although there were some teachers who embraced the idea of allowing Native cultural activities, problems in offering such activities arose from the fact that culturally relevant resource material was non-existent and few non-Native teachers were able to teach Native American heritage to the children (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Lomawaima, 1995; Szasz, 1999). Despite all of these challenges, the community schools that were located close to Native communities, and the schools that provided Native cultural activities, were looked upon by the families of these children as a positive change in the school system (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). Yet, this period of positive change associated with the Indian New Deal was neither a panacea, nor long-lived. Szasz (1999) states that the “problem with the Indian New Deal, like that of all earlier administrations, was that it maintained a paternalistic control over the lives of the Indian People” (p. 38). The schools were trying to weave Native American cultural activities with western culture, while still keeping children removed from their traditional communal life and families: the very source of their traditional education (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). In addition, administrators who succeeded Collier did not support the Indian New Deal and subsequently reinstated assimilation and acculturation agendas into the Indian education system (Szasz, 1999, p. 18; Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

56

In spite of the attempts of the federal government to replace Indigenous cultures with western culture through the Western education system, these attempts were only marginally successful, at best, with many tribes. Many Native Americans continued to retain strong cultural values, beliefs, and practices, in addition to receiving Western educational skills (Adams, 1995; Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). In the 1940s, Native Americans began organizing themselves politically, which spawned a movement known today as Indian Self-Determination, creating a collective voice for Native Americans to affect federal policy regarding a myriad of Native American issues, including education. Indian Self-Determination also insured that Native Peoples managed many of their own programs, such as the reservation-based community day schools (Adams, 1995; Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; Senese, 1991; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). Overall, the movement “propelled Indians into an increasingly responsible role in controlling their future” (Szasz, 1999, p.114). Secondary to the Indian Self-Determination movement, changes began taking placing within the realm of Indian education, whereby Native people had an increasing say in the kind of education that their children received, as well as where that education occurred, and who managed and implemented the educational experience (Ide, 2003; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Szasz, 1999). For example, in 1966 the Diné, under funding from the B.I.A., opened the Rough Rock Demonstration School in Rough Rock, AZ, and in 1969 Navajo Community College was opened in Wheatfields, AZ (Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). Both schools were overseen and controlled by local community members and their boards, and included Navajo culture and language in their curricula (Ide, 2003; Szasz,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

57

1999). From the 1960s forward, many more Native-managed schools were opened in American Indian communities and Native People continued to work fervently both socially and politically for issues important to Indigenous Peoples (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Senese, 1991; Szasz, 1999). The Rough Rock Demonstration School, now Rough Rock Community School, and Navajo Community College, now Diné College located in Tsaile, AZ, are still in operation today. Schools such as these are important to Native People. Their longevity, to this author, demonstrates that Native People continue to desire that culturally relevant education be offered to their children to keep them connected to their respective cultures and communities, and that their children also receive knowledge and skills to help them succeed in western culture. This integrated system of education echoes the progressive education practices of the late 1920s and early 1930s utilized in some of the Indian boarding and day schools that were so favorably received by Native parents and children (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). Progressive Education theory in many ways helped pave the way for modern day Experiential Education (Bohan, 2003). The next section will examine contemporary Experiential Education theories and applications and show how these parallel and complement traditional Indigenous educational philosophies and practices.

Part Four: Examining Complementary Aspects of Western and Traditional Indigenous Educational Models As mentioned previously in this thesis, the Progressive Education practices applied in Native schools during the 1920s and 1930s provided educational curriculum

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

58

pertinent to the “real lives” of Native students. These practices were more experiential and interactive in nature (Szasz, 1999), and overall drew support and accolades from many Native families and Native communities (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). Literary sources reveal that modern Experiential Education and Place-Based Education theories resemble those of Progressive Education, and indeed Indigenous education, in that all emphasize learning that is meaningful, interactive, and transferable to learners’ lives (Baker, 2005; Estes, 2004; Hovelynck, 2003; Jakubowski, 2003; Knapp, 2005; Quay, 2003; Roberts, 2002; Warren, Sakofs, & Hunt, 1995). Historical literature has shown that such educational constructs are favored by Indigenous populations (Adams, 1995). Therefore, this author sees that Experiential Education and Place-Based Education can provide valuable perspective to contribute to the development of a culturally appropriate Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. This section of the literature review will examine the progressive educational precepts of John Dewey, philosopher of education and American democracy, and explore how Dewey’s educational theories influenced the theories and practices of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education. It will then examine the ways in which theoretical models of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education complement traditional Indigenous learning philosophies and practices. Based on these similarities, this author will then propose how these educational constructs can be modified to reflect culturally relevant Indigenous pedagogies through an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. John Dewey Scholar Jon Reyhner (1996), Department of Educational Specialties at Northern Arizona University, refers to John Dewey as the “father of progressive education” (p.2).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

59

Emerging at the turn of the 20th century in the United States, progressive education was the result of the education reform movement, which made the learner, rather than academia, the focus of the educational setting (Butts & Cremin, 1953; Dykhuizen, 1973). Review of pertinent literature shows that the theoretical foundations of progressive education modernized “traditional western” educational practices and stressed that education should be relevant to the everyday life of learners and not fixed in the past (Butts & Cremin, 1953; Dykhuizen, 1973; Szasz, 1999). Progressive education theories integrated experience- and place-based learning into the educational system, as well as open-discussion and democracy among students. Progressive education also ushered science, technology, and laboratory studies into school curricula (Butts & Cremin, 1953; Dykhuizen, 1973; Estes, 2004; Szasz, 1999). The primary aspect of progressive education that this paper will focus upon is the concept of experience-based learning. George Dykhuizen (1973), Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Vermont describes John Dewey’s perception of experience-based education by stating, Experience, Dewey found, involves the two principles of continuity and interaction. The principle of continuity holds that present experience grows out of past experience and leads into future ones. The principle of interactions states that experience is the interaction of individual, subjective, internal factors and external environmental ones – physical, social, and cultural. (p. 278) Dewey’s pedagogy involving social, cultural, and interactive aspects of education, which emerged at the turn of the 20th century, was inspired by educational theorists, such as Friedrich W. Froebel, Georg W. F. Hegel, and Johann Friedrich Herbart (Dykhuizen,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

60

1973). Dewey’s progressive education practices provided a foundation from which experiential learning theory would evolve throughout the 20th century. The constructs of Experiential Education will now be examined.

Experiential Education Experiential Education is a theoretical and practical system of learning that emerged from progressive education philosophies and practices (Quay, 2003). Experiential Education asserts that learners actively engage in experiences, “gain insight and understanding from those experiences,” and “apply present learning to future experiences” (Frank, 2001, p. 2). Although experiential learning has been practiced throughout human history (Dykhuizen, 1973), this author chooses to focus on the field of Experiential Education as it has developed from the turn of the 20th century forward. Early contributors to the philosophical foundations of experiential, or active, learning theory and practice during this time frame include John Dewey, an early experiential and place-based education theorist, Kurt Lewin, early Experiential Education theorist, Kurt Hahn, founder of Outward Bound School System, Paul Petzoldt, founder of the National Outdoor Leadership School, Jerry Pieh, founder of Project Adventure, David Kolb and Roger Fry, developers of the Experiential Learning Model, and others (Bohan, 1993; Butts & Cremin, 1953; Dykhuizen, 1973; Frank, 2001; Reyhner et al., 2001; Warren et al., 1995; Smith, 2005). Pertinent literature reveals that over time the conceptual framework of experiential learning has evolved and expanded into the field of Experiential Education and its various facets, including Outdoor Education, Adventure Education, Environmental Education, Service-Learning, Place-Based Education, and

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

61

others (Bacon, 1983; Baker, 2005; Baldwin, Persing & Magnuson, 2004; Frank, 2001; Hovelynck, 2003; Knapp, 2005; Quay, 2003; Roberts, 2002; Schoel, Prouty & Radcliffe, 1988). Included in the conceptual framework of experiential learning is the belief that “hands-on” learning activities, with processing, allows for greater transference of new knowledge and skills, as opposed to solely utilizing books or lectures to gain new knowledge and skills (Bacon, 1983; Frank, 2001; Quay, 2003). Hands-on learning means that the learner is directly engaged in an active learning experience (Frank, 2001; Hovelynck, 2003). Direct engagement in a learning experience may take the form of planting a garden, for example, and actively monitoring plant growth related to daily weather patterns, temperature, and other factors, rather than merely reading about plant growth in a book. Another important aspect of experiential learning theory is the importance of building new knowledge upon that which is already known by the learner and connecting new experiences and knowledge with learners’ real life situations (Caine & Caine, 1994; Roberts, 2002; Quay, 2003). Thus, in the planting example above, the teacher/facilitator would first assist in extracting learners’ former knowledge about plants and other related topics before beginning any planting activities themselves. Then, when planting, the facilitator would utilize this knowledge for the experiential learning activity. The concept of hands-on learning and integrating new knowledge with that already known is important in both experiential and traditional Indigenous learning paradigms. As previously noted, Cajete (2005a) explains that “in Tribal education, knowledge is gained from first-hand experience in the world and then transmitted or explored through ritual, ceremony, art, games and appropriate technology” (p. 55). He

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

62

adds that “knowledge gained through these vehicles is then used in the context of everyday living, [thus becoming] education for ‘life’s sake’” (p. 55). It is this author’s deduction that both experiential and Indigenous knowledge systems assert that there is a process to learning and it involves consciously integrating experiences into one’s knowledge and understanding of the self and the world. This “processing of experience” and subsequent transference of learning into real life will now be explored through several experiential learning models. Experiential Learning Models As stated previously, early contributors to experiential learning theory and practice include John Dewey, Kurt Hahn, Jerry Pieh, and others (Frank, 2001). Over time, the conceptual framework of experiential learning evolved resulting in several experiential learning models that serve as formulas for educators and facilitators to follow as they guide students’ experiential learning processes. This author will review two of these models known as the Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC) model and the Adventure Wave (AW) model. This author will also examine an additional experiential learning model that combines the ELC and the AW models. The following section will begin by exploring the Experiential Learning Cycle Model. Experiential Learning Cycle In the mid-1970s, David A. Kolb, Professor of Organizational Behavior in the Weatheread School of Management, and his associate Roger Fry developed the Experiential Learning Cycle model (Smith, 2005) shown in Figure 4 below. Kolb and Fry’s model illustrates four primary experiential learning stages or steps: concrete experience, observation and reflection, forming abstract concepts, and testing in new

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

63

Concrete Experience

Testing in New Situations

Observation and Reflection

Forming Abstract Concepts

Figure 4. David A. Kolb and Roger Fry’s Experiential Learning Cycle Model, as shown by Smith, 2005.

situations (Smith, 2005). Laurie S. Frank (2001), former schoolteacher and trainer with Project Adventure, simplifies these learning stages into experiencing, reflecting, generalizing, and applying. Pertinent to the first stage of the Experiential Learning Cycle Model, experiential educators John L. Luckner and Reldan S. Nadler (1997) explain that “learning experiences are generated naturally in one’s daily life, but they also can be arranged to provide opportunities for specific types of learning. Once specific learning objectives are identified, many types of activities and experiences can be selected to facilitate their achievement” (p. 5). Learning steps that follow the actual experience, according to the Experiential Learning Cycle model, include reflecting, generalizing, and applying. These all involve processing or debriefing of some sort, activities that assist in

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

64

achieving learning objectives and aid in the transference of learning. Reflecting is part of the experiential learning process whereby participants are provided opportunities to look back upon activities and gain insight from their experiences and their responses to them (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). When generalizing, students take the insights gained in the reflection phase and project their new knowledge and skills into scenarios related to their home, school, and/or work lives (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). Applying occurs when learners actually utilize new knowledge and skills in real life situations. Thus, the ultimate goal of processing or debriefing is the successful transference of new knowledge and skills into one’s real life. Possessing some similarities and some differences compared to the Experiential Learning Cycle model, is the Adventure Wave model, which will be explored now. Adventure Wave Model Schoel, Prouty and Radcliffe (1988) describe the Adventure Wave model, seen in Figure 5 below, as a method of experiential learning facilitation that fits well within Adventure-Based Counseling (ABC) settings. ABC is a form of therapeutic intervention that utilizes adventure and experiential learning activities as programmatic modalities (Schoel et al., 1988). The Adventure Wave model guides ABC programmatic goals and objectives. Characteristic of a wave, the Adventure Wave model displays “peaks and valleys” within the experiential learning process (Schoel et al., 1988, p. 27). Peaks represent active periods, or when the experience is taking place, and valleys represent calm periods when briefing or debriefing transpires (Schoel et al., 1988). Briefing is a discourse that takes place between facilitators and participants prior to an experiential learning activity. Frank and Panico (2000) describe briefing as

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

65

Activity

Debriefing

Briefing

Bedrock

Figure 5. Project Adventure’s Adventure Wave Model, as shown by Schoel, Prouty & Radcliffe, 1998, p. 30.

containing four steps: “Giving the rules and objectives of the activity,… [d]iscussing/teaching the safety guidelines,…[a]nswering questions from students,…[and f]rontloading metaphors or previous information” (p. 19-20). Utilizing frontloading, learning objectives can be explicitly defined before an activity begins. These defined objectives guide both the experiential activity and the debriefing process. “Framing” is another briefing technique that can occur before an activity begins. Luckner and Nadler (1997) explain that “framing…the experience sets the stage for what is about to take place. Framing provides individuals with lead time before an activity or experience so that they have an opportunity to think about it and prepare for it” (p. 114). Framing differs from frontloading in that framing is more abstract, while frontloading is more concrete. Frequently following experiential activities is a process called debriefing. Debriefing an experience affords learners time and context to reflect upon the experience and conceptualize about how new knowledge and skills gained from the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

66

experience can be applied to other life situations. Frank and Panico (2000) state that “debriefing…allows students to take a look at the process that was used to accomplish the task…by asking students to reflect upon the activity, generalize by blending the present experience with past learning, and choose useful information to apply to future situations” (p. 23). Although the Adventure Wave diagram makes briefing and debriefing explicit elements of an experiential learning paradigm, it does not offer language to clarify “debriefing” strategies. The following model, which combines the Experiential Learning Cycle and the Adventure Wave models, provides language to help guide facilitators through the debriefing phase of the experiential learning process.

Debriefing

Briefing Experiencing

Applying

Reflecting

Now What?

What?

Generalizing So What? Figure 6. Combined Experiential Learning Cycle Model with Adventure Wave Model and sequential processing paradigm, as shown by Frank & Panico, 2000, p. 24.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

67

Combined Experiential Learning Models Laurie S. Frank with Ambrose Panico (2000), experiential educator and service learning specialist, explain how Kolb and Fry’s Experiential Learning Cycle model and the Adventure Wave model can merge to create a more explicit and complete experiential learning cycle model, as shown in Figure 6 above. In addition, Frank and Panico (2000) include prescribed debriefing, or processing, elements referred to as “What? So What? and Now What?” to assist learners in anchoring their experiences (p. 24). Figure 6 shows a diagram of the combined models, which includes a briefing component. Following an experiential activity, labeled “experiencing” in the diagram, debriefing or processing takes place. This model shows that the debriefing/processing sequence includes reflecting (What?), generalizing (So What?), and applying (Now What?). These processing techniques will now be explained in detail. Processing In experiential learning settings, processing “is best viewed as an activity that is structured to encourage individuals to plan, reflect, describe, analyze, and communicate about experiences” (Luckner & Nadler, 1997, p 8). Processing can actually occur “before, during or after the experience” (Frank, 2001, p. 167) and can involve “verbal [techniques], written [activities], thinking time, drawing or working with clay, to name just a few strategies” (Frank, 2001, p. 165). Processing new experiences affords the opportunity for participants to transfer, or theoretically generalize and apply, their learning to real life situations. As stated previously, reflecting, generalizing, and applying are experiential learning stages that assist learners to successfully transfer new knowledge and skills to

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

68

real life situations. Recall that reflecting is part of the experiential learning process whereby participants are provided opportunities to look back upon experiential learning activities and gain insight from their experiences, feelings, and responses to the given situations. Using reflection activities, such as those mentioned above, “people can look back on what they did, thought, saw, and how they behaved” (Frank, 2004, p. 234) throughout the activities and gain insight on countless topics and levels. When generalizing, participants take the insights gained in the reflection process, which signify new knowledge and skills, and theoretically project these into scenarios related to the learners’ home, school, and work lives. (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). The applying step of the experiential learning process occurs when learners actually test new knowledge and skills in real life situations. Thus, the ultimate goal of processing or debriefing is to integrate new knowledge and skills into learners’ real lives, i.e. transference (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). Experiential educators Jim Schoel, Dick Prouty, and Paul Radcliffe (1988) offer one processing formula that guides this reflection, generalization, and transference process. This formula poses the questions “What? So What? Now What?” (Frank, 2001, p. 168). What? So What? Now What? By asking What? So What? and Now What? after an experiential activity, learners are afforded time and space to reflect upon their observations, thoughts, actions and feelings during the activity as a means of discovering what the experience meant to them and how they can apply their learning to their lives (Frank & Panico, 2000). The “What?” component of debriefing helps learners reflect upon what occurred during the experience

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

69

and begin to identify what they saw, heard, thought, felt and did throughout the experience. Next, “So What?” provides a context for participants “to examine how this experience affected them, and then to look at how it fits in with past experiences” (Frank & Panico, 2000, p. 24). “Now What?” extracts realized elements of the experience that participants can apply to “future experiences” (Frank & Panico, 2000, p. 29). Participants conjecture what they will do with their learning following the experience. Facilitating learners through these three questions following an experiential activity, guides them to anchor their experiences and theoretically apply the new knowledge and/or skill they have gained to real-life situations (Frank, 2001). Since learning is a continuous process, experiential learning paradigms also acknowledge that new experiences build upon previous experiences. This can be referred to as the continuum of learning, which will now be explored. Continuum of Learning As revealed in Figure 4 and Figure 6, each element within the experiential learning models reviewed above is presented on a continuum whereby each element builds upon the previous element (Frank, 2001). The concept that learning occurs on a continuum and builds upon previous knowledge is also recognized within Indigenous learning philosophies (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Dr. Robert W. Rhodes (1989), states that for Native American students in general, “new information is approached slowly. Each item needs to be checked out and synthesized with previously known information. Until such time as it has been synthesized, it is not usable” (p. 39). The processing elements revealed through the Experiential Learning Cycle model, the Adventure Wave model, and the combined model are tools for internalizing and synthesizing new

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

70

knowledge. Over time, this cognitive sequencing, i.e. processing, becomes natural for the learner. Frank and Panico (2000) indicate that learners exposed to experiential learning processes “will begin to internalize such processes and engage in self-reflection without prompting” (p. 30). To this author, this process of internalizing learning is what Cajete (2000) refers to as “coming to know” (p. 65). Cajete (2000) states, “the ‘coming to know’ of Native Science revolves around the natural creative process of human learning” (p. 65). Cajete (2000) further explains, “Like Western science, Indigenous science is sequential and builds on previous knowledge…[where t]he value of the effort, the coming to know, is found in the journey in addition to or rather than, the end result” (p. 81). In other words, meaning is inherent in the learning process itself. This author contends that when one acknowledges that learning is a continuous cycle, there is no “end result”. Rather, there is personal growth followed by more experiences and more synthesized knowledge, resulting in more personal growth, and the cycle continues. This ongoing process is what this author has referred to as the continuum of learning. The cyclic steps of experiencing, processing, and synthesizing new knowledge are important components of the three experiential learning models presented above. These elements will also become important components in the development of an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model, as these concepts clearly reflect traditional Indigenous learning philosophies. In addition, the constructs of experiential and place-based learning present in Experiential Education pedagogy are also central to many Indigenous learning philosophies and will be included in the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model, as well.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

71

For Native Peoples, traditional learning occurs within local and/or communal environments (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Local traditions, beliefs and values have historically guided Indigenous learning practices (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Therefore, it can be said that traditional Indigenous learning is directly related to one’s sense of place – environmentally and culturally (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). The western field of Place-Based Education, which was born from the field of Experiential Education, presents additional theoretical concepts that this author sees as links between Experiential Education and traditional Indigenous learning philosophies. These concepts will now be explored.

Place-Based Education In his article “The ‘I-Thou’ relationship, Place-Based Education, and Aldo Leopold” (2005), Clifford Knapp, writer and professor of Outdoor Education at Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, defines Place-Based Education as “a label recently, [i.e. within the last 10 years], applied to a curricular and instructional approach designed to help students learn about the immediate surroundings by capitalizing on their lived experience” (p. 278). According to Knapp (2005), similar terms for place-based learning that may appear in the literature include “community-oriented schooling, ecological education, or bioregional education” (p. 278). And although place-based education has occurred for generations among Indigenous Peoples, Knapp (2005) describes PlaceBased Education as “a new educational field” (p. 277). This author concurs and, thus in this thesis, has approached Place-Based Education as a field of learning that bridges

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

72

Experiential Education with traditional Indigenous learning practices. Although PlaceBased Education has its roots in the field of Experiential Education (Knapp, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002), it explicitly draws on direct experience related to one’s sense of place and respective culture. These components may or may not be emphasized in an Experiential Education experience (Baker, 2005; Knapp, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002). These concepts have, however, always been emphasized implicitly in Indigenous education philosophies and practices. Native scholars, such as Gregory Cajete (1994, 2000), Vine Deloria, Jr. (1994), Daniel Wildcat (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001), Keith Basso (1996), and Kimberly Blaeser (1999), relay that cultural expression related to sense of place holds an important place within traditional Indigenous pedagogy. In his support for Place-Based Education, Knapp (2005) draws from the writings of naturalist Aldo Leopold in his 1949 published work, A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Knapp (2005) organized Leopold’s ideas into a list he entitled “Ten ways of knowing nature” (p. 281). The list includes “1. Wondering and Questioning…2. Knowing Local History…3. Observing Seasonal Changes…4. Listening Intently…5. Counting and Measuring [in nature or local settings]…6. Empathizing with and Personifying Nature…7. Connecting Elements in Cycles…8. Finding Beauty…9. Seeking Solitude for Reflection [and]…10. Improving Land Health” (Knapp, 2005, p. 281-283). Each of these elements is also present in Indigenous learning philosophies and many have been discussed in Part One and Part Two of this literature review. Gregory A. Smith (2002), associate professor in the Graduate School of Education, Lewis and Clark College, Portland, Oregon, states that “place-based education is by its nature specific to particular locales” (p. 587) and can “help overcome the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

73

disjuncture between school and children’s lives that is found in too many classrooms” (p. 593). As this author expressed in Part Three of this literature review, this disjuncture between the western educational system and Native children’s traditional home life was historically created by multiple factors including the removal of Native children from their families and communities, punishment of Native children for speaking their traditional languages, teaching Native children skills that were irrelevant to their cultural lives, etc. Modern day Place-Based Education embraces the local values, beliefs, and environment of a given natural and cultural community (Baker, 2005; Knapp, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002) and integrates them into curricula. Therefore, this author believes that Place-Based Education, combined with models of experiential learning, could provide a foundation for culturally-relevant educational paradigms for Indigenous learners. G.A. Smith’s (2002) literary research findings reveal that there are five key themes within place-based pedagogy that provide for programmatic continuity, while still allowing for local flexibility. Knapp (2005) summarizes Smith’s findings as follows: First, he [Gregory A. Smith] described cultural studies in which students use local cultural or historical phenomena as the guiding focus. Collecting community oral histories and written stories are only two examples of this approach…Second, he described nature investigations in which students observe wildlife, conduct water quality tests, or restore riparian areas…third, he described real world problem-solving in which students and teachers identify community issues and problems, study them…propose possible solutions…[and may] even follow up their research by implementing the needed changes…Fourth, he described internships and entrepreneurial opportunities in which students explore local career

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

74

opportunities…to…become more involved in community life…Fifth, he described a more complete immersion into community life in which students were drawn into several decision-making activities…In fact, all five patterns form a conceptual umbrella commonly called experiential learning, because they are situated in the context of community life and involve active student engagement. (p. 279-280) Knapp (2005) adds that under the context of Place-Based Education, “curriculum integrates self, others, and place and includes ecological, economic, multigenerational, and multicultural dimensions” (p. 280). This author believes that these Place-Based Education components, combined with experiential learning processes and techniques for linking known knowledge to new knowledge, can be integrated into traditional Indigenous learning practices to form a practical, flexible, holistic, and culturally responsive Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. Such a model, designed by the author, will be described and delineated in Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Conclusion Prior to contact with western culture and the western education system, Native Americans had their own unique and culturally appropriate ways of educating their children and other tribal members (Beck & Walters, 1977; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria 1994, 1997; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Gulliford, 2004; Krech, 2002; Mihesuah, 2003b; L.T. Smith, 2002). Traditional Indigenous education was appropriate to each respective tribe’s values, beliefs, histories, spiritual practices,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

75

economy and landscape (Basso, 1996; Beck & Walters, 1977; Blaeser 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Deloria, 1994, 1997; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Griffin-Pierce, 1997; Gulliford, 2004; Krech, 2002). When western education was forced upon Native Peoples, a primary motive was to acculturate Native people by replacing Indigenous cultural values and practices with western cultural values and practices (Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Prucha, 1986; Mihesuah, 2003b; Simpson, 2004; Szasz, 1999; Wilson, 2004). In spite of this, many Indigenous cultural systems persevered and today, as this author has observed, traditional cultural activities and languages are being woven into western education systems as is seen, for example, on the Navajo Nation. The fact that Native cultural activities have been allowed in western schools, beginning in the 1930s, was in part due to the work of progressive education theorists, such as John Dewey (Dykhuizen, 1973; Reyhner et al., 2001; Szasz, 1999) and education reformers like W. Carson Ryan, Jr. (Adams, 1995; Reyhner, 1996; Reyhner et al., 2001; Szasz, 1999) and John Collier (Adams, 1995; Prucha, 1986; Szasz, 1999). Following this time period, Native Americans began organizing themselves politically and working to secure Indigenous rights, such as Indian self-determination in education (Adams, 1995; Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Lomawaima, 1995; Prucha, 1986; Senese, 1991; L.T. Smith, 2002; Szasz, 1999). These influences have insured that Indigenous learners’ needs are, at least in part, considered when designing educational systems for them. As previously stated, when Native cultural activities are integrated into the western education system, and children can attend schools close to their home communities, Indigenous people view education in a western institution more favorably than an education strictly based on western teachings

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

76

(Adams, 1995; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). In addition, the theorists, both Native and non-Native, present in this literature review have all expressed the belief that, ideally, learning should be active, reflect the culture served, and provide a setting where new knowledge and skills can be linked with known, relevant, real-life situations. The modern educational practices that incorporate these beliefs fall under the auspices of Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, and traditional Indigenous learning. Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model will introduce some Indigenous learning models and begin to explore how western experiential learning paradigms and Indigenous learning paradigms can be blended into a culturally-relevant method of teaching Indigenous learners in various educational settings. This holistic, culturally-sensitive learning paradigm is entitled by the author the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

77

Chapter Three: Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model It is this author’s belief that individuals are continually experiencing the world around them. An experience can be “one occurring naturally in the environment, or in the case of formal education, it can be a contrived experience chosen to meet certain goals or address certain issues” (Frank, 2001, p. 165). In either case, this author asserts that one’s experiences in the world serve as catalysts for emergent knowledge and wisdom. As a doctoral student in the field of education at the University of Melbourne, Australia, John Quay (2003) referred to learning as a transformative interaction whereby the learner, through his/her participation in the world, evolves right along with his/her reality (p. 106). Further, Quay believes that Experiential Education is a “holistic form of education” (p. 106) that promotes each individual’s ability to “adapt, to evolve, and to learn via [his/her] experiences” (p. 106). Similarly, Dr. Cajete (2005a) expresses similar sentiments through an Indigenous perspective: “Learning is always a creative act….We are continuously engaged in the art of making meaning and creating our world through the unique processes of human learning” (p. 53). Based on these statements, this author deduces that modern experiential learning philosophies closely resemble traditional Indigenous learning philosophies. Experiential Education and Place-Based Education possess processing methods that assist learners with extracting meaning from new experiences and bridging new knowledge with real life situations. As mentioned previously, this process, in educational paradigms, is called transference (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). Thus, the ultimate goal of all learning is to affect the overall life of the learner, not merely to facilitate the acquisition of knowledge and skills for their own sake disconnected from the learner’s real-life

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

78

situation (Reyhner, 1996). In traditional Indigenous learning settings, the creative act of acquiring and synthesizing knowledge is also a process. But rather than “extracting” meaning from experiences, meaning is built into the Indigenous learning process (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This inherent quality of implicit meaning within Indigenous education will be delineated throughout the remainder of this chapter. The Indigenous educational paradigms presented will also reveal that Indigenous education is a cyclic process that unfolds throughout the learners’ lifetime (Cajete, 1994). All three educational paradigms, Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, and Indigenous Education, assert that learning and transference of new knowledge is a continuous cycle (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Frank, 2001; Schoel, Prouty, & Radcliffe, 1998). Although Experiential Education and Place-Based Education offer valuable experiential learning tools that assist learners with transference, this author believes that there are unique characteristics pertinent to traditional Indigenous learning practices that add strength and sustainability to the transference process and are particularly suited to Indigenous learners. Such characteristics, such as centering (Gold, 1994) the learner before and after an experience, and referencing (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001) new experiences to known information, will become defined elements within the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) that this author will create through this thesis. Therefore, this author will highlight these unique Indigenous learning characteristics within this chapter and begin to weave the philosophies of experiential, place-based, and Indigenous learning into an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) to be presented toward the end of this chapter.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

79

To begin the process of connecting modern experiential and place-based learning paradigms with Indigenous learning paradigms, this author will briefly review information given in previous chapters of this thesis. First, the overall intents of experiential learning, place-based learning, and Indigenous learning will be summarized. Next, this chapter will explore various Indigenous learning philosophies and models, including that of the Diné (Benally, 1994; Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Matlock & House, 1989). Throughout this chapter, this author will highlight aspects of experiential learning and place-based learning that complement Indigenous-learning paradigms. Elements from each of these fields will merge to form of an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM). Finally, this author will suggest specific applications of this comprehensive, culturally appropriate, place-based IELM paradigm. This author will now proceed to review the constructs of Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, and traditional Indigenous Education.

Experiential, Place-Based, and Indigenous Education Experiential Learning Experiential learning is an active approach to acquiring and integrating new knowledge and skills. Experiential Education practices support a learning philosophy of “learning by doing” (Frank, 2001, p. 4), whereby the learner is engaged in hands-on, tangible experiences as opposed to abstract experiences, such as reading information from a book (Bohan, 2003; Frank, 2001; Jensen, 2002; G. A. Smith, 2002; Stuczynski, Linik, Novick, Spraker, Tucci, & Ellis, 2005). Typically, one or more facilitators trained in experiential learning techniques guide the experiential learning process (Rohnke &

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

80

Butler, 1995; Schoel et al., 1998; Seidman, Sentkowski, Smith, & Lentz, 1976). Reflective activities, such as open-discussion, directed-discussion, journaling, or drawing can follow an experiential activity to help participants draw out important insights from their experiences (Frank, 2001; Stuczynski et al., 2005). To anchor new information and/or skill into individual learners’ unique life situations, projection techniques can be utilized to assist learners in placing new concepts and tools into the broader context of their lives (Frank, 2001; Schoel et al., 1998). Projection techniques utilized by experiential learning facilitators can include guided questions that draw upon new information revealed in the participants’ reflective processes and ask learners to imagine how this newly acquired information and/or skill might fit into their home, school, or work settings (Goldenberg, McAvoy, & Klenosky, 2005). An intended outcome of this cyclical process of experiencing, reflecting and projecting is transference of new information and/or skill to the learners’ lives (Baker, 2005). Molly Baker (2005), co-director of the Outdoor Education program at Colgate University, New York, calls transference “Connecting to Home” (p. 274), whereby learned concepts are bridged to one’s “everyday life” (p. 274). This author believes that transference was a natural occurrence in traditional Indigenous learning settings, since the knowledge and skills acquired were typically practical and pertinent to the teachings and skills of the culture, the community, and the family (Cajete, 1994, 2000). An additional component of traditional Indigenous education entailed the fact that teachings were inherently place-based, correlating to teachers’ and learners’ immediate environments and a felt sense of place (Cajete, 1994, 2000). This author asserts that transference, with any population, can be more successful when it emerges from an experiential learning

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

81

setting that reflects the learners’ unique culture, environment, and sense of place. PlaceBased Education, like Indigenous education, also recognizes the value of sense of place within its learning paradigm, as revealed in the next section. Place-Based Education Place-Based Education is a facet of Experiential Education whose paradigm implicitly includes a sense of place. Place-Based Education draws upon local environments as resources for teaching and learning. These resources can be natural, historic, and/or cultural in nature. (Baker, 2005; Estes, 2004; Hovelynck, 2003; Jakubowski, 2003; Knapp, 2005; Quay, 2003; Roberts, 2002; G.A. Smith, 2002; Warren, Sakofs, & Hunt, 1995). For example, a place-based activity on the Navajo Nation might include bringing local traditional elders into a school setting to teach the children and adults how to play a traditional game. The elders could also relay the history of the game, as well as personal stories of how and when they learned to play it. This example demonstrates how a culturally relevant activity can be shared by local community members with children and adults of that community. The fact that the activity is being shared by an elder helps bridge generations, perpetuate traditional activities, and teach history that is relevant to that culture and community, and thus the students. Such an activity is a part of that community’s living reality and carries with it a strong sense of place. This sense of place is conveyed to learners, both explicitly and implicitly, through the facilitation of the experience. Gregory A. Smith (2002) states that an intention of place-based learning “is to ground learning in local phenomena and students’ lived experience” (p. 586). An advantage of this, in this author’s opinion, is that the learners’ sense of self in relation to

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

82

their communal identity (related to both the human and non-human environments) is reinforced as the respective culture, landscape and community are honored. It is apparent to this author that place-based activities foster community building and respect for relationships given that their design validates local human and nonhuman beings as resources, and centers learners’ world views upon their respective communities and local phenomena. Cultivating identity and centering this identity within communal and natural relationships is also an intention of traditional Indigenous Education (Cajete 1994, 2005a). Holistic aspects of traditional Indigenous education will be explored now. Indigenous Education Experiential Education promotes growth of the individual very well, while PlaceBased Education encourages individual growth within a broader communal context (G.A. Smith, 2002; McKenzie, 2003). Experiential Education is active, hands-on and conceptually connects individuals’ learning experiences with the individuals’ real lives (Smith, 2005). Place-Based Education is also active, hands-on and creates individual awareness within a particular environment. Given that place-based learning incorporates local people and resources within its pedagogical paradigm demonstrates to this author that it can produce the added benefit of concretely connecting learners to living entities within their environments. The process of nurturing individual identity while holistically centering this identity within one’s sense of place and culture is intrinsic in traditional Indigenous Education, as well (Cajete 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). In traditional Indigenous learning settings, cultural values and life skills are taught experientially as teacher and learner work side-by-side and cooperative learning

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

83

transpires (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This occurs within a learner’s living community, so the learner sees him/herself in the context of the teaching (Cajete, 1994). Individuals learn about their roles within the community holistically, as well as the values and traditions of that community. Traditional Indigenous teachings continually remind individuals of their importance to the integrity of the whole group or community (Cajete, 2000). To this author, Indigenous experiential and communal processes of learning can be found, in part, within the constructs of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education, which were described in detail in Chapter Two: Literature Review. This author asserts that existing experiential learning models and place-based learning paradigms can serve as guides for developing an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model that draws from these more formalized constructs, yet also reflects Indigenous approaches to cultivating knowledge. In this author’s opinion, this new “Indigenous” model could be more conducive to teaching experiential and place-based concepts to Native American populations. This author will now explore holistic Indigenous learning models and processes, which along with aspects of Experiential Education and PlaceBased Education, will assist this author in the formulation of an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model.

Indigenous Learning Process It is this author’s deduction that Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, and traditional Indigenous Education all see the value of integrating experiences into one’s sense of knowing and one’s everyday world, though each encourages this integration in different ways (Cajete, 1994, 2000, 2005a; Frank, 2001; G.A. Smith, 2002).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

84

For example, Experiential Education focuses on experience as a transference tool, PlaceBased Education relies heavily on environmental interaction, and Indigenous Education utilizes concepts of interrelationships as a means of transference. Yet, all three systems, in some capacity, encourage direct participation with one’s environment as a means of learning, foster individual growth through experience, and present a learning environment where multiple interrelationships are highlighted. This segment will provide a general overview of the holistic Indigenous learning process and begin to blend this paradigm with those of Experiential and Place-Based Education to create an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. This section will explore various key elements of traditional Indigenous education that will prove important components of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. The elements of Indigenous education to be covered here include culture- and placebased relevance, listening and observation skills, connection of new and known information, active cooperative learning, and reflection and wait time. For clarification purposes, these elements will be described individually, however none stand alone. These aspects of Indigenous learning are extensions of life, working together to create an optimal learning environment conducive to the acquisition and synthesis of culturally relevant knowledge and life skills (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This author will begin by examining how Indigenous learning is made relevant to culture and place. Relevance of Culture and Place In traditional Indigenous communities, education occurs within the context of real life situations. Education involves the acquisition of information, wisdom, skills and practices that are beneficial to the continuation of the People’s lifeways, which also

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

85

entails respecting and caring for the land. Traditional Indigenous knowledge includes practical skills, such as hunting and gathering food, growing food, clothing and footwear construction, as well as other survival skills. In addition, there are cultural teachings passed on related to spiritual beliefs and practices, oral histories, social skills, relationships with the natural world, and more. The collective knowledge and skills given and received is unique to each respective tribal culture and each tribe’s distinctive orientation to the natural world. In the book Power and Place: Indian Education in America (2001) by Vine Deloria, Jr. and Daniel Wildcat, Mr. Wildcat states that natural places are “recognized as sacred not by human proclamation or declaration, but by experience in those places. And it is experience that shapes indigenous education and…[is] crucial in order for knowledge to be attained” (p. 13). Thus, the Native person’s relationship to the natural world is an important force in Indigenous learning and growth. Cajete (1994) puts this human-nature relationship into context in his statement, “Indian people believed they had responsibilities to the land and all living things. These responsibilities were similar to those they had to each other. In the Indian mind, spirit and matter are not separate; they are one and the same” (p. 83). Continuing, Cajete (1994) states, “there is no separation between humans and the environment. Humans affect the environment and the environment affects humans. Indigenous practices are founded on this undeniable reality and seek to perpetuate a sustainable and mutually reciprocal relationship” (Cajete, 1994, p. 84). It is this author’s experience that this connection to place is still strong within the psyche of many Native Americans despite attempts to sever this connection through Western acculturation agendas (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Place-Based Education shows

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

86

that connection to place is found in non-Native cultures, as well. Place-Based Education encourages a learning environment that connects people with their local environment, creating a sense of place (Baker, 2005; Knapp, 2005; G.A. Smith, 2002). Cajete (1994) acknowledges that when a learning environment is place-based for Indigenous people, it not only enhances their learning, but it also acts as “an essential healing and transformational process [for] Indian people” (Cajete, 1994, p. 85). Making connections to landscape and one’s living environment makes for meaningful and transformative learning experiences (Cajete, 2000; Hughes, 1983). It also expands one’s awareness beyond the inner world, outward. Given that “awareness of one’s self…[was] the beginning of learning” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001), the Native individual is encouraged to listen to his/her inner thoughts, feelings, and insights while simultaneously connecting these to what is occurring in his/her surroundings. Traditional Indigenous learning processes help facilitate awareness expansion by encouraging keen listening skills and observation skills (Cajete, 2000, 2005b; Deloria, 1997). The nature of listening and observation related to Native culture and education are examined in the next section. Listening and Observation Native People come from a perspective that acknowledges a living world of correlations, rather than rubrics (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). By this the authors mean that Indigenous people do not typically place natural phenomena into separate categories. Rather, natural phenomena are explored through living interrelationships continually interacting with and being effected by such relationships. Traditionally, Native children are taught that they must be keen listeners and observers to fully absorb the multitude of

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

87

teachings and relationships that are ever-present in their surroundings. Emerging correlations from this practice inform their living worldview creating knowledge, as well as wisdom (Blaeser, 1999; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 2004, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gulliford 2004; Running Wolf & Rickard, 2003). The development of listening and observation skills involves whole-body awareness, which allows for attunement between the holistic self and the environment (Cajete, 1994). Whole-body learning encourages the individual to tune into his/her senses and intuition, making for participatory experiences that are both personal and connected to the greater whole (Cajete, 1994, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Jenson, 2000). Given that this process occurs in one’s living environment, the knowledge and skills gained from this advance the learner’s individual identity along with his/her spiritual and communal identity (Cajete, 2000; Deloria, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Duran, 2006). One way that listening and observation skills have been developed in Indigenous cultures is through the transmission of verbal teachings. Individual tribes have existed for “many generations and [each] possesses a cumulative knowledge that transcends any particular generation” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, p. 86). This cumulative knowledge is a living part of the cultural constructs of each tribe and is shared with each emerging generation through oral histories and narratives (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Grinde, 2004; Wilson, 1996b, 2004). Tribal oral narratives present cultural values, beliefs, norms, histories, humor, proper relationships, and other cultural information (Blaeser, 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria, 1994; Wilson, 2004). To receive the teachings conveyed by a storyteller, an audience must be present and engage their listening and observational skills. This author believes that each time

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

88

these narratives are spoken, or sung, they are brought to life in the present moment, literally put into motion in the here and now. In doing so, the sharing of oral narratives not only enhances learners’ listening and observation skills, but also merges their personal, present reality with the collective, historical reality of their tribe. In other words, new learning is bridged with existing wisdom and knowledge. This author refers to this bridging process as “connecting with the known” and will explore this concept in more depth in the next section. Connecting with the Known Traditional wisdom is cumulative, “derived from centuries, perhaps millennia, of experience” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, p. 28), as well as dynamic, transforming with the experiences of each consecutive generation. Thus, traditional wisdom bridges past and present knowledge with newly acquired information. When new knowledge and skills are culturally relevant, participatory, and place-based, they become mindful of, and meaningful to, learners’ living realities (Cajete, 1994). Since this connective mode of education is historically cumulative and life-based, learners can better synthesize and ground the new information and/or skill into their tangible worldviews (Cajete, 2000; Rhodes, 1989; Benally, 1994). The holistic act of acquiring and synthesizing new knowledge for Native people begins with centering oneself in the present (Duran, 2006). As a new experience presents itself, Native learners may internally access knowledge that is already known to them, compare the present information with the known knowledge, and proceed to size-up the new situation based on the foundational “known” information (Benally, 1994; Cajete, 1994, 2000). Based on this form of referencing, the learner will next decide if and how

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

89

he/she will proceed into the new learning experience. Many Native people will only willingly enter into a new learning experience if they deduce that the results will be useful and meaningful to them (Rhodes, 1989). Using this approach, learning situations that are accepted by learners can produce new concrete knowledge and skills that are relevant and connected to the learners’ personal and communal reality (McNeley, 1994). Indigenous people believe that human beings are intricately connected to all things through a complex web of interrelationships (Blaeser, 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Jenson, 2000). So, what affects the individual also affects that individual’s human and non-human community (Cajete, 2000; Capra, 1999; Deloria & Wildcat). Deloria and Wildcat (2001) state that “the strength of American Indian value systems, including ethics, is found in the context of their “communities” – the natural environments from which they emerge” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, p. 90). As a component of these interconnected communities, the Indigenous learning environment is cumulative, dynamic, centered, and cooperative as revealed in the next section. Active, Cooperative Learning In an Indigenous learning environment, one is not merely learning the science of the interrelationships mentioned above, but “living and nurturing these relationships” that “structur[e] and [form] the experience of each Indigenous community member from birth to death” (Cajete, 2000, p. 95). Thus, rather than compartmentalizing the world and separating the individual from his/her surroundings, Indigenous people recognize their inclusion and participation within an intricate web of human and non-human interrelationships (Blaeser, 1999; Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Jenson,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

90

2000). These relationships are an integral part of Native American communal identity (Cajete, 2000). Since interrelationships are central to most Indigenous cultures, many Native cultural systems honor one’s commitment to the “group” over that of the “individual” (Adams, 1995; Bearcrane, Dodd, Nelson, & Ostwald, 1990; Cajete, 2004, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hynd & Garcia, 1979). However, this author deduces that this communal belief system may be misinterpreted by someone who is not Native. On the contrary, when this belief system is expressed within the holistic nature of Indigenous education, individuality is honored, but within the greater context of the larger, communal reality. Native People acknowledge that they are dependent upon one another, and that “[o]nly through interdependence could the human beings survive” (Silko, 1986, p. 92; see also Cajete, 1994). Although learning is individual, it is synthesized by applying it to a lived reality, which includes all of one’s relationships. As such, the Native person’s sense of self is inseparable from his/her communal identity (Cajete, 1994, 2000; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gross, 2003; Krech, 2002). It is through this orientation of “mutually reciprocal” (Cajete, 1994, p. 169) relationships that traditional Indigenous education transpires among individuals learning in a cooperative, participatory setting. Much of what Native people learn involves lived experiences within their human and non-human environment. Children listen, observe, and work along side siblings, parents, grandparents, and other blood- and non-blood relatives. Indigenous education is active, experiential, and relevant to learners’ respective culture and environment (Brascoupe 1998; Cajete, 1995, 2005a, 2005b; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Nelson, 1993;

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

91

Rybak, 2004). Just as active learning, paired with listening and observation, nurtures a holistic Indigenous learning environment, reflection is an additional element of that environment that aids the transference of learning to learners’ real life situations. The following section will now look more closely at this concept of reflection and silence as a component of Indigenous education. Reflection and Wait Time Cajete (1994) states that traditional Indigenous education honors reflection and silence. Within the meditative atmosphere of reflection and silence, the mind quiets and our inner knowing emerges (Gold, 1994). This, in turn, allows our inner awareness to connect to our outer awareness. Given that Indigenous learning is a holistic process, involving the mind, body, and spirit (Cajete, 1994); this author believes that the internalization and synthesis of new knowledge would be incomplete without the connection between our inner knowing and our external knowing, which emerges through reflection. The process of reflection requires time, thus, “wait time” (Rowe, 1987, p. 38) can aid the learning process within Native individuals. Rhodes (1989) states that Native learners benefit from reflection, and need “ample incubation time” to process what they have heard, what they have been asked, and what they have experienced (p. 37). According to Rhodes (1989), teachers or facilitators need to patiently wait for responses, because Native students process questions in their minds thoroughly before responding to them. Rhodes (1989) states that this incubation period may take “about 45 to 90 seconds.…[However], teachers are very reluctant to wait longer that 5 to 8 seconds for a student response” (p. 37). In an experiential learning setting, facilitators can utilize creative reflection activities, such as drawing, journaling, silence,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

92

meditation, breathing exercises, and others to afford the time for teachings to sink into learners, and for their inner awareness to merge with their outer awareness, and new knowledge to coalesce with that which is already known. All of the elements of Indigenous educational practices listed above are key components to the Indigenous learning setting and process. In summary, what has been noted concerning Indigenous learning is that content needs to be relevant to culture and place, and that listening and observation skills must be accessed during the learning process. Further, in this learning paradigm it is also important for new information to be connected with known information, and to provide learners with ample incubation time so that new information is fully absorbed. Another important aspect of Indigenous learning is that learning should be cooperative rather than individualistic. This culturally relevant approach to learning for Indigenous Peoples creates a learning environment that optimizes interrelationships and the transference of knowledge. This Indigenous approach to learning will now be explored by examining several Indigenous holistic learning models.

Indigenous Holistic Learning Models The literature shows that there are modern educational models that reflect the traditional Indigenous education process. This author chooses to highlight four such models in this section. First, this author will explore Dr. Gregory Cajete’s (1994) Ebb and Flow of Tribal Education model and The Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning model. Then, this author will examine a model offered by Peter Gold (1994), anthropologist and former research assistant to Margaret Mead, called the Circle of Spirit.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

93

Finally, the teachings that are represented in the Navajo ceremonial basket will be shared. Elements of all of these models, in conjunction with the experiential learning models presented earlier, will be combined to create an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model later in this chapter. Cajete’s Ebb and Flow of Tribal Education Model As describe earlier, Indigenous people believe that they are holistically connected to all things in life. This orientation forms and informs Native beliefs and lifeways, and is what Cajete (1994) refers to as “Spiritual Ecology” (p. 39). Cajete’s (1994) model, titled The Ebb and Flow of Tribal Education, was introduced in Chapter Two: Literature Review, Figure 1, on page 30 of this essay. This model will now be explored in more detail. Refer to Figure 1, and note that there are seven distinct elements to this educational model. Spiritual Ecology is placed at the center. To the left of center is one triad of elements representing the creative aspects of education, which Cajete (1994) calls “Mythic, Visionary, and Artistic foundations” (p. 39). These elements represent our “inner self” in the learning process (Cajete, 1994, p. 39). To the right of the center point is a second triad of elements that represent the “outward, highly interactive and external dimensions” of Indigenous education (Cajete, 1994, p. 39). These external elements consist of “Affective, Communal, and Environmental foundations” (Cajete, 1994, p. 39) of Indigenous education. To this author, the internal elements presented in this model are means to attaining self-awareness, individuality, inner-spirit, and inner-growth. The external elements are reflective of how these personal aspects holistically connect to and interact with our human and non-human surroundings. The central point, Spiritual Ecology, is the spiritual connection to everything that guides all of these interactions.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

94

Looking more deeply into the Indigenous education process, Cajete (1994) offers another model, called The Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning. Cajete’s Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning Model Figure 7 below shows Cajete’s (1994) Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning model. The center of this model, “Find the Center” represents completeness, which many Indigenous people believe is the goal of the entire life process (Cajete, 1994, Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gold, 1994). Situated around the center of completeness is respect, a sense of tradition, empowerment, and spirituality. Encircling these themes are eight learning and growth stages that eventually lead the individual, and their human and non-human connections, back to the center (Cajete, 1994). Respectively, the stages of learning are I. Basic Learning, II. Societal Education: Survival Skills, III. Myth, Ritual, & Ceremony, IV. Integration with Tribal Culture, V. Visioning, VI. Individuation, VII. Enlightenment and Wisdom, and VIII. Transformational Understanding. Cajete (1994) shares the following information about each of the eight stages: The process begins with a deep and abiding respect for the spirit of each child from before the moment of birth. The first stage of Indigenous education revolves around learning within the family, learning the first aspects of culture…and how to integrate one’s unique personality in a family context,…[while orienting] to place….[T]he second stage revolves around social learning; being introduced to Tribal society, and learning how to live in the natural environment,...[instilling a sense of Tribal history, and…how to apply Tribal knowledge to day-to-day living. The third stage revolves around melding individual needs with group needs through the processes of: initiation, learning guiding myths,…ritual and ceremony. This stage

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

95

IV Integration with Tribal Culture III Myth, Ritual & Ceremony Learning Relationships

V Visioning Sense of Tradition

Empowerment Relativity

Finding the Center Completeness

II Societal Education: Survival Skills Sense of Place

Respect

VI Individuation

Deep Learning

Spirituality

I Basic Learning

VII Enlightenment Wisdom VIII Transformational Understanding

Figure 7. The Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning, as shown by Cajete, 1994, p. 211.

ends with a profound and deep connection to tradition. The fourth stage is a midpoint in which the individual achieves a high level of integration with the culture,…[bringing] the individual a level of empowerment, personal vitality, and maturity. The fifth stage is a period of searching for a life vision, a time of pronounced individuation and the development of mythical thinking. This stage concludes with a deep understanding of relationship and diversity. The sixth stage

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

96

ushers in a period of major transformation characterized by deep learning about the unconsciousness. It is also a time of great travail, disintegration, wounding, and pain that pave the way for an equally great reintegration and healing process to begin in the final stage….In the seventh stage deep healing occurs in which the self mutualizes with body, mind, and spirit. In this stage, deep understanding, enlightenment, and wisdom are gained,…[leading to] a high level of spiritual understanding. It acts as a bridge to finding one’s true center,…[which occurs in the eighth stage]. (p. 211) The holistic processes of internal and external development and synthesis of knowledge, as well as the personal, communal, and natural aspects of the Indigenous worldview presented in Cajete’s (1994) Indigenous Stages of Developmental Learning model above show how learning unfolds over the lifetime of an individual. There are other holistic educational models that are grounded in Indigenous perspectives, which show us other perspectives on Indigenous internal and external development. One such model is the Circle of Spirit model created by Peter Gold (1994) and presented in his book Navajo and Tibetan Sacred Wisdom: The Circle of the Spirit. This model will be explored next. Gold’s Circle of Spirit Model Gold’s (1994) Circle of Spirit model is represented in Figure 8 below. In this model, there is a small circle located in the middle of a larger circle. Gold (1994) identifies this inner circle as the human being and the “finite bodymind” (p. 3), while the outer circle represents the “infinite bodymind of the universe, and simultaneously, the fully expanded individual on the spiritual path” (p. 3). The larger circle is divided into

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

97

Figure 8. Circle of Spirit, as shown by Gold, 1994, p. 3

four quadrants, which signify the four cardinal directions. These quadrants include “the natural movements, energies, qualities, and understandings that operate and affect the…finite and infinite” (Gold, 1994, p. 3). According to Gold (1994), there are seven holistic reference points for every individual: east, south, west, north, i.e. the four cardinal directions, as well as below, above, and center, i.e. the human being. Gold (1994) states, “Implicit in the diagram is the position of human beings, who act out their lives at the intermediary point between the finity beneath their feet and the infinity beyond the crown of their heads. Implicit too are the four principles that compose the conceptual circle of the spirit” (p. 2). The four principles that Gold (1994) refers to flow interdependently together through all of life. Figure 9 below represents the first principle, called “Awakening and Connecting to the Nature of Things” (p. 3). This principle acknowledges our connection to all of life and recognizes that there is a spiritual essence and energy that runs through everything,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

98

Figure 9. Awakening and Connecting to the Nature of Things, as shown by Gold, 1994, p. 3.

including entities that may by labeled inanimate by western scientific standards, i.e. rocks, wind, light, etc. (Gold, 1994). The second principle, represented in Figure 10 below, is referred to as “Balancing and Unifying Earth and Sky” (p. 4). Concerning the principle of balance, Gold (1994) states, “Symbolized by the convenient and familiar metaphors embodied in earth and sky, they include the paired universal tendencies of congealing and expanding, centripetal and centrifugal force, mother and father, woman and man…each existing only with respect to the existence of the other” (p. 4). Cosmological balance is achieved through the complementary dualism that is ever present in our lives. The unifying “aspect of this principle…builds upon this sense of balance and affirms the fundamental oneness of oneself and one’s reality….[H]uman beings stand at the midpoint between the relative reality of the physical world and the infinite, formless reality that surrounds it at all times and out of which it was formed” (Gold, 1994, p. 4). For the Navajo, this state of balance

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

99

Figure 10. Balancing and Unifying Earth and Sky, as shown by Gold, 1994, p. 4.

and unification is called “S1’ah Naghai Bik’eh H0zh=” (p. 4). This concept was introduced in Chapter Two, and will be explained further within the context of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. The third principle of Gold’s (1994) model is “Centering in the Mandala of Self and Cosmos” (p. 5) and is shown in Figure 11 below. As one can see, this part of the Circle of Spirit shows four quadrants that encompass the cardinal directions of east, south, west, and north. Gold (1994) states that the “lines mark out the four cardinal quadrants of the unity of ordinary forms, vital energies, and mental processes with the ideal and purified forms, energies, and ideas that emanate from the state known as beauty to the Navajos” (p. 5). In addition, “this third principle explores the way in which the two-in-one unity naturally differentiates into four phases or aspects – just as the cycle of day and night has four periods, the year has four seasons, and a lifetime has four phases” (Gold, 1994, p.5-6). The four-periods of day indicated by Gold (1994) are what the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 100

Figure 11. Centering in the Mandala of Self and Cosmos, as shown by Gold, 1994, p. 5.

Navajo refer to as early dawn, midday, twilight and night represented by the colors white, blue, yellow and black, respectively (Griffin-Pierce, 1995). The four seasons are spring, summer, fall and winter, and the four life-phases are birth, adolescence, adulthood and old age (Simpson, 2003). All of the elements mentioned in Gold’s third principle are represented throughout Navajo cosmology (Farella, 1996; Griffin-Pierce, 1988, 1995, 1997). Gold’s fourth principle, shown in Figure 8, page 97, above is “Becoming: Sacred Rites of Transformation[, which]…is represented as the complete diagram” (Gold, 1994, p. 7). Pertinent to sacred rights, Gold (1994) states that an individual “must be reoriented onto a specific daily spiritual path….Navajos have…developed elaborate, interlocking networks of traditions of transformative knowledge and practice, tailored to the spiritual needs of individuals” (p. 7). One such tradition involves offering white corn meal to the east and the awakening day at sunrise, and offering yellow corn meal to the west at

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 101 twilight (Reichard, 1990). For the Diné, this practice shows respect and gratitude to the Holy beings of life. The white corn meal is representative of the east, the eastern sacred mountain (Sis Naajin7), and the white of early dawn. The yellow corn meal represents the west, the western sacred mountain (Dook’o’oos[77d), and the yellow of evening twilight (Reichard, 1990). This author sees this practice as a means of centering one’s mind, body, and spirit at the beginning of each day and again bringing one’s mind, body, and spirit back to centeredness at the close of each day. It is also a way of connecting oneself to the greater whole that surrounds one. It is this author’s belief that this daily activity helps the individual maintain balance and connectedness to self and all of our relations, both human and non-human. Many of the Diné philosophies and symbols that are represented through Gold’s Circle of Spirit are also found within the Navajo ceremonial basket. This author chooses to access this basket and its symbolism as a viable Indigenous learning model. The Navajo ceremonial basket will now be explored. Navajo Ceremonial Basket Symbolism .

The final Indigenous model that this author will examine acknowledges teachings

symbolized in the Navajo ceremonial basket. Diné ceremonies and activities have utilized baskets of varied designs for hundreds of years (Simpson, 2003). The basket image in Figure 12 below shows a long-standing design still produced in modern times, though the design may vary slightly from Basket Maker to Basket Maker (Simpson, 2003). The symbolism depicted in this basket reveals the Diné philosophical concepts of life and learning. Some of the symbolic representations found in the basket design, such as the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 102

Figure 12. Navajo Ceremonial Basket, as shown by Simpson, 2003, p. 111

four times of day, four seasons, and four stages of life, were revealed in Gold’s (1994) model. The Navajo ceremonial basket is rich with meaning and symbolism. The translation of the symbols contained within the basket that are shared in this thesis will not encompass all of the layers of meaning that these baskets hold. However, the information that is shared will help frame the concepts that will emerge in the proposed Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. This author will begin in the center of the basket. There is an origination point at the center of the Navajo ceremonial basket, which represents the place of emergence, or birth (McPherson, 1995; Simpson, 2003). The white of this center is symbolic of purity and water – that which carries life. The design begins at the center and spirals outward into a white field. The white field “surrounding

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 103 the center spot is the earth. The black [triangular shapes that point into this white field] represent…six or ten sacred mountains….Next to the mountains is a red or brown [banded] section which represents…the rainbow” (Simpson, 2003, p. 47). The black and white triangular shapes above the rainbow symbolize white clouds and black clouds, which together indicate “the making of rain” (Simpson, 2003, p. 47). The white section near the very edge of the basket is the sunlight (Simpson, 2003). Though the basket is round, the designs in these baskets do not form a complete circle. As seen in Figure 12 above, there is an opening, or pathway that originates from the center emergence point and moves all the way to ”the edge of the basket, meeting at the exact spot where the weaver terminates her weaving” (Simpson, 2003, p. 64). This opening is aligned with the eastern cardinal direction and has several meanings. This opening allows an outward channel for the artist, so that his or her creative thinking and energy does not become trapped within his/her art. This pathway within the basket design is also used to “orient the basket toward the east during a ceremony” (Simpson, 2003, p. 65). One additional meaning for this opening is to remind people that “[w]hen you are reaching the end of your life and you are starting to forget everything, it is as if you return to the same state as when you were a child…[A]ll of the energy and knowledge from a person’s life flows back to the beginning [the center] and is there for the next generation” (Simpson, 2003, p. 65). As stated, the opening in the Navajo ceremonial basket is symbolized by the eastern sacred direction and all of the attributes embodied by the east. As well, south, west, and north are also present within the teachings of the basket, along with all the attributes of these directions that have been mentioned in this thesis. In addition, the

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 104 concave shape of the basket represents the maternal earth, and when “turned down” (Simpson, 2004, p. 92) for certain purposes, such as to use the basket as a drum in certain ceremonies, the convex basket form represents the paternal sky. Similar to the other Indigenous learning models depicted in this thesis, the four cardinal directions are present, as are the earth below, the sky above, and the spiritual equilibrium residing at the center. Now that various experiential and Indigenous learning models have been described, this thesis will begin to blend and elaborate on these teachings for the purposes of creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) that can be utilized with Indigenous groups in experiential learning settings.

Indigenous Experiential Learning Model Though one may find similarities among experiential learning, place-based learning, and Indigenous learning philosophies, this author asserts that the language that describes these philosophies differs, as does the breadth, as shown throughout this thesis. This author believes that a combination of these philosophies can produce a guide to the Indigenous learning process that is experiential, honors the individual, reflects a sense of place and community, and is culturally relevant, as well. Whereas the preceding section gave a general overview of the Indigenous experiential learning process, this section will begin to formulate the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model inspired by specific Diné holistic learning concepts, linked with aspects of the noted experiential learning models and Indigenous learning models.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 105 This author suggests modifications to existing experiential learning models so that the elements of experiential learning can be aligned with Indigenous learning paradigms (Cajete, 2000, 2005a; Rhodes, 1989; Benally, 1994). To begin, refer back to Figure 4 in Chapter Two, which illustrates an experiential learning cycle model that includes briefing followed by experiencing and debriefing (reflecting, generalizing, and applying). All of these elements work together on a cyclical continuum and will be included in the author’s learning model. Based on the literature review and the cumulative knowledge this author has received working with Indigenous populations in experiential learning settings, this author proposes an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) that contains six main elements, represented in Figure 13 below. Figure 13 below represents the IELM, which is reflective of the experiential learning perspectives, as well as the holistic Indigenous concepts and orientations described thus far in this thesis. Like a Navajo ceremonial basket, note that the model shows a pathway that originates in the center and moves toward the eastern direction. The learning cycle step contained in the center of the model is called centering, and the step present in the east is referencing. Moving clockwise to the southern point of the model, one finds the step of experiencing/creating. Continuing, one arrives at the western point called reflecting, and then the northern point called connecting. Finally, without closing the original eastern oriented pathway, one arrives back to the center and the element of centering/synthesizing.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 106

Indigenous Experiential Learning Model

5. Connecting North

6. Centering/Synthesizing

4. Reflecting West

2. Referencing 1. Centering

East

3. Experiencing/ Creating South

Figure 13. Author’s Indigenous Experiential Learning Cycle Model.

And so, the IELM illustrates a cycle containing six steps called centering, referencing, experiencing, reflecting, connecting and centering/ synthesizing. Like the steps of Kolb and Fry’s Experiential Learning Cycle, each of the steps in the IELM

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 107 represents movement through a cyclical continuum. Although there are some similarities between the Experiential Learning Cycle steps and the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model steps, each of the steps in the IELM have specific characteristics that reflect Indigenous learning philosophies. These characteristics will be explained in the following paragraphs. Though the steps of the IELM do not stand alone, for clarification purposes this author will separate each one and explain its content and intention. This author will begin at the center of the learning cycle at the step called centering. Centering In the Literature Review of this thesis, this author introduced six of the Diné’s sacred mountains that are present on the physical landscape, as well as the cosmological landscape within the structure of the traditional Diné home called the hogan. These sacred mountains are also represented in the design of the Navajo ceremonial basket. As stated, four of these sacred mountains are located at each of the four main cardinal directions, and two of these mountains are located at the center of this landscape. The two sacred mountains that reside at the center represent the place of emergence of the Diné during the times of creation (Griffin-Pierce, 1995), as well as the cosmological eastern doorway of the Diné ancestral homelands, called Dinetah. This orientation is found in the design of the traditional Navajo ceremonial basket, which also has a “doorway” or pathway (Simpson, 2003). Recall that the pathway in the traditional Navajo basket originates in the center and moves out from the center toward the eastern edge of the basket. This orientation of center, east, south, west, north, below, and above is present throughout traditional Diné

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 108 teachings and lifeways, and ordering of these reference points is intentional. For instance, in making a prayer offering to all of the directions, a Diné individual would first face the eastern direction and present his/her offering to the east. Then, moving clockwise or sunwise, the south is acknowledged, followed by the west and north. Next, one would acknowledge the earth and moving upward, which is the direction of growth, the individual would address the sky. This process begins and ends with the individual making the offering, who resides at the center of all of these sacred directions. Beginning in the center, moving sun-wise to the east, south, west, north and back to center will become important in the IELM. The learning concepts and cycle presented in this model will reflect these Diné teachings by beginning at the center moving clockwise around the circle, and then returning to the center. In his book Healing the Soul Wound: Counseling with American Indian and Other Native Peoples (2006), Dr. Eduardo Duran (Tewa), psychologist and director of Health and Wellness for the United Auburn Indian Community, Northern California, explains that according to many Native Peoples, “[t]here are six cardinal directions from which the life-world can be understood: the west, north, east, south, sky, and earth” and that “[t]he person who walks in balance is at the center of the six points. This is known as the seventh sacred direction” (p. 55). As a psychologist, Duran (2006) explains that the practitioner, or healer, working with Native patients must first understand where the patient’s “imbalance exists” (p. 55), and then by utilizing “therapy/healing and/or ceremony…bring the patient back to the center, or the seventh sacred direction” (Duran, 2006, p. 55). This author believes that this process of bringing a person back to the center can also be applied to experiential learning. This author calls this step in the learning

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 109 process centering, which is located at the beginning and the end of IELM, as shown in Figure 13 above. The concept of centering as applied to the IELM will now be explored. This author’s concept of centering involves placing learners into the present moment by simultaneously connecting them to both their internal and external landscapes. This can be done with a meditative activity, such as having everyone close their eyes and listen to the sounds, smell the scents, and feel the temperature of the air around them. A facilitator/teacher could also share gentle movement exercises, breathing exercises, or a story, song, or prayer with learners. For example, John Stokes (personal communication, September 21, 2001), founder and director of The Tracking Project, Corrales, NM, recites the Onondaga (Mohawk) Thanksgiving Address (1993) at the beginning of each day during his nature awareness training camps to center his participants. This Thanksgiving Address (1993) acknowledges all of our relations from the elements, to the smallest creatures, all the way up to the Creator. Mr. Stokes addresses each entity, followed by the phrase “and now our minds are one” (personal communication, September 21, 2001). Centering activities are intended to bring participants of a learning experience together cohesively into the present moment, and can be introduced by the facilitator/teacher, or a participant, at the beginning of an activity, or a day. The concept of centering will be visited again at the end of the IELM process since this cycle begins and ends with centering. Once there has been a centering activity to bring present each individual and the group as a whole, the IELM process moves to referencing, which is depicted in the eastern direction in Figure 13 above.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 110 Referencing Cajete (2000), Rhodes (1989), and Benally (1994) indicate that Native learners benefit from connecting new information with previously known information. For the Diné, there is a distinct process involved when internalizing and synthesizing new knowledge (Benally, 1994). This process entails engaging one’s thinking process to reference new information and/or experience to previously known experiences and knowledge, followed by planning, doing, acceptance, and synthesis of the new learning (Benally, 1994). These concepts can loosely be compared to the Experiential Learning Cycle (ELC) concepts, shown in Figure 6, of briefing (thinking) experiencing (planning/doing), reflecting and generalizing (acceptance), and applying (synthesis). However, there are specific concepts within the Diné learning process that are not addressed in the ELC, which will be discussed now. For the Diné, thinking symbolically emerges from the eastern direction. As indicated in the literature review, the east, ha’a’ah, represents light (fire), the springtime, and the color white in Diné cosmology (Reichard, 1990; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). It also represents the early dawn, birth/childhood (Simpson, 2003), and one’s thinking (Benally, 1994). This author uses the term referencing to refer to a process that awakens the thinking process, a power contained in the east, according to Diné cosmology. Therefore, this author’s concept of referencing resides in the eastern direction of the IELM. When referencing, learners access known information from their worldview, which will serve as an anchor point for any new learning that emerges during an experiential learning situation.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 111 Rhodes’ (1989) Native American Learning Style assessment indicates that Native students internalize knowledge more effectively when the task at hand is built on current “knowledge and observation” (p. 38). This author proposes that when working with an Indigenous group of people on a learning activity, referencing can be a means to access known information and, therefore, should occur prior to any activity, and possibly throughout the activity. This will aid the learners’ internalization and synthesis of new knowledge. To clarify this suggestion, this author will compare this referencing process to that of writing an essay. When a student writes an essay, he/she is encouraged to provide a thesis statement, introduce the essay with that thesis statement, and continually reflect back to that thesis statement throughout the essay. In doing so, the reader can better follow the theme of the paper throughout the reading process. Similarly, this author believes that if a facilitator/teacher provides learners with a reference point and periodically reflects the experience/teaching back to that reference point, the learners will be better able to connect their experience and learning to the underlying “theme or themes” of the activity. This author envisions referencing acting as a link between specific lessons/teachings and classroom objectives, group objectives, or other objectives defined cooperatively by the facilitator/teacher and participants. In addition, when it is appropriate for a group to utilize cultural values and beliefs as the reference point, this author sees that sharing oral narratives or other culturally relevant information could be used as valuable referencing tools. Through the process of continual referencing throughout a learning experience, this author believes that learners will orient their past knowledge and thinking processes

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 112 with the new experience and knowledge being presented. This author sees referencing, or thinking, as the first stage of internalizing knowledge gained from new experiences. In addition to utilizing referencing techniques prior to an activity, a facilitator can also utilize any of the briefing strategies found in the Experiential Learning Cycle, which can include relaying rules and safety guidelines for the activity, or incorporating culturally appropriate metaphors when needed. Once centering and referencing occur in an experiential learning experience, learners are introduced to the experiential learning activity itself. This next step of the IELM will now be described. Experiencing/Creating As stated above, once referencing has been accomplished, the facilitator/teacher can introduce the experiential activity. A participant enters the experiencing/creating phase of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model with his/her thinking, nits1h1kees, aligned with previously known information (Benally, 1994), which occurred during the referencing phase of the IELM. Experiencing/Creating is located in the southern direction of the IELM. Again, the south, sh1d7’11h, embodies the element water, the summer season, and the color blue (Reichard, 1990; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). It also embodies midday, adolescence (Simpson, 2003) and the act of planning (Benally, 1994). Some experiential activities require individual participation and others are intended for group participation (Rohnke, & Butler, 1995; Schoel et al., 1998). Whether for an individual or a group, most experiential tasks require planning by the individual or the group. The Diné word for the act of planning is nahat’1 (Benally, 1994), which is followed by iin1 or taking action (Matlock, 1995). According to Rhodes (1989), “Action

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 113 follows cognition, intuition and creativity” (p. 40). This author believes that planning and action are creative acts born of experiential learning experiences and in the IELM process they occur in the Experiencing/Creating phase. As stated previously, Cajete (2005a) indicates that “learning is always a creative act” (p. 53). This author sees the sequencing of nits1h1kees (thinking), nahat’1 (planning), and iin1 (acting) as representative of the creative human process of experiencing and learning. Thus, this author has named this phase of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model experiencing and also creating. In this phase of the IELM, learners are engaged in an experiential learning activity. Again, this activity may be designed and facilitated for an individual or for a group. This author believes that planning helps guide each learner through a creative process whereby they formulate ideas and questions about the activity. Next, the application of these ideas and questions in the experiential setting by the learner brings the creative thinking and planning process to life. Throughout the experiential activity, learners may engage in periods of trial and error as they move from the unknown to the known as the activity comes to some point of completion. Following the experiencing/creating phase of the IELM, learners are encouraged to revisit the creative ideas and actions that emerged throughout the experiential learning process, so that these products of the learning process can become more concrete for the learner. This review of the learning experience will help learners internalize new knowledge and skills. This phase of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model is called reflecting and is located at the western point of the cycle.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 114 Reflecting Once the centering, referencing, and experiencing/creating phases of the IELM occur, the learner should be provided the time and the space to look back upon what transpired during those phases. This act of reflection, or processing, is located in the west of the IELM. As stated previously, for the Diné the west, e’e’aah, encompasses air, the fall, and the color yellow (Reichard, 1990; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). West also encompasses twilight, adulthood (Simpson, 2003), and the act of doing (Benally, 1994). Although “doing”, or iin1 (acting), began during the experiencing/creating phase, this author believes that it continues into the reflecting phase, since it is through reflection that one begins to actively bridge newly learned concepts and skills with the knowledge and skills that the learner possessed prior to the experiential learning activity (Luckner & Nadler, 1997). According to Frank and Panico (2000), reflecting initiates the debriefing phase of the experiential learning paradigm. Frank and Panico (2000) describe how a processing question, such as ‘“What just happened?’…gives students an opportunity to reflect upon their own roles, thoughts, feelings, and observations during the activity” (p. 24). In addition, a processing question such as “So What?” helps participants “examine how this experience affected them, and then to look at how it fits in with past experiences” (Frank & Panico, 2000, p. 24). In this author’s opinion, reflective processing fits Indigenous learning styles well since, as stated previously, Native learners synthesize learning more effectively if new knowledge is connected to known knowledge (Rhodes, 1989), which can happen in the reflecting phase of the IELM.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 115 Related to reflecting, Dr. Cajete (2000) offers, “Being provided the opportunity and time to reflect has always been an important aspect of Native education. It was understood that knowledge and creativity have their source in a person’s inner being and in their personal journeying and thinking” (p. 102). This author believes that Dr. Cajete’s (2000) “journeying” refers to the entire experiential learning process that occurs in isolated experiences and throughout one’s lifetime. Although Native learners’ journeys are enhanced through the use of reflective observation, learners typically need “ample incubation time” to process what they have heard, what they have been asked, or what they have experienced (Rhodes, 1989, p. 37). This is because their thinking process will automatically engage in the process of referencing to known knowledge (Rhodes, 1989), and this takes time. This author believes that this Indigenous learning process requires more time than Western learning processes because many Indigenous learners do not respond with “memorized” answers. Rather, they respond with holistic and synthesized answers once they have reflected upon the learning experience. Reflection techniques can make further use of learners’ creativity by encouraging the use of writing, drawing, theater, or other artistic activities as reflective tools. Nighttime dreaming can also be used as a reflective activity that can be accessed if a facilitator is with a group for more than one day. A facilitator can also provide for silent time, meditation time, or time for “open communication and creative dialog” (Cajete, 1994, p. 20). Based on the Indigenous learning philosophies presented by Cajete (2000, 2005a), Rhodes (1989), and Benally (1994), this author believes that as a Native student reflects,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 116 he/she not only looks back on a learning experience, but also naturally begins to engage in the process of connecting new information with information that is already held in his/her worldview. Allowing for sufficient incubation time (Rhodes, 1989) gives an Indigenous learner’s natural gift of connecting the room it needs to unfold. Connecting After a learner has participated in the experiential learning processes of centering, referencing, experiencing/creating, and reflecting, the next step is for the learner to move into the phase of connecting. Connecting is located in the northern quadrant of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model. Reviewing, Diné belief systems acknowledge the north, n1hookos, as representing the earth, the wintertime, and the color black (Reichard, 1990; Thayer-Bacon, 2002). In addition, the north encompasses nighttime, old age (Simpson, 2003), and the act of acceptance (Benally, 1994). The act of acceptance can be referred to as the phase of the Diné learning process whereby new knowledge becomes further internalized into a learner’s holistic body-mind. Cajete (2005a) refers to this internalization process as “coming to know” (p. 65). The Diné call it siihasin, or synthesis. By the time an Indigenous leaner has entered the connecting phase, he/she has reflected upon the new knowledge and skills that have emerged from the experiential learning process and bridged this new knowledge with previously known knowledge. He/She may now begin to connect the new knowledge to their living reality. Drawing from Cajete (2000, 2005a), Rhodes (1989), and Benally (1994), this author believes that when Native learners are afforded the time and space to bridge previously known knowledge with new knowledge, then a pathway is created to give this new knowledge a

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 117 seat within the Native learner’s holistic worldview. Facilitators of experiential learning activities can plan ahead so that adequate time is provided for the reflecting and connecting processes. Facilitators can pose questions to learners about the experiential activity and then ask learners to reflect upon these questions, without answering them right away. In addition, facilitators could ask participants to recall the “known” information that emerged in the referencing phase, before the activity took place. Learners could then ponder these questions through reflective activities, such as journaling or quiet time, before presenting responses to these questions. This author believes that these steps will assist learners’ in successful transference of new learning. Indigenous philosophies indicate that the internalization of experience is a neverending and evolving process (Cajete, 2000, 2005a; Rhodes, 1989; Benally, 1994). However, for the purpose of bringing the Indigenous experiential learning process full circle, this author feels that it is important to bring learners once again back to center before sending them into their living realities again. This return to center brings us back to the middle of our IELM and to the centering/synthesizing phase of the experiential learning process. Centering/Synthesizing At the end of an experiential learning activity, this author believes that it is important to center learners once again. Earlier in this chapter this author quoted Duran (2006) who indicated that the goal of therapeutic healing is to “bring the patient back to the center, or the seventh sacred direction” (Duran, 2006, p. 55). The Diné believe that when an individual is centered, they are walking in beauty, or harmony, with all of creation (Gold, 1994). To bring a learner back to his/her internal and external center at

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 118 the end of an experiential learning process, a facilitator can utilize the centering activity that was shared in the beginning of the IELM process, or introduce another. Again, suggested centering activities include gentle movement exercises, meditative exercises, breathing exercises, or a story, song or prayer sharing. Returning back to center at the close of a learning experience brings a learner back to the beginning of the process. However, the individual returning to the center is not the same as the one who began the journey at the onset of the experiential learning activity. This individual returns to center having internalized new experiences, knowledge, and skills that may eventually become an inherent “knowing” within that individual. However, note that an important component of Indigenous learning is the fact that “it is permissible within the Indian context to admit that something mysterious remains after all is said and done” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, p. 127). Mystery allows us to keep seeking and learning, and the new knowledge and wisdom that we achieve along the way may stimulate us into more and more learning experiences. Internalization of new knowledge continues to occur beyond the experiential learning activity, unfolding throughout our lives (Blaeser, 1999). The Diné refer to this unfolding and internalization process as siihasin, or synthesis. The journey of siihasin is reflected in the pathway of the Navajo ceremonial basket. Recall that this pathway signifies the acquisition of knowledge and wisdom that occurs over a person’s lifetime, as well as the return of that knowledge, to the center, at the end of that individual’s lifetime. There is a holistic concept of completeness in Navajo cosmology that is called s2’a nagh1i bik’e h00zh= (Benally, 1994). Farella (1996) defines this concept as “wholeness” (p. 178), as well as “an understanding of the whole” (Farella, 1996, p. 17). S2’a nagh1i

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 119 bik’e h00zh= connects one to the knowledge of the past, as well as makes one responsible for “future generations” (Farella, 1996, p. 179). Farella adds, s2’a nagh1i bik’e h00zh= “is completeness, but its source is the lack of completeness of the individual” (Farella, 1996, p. 181). It is this author’s deduction that because of each individual’s “lack of completeness” (Farella, 1996, p. 181), we continue to seek new knowledge, skills, and wisdom, and therefore, the learning cycle continues throughout our lives. Cajete (1994) states that “the potential of human learning unfolds through our life cycle just as our journey toward wholeness evolves in meaning” (p. 181). Therefore, this author believes that it is through our ongoing living journey that true and complete synthesis occurs. The IELM incorporates the wisdom of Native learning processes that have been formulated over centuries of Indigenous living (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This author believes that Indigenous learning processes were and are intended to help learners connect holistically to their inner selves, as well as spirit, family, community, culture, and place. Cajete (1994) shares that “in the tradition of the Nahuatl speaking Aztec of Mexico, the ideal purpose of education was to: ‘find one’s face, find one’s heart’ and search for a ‘foundation’, a truth, a support, a way of life and work through which one could express one’s Life” (Cajete, 1994, p. 35). The Indigenous Experiential Learning Model can assist in the facilitation of experiential learning activities that add to the richness of our life experiences. The IELM brings learners through six phases: centering, referencing, experiencing, reflecting, connecting and centering/synthesizing. The seventh phase involves the individual repeatedly moving through the experiential learning process, gathering new knowledge and wisdom throughout life.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 120 The elements described above are reflective of an Indigenous learning process placed into an experiential learning paradigm. This author believes that the resulting Indigenous Experiential Learning Model will be a beneficial tool to use in a myriad of experiential learning settings with Native learners. The following section will describe how this model can be practically applied with Indigenous populations.

Applications and Benefits of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model General Application Information This author believes that the suggested modifications to existing experiential learning models were necessary to create an experiential learning paradigm that is more conducive to Native population learning given that the learning processes of many Native peoples are unique. For example, many Indigenous people are inherently connected to family, culture, community, and place (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). Native people also learn holistically, where mind, body, spirit, and environment are all engaged in the learning process (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hughes, 1983). As well, listening and observation are encouraged in Indigenous learning settings as necessary and important components of the learning process (Blaeser, 1999; Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 2004, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Gulliford 2004; Running Wolf & Rickard, 2003). Further, western educational models have been utilized with Native populations for over a century and are not always successful with, or accepted by, Indigenous learners given that most Western educational constructs are void of Indigenous cultural content and paradigms (Adams, 1995; Ide, 2003; Szasz, 1999). Western educational pedagogy also promotes individuality at the expense of creating community, while the Native

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 121 individual’s sense of self is always placed within the greater context of his/her communal identity (Adams, 1995; Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Hynd, 1979; Krech, 2002). Although many contemporary Indigenous Peoples value Western education, this author believes that the Indigenous educational experience could be greatly enhanced if Indigenous cultural content was incorporated into the education system, and applied in culturally appropriate ways. Therefore, based on all of the points made here and throughout this thesis, an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model is needed to maximize Indigenous People’s learning. As stated previously, the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model frames experiential learning in such a way that acknowledges Indigenous learners’ sense of self within the context of culture, place, and community. Through appropriate use of culturally relevant teachings and metaphors, the IELM can create individual awareness within the greater context of connectedness to ancestors and family, as well as social, natural, and spiritual environments. The IELM can accomplish these tasks by centering learners in the present moment, and then orienting them to their internal and external realities, which include family, community, and natural environment. In addition, the IELM also engages the Indigenous philosophical process of bridging new knowledge with known knowledge by utilizing culturally appropriate information and techniques that create interconnected meaning that is relevant to learners’ living realities. This bridging process promotes transference and holistic growth in the Indigenous learner that is rooted in one’s sense of place. Although this model is influenced by the Indigenous learning philosophies of the Diné, this author believes that

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 122 this model can be adapted to other Indigenous populations, as well, which is revealed in this next section. Specific Application Information This author will now present several specific application tips and recommendations for using the IELM. To facilitate a culturally appropriate Indigenous experiential learning activity, teachers and facilitators should utilize culturally appropriate information, teachings, and metaphors throughout the experiential learning process. Utilizing culturally appropriate teachings and metaphors makes for meaningful experiences for Indigenous learners by reflecting and connecting the learning experience to the real-life worldview and sense of place of the learners. Given that each tribal culture is unique, these teachings and metaphors will vary from tribe to tribe. Further, teachings and metaphors that are appropriate for one tribe may not be appropriate for another tribe. For example, Diné cultural stories that include Coyote can only be shared during the winter months. Another tribe may allow Coyote stories to be told outside of the winter months. Therefore, it is important for the teacher/facilitator of Indigenous learners to have knowledge of the respective culture within which they are working when using the IELM paradigm. Indigenous teachers/facilitators can incorporate their own tribal information and metaphors into the IELM, including their own philosophies and representative information for the sacred directions. For the Diné, each cardinal direction has specific attributes, such as colors and sacred mountains, which represent each direction. These attributes arise from Diné cultural teachings and tribal language rooted in a deep and ancient sense of place. Other tribes have their own cultural teachings, tribal languages,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 123 and sacred landscapes that are rooted in their respective senses of place. So, it is important for teachers and facilitators to incorporate symbolism and metaphors that are appropriate to the Indigenous population that they are working with. Given that Indigenous people benefit from listening and observation, it is beneficial for teachers/facilitators to demonstrate an activity before asking learners to engage in it (Brascoupe, 1998; Cajete, 2004, 2005a; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001; Running Wolf & Rickard, 2003). For example, if an experiential learning activity involves making a friction fire using a bow drill technique, the facilitator should demonstrate how the bow drill works and how it can create fire prior to having learners engage in using the bow drill. This author believes that the IELM is open to modification by other Indigenous populations so that the teaching paradigm is culturally appropriate to each group. Regardless, the primary elements of the IELM, in this author’s opinion, are based on universal Indigenous learning processes and, therefore, do not need to be changed. Thus, the cycle of centering, referencing, experiencing/creating, reflecting, connecting, and centering/synthesis can be applied to any Native population, and indeed in this author’s opinion, any non-Native population, as well. Although the proposed Indigenous Experiential Learning Model was created for use with Native populations, this author believes that any population can benefit from the model’s holistic concepts. These concepts emerge from Indigenous learning philosophies; however, every human being is a learner and can benefit from processing techniques that aid the integration and synthesis of new knowledge into their existing life paradigms.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 124 This author believes that the IELM is appropriate for various experiential learning settings, such as classrooms, outdoor/adventure trips and activities, therapeutic programming, team-building and ropes courses, service-learning projects, and others. In any of these settings, the IELM can be applied to one activity or multiple activities that take place over the length of an hour or over multiple days. For example, a facilitator/teacher might treat an entire day as one phase of the IELM cycle. Or an entire day could encompass all phases of the IELM. Benefits of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model There are various benefits associated with the application of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM). This author believes that culturally-based experiential learning activities in Native communities can provide platforms from which teachers, students, and other community members can create and participate in projects that facilitate communal cohesiveness, bridge generations, and teach cultural values (Cajete, 1994; Deloria & Wildcat, 2001). This in turn, in this author’s view, can result in the perpetuation of cultural values and lifeways, and healthier human and non-human environments. Deloria and Wildcat (2001) state that “The challenge of indigenous education is to expand the ability of children to experience the world....We can and must educate a generation of children who find home in the landscapes and ecologies they inhabit” (Deloria & Wildcat, 2001, p. 70-71), so that we as human beings can acknowledge and fulfill our responsibility for creating healthy human and non-human relationships. Indigenous learning paradigms are a source of empowerment for Native Peoples and reinforce the fact that Indigenous teachings and lifeways have value and have persevered through centuries, despite attempts at acculturation and assimilation

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 125 (Adams, 1995; Graham 2002; Grinde, 2004; Mihesuah, 2003). As well, the proposed Indigenous Experiential Learning Model can aid in placing learning goals, objectives, and experiences into culturally-relevant contexts so that transference of learning can occur within individual learners and positive impacts within Indigenous communities can be facilitated (Bearcrane et al., 1990). The following chapter will reflect on this thesis project as a whole through a discussion of pertinent issues, limitations of the thesis and the IELM, and suggestions for future research.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 126 Chapter Four: Discussion and Recommendations The final chapter of this thesis will begin by summarizing the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM). Next, the author will examine the strengths and limitations of the IELM. Then, recommendations will be provided for future research on the IELM paradigm. Finally, this author will present pertinent closing remarks. This author will begin with the IELM summary. Summary of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model In summary, the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) combines aspects of experiential learning, place-based learning, and Indigenous learning paradigms to create an educational tool that is appropriate for Indigenous learners. Namely, the IELM provides a context for experiential learning to occur that is holistically framed for use with Indigenous populations. The IELM incorporates Diné philosophical teachings related to the Diné sacred mountains, the cardinal directions, and the Navajo ceremonial basket. These teachings are embodied within the six phases of the model: centering, referencing, experiencing/creating, reflecting, connecting, and centering/synthesis. The learner begins at the center, moves outward toward the east, and then continues moving through the phases of the model in a clockwise direction, and then returning to the center once again. This clockwise, or sun-wise, movement is representative of the Diné ceremonial process designed to maintain and/or regain balance and harmony in life. Primary aspects of each phase of the IELM introduced by this author are as follows: •

Centering (Center) – Centering brings learners’ attention to the moment, beginning the process of self-awareness, as well as group awareness, and

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 127 connects learners with internal and external landscapes, developing a sense of place. •

Referencing (East) – Referencing connects learners to the known, incorporates Native root metaphors, and engages the thinking process, or nits1h1kees.



Experiencing/Creating (South) – Experiencing/Creating engages learners’ intuition, curiosity and creative energy, and engages the processes of planning, nahat’1, and action - iin1.



Reflecting (West) – Reflecting helps learners process new knowledge and skills by encouraging them to review the learning experience. Native learners benefit from incubation and silent time. This paired with open communication aids the integration of new knowledge with known knowledge.



Connecting (North) – Connecting encourages the successful transference of newly gained knowledge and skills by highlighting how the new information fits into the context of learners’ living realities. Connecting signifies the beginning of synthesis, or siihasin.



Centering/Synthesis (Center) – Centering/Synthesis, brings learners present again within the internal and external landscapes. Meaningful and relevant knowledge and skills are synthesized within learners, promoting growth. When new knowledge and skills create growth, then learners move toward completion and balance, or S2’a nagh1i bik’e h00zh=, within themselves.

Remember that like other experiential learning models, the IELM is cyclic and operates on a continuum, whereby each new experience builds upon existing knowledge, and also, each new experience informs our future knowledge (Cajete, 1994). As stated

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 128 above, if deemed meaningful, new experiences merge holistically into Indigenous learners’ world-views, promoting personal growth (Cajete, 1994). Benally (1994) expresses this holistic growth process as “bee sih dinisdzin doolee[[, which translates as]…the knowledge, skills, and discipline will culminate in my actualization and contentment and will become my prayers, my songs, and my teachings” (p. 30), meaning that new knowledge and skills, if nurtured, will culminate into wisdom expressed within the context of everyday living. This ultimate integration of new knowledge and skills is a primary goal for participants learning through the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model paradigm. This author will now highlight strengths and limitations of this thesis and the IELM, followed by recommendations for future research.

Discussion and Recommendations This section will look at the strengths and limitations of this thesis and the IELM. Strengths of this thesis process and the IELM itself include this author’s experience working with Indigenous populations and the support of pertinent literature. Limitations include the need for review by qualified experts in the fields of Experiential Education and Native Studies, as well as the need for testing the IELM in the field, i.e. conducting applied research with the model. This author will begin by examining the strengths of this thesis. Strengths of This Thesis This thesis topic, Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM), emerged from this author’s experience working with Indigenous populations in

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 129 experiential learning settings, this author’s experience living with and integrating into the Diné culture, and literary sources that address the myriad of topics that support the IELM. This author, personally, has had the most success in transferring new knowledge into her living reality when those new experiences and information were bridged with known information, were relevant to real life, and were presented in such a way as to engage both intellectual and kinesthetic learning modalities. As a facilitator, this author has had experience with utilizing western experiential learning methodologies, such as those presented by Frank and Panico (2000) in Chapter Two, Figure 6, with Native populations of all ages. Through these experiential learning activities, this author has observed that complete transference did not always occur. In several experiential settings utilizing the What? So What? and Now What? processing sequence, the Native participants did not understand what they were being asked with these questions. The facilitator, who was non-Native, had to keep probing with these questions, and ended up feeding the participants “leading” answers to get them to respond. Thus, this author believes that this sequencing process did not attempt to engage in the learners known knowledge, and the terminology did not correspond to terms that were familiar to the learner. The result, in this author’s opinion, was failure on the part of the facilitator to bridge the experiential learning activity with the learners living reality. Further, this author believes that many experiential learning paradigms and metaphors being utilized with Native populations are extracted from acceptable Western cultural-norms and are not relevant to many Native cultures. Many times these metaphors are culturally inappropriate. For example, one team-building game that this author has played with Native groups, called “hospital tag”, required that the “tagged” participant

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 130 cover his/her hypothetical “injury”, the place where they were tagged, with his/her hand and continue playing the game with that injury covered. If the participant is tagged again, then he/she must cover up this second injury in the same manner. If the participant is tagged a third time, then they must sit down, as he/she is now in the hospital. For Diné, individuals playing such a game are “asking” for injury to befall them, not hypothetically, but in reality. This is culturally unacceptable for the Diné. This author has witnessed and facilitated similar games and activities that create similar culturally inappropriate scenarios and metaphors. This author believes that if these scenarios and metaphors are culturally inappropriate, then the intended goal of transference is hindered. As a result, this author has modified such games and activities with root metaphors that echo the given culture and has anecdotally observed that the Native participants are more responsive. In the “hospital tag” game mentioned above, this author has modified it so that when a participant is tagged, he/she must touch the tagged area with his/her hand, but the hand sticks because the participant was tagged with pine-pitch. The tag game can continue in a similar fashion as the game above, however, no injury is implied. Over time, in working with Native populations in experiential learning settings, this author and her husband, Gino, started to include more cultural activities and metaphors into the experiential learning activities. Both observed that Native participants were more engaged when activities had a traditional component. These traditional activities presented opportunities to bring in local traditional community members as teachers. Many times these teachers were Native elders. When these elders started to teach, even the most withdrawn Native participant would become involved in the activity. This author believes that because these traditional teachings were rooted in place,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 131 relevant to the culture, utilized familiar terminology, and created a communal learning setting, the participants saw themselves in the learning. A result, as observed by this author, was more successful transference and synthesis of known knowledge with new knowledge. As cited throughout this paper, many sources were conferred with in designing this project-based thesis. Sources included scholarly journals and other literary resources pertinent to Indigenous cultures and their respective belief systems, Diné cultural and belief systems, pedagogies of Indigenous, western, Experiential, and Place-Based Education, and other topics. In addition, theoretical models from Experiential Educational and Indigenous education were consulted, as well. It is this author’s belief that the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model that this author has developed and presented here has been fully supported throughout this thesis by all of the above resources. Modern experiential education paradigms are designed to successfully facilitate the transference of learning in diverse experiential learning settings by encouraging participants to reflect on their experiences and then project how such learning might apply to other life settings, such school or home situations (Frank & Panico, 2000). The IELM attempts to frame the educational process in a culturally appropriate context for Native learners. However, as with many models, there are limitations and challenges with the IELM. The following section will discuss potential problems and limitations of the IELM.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 132 Potential Problems and Limitations of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model Critical reflection by this author has revealed several inherent limitations of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model and potential problems that may arise in its use. These problems and limitations will be examined in this section. As stated previously, literature pertinent to Indigenous education indicates that Indigenous learners may only enter into new experiences if the associated information is deemed by the learners as meaningful and connected to their realities (Rhodes, 1989). Therefore, a teacher/facilitator may discover during the reflecting or experiencing/ creating phase of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM) that a proposed experiential activity is rejected by some of the Indigenous learners. In this situation, the teacher/facilitator should ascertain why the learners are rejecting the activity. It is possible that the teacher/facilitator is presenting or framing the activity in a way that is culturally inappropriate or offensive to some group members. In this case, the activity can be modified to maximize acceptance by the learners. In larger groups, the teacher/facilitator could encourage the learners who are rejecting the activity to become observers, since observation is an important learning tool for Indigenous people and might give the learners an opportunity to find relevance and meaning in the activity. The teacher/facilitator may also choose to reframe the activity, change the activity, or abandon the activity all together. As stated, the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model frames experiential learning in such a way that acknowledges Indigenous learners’ sense of self within the context of culture, place, and community. This acknowledgement of self within community should be initiated at the beginning of the IELM cycle, in the centering and

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 133 reflecting phase, and continue throughout the IELM cycle. It is the responsibility of the teacher or facilitator to actively facilitate this sense of place in learners. However, not every teacher/facilitator possesses the appropriate cultural knowledge to do so, and therefore might create uncomfortable or culturally inappropriate environments. To remedy this, teachers/facilitators should adequately prepare Indigenous experiential learning activities by consulting with community members who do have culturally appropriate knowledge and even invite these “cultural advisors” to join experiential activities as teachers/facilitators and/or participants. Another option for teachers/ facilitators who lack cultural knowledge is to provide experiential activities that do not attempt to frame the activity within a cultural context, thereby avoiding ignorant faux pas. Likewise, not every Indigenous learner is aware of his/her cultural teachings and may feel alienated if other learners in the group are aware of those teachings. Rhodes (1989) indicates that “Native American students want to be part of a group and not better or worse than the group” (p. 39). Again, teachers/facilitators can make the teaching of cultural knowledge a goal within the experiential process, which may remove or reduce the uneasiness of this issue. This implicit approach to cultural learning can begin with the centering phase of the IELM and continue throughout the cycle. If the teacher/facilitator lacks culturally appropriate knowledge, he/she can invite culturally knowledgeable community members to provide this information. A possible limitation with the IELM is that it requires adequate time to complete the entire process. Given that all phases within the model take time, with centering recommended at the beginning and at the end of each experiential activity,

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 134 teachers/facilitators who do not adequately plan their time to incorporate all of the elements within a day’s activities may fall short of taking the learner through the entire experiential learning process. If a learner is not provided the opportunity to complete the entire process, or an element is hurried or by-passed, then meaningful connections may be missed and successful transference hindered. Several limitations of this thesis and its process also became apparent to this author through reflection. These limitations will be explored in the next section. Limitations of the Thesis This thesis relied solely upon personal experience and literary review as its primary research methodologies. Thus, this author acknowledges that this thesis and the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model lack grounding in both professional review and scientific research processes. To remedy these limitations, the author wholeheartedly encourages review of the thesis document and the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model by qualified experts in the field of Experiential Education, as well as Indigenous experts in the field of Native Studies. This review process would help to ensure the accuracy, breadth and applicability of the concepts contained in the thesis and the IELM. In addition, the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model should be field tested through applied research methods. Reviewing and testing the IELM in this manner would reveal both the strengths and weaknesses of the model and its applications. If these strengths and weaknesses were then used to modify the IELM and its applications, then the result would be a culturally relevant Indigenous experiential leaning paradigm that is supported with applied research methodologies, as well as professional review.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 135 Recommendations for Future Research The constructs of the Indigenous Experiential Learning Model are based on literary research and this author’s experience working with Indigenous populations in experiential settings. However, the model has not been tested in a real-life setting. Therefore, this author suggests that an applied research project be planned and implemented to observe the effectiveness of the IELM and any associated problems or limitations that may arise with its use. Such a research project could include testing the model with at least three different tribal populations to see if it can be successfully adapted to diverse tribal ideologies. In addition, the same model could be tested with nonIndigenous populations to see if it can be utilized outside of tribal cultural contexts. Another suggested research application would be to test the model within the same tribe, but in varied settings, i.e. classroom, ropes-course, service-learning, etc. It may be revealed that the model functions more effectively in certain settings. The reliability of the model can thus be tested. The model could also be tested with different age groups, as well as mixed-age groups to discuss. This author would also like to see how this model functions when applied to various special-populations, such as at-risk youth, incarcerated individuals, and mental health clients to ascertain both its flexibility and appropriateness with diverse populations.

Closing Remarks As stated in the introduction, this author believes that a learning model that honors traditional Indigenous learning philosophies and practices can serve as a

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 136 beneficial tool for educators of Indigenous learners. It is this author’s argument that Indigenous Peoples’ learning process is unique because their identity is inseparable from their connections with tribal history, family, community, and place. Given that, this author believes that a learning model designed to facilitate Indigenous learning should incorporate these important components and perspectives. This author believes that the fields of Experiential Education and Place-Based Education offer experiential learning models and paradigms that can be adapted to reflect Indigenous learning paradigms. Through this thesis, this author extensively explored both experiential and Indigenous learning paradigms through various literary sources and extracted pertinent information and perspectives to create an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model (IELM). Though the concepts associated with this model are appropriate for Diné populations, the IELM is intended to be a flexible tool to be utilized with a variety of Indigenous populations. This author believes that this experiential learning model is dynamic, and teachers and facilitators are encouraged to modify and expand upon the model. As well, this author encourages critical analysis of, as well as future applied research with, the model to test the effectiveness and appropriateness of utilizing this model with Indigenous populations. It is this author’s hope that this thesis and the resulting Indigenous Experiential Learning Model will be a welcomed contribution to the fields of Experiential Education, Place-Based Education, and Indigenous education.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 137 References Acrey, Bill P. (1979). Navajo history: The land and the people. Shiprock, New Mexico: Department of Curriculum Materials Development. Acrey, Bill P. (1996). Navajo history to 1846: The land and the people. Shiprock, New Mexico: Department of Curriculum Materials Development. Adams, David Wallace. (1995). Education for extinction: American Indians and the boarding school experience 1875-1928. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. Alvord, Lori Arviso, & Van Pelt, Elizabeth Cohen (1999). The scalpel and the silver bear: The first Navajo woman surgeon combines western medicine and traditional healing. New York: Bantam Books. Archuleta, Margaret L., Child, Brenda J., & Lomawaima, K. Tsianina (Eds.). (2000). Away from home: American Indian boarding school experiences, 1879-2000. Phoenix, AZ: Heard Museum. Arthur, Nancy, & Achenback, Kathleen. (September 2002). Developing multicultural counseling competencies through experiential learning. Counselor Education & Supervision, 42 (1), 2-14. Arrington, Edith G., & Wilson, Melvin N. (2000). A re-examination of risk and resilience during adolescence: Incorporating culture and diversity. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9 (2), 221-230. Bacon, Stephen. (1983). The conscious use of metaphor in outward bound. Denver, CO: Colorado Outward Bound School.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 138 Baker, Molly. (2005). Landfullness in adventure-based programming: Promoting reconnection to the land. Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (3), 267-276. Baldwin, Cheryl, Persing, John, & Magnuson, Douglas. (2004). The role of theory, research, and evaluation in adventure education. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (3), 167-183. Ball, Martin W. (2002). “People speaking silently to themselves”: An examination of Keith Basso’s Philosophical speculations on “sense of place” in Apache cultures. American Indian Quarterly, 26 (3), p. 460-478. Banks, James A., & Banks, Cherry A. McGee (Eds.). (1997). Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Barlow, Dudley. (2005). Keeping it real: School success beyond black and white. The Education Digest, 71 (4), 75-76. Basso, Keith H. (1996). “Stalking with stories”: Names, places, and moral narratives among the Western Apache. Wisdom sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 95-116. Bazron, Barbara, Osher, David, & Fleischman, Steve. (2005). Creating culturally responsive schools. Educational Leadership, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 63 (1) 83-84. Bearcrane, Jean, Dodd, John M., Nelson, J. Ron, & Ostwald, Steven W. (1990). Educational characteristics of Native Americans. Rural Educator, 11 (3), 1-5. Beck, Peggy V. & Walters, Anna L. (1977). The sacred: Ways of knowledge, sources of life. Tsaile, AZ: Navajo Community College Press.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 139 Belone, Cecilia, Gonzalez-Santin, Edwin, Gustavsson, Nora, MacEachron, Ann E., & Perry, Timothy. (2002). Social Services: The Navajo Way. Child Welfare, 81 (5), 773-790. Benally, Herbert J. (1994). Navajo philosophy of learning and pedagogy. Journal of Navajo Education, 12 (1), 23-31. Beringer, Almut. (2004). Toward an ecological paradigm in adventure programming. The Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (1), 51-66. Billard, Jules B. (Ed.). (1974). The world of the American Indian. Washington, DC: National Geographic Society. Blaeser, Kimberly. (1999). Centering words: Writing a sense of place. Wicazo Sa Review, 14 (2), 92-108. Blanchard, Rosemary Ann. (1993). Improving the effectiveness of Indian education in New Mexico. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 191-200). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department. Blanchard, Rosemary Ann. (1993). The Navajo Nation as an effective parent: Advocating for recognition of Navajo nationhood and culture in the educational environment of New Mexico and Arizona to develop a strong sense of self within Navajo children and youth. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 187-189). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department. Bohan, Chara Haeussler. (1993). Early vanguards of Progressive Education: The

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 140 Committee of Ten, the Committee of Seven, and Social Education. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 19 (1) 73-94. Bowman, Nicole R. (2003). Cultural differences of teaching and learning: A Native American perspective of participating in educational systems and organizations. American Indian Quarterly, 27 (1 & 2), 91-102. Brascoupe, Clayton. (1998). Listening to the natural world through traditional farming. Winds of Change, 13 (2), 24-33. Bringing learning together: A teacher and her students implement the Foxfire approach. Core practices in action. Active Leaner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 5 (2), 812. Brown, Mike. (2004). “Let’s go round the circle:” How verbal facilitation can function as a means of direct instruction. The Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (2), 161175. Brown, Tom, Jr. (1983). Tom Brown’s field guide to nature observation and tracking. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing. Brush, Stephen B. & Stabinsky, Doreen (Eds.). (1996). Valuing local knowledge: Indigenous People and intellectual property rights. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Burrows, Anita. (1995). The ecopsychology of child development. In Theodore Roszak, Mary E. Gomes, & Kanner, Allen D. Kanner (Eds.), Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. Butts, R. Freeman, & Cremin, Lawrence A., (1953). A history of education in American culture. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 141 Caduto, Michael J. & Bruchac, Joseph. (1989). Keepers of the earth: Native American stories and environmental activities for children. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. Caduto, Michael J. & Bruchac, Joseph. (1997). Keepers of the animals: Native American stories and wildlife activities for children. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. Caine, Renate Nummela, & Caine, Geoffrey. (1994). Making connections: Teaching and the human brain. Menlo Park, CA: Innovative Learning Publications. Cajete, Gregory. (1994). Look to the mountain: An ecology of Indigenous education. Skyland, NC: Kivaki Press, Inc. Cajete, Gregory (Ed.). (1999). A People’s ecology: Explorations in sustainable living. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers. Cajete, Gregory. (2000). Native science: Natural laws of interdependence. Santa Fe, NM: Clear Light Publishers. Cajete, Gregory A. (2005a). American Indian epistemologies. New Directions for Student Services, (109), 69-78. Cajete, Gregory. (2005b). Spirit of the game: An Indigenous wellspring. Skyland, NC: Kivaki Press, Inc. Campbell, Paul D. (1999). Survival skills of Native California. Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs, Smith, Publisher. Chee, Milton. (1993). Foundation of Navajo culture: An outdoor education course prepared for junior and senior high schools. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 191-200). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 142 Chopra, Deepak. (1992). Unconditional life: Discovering the power to fulfill your dreams. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Churchill, Ward & Vander Wall, Jim. (1990). Agents of repression: The FBI’s secret war against the Black Panther Party and the American Indian Movement. Boston, MA: South End Press. Clinebell, Howard. (1996). Ecotherapy: Healing ourselves, healing the earth. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press. Coleman, Michael C. (1996). The symbiotic embrace: American Indians, white educators and the school, 1820s-1920s. History of Education, 25 (1), 1-18. Collett, Jonathan, & Karakashian, Stephen. (1996). Greening the college curriculum: a guide to environmental teaching in the liberal arts. Washington, D.C.: Island Press. Collier, John. (1962). On the gleaming way: Navajos, Eastern Pueblos, Zunis, Hopis, Apaches, and their land and their meanings to the world. Denver, CO: Sage Books. Cook, Lynn. (1999). The 1944 Education Act and outdoor education: From policy too practice. History of Education, 28 (2), 157-172. Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth. (2000). How scholarship defames the native voice…and why. Wicazo Sa Review, 15 (2), 79-92. Culin, Stewart. (1992a). Games of the North American Indians, volume 1: Games of chance. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Culin, Stewart. (1992b). Games of the North American Indians, volume 2: Games of skill. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 143 Deloria, Philip J. (June 2002). Thinking about Self in a Family Way. Journal of American History, 89 (1), 25-29 . Deloria Jr., Vine. (1991). The reservation conditions. National Forum, 71(2) p1012. Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1994). God is red: A native view of religion. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Resources. Deloria, Vine, Jr. (1997). Red earth, white lies: Native Americans and the myth of scientific fact. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Publishing. Deloria, Vine, Jr. & Wildcat, Daniel. (2001). Power and place: Indian education in America. Golden, CO: Fulcrum Resources. Deyhle, Donna. (1998). From break dancing to heavy metal: Navajo youth, resistance, and identity. Youth & Society, 30 (1), 3-31. Drew, Naomi. (1987). Learning the skills of peacemaking: An activity guide for elementary-age children on communicating, cooperating, resolving conflict. Rolling Hills Estates, CA: Jalmar Press. Duran, Eduardo. (2000). Buddha in redface. New York, NY: Writers Club Press. Duran, Eduardo. (2006). Healing the soul wound: Counseling with American Indians and other Native Peoples. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University. Duran, Eduardo, & Duran, Bonnie. (1995). Native American postcolonial psychology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. Dykeman, Cass, Nelson, J. Ron, & Appleton, Valerie. (July 1995). Building strong working alliances with American Indian Families. Social Work in Education, 17 (3), 148-158.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 144 Dykhuizen, George. (1973). The life and mind of John Dewey. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. Easton, Lois Brown. (2002). The other side of curriculum: Lessons from learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Estes, Cheryl A. (2004). Promoting student-centered learning in experiential education. Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (2), 141-160. Farella, John R. (1996). The main stalk: A synthesis of Navajo philosophy. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. Faris, James C. (1993). Taking Navajo truths seriously. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 181-186). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department. Fenelon, James, Khoxayo, Phone, Kwiat, Judy A., & Rodriguiz, Brenda M. (1993). Counseling culturally and linguistically diverse students. Illinois Schools Journal, 72 (2), 15-32. Finch, Karen M. (1996). The K.E.Y. Group: An experiential personal-growth group manual. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Fixico, D.L. (1998). Ethics and responsibilities in writing American Indian history. In D. A. Mihesuah (Ed.), Natives and academics: Researching and writing about American Indians (pp. 84-99). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Fixico, Donald L. (2003). The American Indian mind in a linear world: American Indian studies and traditional knowledge. New York, NY: Routledge. Foster, Susan H., Singer, Gloria, Benally, Lucy, Boone, Theresa, & Beck, Ann. (1989).

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 145 Describing the language of Navajo children. Journal of Navajo Education, 7 (1), 13-17. Frank, Laurie S. (2001). The caring classroom: Using adventure to create community in the classroom and beyond. Madison, WI: GOAL Consulting. Frank, Laurie S. (2004). Journey toward the caring classroom. Oklahoma City, OK: Wood ‘N’ Barnes Publishing & Distribution. Frank, Laurie S., & Panico, Ambrose. (2000). Adventure education for the classroom community. Bloomington, IN: National Education Service. Fukuoka, Masanobu. (1987). The road back to nature: Regaining the paradise lost. Madras, Indian: Bookventure. Fukuoka, Masanobu. (2004). The one-straw revolution: An introduction to natural farming. Mapusa, Goa, India: Other India Press. Gaining entry to the community as learning laboratory: Starting small is the key. Active Learner: A Foxfire Journal for Teachers, 5 (1), 39-41. Gallagher, Brian Thomas. (June 5, 2000). Teaching (Native) America: Tribes face an uphill battle to blend culture with traditional coursework. The Nation, 270 (22), 36-38. Galloway, James M., Goldberg, Bruce W, & Alpert, Joseph S. (Eds.). (1999). Primary care of Native American patients: Diagnosis, therapy, and epidemiology. Boston, MA: Butterwork/Heinemann. Garrett, Michael Walking. (January 1995). Between two worlds: Cultural discontinuity in the dropout of Native American youth. School Counselor, 42 (3), p186-195. Gold, Peter. (1994). Navajo and Tibetan sacred wisdom: The circle of the spirit.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 146 Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, International. Goldenberg, Marni, McAvoy, Leo, & Klenosky, David B. (2005). Outcomes from the components of an Outward Bound experience. Journal of Experiential Education, 29 (2), 123-146. Graham, Thomas L. Crofoot, (March 2002). Using reasons for living to connect to American Indian healing traditions. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 29 (1), 55-75. Grassi, Elizabeth, Hanley, Daniel, & Liston, Daniel. (2004). Service-learning: An innovative approach for second language learners. The Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (1), 87-110. Griffin, Jimmy. (2003). The effects of an adventure based program with an explicit spiritual component on the spiritual growth of adolescents. The Journal of Experiential Education, 25 (3), 351. Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. (1988). Cosmological order as a model for Navajo philosophy. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 12 (4), 1-15. Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. (1995). Earth is my mother, sky is my father. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. (1997). “When I am lonely the mountains call me”: The impact of sacred geography on Navajo psychological well being. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research; Journal of the National Center, 7 (3), 110. Grinde, Donald A., Jr. (2004). Taking the Indian out of the Indian. Wicazo Sa Review, 2532.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 147 Gross, Lawrence W. (2003). Cultural sovereignty and Native American hermeneutics in the interpretation of the sacred stories of the Anishinaabe. Wicazo Sa Review, 18 (2), 127-134. Gulliford, Andrew. (2004) The Kokopelli conundrum: Lessons learned from teaching Native American students. American Studies International, 42 (2 & 3), 157-173. Hall, McClellan. (1991). Gadugi: A Model of Service-Learning for Native American Communities. Phi Delta Kappan, 72 (10), 754-57. Hall, McClellan. (1993). In our own language: Youth as servant leaders. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 1 (4), 27-29. Harjo, Suzan Shown. (2004). The American Indian Religious Freedom Act – Looking back and looking forward. Wicazo Sa Review, 19 (2), 143-151. Halverson, Kelly, Puig, Maria Elena, & Byers, Steven R. (2002). Culture loss: American Indian family disruption, urbanization, and the Indian Child Welfare Act. Child Welfare League of America, 81 (2), 319-336. Hammond, Helen, Dupoux, Errol, & Ingalls, Lawrence. (2004). Culturally relevant classroom management strategies for American Indian students. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 23 (4), 3-9. Harkin, Michael E. (2000). Sacred places, scarred spaces. Wicazo Sa Review, 15 (1), 49-70. Henderson, Eric, Kunitz, Stephen J., & Levy, Jerrold E. (1999). The origins of Navajo youth gangs. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 23 (3), 243-264. Henson, Kenneth T. (2003). Foundations for learner-centered education: A knowledge base. Education, 124 (1), 5-16.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 148 Hermes, Mary. (2000). The scientific method, Nintendo, and Eagle feathers: rethinking the meaning of “culture-based” curriculum at an Ojibwe tribal school. Qualitative Studies in Education, 13 (4), 387-400. Hill, Clarence M. & Pillsbury, Dorothy. (1956). Education without reservations. New Mexico State Board of Education, Report of the New Mexico Developmental Education Program. Hill, W.W. (1938). The agricultural and hunting methods of the Navaho Indians. Yale University Publications in Anthropology. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press (no. 18). Hovelynck, Johan (2003). Moving active learning forward. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (1), 1-7. Hughes, J. Donald. (1983). American Indian ecology. El Paso, TX: Texas Western Press. Hynd, George W., & Garcia, William I. (1979). Intellectual assessment of the Native American student. The School Psychology Digest, 8 (4), 446-454. Ide, John H. (2003). The failure of American Indian education: A clash of cultures. Pittsburgh, PA: RoseDog Books Irwin, Lee. (1994). Dreams, theory, and culture: The Plains vision quest paradigm. American Indian Quarterly, 18 (2), 229-245. Irwin, Lee (Ed.). (2000). Native American spirituality. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Iverson, Peter. (2003). Diné: A history of the Navajos. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Jakubowski, Lisa Marie. (2003). Beyond book learning: Cultivating the pedagogy of

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 149 experience through field trips. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (1), 2433. Jensen, Derrick. (July 2000). Where the buffalo go: How science ignores the living world, an interview with Vine Deloria. The Sun, 295, p 4-13. Jensen, Derrick. (March 2002). Thinking outside the classroom: An interview with Zenobia Barlow. The Sun, 315, 4-7. Jett, Stephen C., & Spencer, Virginia E. (1981). Navajo architecture: Forms, history, distributions. Tucson, Arizona: University of Arizona Press. Johnson, Andrew P. (2005). A short guide to action research (2nd edition). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Kim, Bryan S.K., & Lyons, Heather Z. (2003). Experiential activities and multicultural counseling competence training. Journal of Counseling & Development. 81 (4), 400-408. King, Alison. (1998). Transactive peer tutoring: Distributing cognition and metacognition. Educational Psychology Review, 10 (1), 57-74. King, John T. (2004). Service-learning as a site for critical pedagogy: A case of collaboration, caring, and defamiliarization across borders. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (3), 121-137. Kluckhohn, Clyde, & Leighton, Dorothea. (1962). The Navajo. Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc. Knapp, Clifford E. (2005). The “I-Thou” relationship, Place-Based Education, and Aldo Leopold”. Journal of Experiential Education, 29 (3), 277-285. Krafel, Paul. (1999). Seeing nature: Deliberate encounters with the visible world. White

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 150 River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing Company. Krech, Paul Rock. (March 2002). Envisioning a healthy future: A re-becoming of Native American men. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 29 (1), 77-95. La Cerva, Victor. (1996). Pathways to peace: Forty steps to a less violent America. Cordova, TN: Heal Foundation Press. LaFromboise, Teresa D. (1996). American Indian life skills development curriculum. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. Leighton, Alexander H. & Dorothea C. (1967). The Navaho door: An introduction to Navaho life (reissued). New York, NY: Russell and Russell. Lepman, Jella. (Ed.). (1975). How children see our world. New York, NY: Equinox Books. Lewis, Anne C. (1989). The Time for Youth Service Has Come. Phi Delta Kappan, 70 (8), 580-81. Lewton, Elizabeth L., & Bydone, Victoria. (2000). Identity and healing in three Navajo religious traditions: Sa’ah Naaghai Bik’eh Hozho. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 14 (4), 476-497. Lock, Raymond Friday. (1986). The book of the Navajo. Los Angeles, CA: Mankind Publishing Company. Lockard, Louise. (1999). Navajo language and culture in adult education. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 82, 67-78. Lomawaima, K. Tsianina. (1995). They called it prairie light: The story of Chilocco Indian School. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Luckner, John L., & Nadler, Reldan S. (1997). Processing the experience: Strategies to

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 151 enhance and generalize learning. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Lyon, William H. (2000). Americans and other aliens in the Navajo historical imagination in the nineteenth century. The American Indian Quarterly, 24 (1), 142-161. Maher, Michael J. (2003). Individual beliefs and cultural immersion in servicelearning: Examination of a reflection process. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (2), 88-96. Margolis, Eric, & Rowe, Jeremy. (March 2004). Images of assimilation: Photographs of Indian schools in Arizona. History of Education, 33 (2), 199-230. Marker, Michael. (2000). Review essay: Ethnohistory and Indigenous education: A moment of uncertainty. History of Education, 29 (1) 79-85. Martin, Andrew John (2001). Towards the next generation of Experiential Education programmes: A case study of Outward Bound (Doctoral dissertation, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand), retrieved April 20, 2006 from http://www.massey.ac.nz/~amartin/MartinAJ2001PhD.pdf. Matlock, Marci, & House, Deborah. (1989). A model of implementing the Diné philosophy of learning: Classroom implications. Journal of Navajo Education, 7 (1), 21-28. Matlock, Marci. (1995). Sa’2h Naagh17 Bik’eh H0sh00n: tapping into the power of words. Journal of Navajo Education, 12 (3), 19-24. Maxwell, James A. (Ed.). (1995). America’s fascinating Indian heritage. The first

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 152 Americans: Their customs, art, history, and how they lived. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest Association. Maxwell, Thomas P. (June 2003). Considering spirituality: Integral spirituality, deep science, and ecological awareness. Zygon, 38 (2), 257-276. McKenzie, Marcia. (2003). Beyond “the outward bound process:” Rethinking student learning. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (1), 8-23. McNeley, James K. (1994). The Pattern which connects Navajo and western knowledge. Journal of Navajo Education, 12 (1), 3-14. McNeley, James K. (1997). Holy wind in Navajo philosophy. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press. McNitt, Frank. (1990). Navajo wars: Military campaigns, slave raids, and reprisals. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. McPherson, Robert S. (1992). Sacred land sacred view: Navajo perceptions of the four corners region. Salt Lake City, UT: Brigham Young University. Mehl-Madrona, Lewis. (1998). Coyote medicine: Lessons from Native American healing. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. Mihesuah, Devon A. (1998a). American Indian identities: Issues of individual choices and development. American Indian Culture & Research Journal, 22 (2), 193-227. Mihesuah, Devon A., (Ed.). (1998b). Natives and academics: Researching and writing about American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Mihesuah, Devon A. (2003a). Activism and apathy: The price we pay for both. American Indian Quarterly, 27 (1 & 2), 325-332. Mihesuah, Devon A. (2003b). Basic empowering strategies for the classroom. American

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 153 Indian Quarterly, 27 (1 & 2), p. 459-478. Mihesuah, Devon A. (2005). So you want to write about American Indians?: A guide for writers, students, and scholars. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Mihesuah, Devon A., & Wilson, Angela Cavender. (2004). Indigenizing the academy: transforming scholarship and empowering communities. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Mills, Geoffrey E. (2003). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher (2nd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall. Mink, Andy, & O’Steen, Billy. (2003). Reaching beyond the choir: Taking experiential education down from the mountain and into the public school. The Journal of Experiential Education, 25 (3), 355. Mitchell, Rose, & Frisbie, Charlotte J. (Ed.). (2001). Tall Woman: the life story of Rose Mitchell, a Navajo woman, c. 1874-1977. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Molles, Manuel C., Jr. (2002). Ecology: Concepts and applications. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Moore, MariJo (Ed.). (2003). Genocide of the mind: New Native American writing. New York, NY: Thunder’s Mouth Press. Morey, Sylvester M., & Gilliam, Olivia L. (Eds.). (1974). Respect for life: The traditional upbringing of American Indian children. Freeport, NY: Walfdorf Press – Castlereagh Press, Inc. Moustaka, Clark. (1990). Heuristic research: Design, methodology, and applications. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 154 Nabhan, Gary Paul. (1997). Cultures of habitat: On nature, culture, and story. Washington, D.C.: Counterpoint. Nabokov, Peter, (Ed.). (1991). Native American testimony: A chronicle of Indian-White relations from prophecy to the present, 1492-1992. New York, NY: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1978). Nabokov, Peter, & Easton, Robert. (1989). Native American architecture. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Navajo Nation. (no date). A history of Navajo clans. Chinle, Arizona: Rough Rock Press. Nelson, Richard. (Sept/Oct 1993). Understanding Eskimo science. Audubon, (95) 5, p102 – 107. Olson, Margaret J. (January 2003). Counselor understanding of Native American spiritual loss. Counseling and Values, 47, 109-117. O’Sullivan, Edmund. (1999). Transformative learning: Educational vision for the 21st century. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press. Parzen, M. D. (November 2000). “Culturally appropriate” mental health care: wilderness therapy and Navajo youth. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Case Western Reserve University. Pazola, Ron. (February 1994). Sacred ground: What Native Americans believe. U.S. Catholic, 59 (2), 6-23. Perkins, John. (1994). The world is as you dream it: Shamanic teachings from the Amazon and Andes. Rochester, VT: Destiny Books. Perrone, Bobette, Stockel, Henrietta, & Krueger, Victoria. (1989). Medicine women, curanderas, and women doctors. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 155 Prechtel, Martín. (1999). Secret of the talking jaguar: Memoirs from the living heart of a Mayan village. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam. Prechtel, Martín. (2002). The disobedience of the daughter of the sun: Ecstasy and time. Cambridge, MA: Yellow Moon Press. Prucha, Francis Paul. (1986). The great father: The United States government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press. Quay, John. (2003). Experience and participation: Relating theories of learning. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (2), 105-116. Quinn, Daniel. (1995). Ishmael: An adventure of the mind and spirit. New York, New York: A Bantam/Turner Book. Quinn, Daniel. (1999). Beyond civilization: Humanity’s next great adventure. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press. Raiola, Ed. (2003). Communication and problem-solving in extended field-based outdoor adventure education courses. The Journal of Experiential Education, 26 (1), 5054. Reichard, Gladys A. (1990). Navaho religion: A study of symbolism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1950). Renner, Adam, Price, Linda, Keene, Kathryn, & Little, Sean. (2004). The social foundations classroom. Service learning, multicultural/antiracist education, and the social foundations of education: Weaving a cultural studies’ pedagogy and praxis in an accelerated teacher education program. Educational Studies, 35 (2), 137-157. Reyhner, Jon. (1996). Progressive Education and the “Indian New Deal”. Paper presented

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 156 at the Annual Meeting of the Nation Indian Education Association, Rapid City, SD, October 13, 1996. 1-9. Reyhner, Jon, Martin, Joseph, Lockard, Louise, & Gilbert, W. Sakiestewa (Eds.). (2001). Learn in beauty: Indigenous education for a new century. Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Rhodes, Robert W. (1989). Native American learning styles. Journal of Navajo Education, 7 (1), 33-41. Rhodes, Robert W. (1993). Measurements of Navajo and Hopi brain dominance and learning styles. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 219-232). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department. Roberts, Jay W. (2002). Beyond learning by doing: The brain compatible approach. The Journal of Experiential Education, 25 (2), 281-285. Roessel, Robert A., Jr. (1979). Navajo education, 1948-1978: Its progress and its problems. Rough Rock, AZ: Navajo Curriculum Center Rough Rock Demonstration School. Roessel, Ruth, (Ed.). (1973). Navajo stories of the long walk period. Tsaile, AZ: Navajo Community College Press. Rosenberg, Marshall B. (2001). Nonviolent communication: A language of compassion (fifth printing). Encinitas, CA: PuddleDancer Press. Rohnke, Karl. (1989). Cowstails and cobras II. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Rohnke, Karl, & Butler, Steve. (1995). Quicksilver: Adventure games, initiative

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 157 problems, trust activities and a guide to effective leadership. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Roszak, Theodore, Gomes, Mary E., & Kanner, Allen D. (Eds.). (1995). Ecopsychology: Restoring the earth, healing the mind. San Francisco, CA: Sierra Club Books. Rowe, Mary Budd. (1987). Wait time: Slowing down may be a way of speeding up. American Educator, 11 (1) 38-43/47. Running Wolf, Paulette, & Rickard, Julie A. (2003). Talking circles: A Native American approach to experiential learning. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31 (1), 39-43. Ruoff, A. LaVonne Brown. (1990). American Indian literatures: An introduction, bibliographic review, and selected bibliography. New York, NY: The Modern Language Association of America. Rybak, Christopher, Eastin, Carol Lakota, & Robbins, Irma. (2004). Native American healing practices and counseling. Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 43 (1), 25-32. Sandler, Linda, Vandegrift, Judith A., & VerBrugghen, Candace. (May 1995). From desert to garden: Reconnecting disconnected youth. Educational Leadership, 1416. Schoel, Jim, Prouty, Dick, & Radcliffe, Paul. (1998). Islands of healing: a guide to adventure based counseling. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure, Inc. Seidman, Mary, Sentkowski, Alan, Smith, Mary, & Lentz Bob. (1976). Teaching through adventure: A practical approach. Hamilton, MA: Project Adventure, Inc. Senese, Guy B. (1991). Self-determination and the social education of Native Americans.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 158 New York, NY: Praeger Publishers. Service-learning dipsticks: A project assessment tool. (2004). Youth Service California. Retrieved September 15, 2005, from http://www.yscal.org/resources/assets/dipsticks.pdf. Sibthorp, Jim, & Arthur-Banning, Skye. (2004). Developing life effectiveness through adventure education: The role of participant expectations, perceptions of empowerment, and learning relevance. The Journal of Experiential Education, 27 (1), 32-50. Silko, Leslie Marmon. (1986). Landscape, history, and the Pueblo imagination: from a high arid plateau in New Mexico. Antaeus, 57, 83-94. Simpson, Georgiana Kennedy. (2003). Navajo ceremonial baskets: Sacred symbols, sacred space. Summertown, TN: Native Voices. Simpson, Leanne R. (2004). Anticolonial strategies for recovery and maintenance of Indigenous knowledge. American Indian Quarterly, 28 (3 & 4), 373-384. Skye, Warren. (March 2002). E.L.D.E.R.S. Gathering for Native American Youth: Continuing Native American traditions and curbing substance abuse in Native American Youth. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 29 (1), 117-135. Smith, Gregory A. (2002). Place-based education: Learning to be where we are. Phi Delta Kappan, 83 (8), 584-594. Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. (2002). Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous Peoples. New York, NY: Zed Books, Ltd. Smith, M. K. (2001). Kurt Lewin: Groups, experiential learning and action research. In

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 159 The encyclopedia of information education. Retrieved April 5, 2006 from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-lewin.htm. Smith, M. K. (2005). David A. Kolb on experiential learning. In The encyclopedia of informal education. Retrieved November 14, 2005 from http://www.infed.org/b-explrn.htm. Stuczynski, Amy, Linik, Joyce Riha, Novick, Rebecca, Spraker, Jean, Tucci, Patti, & Ellis, Debbie. (August 2005). Tapestry of tales: Stories of self, family, and community provide rich fabric for learning. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Struthers, Roxanne. (2001). Conducting sacred research: An Indigenous experience. Wicazo Sa Review, 16 (1), 125-133. Swisher, Karen Gayton. (1996). Why Indian people should be the ones to write about Indian education. American Indian Quarterly, 20 (1), 83-90. Szasz, Margaret Connell. (1999). Education and the American Indian: The road to selfdetermination since 1928. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. Tharp, Roland G., Lewis, Hayes, Hilberg, Ruth, Bird, Carlotta, Epaloose, Gerogia, Dalton, Stephani, et al. (1999). Seven more mountains and a map: Overcoming obstacles to reform in Native American Schools. Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 4 (1), 5-25. Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J. (December 2002). Native American philosophies as examples of w/holistic relational (e)pistemologies. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED474264). Tinker, George E. (July 1992). Spirituality, Native American personhood, sovereignty

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 160 and solidarity. Ecumenical Review, 44 (3), 312-324. Tobais, Cynthia Ulrich. (1994). The way they learn: How to discover and teach to you child’s strengths. Colorado Springs, CO: Focus on the Family Publishing. Tohe, Laura. (2000). There is no word for feminism in my language. Wicazo Sa Review, 15 (2), 103-110. Tomal, Daniel R. (2005). Action research for educators. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education. Tromski, Donna, & Doston, Glenn. (January 2003). Interactive drama: A method for experiential multicultural training. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 31 (1), 52-62. Trumbull, Elsie, Rothstein-Fisch, Carrie, Greenfield, Patricia M., & Quiroz, Blanca. (2001). Bridging cultures between home and school: A guide for teachers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. Underhill, Ruth M. (1989). The Navajos. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press. Vansteenkiste, Maarten, & Kennon, Sheldon M. (2006). There’s nothing more practical than a good theory: Integrating motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45 (1), 63-82. Vicenti, Carey N., Long, Douglas, & Looking Horse, Arvol. (2004). Religious freedom and Native sovereignty – protecting Native religions through tribal, federal and state law. Wicazo Sa Review, 19 (2), 185-197. Vince, Alan. (1993). Oral tradition, literacy, and Navajo education. In J. Piper (Ed.), Papers from the third, fourth and sixth Navajo studies conferences (pp. 233-238). Window Rock, AZ: Navajo Nation Historic Preservation Department.

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 161 Waldram, James B. (Spring 1994). Aboriginal spirituality in corrections: A Canadian case study in religion and therapy. American Indian Quarterly, 18 (2), 197-214. Walker, Bryce & Maynard, Jill (Eds.). (1995). Through Indian eyes: The untold story of Native American Peoples. Pleasantville, NY: Reader’s Digest Association. Walker, Polly O. (2004). Decolonizing conflict resolution: Addressing the ontological violence of westernization. American Indian Quarterly, 28 (3 & 4), 527-549. Waller, Margaret A., Okamoto, Scott K., Miles, Bart W., & Hurdle, Donne E. (December 2003). Resiliency factors related to substance use/resistance: Perceptions of Native adolescents of the southwest. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 30 (4), 79-94. Ward, Harold (Ed.). (1999). Acting locally: concepts and models for service-learning in environmental studies. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education. Warren, Karen, Sakofs, Mitchell, & Hunt, Jasper S. Jr. (Eds.). (1995). The theory of Experiential Education: A collection of articles addressing the historical, philosophical, social, and psychological foundations of Experiential Education. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Weah, Wokie, Simmons, Verna Cornelia, & Hall, McClellan. (2000). Service-learning and multicultural/multiethnic perspectives: From diversity to equity. Phi Delta Kappan, 81 (9), 673-675. Weatherford, Jack. (1990). Indian givers: How the Indians of the Americas transformed the world. New York, NY: Fawcett Columbine. (Original work published 1988). Wilson, Angela Cavender. (1996a). American Indian history of non-Indian

Creating an Indigenous Experiential Learning Model 162 perceptions of American Indian history? American Indian Quarterly, 20 (1), 3-5. Wilson, Angela Cavender. (1996b). Grandmother to granddaughter: Generations of oral history. American Indian Quarterly, 20 (1) 7-13. Wilson, Waziyatawin Angela. (2004). Indigenous knowledge recovery is Indigenous empowerment. American Indian Quarterly, 28 (3 & 4), 359-372. Woodcock, Don B., & Alawiye, Osman. (2001). The antecedents of failure and emerging hope: American Indians & public higher education. Education, 121 (4), 810-820. Yu, Carla. (July 12, 1999). An orphan’s gratitude: One former Indian residential school student found the mission harsh, but won’t line up to sue. Alberta Report, p. 42. Zinn, Howard. (1999). A people’s history of the United States: 1942-present. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers. Zion, James W. (1998). The dynamics of Navajo peacemaking. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 14 (1), 58-74. Zolbrod, Paul G. (1991). Din4 bahane’: The Navajo creation story. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.

Suggest Documents