Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition

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Nutraceutical and Functional Scenario of Wheat Straw a




Imran Pasha , Farhan Saeed , Khalid Waqas , Faqir Muhammad Anjum & Muhammad Umair Arshad



National Institute of Food Science and Technology , University of Agriculture , Faisalabad , Pakistan Accepted author version posted online: 04 Sep 2012.Published online: 05 Dec 2012.

To cite this article: Imran Pasha , Farhan Saeed , Khalid Waqas , Faqir Muhammad Anjum & Muhammad Umair Arshad (2013) Nutraceutical and Functional Scenario of Wheat Straw, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53:3, 287-295, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.528080 To link to this article:

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Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 53:287–295 (2013) C Taylor and Francis Group, LLC Copyright  ISSN: 1040-8398 / 1549-7852 online DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2010.528080


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National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan

In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article. Keywords Wheat, wheat straw, policosanol, phytosterol, nutraceutical, phenolic acids

INTRODUCTION Plants are vital for human beings so as to assemble the essential requirements of nutrients. In the domain of nutrition, nemerous efforts were accomplished in the period of yore to ram the vitality and dietary regime linkages. Though, the extraction of bioactive components and their impact on human metabolism demands systematic research investigations to obtain persuasive and meticulous acquaintance for patrons (Roller et al., 2007; Lairon, 2009). Cereals are staple foods for human nutrition and their assimilation into a wide range of products is of enormous economic worth. The prime components of the grain are starch and proteins with non starch polysaccharides derived from the cell walls (Saulnier et al., 2007; Leon et al., 2010). These components have major effects on the usage of cereal grain (milling, baking, and animal feed) owing to their viscosity in aqueous solution. During processing, immense quantities of by-products are generated. Cereals, e.g., wheat, rice, maize Address correspondence to Farhan Saeed, Ph.D., Scholar National Institute of Food Science and Technology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. E-mail: [email protected]

(corn), oat, barley, and others like groundnut, soybean, and sugar cane, generate considerable amount of derivatives such as wheat straw, rice husk, cereal chaff, wheat husk, peanut hull, soybean hulls, hazelnut shells, sugar beet pulp, e-oiled soya, carbon from wood, and fallen leaf, etc. (Gupta et al., 2006, 2007; Han et al., 2008). These by-products constitute a major part of the total annual production of biomass residues and are crucial source of fuel, energy, animal feed, industrial raw material, and bioactive ingredients both for domestic as well as industrial purposes (Atchison, 1997; Tsang et al., 2007; Dang et al., 2009). Among cereals, wheat is a major part of most diets of the Pakistani populace and ubiquitous grain crop in consequence of its agronomic adaptability, ease of storage, nutritional goodness and the ability of its flour to produce various products. In agriculture, it imparts 13.1% to the value added and 2.8% in the gross domestic product (GDP). In agriculture, it imparts 13.1% to the value added and 2.8% in the GDP. Size of farming of wheat in world is 607 million metric tons (FAOSTAT, 2007), while in Pakistan, it is provisionally projected at 23.4 million tons which is increasing annually (GOP, 2009–10). During wheat processing, enormous quantity of wheat straw is produced as a by-product.


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Wheat straw consists of 60% of the crop. One hectare of wheat produces more than 4.8 tons of straw (Saha et al., 2005). Straw is the above-ground fractions (normally cut at a height of around 20 cm) after removal of the grain (Theander, 1985). In the United States, it is estimated that over 90 million metric tons wheat straw is produced per annum (FAO, 2003). Recently, wheat straw is used as livestock comforter or low-grade animal feed endowing with minimal return. At this time, only about 3.2% of the economic return on wheat is from straw (Hoskinson et al., 2001). Wheat straw is renewable, usually dispersed, accessible nearby, moldable, anisotropic, hydroscopic, eco-friendly, multipurpose, nonabrasive, permeable, viscoelastic, recyclable, burnable, and imprudent (Rowell and Spelter 2003). It is lignocellulosic materials including approximately 35–40% cellulose, 30–35% hemicellulose, and 10–15% lignin (Harper and Lynch, 1981; McKendry, 2002). Wheat straw also contains both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds which may be released or interfere during pulping and pretreatment of feedstock before hydrolysis of carbohydrate polymers to their monomeric sugars before microbial fermentation (Sun and Sun, 2001; Sun et al., 2003). Lipophilic extracts from wheat straw contains free fatty acids (25.8–48.4%), waxes (9.4–27.0%), sterols (4.1–8.0%), triglycerides (3.3–11.0%), sterol esters (2.6–5.1%), minor amounts of diglycerides (0.3–0.5%), and resin acid (0.5–3.1%) (Sun et al., 2003). Wheat straw is vital source of bioactive compounds for instance; policosanols (PC), phytosterols (PS), phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids (Sun and Sun, 2001; Irmak and Dunford, 2005). Recovery of these high value bioactive compounds during or before bioconversion of wheat straw to ethanol improves the feasibility of the conversion process (Dunford and Edwards, 2010). Wheat straw is valuable to build up composite products like sorbents, geotextiles, structural composites, filters, molded products, nonstructural composites, packaging and permutations with other resources (Rogers et al., 2007) (Table 1). Table 1

Biochemical composition of wheat straw


Content (%)



Hemicellulose Lignin Policosanols Phytosterols Phenolic Compounds (p-Coumaric acid, Ferulic acid) Triterpenoids Ash


Harper and Lynch (1981), McKendry (2002), Sun and Tomkinson (2000) 30–35 Harper and Lynch (1981), McKendry (2002), Sun and Tomkinson (2000) 10–15 Harper and Lynch (1981), McKendry (2002), Sun and Tomkinson (2000) 0.3 Irmak et al. (2005), Nurhan and Edwards (2010) 1.2 Irmak et al. (2005), Nurhan and Edwards (2010) 2.13 1.35 Galleti et al. (1988), Benoit et al. (2005), Kaparaju et al. (2009) Traces 5.9

Irmak et al. (2005), Nurhan and Edwards (2010) Sun and Tomkinson (2000),Nurhan and Edwards (2010)

BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS AND THEIR PERSPECTIVES Policosanol Currently, surplus 25 countries throughout the Caribbean and South America grant the approval of original PC as supplement for cholesterol-lowering drug. Genotype and environment has a major effect on PC content in wheat straw (Christopher et al., 2010; Dunford and Edwards, 2010). Wheat straw contains momentous amount of PC (137–274 mg/kg) (Irmak and Dunford, 2005; Dunford and Edwards, 2010). It is long chain aliphatic alcohol, consists of octacosanol (CH3 -CH2 (26)-CH2 OH), triacontanol and hexacosanol. Other alcohols, namely tetracosanol, heptacosanol, nonacosanol, dotriacontanol, and tetratriacontanol, are minor components (Arruzazabala et al., 2000). PC has immense nutraceutical value as it is persuasive antioxidants, endorse proper arterial endothelial cell function, restrain platelet aggregation and thrombosis, and act as effectual treatment for sporadic claudication. Clinical research shows that PC works as FDA-approved drugs in lowering cholesterol. Side effects are virtually nonexistent (Noa et al., 2001). PC educes cholesterol-lowering effects by inhibiting endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis via enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity. Although fibroblasts containing either 14C-acetate or 14C-mevalonate were nurtured with PC at amount of 0.5 µg/mL, 5.0 µg/mL, and 50 µg/mL, the incorporation of 14C from acetate into cholesterol was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (Menendez et al., 1994, 2001). Acetate and mevalonate are two biochemical intermediates found within the endogenous cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Acetate is transformed to mevalonate by 3hydroxy3-methyl-glutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase. It has been recommended that PC might reduce the synthesis of HMGCoA reductase or enhance its degradation (Menendez et al., 2001). Menendez et al. (2001) intended that PC diminishes the action of HMG-CoA reductase by disquieting the physicochemical attributes of definite cellular organelle membranes. PC alters their analogous acids into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and influences peroxisome (Hargrove et al., 2004) as peroxisome and ER hold the highest levels of HMG-CoA reductase (Olivier and Krisans, 2000). Moreover, dietary fatty acids affect HMG-CoA reductase activity by changing the membrane fluidity of cellular organelles (Davis and Poznansky, 1987). Even though proof has yet to be published that PC acids are incorporated into the membranes of the ER and peroxisome, devastate HMG-CoA reductase activity. Symptom of abnormal lipoprotein in plasma is the indication of hypercholesterolemia. Castano et al. (2002) observed the effects of PC supplementation on patients of hypercholesterolemia. PC holds ability to manage significant reduction in total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels ranging from 12.8 to 23% and 11.3 to 31.2%, respectively (Mas et al., 1999; Castano et al., 2001, 2003, 2005; Mirkin et al., 2001). The people, who opt to utilize PC for

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eradicating hypercholesterolemia, are educated to commence treatment at 5 mg/day. If unproductive, the therapy dose should be gradually augmented to an utmost of 20 mg/day (ThorneResearch, 2004). Cholesterol reductions are dose-dependent and persistent across a sort of population including postmenopausal women (Castano et al., 2001; Mirkin et al., 2001) and patient with coronary heart disease diabetes (Torres et al., 1995), hypertension (Castano et al., 2003) and multiple coronary risk factors (Mas et al., 1999). Intermittent Claudication is related with a significant increase in mortality owing to the continuation of underlying cardiac disease. Intermittent Claudication is a condition linked with peripheral vascular disease. Due to the narrowing of arteries and reduced blood flow, patients experience pain in the lower extremities during physical activity (Castano et al., 1999). PC supplementations endow with treatment for patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication via its defensive approach. Patients suffer from pain in the lower extremities during physical activity attributable to the tapering of arteries and reduced blood flow (Sun et al., 2003). Patients diagnosed with intermittent claudication in receipt of 20 mg/day of PC for 6 months are able to increase their walking distance before the onset of pain from 132.5 to 205.7 m (Dunford and Edwards, 2010). In another study, patients receiving PC treatment are able to increase the walking distance associated with the onset of intolerable pain such that the activity is stopped from 230 to 365 m (Castano et al., 1999). Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be controlled via PC supplements by improving risk factors associated with arteriosclerosis. First, the original PC supplement improves the functionality of the endothelial cells lining arterial walls. Malfunctioning or damaged endothelial cells cause the arterial wall to become irregular. This irregularity encourages the creation of blood clots and/or atherosclerotic plaques by endorsing inflammation, platelet aggregation and the release of clotting factors (Guyton and Hall, 1996; Elkind, 2006). Platelets perform a vital function in blood clot formation, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow and eventually a stroke or embolism. PC restrains platelet aggregation and may enhance the effect of other anticoagulant medications. PC combined with aspirin; boost up coagulation time in humans (Arruzazabala et al., 1997).

Phytosterol PS is plant-derived mixture structurally associated to mammalian cell-derived cholesterol that occupy as essential ingredient of plant cell membrane (Lichtenstein and Deckelbaum, 2002). Wheat straw contains 834–1,206 mg/kg PS (Irmak and Dunford, 2005). PS consists of campesterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and stigmastanol. β-Sitosterol is approximately 60–76% of the total PS (Award and Fink, 2000; Dunford and Edwards, 2010). PS has analogous structure to that of cholesterol with slight modification. PS are intricate to measure, usually requiring the vigilant selection of internal standards, isolations


and derivatizations for analysis (Plante et al., 2010). With the recent interest in the biological role of PS, a consistent analytical protocol for the measurement of content and purity in samples is required. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique with charged aerosol detection is easy to execute, has fine linearity and sensitivity to determine copious PS in plant extracts. PSs struggle with cholesterol for absorption in intestine thus reduce serum cholesterol levels. PSs are primarily solubilized in the intestine into a micelle form. These micelles interrelate with border cells and are converted into enterocytes. PSs are esterified within the enterocyte, assembled into chylomicrons and secreted into the lymphatics. They are excreted via the biliary system (Lichtenstein and Deckelbaum, 2002). PS is proficient in reducing the low-density lipoproteincholesterol level. Epidemiological and experimental research has proposed that PS gives safety from a variety of disorders which include common cancers like colon, prostate and breast cancer, in addition vascular and CVDs (Award and Fink, 2000; American Heart Association, 2006). CVD is a prime reason of fatalities and a key reason of disability. In Australia, current facts show that nearly 47,000 Australians have been died from CVD in 2007 (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2009). The major cause of CVD is atherosclerosis. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the foremost atherogenic constituent of plasma while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) acts as anti-atherogenic component. Epidemiological research has pointed toward an incessant linear association among LDL-C levels and coronary heart ailment proceedings (Zhang et al., 2003). Barzi et al. (2005) revealed that assimilating PS in the food might be a dexterous technique of lowering total and LDL-C levels. Daily PS utilization is conformist to be among 160–400 mg in varied populace (Ostlund et al., 2002). Offspring (other than those with family hypercholesterolaemia) and pregnant or lactating women do not entail PS fortified foodstuff as it is inappropriate to lower their cholesterol absorption (American Heart Association, 2006). Currently, PS are magnetizing a lot of attention and awareness as a vital element coupled with the aptitude to provide health benefits, both in foods and as isolated form (Dillard and German, 2000). The exploitation of PS and its hydrogenated forms in functional food formulations as a cholesterol lowering agent has now been well accepted by the consumers (Denke, 1995; Volpe et al., 2001).

Phenolic Compounds The processing of plants results in the production of residues as by-products that are affluent sources of bioactive compound including phenolic acids particularly (Kris-Etherton et al., 2002). In plants, Phenolic acids are derived metabolites that are imitative of the pentose phosphate, Shikimic acid and phenylpropanoid pathways (Randhir et al., 2004). These compounds posses an aromatic ring bearing one or more

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hydroxyl groups and their structures range from that of a simple phenolic molecule to that of a complex high-molecular weight polymer (Balasundram et al., 2006). Wheat straw contains various phenolic acids; some found in major quantity like p-coumaric acid (2.13 mg/g), and ferulic acid (1.35 mg/g) but some in minute quantity e.g., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin, syringic acid (Galleti et al., 1988; Benoit et al., 2005; Kaparaju et al., 2009). Phenolic acids derived from pretreatment of wheat straw are computed through GC equipped by FID. Compounds are first extracted from the liquid fraction at pH 2 by solid-phase extraction on polystyrene divinylbenzene polymer columns (Klinke et al., 2002). Phenolic acids reveal a wide range of physiological characteristics; for instance anti-allergenic, anti-thrombotic, antiartherogenic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective, and vasodilatory effects (Middleton et al., 2000; Puupponen-Pimia et al., 2002; Manach et al., 2005). Phenolic acids are major determinant of antioxidant potential of provisions (Parr and Bolwell, 2000), and is consequently a natural source of antioxidants. Complexity in the phenolic compounds profile has to be resolved to obtain the optimum antioxidant efficiency (Balasundram et al., 2006).

Triterpenoids Wheat straw comprises of aromatic hydrocarbons in measurable quantity. At a burning temperature (300◦ C), assorted biogenic pentacyclic aromatic triterpenoids are determined, while other aromatic compounds (e.g., 2-phenylnaphthalene) occur in minute quantity (Wiesenberg et al., 2009). Triterpenoids comprises of a large group of compounds having broad range of physical attributes and biological behavior with their nomenclature being well depicted (Mahato and Sen, 1997). Triterpenoids are cycloartane, cholestane, and both tetracyclic-derived structures in wheat straw. With regard to toxicity, the phytotoxic effects of triterpenoids in higher plants are not revealed. Merely two compounds, digitoxigenin and estrofantidin, are mentioned as having verified antimicrobial activity (Rice, 1984; Putnam, 1985). Macias et al. (1995) favored allelopathic properties for some oxidized triterpenoids owing to inhibitory activities at low concentrations. Triterpenoids demonstrate immense nutraceutical perspective as having antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities (Prachayasittikul et al., 2010). Currently, it is supposed that inhabitants suffer from androgen-mediated diseases frequently such as prostate cancer, acne, hirsutism, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenic alopecia (Wasser and Weis, 1999; Bartsch et al., 2002). Primarily, BPH is one of the most common disorders diagnosed in older men, and 40% in men 50–60 years of age and 90% in those having 80–90 years of age. The major prostatic androgen is dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is created via steroid hormone from its substrate testosterone (Russell and Wilson, 1994). Triterpenoids are considered as a valuable module in the treatment of BPH. They

Table 2 straw

Functional & nutraceutical effect of bioactive compounds of wheat

Bioactive compounds

Functional and nutraceutical role


Intermittent claudication, hypercholesterolemia, promoters of endothelial function, inhibitors of platelet aggregation and thrombosis Phytosterol Coronary heart disease, phytosterolemia, atherosclerosis Triterpenoids Benign prostatic hyperplasia Phenolic acids Reduce oxidation process

References Elkind (2006), Guyton and Hall (1996)

Berger et al. (2004), Katan et al. (2003), Bhattacharyya and Connor (1974) Liu et al. (2007) Gouni-Berthold and Berthold (2002)

reduce DHT levels by blocking its conversion from testosterone (Liu et al., 2007). At present time, no specific isolation method is available for triterpenoids because of less research work. The extraction procedure usually depends upon the material to be isolated, conditions and available information during extraction. The most generally used solvents are methanol mixtures, chloroform, acetone, dichloromethane, petroleum ether and ethanol. Usually a minute quantity of water (2–7%) is added if the material is dry because its presence enhances the yield of triterpenoids. Regarding the individual severance of tetracyclic triterpenoids, the most often used methods are adsorption CC (silica gel or alumina) or reversed phase (Sephadex LH 20), reverse phase or argentation thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. HPLC is the most conventional technique as it domino effect in lower losses, constructs fewer work of art and has a greater number of theoretical plates (higher resolution). Gas chromatography (GC) is generally used as an analytical technique to assess the purity of isolated compounds (Horace and Stephen, 1999), (Table 2).

Table 3 straw Sr. no. 1 a b c d e 2 3 4 5

Molecular weight and structure of bioactive components of wheat Bioactive components of wheat straw Phytosterols Ergosterol Stigmasterol Betasitosterol Campesterol Betasitostanol Policosanols Triterpenoids p-Coumeric acid Ferulic acid


Molecular weight

C 28 H 44 O C 29 H 48 O C 29 H 50 O C 28 H 48 O C 29 H 55 O C 28 H 58 O C 30 H 52 O C 9 H 8 O3 C 10 H 10 O4

396.63 412.67 414.69 400.66 416.71 410.76 424.07 164.047344 194.057909

References: Benoit et al. (2005), Petrucci et al. (2002), Arruzazabala et al. (2000), and Guyton and Hall (1996).


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Fibrous Ligno-Cellulosic Materials Cell wall of wheat straw typically consists of fibrous lignocellulosic material, which has some distinct characteristics (Sanadi, 2004; Maya and Thomas, 2008; Zhang, 2008). Fibrous lingo-cellulosic materials are categorized into cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose (pentosans) (Lawther et al. 1995; Sun et al., 1998). In wheat straw, cellulose and hemicellulose are the prime components, and are not directly available for bioconversion owing to their intimate association with lignin (Binder et al., 1980; Fengel and Wegener, 1989). Cellulose is one of the principal polymers due to its annual production and in its industrial purposes. It is a linear crystalline polymer of (1-4)-β-D-glucose (Focher et al., 2001). Inside wheat straw, cellulose is documented as cellulose I allomorph with low crystallinity and the crystallinity of cellulose from different parts of the wheat straw has minute difference. Cellulose chains in the epidermis of wheat straw is measured with their orientation along with the growth direction of wheat straw, while those in parenchyma is observed with almost no preferred orientation (Liu et al., 2005). There are two kinds of morphologies in the outer surface of wheat straw, a fiber structure consisting of fibrils with diameter about 5l m and one with a serration structure at the edge of the fiber. These serration structures connect the fibers together (Lu et al., 2004). Lignin is a highly complex amorphous polymer of phenyl propane with some variation in the chemistry of the basic building blocks between softwoods, hardwoods and agricultural plants. Lignin is non polysaccharidic in nature consisting of n-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol units linked by alkyl, aryl, and combination of both (Iranmahboob et al., 2002). In plants, lignin has key significance on different aspects, i.e., its function in plant development, involvement to mechanical strength and guard from degradation (Walker, 1975). Concerning nutritional worth, lignin has always been blamed as an important barrier to polysaccharide utilization. Lignin must be removed before extraction via hydrogen peroxide because it increases the purity of the yielded hemicellulose (Curling et al., 2005). Lignins are always associated with hemicellulose, not only in intimate physical mixture but also fixed to the latter by actual covalent bonds (Cooper et al., 1999). Most lignins contain some phenolic compound (P-coumaric and ferulic acids), which enhance its significance (Palmqvist and Hahn-Hagerdal, 2000). Hemicellulose (pentosan) is the second most ordinary polysaccharide available in nature (Saha, 2003). Hemicellulose differ from cellulose by having a composition of various sugar units (usually including L-arabinose, D-galactose, Dxylose, D-glucose, D-mannose, 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronic acid, D-glucuronic acid, and D-galacturonic acid), shorter molecular chains and by carrying side-groups, like acetate and methylate (Lundqvist et al., 2002). Enzymes and chemical reagents separate the hemicellulose fraction. Enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose is a promising method, which requires


no pretreatment, reagents and subsequent neutralization (Hagglund, 2002). The structural characteristics of hemicelluloses isolated from delignified wheat straw can be examined by GC, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) (Peng and Wu, 2010). Hemicellulose can be utilized to produce bioethanol, food industrial products, biopolymers, and other chemicals (biosurfactants, adhesives, pharmaceuticals) (Kalman and Reczey, 2007). Hemicellulose primarily classified into arabinoxylans (AX) and arabinogalactans (AG), with a linear xylan backbone and a high degree of branching with single arabinose side residues and, with a galactan backbone and a high degree of branching with arabinose side residues, respectively (Neukom and Markwalder, 1978). They execute an imperative role in end-use quality of cereal based products through their interaction with water and aptitude to cross link other arabinoxylans molecules and proteins (Finnie et al., 2006; Du et al., 2009). Functional properties of these compounds are strongly associated with their molecular weights and degrees of branching in baked products (Ebringerova et al., 1994; Sasaki et al., 2004; Autio, 2006; Revanappa et al., 2009). They revealed considerably higher water solubility that eventually leads to higher water absorption capacities, e.g., in wheat flour (Sasaki et al., 2007). They control different parameter in bread making including bread volume; crumb firmness, gas retention and baking absorption. The concentration of arabinoxylans, which enhance the loaf volume at utmost is dependent upon nature of flour used and molecular weight of arabinoxylans (Biliaderis et al., 1995; Delcour et al., 1999). Similarly, Wang et al., (2002) observed considerable reduction in the crumb firmness owing to addition of nonstarch polysaccharides thus consequential in improvement of bread texture. Nutraceutical worth of arabinoxylans include controlling diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, improving colon function (Lu et al., 2000; Nino-Medina et al., 2009), and usually improving body health (Lu et al., 2004). Improved glycaemic control is importance in people with diabetes mellitus and its complications, e.g., CVDs. Consumption of AX fiber is allied with considerable reduction in blood glucose, insulin concentrations, and fructosamine (Garcia et al., 2007). The method by which AX-rich fiber reduces blood glucose is so far mysterious (Lu et al., 2004); however, its high viscosity and soluble character might be possible rationalizations. Lu et al., (2000) and Zunft et al., (2004) also sustained the hypothesis of slow gastric emptying for reducing the glucose absorption from intestines. The nutraceutical prospective of arabinoxylans and arabinogalactans is of principal importance for health care specialists. Though, they have dissimilar mode of action and should be used selectively e.g. arabinoxylan for diabetes mellitus and arabinogalactan for enhancing immunity and fight against contagion. Furthermore, researcher concentration is immediately required to analyze their combinations and results of such studies for the meticulousness of the concerns.




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Bioethanol, Biohydrogen, and Biogas Production Recently, fossil fuels and energy shortage has provoked a novel curiosity in the utilization of agricultural wastes as feedstock and the production of bioactive chemicals. Wheat straw has demonstrated effectively for production of bioethanol biogas and biohydrogen in biorefinery to enhance the overall efficiency of biomass utilization (Fan et al., 2006; Linde et al., 2007). Biorefining originated value added products via fractionation of the biomass with chemical and biotechnological methods. The purpose of most researches in the field of lignocellulose utilization is the production of ethanol (Kalman and Reczey, 2007). Initially, wheat straw releases cellulose rich fiber fraction and hemicellulose rich liquid fraction by hydrothermal treatment. Enzymatic hydrolysis and consequent fermentation of cellulose produces 0.41 g-ethanol/g-glucose, whereas fermentation of hemicellulose produce 178.0 mL-H2 /g-sugars (Hjersted and Henson, 2006; Chu and Lee, 2007). Moreover, appraisal of wheat straw to biofuel production shows that either use of wheat straw for biogas production or multi-fuel production shows vigorously most proficient progressions contrasted to production of mono-fuel such as bioethanol. Hence, multiple biofuels production from wheat straw strengthens the effectiveness for material and energy and composes more efficient process for biomass consumption (Kaparaju et al., 2009). For economic and strategic reasons, several countries have already decided to produce ethanol fuel from biomass during the 20th century and more attention has been required to control environmental problems like the acceleration of the global warming caused by the anthropogenic emission and also the danger of running out of fossil fuels in the next few decades and find out the best renewable energy sources.

Removal of Dyes The traditional techniques of dye removal from industrial effluents include ion exchange, membrane technology, coagulation, oxidation or ozonation, flocculation, and adsorption (Chinwetkitvanich et al., 2000; Gholam et al., 2003; Lopez et al., 2004; Petzold et al., 2007) which are the most effective and commonly used for the treatment of dye wastewaters, however, these methods have relatively high price, high operating costs, and problems with regeneration of the used sorbents if applied at large scale. A number of findings have disclosed that some raw agricultural by-products have the potential of being used as substitute sorbent for the removal of dyes from wastewater which include sawdust bagasse pith (Mall et al., 2006), rice hull (Guo et al., 2005), peanut hull (Gong et al., 2005), barley husk (Robinson et al., 2002), leaf (Bhattacharyya and Sarma, 2003), and other agricultural wastes (Robinson et al., 2002; Gong et al., 2005). Generally, sorption capacity of raw agricultural by-products is very low and various chemical mod-

ifications are used to improve the sorption capacity of crude agricultural byproducts (Girek et al., 2005; Gong et al., 2005; Petzold et al., 2007). Among them, wheat straw has achieved more importance due to low cost, renewable, locally available material. Modified wheat straw is prepared by the reaction of wheat straw (WS) with epichlorohydrin and trimethylamine in the presence of ethylenediamine and N,N-dimethylformamide for the removal of Acid Red 73 and Reactive Red 24 (Orlando et al., 2002), which show significant results. Previous discovery showed that modification of wheat straw is capable of removing both phosphate and nitrate (Wang et al., 2007; Xu et al., 2009).

CONCLUSION The vitality commending eventual of functional foods has endorsed to prosperous bioactive components. These components are crucial for appropriate physiological functionality of whole body organs. Among these components, wheat straw holds potential to act as both functional as well as nutraceutical foods. It is also used as venerable source of bioactive compounds such as PCs, PSs, phenolic compounds, and triterpenoids. PC is powerful antioxidants, promote proper arterial endothelial cell function, inhibit platelet aggregation and thrombosis, and serve as effective treatments for intermittent claudication. CVDs can be controlled via PC supplements by improving risk factors associated with arteriosclerosis. PS is efficient in lowering lowdensity lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. Phenolic compounds having higher antioxidant activity are used to increase the shelflife of various food products. Wheat straw is an important source of fuel, energy, animal feed, industrial raw material and bioactive ingredients both for domestic as well as industrial purposes. It also has role in developing composite products like geotextiles, filters, sorbents, structural composites, nonstructural composites, molded products, packaging and combinations with other materials. Moreover, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully for production of bioethanol biogas and biohydrogen in biorefinery to enhance the overall proficiency of biomass relevance.

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