DEBRIS-FLOW HAZARDS MITIGATION

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Zhicheng Kang, Vice-Chairman. Institute of Mountain ... Yaoru Lu. Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing. Yafeng Shi. Cold and Arid Regions ...

DEBRIS-FLOW HAZARDS MITIGATION: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment

DEBRIS-FLOW HAZARDS MITIGATION: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment

Edited by Cheng-lung Chen Consulting Hydrologist, Cupertino, California, USA Jon J. Major U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, USA

Millpress Science Publishers, Rotterdam, Netherlands

Disclaimer: While all care is taken to ensure the accuracy and correctness of the information contained in this publication, Millpress Science Publishers and the editors shall not be liable for any damage to property or persons arising from the use of the information contained herein. Published and distributed by Millpress Science Publishers, P.O. Box 84118, 3009 CC Rotterdam, Netherlands, T. +31 (0) 10 421 26 97; F. +31 (0) 10 209 45 27; www.millpress.com ISBN: 978 90 5966 059 5 ©2007 Millpress Rotterdam All rights reserved. The publication may not be reproduced in the whole or in part, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without permission from the publisher, Millpress Science Publishers. [email protected] viii

Preface The Fourth International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards Mitigation: Mechanics, Prediction, and Assessment was held in Chengdu, China, September 10-13, 2007. The major objectives of the Conference were to provide a forum for debris-flow researchers in the international community to exchange ideas on how to cope with debris-flow hazards using the most advanced, state-of-the-art methodology, and to promote technology transfer from debris-flow mechanics to hazard prediction and risk assessment. The Conference also assisted knowledge transfer from scientists to engineers and administrative authorities, or vice versa, dealing with debris-flow hazards assessment and risk management. The Proceedings contains 71 peer-reviewed papers, which cover a variety of topics, ranging from factors and mechanisms triggering debris flows to hazards assessment and risk management. These papers were written by authors from Asia, Oceania, India, Europe, South America, and North America, and all were presented in oral sessions of the technical program in the Conference. The conference sessions were preceded by a field trip to Jiuzhaigou Valley, northern Sichuan Province to examine debris-flow mitigation measures and followed by another field trip to learn about debris-flow research at the renowned Dongchuan Debris Flow Observation and Research Station in Jiangjiagou Gully, northern Yunnan Province. All the papers in the Proceedings have undergone peer review. In the first round of the review process, each of the submitted manuscripts was sent to at least two reviewers who took time reviewing and evaluating the assigned manuscripts. All manuscripts that received at least two positive reviews were accepted for inclusion in the Proceedings. For those manuscripts that received conflicting reviews, each Editor scrutinized the quality and content of the manuscripts and the issues raised in the reviews. After scrutiny by both Editors, such manuscripts, if appraised to be technically acceptable, were further overhauled by authors in a second round of reviews. After required revisions, all accepted manuscripts were appropriately, if not thoroughly, edited for inclusion in the Proceedings and presented at the Conference. Considerable time and efforts were spent by the reviewers to conduct the peer review of all manuscripts submitted before the Conference. We acknowledge the important assistance of the reviewers, whose names and affiliations are given on the following pages. The success of the Conference is reflected by the large number of high-quality contributions in the Proceedings. Special thanks are due to the members of the International Organizing Committee who substantially assisted in the review process of the submitted abstracts and later the submitted manuscripts. The Editors: Cheng-lung Chen Consulting Hydrologist, Cupertino, California, USA Jon J. Major U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, Washington, USA

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Organizing and advisory committees International organizing committee Cheng-lung Chen, Chairman Peng Cui Timothy R.H. Davies Richard M. Iverson Dieter Rickenmann Gerald F. Wieczorek

Consulting Hydrologist, Cupertino, California, USA Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu, China University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand U.S. Geological Survey, Vancouver, Washington, USA University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria; and Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf, Switzerland U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, California, USA

Local organizing committee Executive Subcommittee Jiayang Li, Honorary Chairman Peng Cui, Chairman Genwei Cheng, Vice-Chairman Zhicheng Kang, Vice-Chairman Shuyou Cao Wenhong Cao Kam-tim Chau Jin Chen Ningsheng Chen Su-Chin Chen Renguo Feng Xudong Fu Chyan-Deng Jan Runqiu Huang Shangfu Kuang Ko-Fei Liu Xilin Liu Jinren Ni Guoqiang Ou Changqing Song Huiming Tang Tingshan Tian Guangqian Wang Zhaoyin Wang Fangqiang Wei Jianchu Xu Lingkan Yao Guoyou Zhang Zhichang Zhou

Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Sichuan University, Chengdu China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute, Wuhan Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Chung Hsing University, Taichung Bureau of Science and Technology for Resources and Environment, Beijing Tsinghua University, Beijing Cheng Kung University, Tainan Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing Taiwan University, Taipei Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Peking University, Beijing Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing China University of Geosciences, Wuhan China Institute of Geo-Environmental Monitoring, Beijing Tsinghua University, Beijing Tsinghua University; and International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation, Beijing Dongchuan Debris Flow Observation and Research Station, Kunming International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Nepal; and Institute of Botany, Kunming Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu Geographical Society of China, Beijing Sichuan Association for Science and Technology, Chengdu vii

Advisory Subcommittee Baojun Liu, Chairman Chack Fan Lee, Co-Chairman Steve Zou, Conference Adviser Bojie Fu Junwei Guan Dingcheng Huang Guangrun Liu Yaoru Lu Yafeng Shi Sijing Wang Heping Xie Du Zheng

Chengdu Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, Chengdu University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Dalhousie University, Canada; and Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chengdu Bureau of Science and Technology for Resources and Environment, Beijing Beijing Forestry University, Beijing Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Lanzhou Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing Sichuan University, Chengdu Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing

International advisory committee Christophe Ancey Massimo Arattano Aronne Armanini Gian Reto Bezzola Jeffrey B. Bradley Susan H. Cannon Paul A. Carling Kam-tim Chau Su-Chin Chen John E. Costa Andrea M. Deganutti William E. Dietrich Shinji Egashira Stephen D. Ellen Peter Ergenzinger Jen-Chen Fan Francesco Fiorillo Gernot Fiebiger Luca Franzi Reinaldo Garcia-Martinez Rinaldo Genevois Fausto Guzzetti Douglas L. Hamilton Haruyuki Hashimoto Johannes Huebl Oldrich Hungr Kolumban Hutter Matthias Jakob Chyan-Deng Jan Robert D. Jarrett James T. Jenkins viii

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland CNR-IRPI, Italy University of Trento, Italy Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland West Consultants Inc., USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA Southampton University, UK Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China National Chung Hsing University, Chinese Taipei U.S. Geological Survey, USA CNR-IRPI, Italy University of California at Berkeley, USA NEWJEC, Inc. Japan U.S. Geological Survey, USA Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei University of Sannio, Italy Fiebiger Consulting, Austria Soil Defense Department, Italy Florida International University, USA University of Padova, Italy CNR-IRPI, Italy Exponent, Inc., USA Kyushu University, Japan University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Austria University of British Columbia, Canada Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology & Glaciology at ETHZ, Switzerland BGC Engineering Inc., Canada National Cheng Kung University, Chinese Taipei U.S. Geological Survey, USA Cornell University, USA

Arvid M. Johnson Pierre Y. Julien Zhicheng Kang Jeffrey R. Keaton Hans Kienholz Sree Kumar Dominique Laigle Alberto Lamberti Chack Fan Lee Ko-Fei Liu Jose L. Lopez Jon J. Major Mauri J. McSaveney Chiang C. Mei Takahisa Mizuyama Jinren Ni Jim S. O’Brien Veniamin F. Perov Mark E. Reid Stuart B. Savage Kevin M. Scott Irina Seynova Hsieh Wen Shen Nicholas Sitar Hiroshi Suwa Tamotsu Takahashi Douglas VanDine Zhaohui Wan Guangqian Wang Zhaoyin Wang Robert H. Webb H. Wolfgang Weinmeister Ellen Wohl Roza Yafyazova Markus Zimmermann Dimitry Znamensky

Purdue University, USA Colorado State University, USA Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, China MACTEC Engineering and Consulting, Inc., USA University of Berne, Switzerland Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, USA CEMAGREF, France University of Bologna, Italy University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei University of Central Venezuela, Venezuela U.S. Geological Survey, USA Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences, Ltd., New Zealand Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Kyoto University, Japan Peking University, China Tetra Tech, USA Moscow State University, Russia U.S. Geological Survey, USA McGill University, Canada U.S. Geological Survey, USA Moscow State University, Russia University of California at Berkeley, USA University of California at Berkeley, USA Kyoto University, Japan Kyoto University, Japan VanDine Geological Engineering, Canada Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, China Tsinghua University, China Tsinghua University; and International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation, China U.S. Geological Survey, USA University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Austria Colorado State University, USA Kazakh Research Institute for Ecology and Climate (KazNIIEK), Kazakhstan NDR Consulting Zimmermann, Switzerland University of Brasilia, Brazil

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Reviewers The editors would like to thank the following persons who peer-reviewed manuscripts submitted to this Conference: Christophe Ancey James Bathurst Rex Baum Matteo Berti Gian Reto Bezzola Susan H. Cannon Paul A. Carling Jinn-Chyi Chen Rong-Her Chen Tien-Chien Chen Hsien-Ter Chou Jeffrey Coe Philippe Coussot Vincenzo d’Agostino Timothy R.H. Davies Andrea M. Deganutti Roger Denlinger Alexander L. Densmore Jen-Chen Fan Gernot Fiebiger Francesco Fiorillo Trey Flowers Luca Franzi Reinaldo Garcia-Martinez Rinaldo Genevois Jonathan Godt Paula L. Gori Carlo Gregoretti Fausto Guzzetti Douglas L. Hamilton Haruyuki Hashimoto Bernard Hubbard Johannes Huebl Oldrich Hungr Kolumban Hutter Richard M. Iverson Matthias Jakob Chyan-Deng Jan James T. Jenkins Hans Kienholz Dominique Laigle Alberto Lamberti Matthew Larsen Meei-Ling Lin

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK U.S. Geological Survey, USA University of Bologna, Italy Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland U.S. Geological Survey, USA Southampton University, UK Huafan University, Chinese Taipei National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei National Pingtung University of Science & Technology, Chinese Taipei National Central University, Chinese Taipei U.S. Geological Survey, USA LMSGC, France University of Padova, Italy University of Canterbury, New Zealand CNR-IRPI, Italy U.S. Geological Survey, USA Durham University, UK National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei Fiebiger Consulting, Austria University of Sannio, Italy Exponent, Inc., USA Soil Defense Department, Italy Florida International University, USA University of Padova, Italy U.S. Geological Survey, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA University of Padova, Italy CNR-IRPI, Italy Exponent, Inc., USA Kyushu University, Japan U.S. Geological Survey, USA University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Austria University of British Columbia, Canada Laboratory of Hydraulics, Hydrology & Glaciology at ETHZ, Switzerland U.S. Geological Survey, USA BGC Engineering Inc., Canada National Cheng Kung University, Chinese Taipei Cornell University, USA University of Berne, Switzerland CEMAGREF, France University of Bologna, Italy U.S. Geological Survey, USA National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei xi

Ko-Fei Liu Xilin Liu Jose L. Lopez Christopher Magirl Verne Manville Lorenzo Marchi Elizabeth L. Mathieson Mauri J. McSaveney Chiang C. Mei Takahisa Mizuyama Jim S. O’Brien Thomas C. Pierson Mark E. Reid Dieter Rickenmann Paul Santi Stuart B. Savage Steve P. Schilling Kevin Schmidt Bill Schulz Kevin M. Scott Phillip Shaller Hayley H. Shen Hung Tao Shen Chjeng-Lun Shieh Pravi Shrestha Henk van Steijn Markus Stoffel Hiroshi Suwa Frederick J. Swanson Guillermo Q. Tabios III Tamotsu Takahashi Douglas VanDine Joseph S. Walder Zhaoyin Wang H. Wolfgang Weinmeister Gerald F. Wieczorek Ellen Wohl Roza Yafyazova Dimitry Znamensky

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National Taiwan University, Chinese Taipei Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, China University of Central Venezuela, Venezuela U.S. Geological Survey, USA Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences, Ltd., New Zealand CNR-IRPI, Italy Exponent, Inc., USA Institute of Geological & Nuclear Sciences, Ltd., New Zealand Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA Kyoto University, Japan Tetra Tech, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Austria Colorado School of Mines, USA McGill University, Canada U.S. Geological Survey, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA U.S. Geological Survey, USA Exponent, Inc., USA Clarkson University, USA Clarkson University, USA National Cheng Kung University, Chinese Taipei Exponent, Inc., USA University of Utrecht, Netherlands University of Fribourg, Switzerland Kyoto University, Japan U.S. Forest Service, USA University of the Philippines, Philippines Kyoto University, Japan VanDine Geological Engineering, Canada U.S. Geological Survey, USA Tsinghua University; and International Research and Training Center on Erosion and Sedimentation, China University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences, Austria U.S. Geological Survey, USA Colorado State University, USA Kazakh Research Institute for Ecology and Climate (KazNIIEK), Kazakhstan University of Brasilia, Brazil

Sponsors Sponsored internationally by: American Geophysical Union Association of Engineering Geologists Environmental & Water Resources Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers Geo-Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers Geological Society of America International Association of Hydraulic Engineering & Research International Association of Hydrological Sciences International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development International Consortium on Landslides International Erosion Control Association International Union of Forest Research Organizations Japan Landslide Society Japan Society of Erosion Control Engineering U.S. Geological Survey

and locally by: Chengdu University of Technology China Institute of Geo-Environmental Monitoring China Society on Tibetan Plateau China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research China University of Geosciences Chinese Society of Water and Soil Conservation Dongchuan Debris Flow Observation and Research Station Geographical Society of China Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment Peking University Sichuan Association for Science and Technology Sichuan University Southwest Jiaotong University The Hong Kong Polytechnic University The University of Hong Kong Tsinghua University Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute

Financially supported by: Chinese Academy of Sciences Chinese Government of Sichuan Province National Natural Science Foundation of China

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Table of contents

Preface

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Organizing and advisory committees

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Reviewers

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Sponsors

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Terrestrial and meteorological factors triggering debris flows Relationships between antecedent rainfall and debris flows in Jiangjia Ravine, China P. Cui, Y.Y. Zhu, J. Chen, Y.S. Han & H.J. Liu

3

Rainfall threshold for the initiation of debris flows by channel-bed failure in the Dolomites C. Gregoretti & G. Dalla Fontana

11

Uncertainty features of weather radar rainfall D. Han & I. Cluckie

23

Factors of debris flow origination in the south-west area of Lake Baikal (Russia) V.K. Laperdin

31

Vegetation patterns and the prediction of debris flow G. Li & D. Clarke

35

Analysis of capillary barrier effects in the activation of debris avalanches in pyroclastic cover, Campania (Southern Italy) D. Mancarella & V. Simeone

45

Thirty-one years of debris-flow observation and monitoring near La Honda, California, USA G.F. Wieczorek, R.C. Wilson, S.D. Ellen, M.E. Reid & A.S. Jayko

55

Geomorphic effects of debris flows Effect of debris flow activity on the landscapes of the Greater Caucasus M.N. Petrushina

67

Processes of debris flow formation and the dynamics of glaciers in the Central Caucasus I.B. Seinova, T.L. Sidorova & S.S. Chernomorets

77

Debris cones as a source of information on debris-flow activity R.K. Yafyazova

87 xv

Mechanics of debris flows Rheology of debris flows Debris flow rheology assessment through mathematical simulation of hydrograph deformation M. Arattano & L. Franzi Experimental study on the thixotropy of viscous debris flows B. Tian & Y.Y. Wang

99 111

Fluvial mechanisms in debris flow Sediment sorting in stony debris flow Y. Satofuka, T. Iio & T. Mizuyama

121

A preliminary study on energy dissipating mechanism for viscous debris flow A.P. Shu, X.J. Fei & Y. Feng

131

Erosion and deposition processes in debris flow Normal stresses, longitudinal profiles, and bedrock surface erosion by debris flows—Initial findings from a large, vertically rotating drum L. Hsu, W.E. Dietrich & L.S. Sklar

141

Influence of debris flow discharge on equilibrium bed slope T. Itoh & S. Egashira

151

Hydrological and sedimentary processes related to a high intensity debris-flow catchment in the Dolomites (Italian Alps) A. Moscariello & A.M. Deganutti

165

Numerical modelling of debris flows Numerical modelling of two debris flows in the Dolomites (Northeastern Italian Alps) P.R. Tecca, R. Genevois, A.M. Deganutti & M.C. Armento

179

A 2D finite-element debris-flow model based on the Cross rheology formulation C. Martinez, F. Miralles-Wilhem & R. Garcia-Martinez

189

A numerical model for heterogeneous and confined debris flows M.N. Papa & R. Martino

197

Two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flows using GIS C.X. Wang, T. Esaki, Y. Mitani & J. Andou

209

Debris-flow experiments Laboratory investigation of dam-break flow of a mixture of water and granular matter D. Berzi & E. Larcan

223

Geotechnical centrifuge modelling of debris flows E.T. Bowman, B. Imre, J. Laue & S.M. Springman

229

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Experimental and numerical comparison of the density current movement induced by instantaneous inflow on steep slope S.C. Chen, H.Y. Wu & S.H. Peng

241

Experimental study on the parameters that cause river-blocking by debris flow Z.X. Guo, E. Huang, X.N. Liu & D. Fang

251

Experimental analysis of the seepage failure of a sand slope M.Y.F. Huang, H. Capart, R.H. Chen & A.Y.L. Huang

259

Flow of different material mixtures in a rotating drum R. Kaitna & D. Rickenmann

269

Experimental investigations of interaction between mudflow and an obstacle D. Tiberghien, D. Laigle, M. Naaim, E. Thibert & F. Ousset

281

Dynamic response of buildings struck by debris flows Y. Zhang, F.Q. Wei & Q. Wang

293

Experiment and analysis of slope failure of debris-flow fans Y.Y. Zhu & P. Cui

305

Landslide-induced debris flows The prediction of shallow landslide location and size using a multidimensional landslide analysis in a digital terrain model W.E. Dietrich, J. McKean, D. Bellugi & T. Perron

319

Hydrological conditions leading to shallow landslides in the Sannio area (Southern Italy) F. Fiorillo & F.M. Guadagno

331

Two catastrophic debris avalanches triggered by rainstorms in Japan and Philippines H. Suwa & S. Nakaya

341

Simulation of landslide-induced debris flow—The Atsumari debris flow disaster in Minamata City, Japan H. Takaoka, H. Hashimoto & M. Hikida

353

A flowslide during the 2003 Sanriku-Minami earthquake, Japan G.H. Wang, K. Sassa & H. Fukuoka

365

Assessment of debris-flow hazards and risk Assessment and modelling of debris flows in the El Niño affected area of Matucana, Peru L. Fidel, M. Vilchez, J. Zegarra, L.F. Castillo-Navarro, L.E. Jackson Jr., M. Jaramillo & R. Garcia-Martinez

377

Debris-flow hazard assessment related to geomorphological and geological setting and to shallowlandslide occurrence D. Fontan & D. Murgese

389

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Study on methodology and application of debris-flow hazard risk assessment Y.S. Han, P. Cui, H.J. Liu, Y.G. Ge, F.H. Su & R.Z. Tan

399

Comparison of different techniques to analyse the mobility of debris flows during hazard assessment— 411 Case study in La Comella catchment, Andorra M. Hürlimann, V. Medina, A. Bateman, R. Copons & J. Altimir Direct damage assessment for debris flows H.C. Li & K.F. Liu

423

Risk assessment of debris flow hazards based on GIS—A case study in Dongchuan district, Yunnan Province, China H.J. Liu, Y.S. Han, F.Q. Wei, Y.G. Ge, R.Z. Tan & G.R. Zhou

433

A digital watershed hydrological model and its use in slopeland hazard evaluation J.H. Liu & G.Q. Wang

443

Dissemination of information on debris flow hazard areas using GIS technology T. Mori, H. Tanaka, J. Kurihara, K. Mori & N. Tsuzuki

455

Medium (1:200,000) scale maps and cadastre of Northern Caucasus debris-flow basins V.F. Perov, O.I. Budarina, N.L. Belaya & P.V. Grebennikov

463

A method for delineating restricted hazard areas due to debris flows K. Takanashi, T. Mizuyama & Y. Nakano

471

GIS-based prediction of debris flows and landslides in southwestern China F.Q. Wei, K.C. Gao, Y.H. Jiang, S.W. Jia, P. Cui, J. Xu, G.P. Zhang & B.G. Bi

479

Comprehensive assessment on landslides and debris flows in Sichuan Province based on GIS and RS B.L. Zhang, S.M. Zhang & W.C. Zhou

491

Debris flows in the Beijing Mountains—Patterns of development and prediction of regional risk C.M. Zhang, N.Q. Shen, L.H. Qi & J.J. Wei

501

A very short-range forecast system of regional debris flow based on Doppler weather radar J.H. Zhang, F.Q. Wei, B. Deng, W.Q. Zeng & L.K. Gu

507

Risk assessment for debris flow by support vector machine H.B. Zhao & Z.L. Ru

515

Field observations and measurements of debris flows Empirical relationships for deposited length of debris-flows—A case study in Taiwan J.C. Chen, S.D. Chang, Y.C. Tsang & C.L. Shieh

525

Planar velocity distribution of viscous debris flow at Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan, China—A field measurement with two radar velocimeters X.D. Fu, G.Q. Wang, Z.C. Kang & X.J. Fei

531

Laser scanning technique for the acquisition of digital elevation models of debris flow material A.Y.L. Huang, H. Capart, R.H. Chen & M.Y.F. Huang

539

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Debris-flow monitoring and alert systems Debris flow detection using image processing techniques S.Y. Chang & C.P. Lin

549

Propagation characteristics of ground vibrations produced by rock motions C.Y. Chen, C.J. Huang & H.Y. Yin

561

Calibration of infrasound monitoring system and acoustic characteristics of debris-flow movement by field studies H.T. Chou, Y.L. Cheung & S.C. Zhang

571

A laboratory study on ion concentration, electrical conductivity of seepage water and mass movement occurrence J.C. Fan, C.H. Liu, C.H. Yang, P.S. Lin & H.Y. Huang

581

Warning system for debris flow hazards at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan M. Hikida, M. Moriyama & Y. Nagai

593

Study on method of setting threshold of ground vibration sensor for detecting debris flow J. Kurihara, N. Takezawa, T. Yamakoshi & T. Yanagimachi

603

Detecting groundwater level in shallow unconfined aquifer with microwaves for use in debris flow warning K.F. Liu, Y.H. Wu & M.C. Huang

613

Monitoring ground vibrations generated by debris flows H.Y. Yin, C.J. Huang, C.Y. Chen, C.H. Yeh, B.J. Lee, Y.M. Fang & Y.H. Chang

625

Structural and non-structural debris-flow countermeasures Integrated planning of debris-flow countermeasures in Taipei County, northwestern Taiwan M.C. Huang & S.H. Chang

637

An experimental study of the impact force of debris flows on slit dams P.S. Lin, J.Y. Lin, K.F. Chan & W.H. Chou

647

Control of sediment run-off volume through close type check dams R. Osti, T. Itoh & S. Egashira

659

The Maschänserrüfe project—A system of debris flow discharge and volume control M. Schatzmann, C. Tognacca, G.R. Bezzola & A. Bischoff

669

Field measurements used for numerical modelling of flexible debris flow barriers C. Wendeler, A. Volkwein, A. Roth, M. Denk & S. Wartmann

681

Case studies of debris-flow hazards and mitigation countermeasures Glacier and debris flow disasters around Mt. Kazbek, Russia/Georgia S.S. Chernomorets, O.V. Tutubalina, I.B. Seinova, D.A. Petrakov, K.N. Nosov & E.V. Zaporozhchenko

691

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Debris flow hazard of glacial lakes in the Central Caucasus D.A. Petrakov, I.V. Krylenko, S.S. Chernomorets, O.V. Tutubalina, I.N. Krylenko & M.S. Shakhmina

703

Environmental impacts of debris flows—A case study of the two debris-flow zones in the Garhwal Himalaya V.P. Sati

715

Sediment properties of hyperconcentrated flow and the potential for agricultural improvement of debris flow deposits—A case study on the Jiangjia Ravine, Yunnan Province, China D.J. Wang, P. Cui, F.H. Su & Y.Y. Zhu

725

Physical and chemical soil properties in debris-flow bottomland plots Q.Y. Zhang, F.D. Li, C.P. Chang, H.L. Pan & G.Q. Ou

735

Indices Author index

744

Keyword index

746

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INDICES

Author Index

Altimir, J. 411 Andou, J. 209 Arattano, M. 99 Armento, M.C. 179 Bateman, A. 411 Belaya, N.L. 463 Bellugi, D. 319 Berzi, D. 223 Bezzola, G.R. 669 Bi, B.G. 479 Bischoff, A. 669 Bowman, E.T. 229 Budarina, O.I. 463 Capart, H. 259, 539 Castillo-Navarro, L.F. 377 Chan, K.F. 647 Chang, C.P. 735 Chang, S.D. 525 Chang, S.H. 637 Chang, S.Y. 549 Chang, Y.H. 625 Chen, C.Y. 561, 625 Chen, J. 3 Chen, J.C. 525 Chen, R.H. 259, 539 Chen, S.C. 241 Chernomorets, S.S. 77, 691, 703 Cheung, Y.L. 571 Chou, H.T. 571 Chou, W.H. 647 Clarke, D. 35 Cluckie, I. 23 Copons, R. 411 Cui, P. 3, 305, 399, 479, 725 Dalla Fontana, G. 11 Deganutti, A.M. 165, 179 Deng, B. 507 Denk, M. 681 Dietrich, W.E. 141, 319 Egashira, S. 151, 659 Ellen, S.D. 55 Esaki, T. 209 Fan, J.C. 581 Fang, D. 251 Fang, Y.M. 625 Fei, X.J. 131, 531 Feng, Y. 131 Fidel, L. 377 744

Fiorillo F. 331 Fontan, D. 389 Franzi, L. 99 Fu, X.D. 531 Fukuoka, H. 365 Gao, K.C. 479 Garcia-Martinez, R. 189, 377 Ge, Y.G. 399, 433 Genevois, R. 179 Grebennikov, P.V. 463 Gregoretti, C. 11 Gu, L.K. 507 Guadagno, F.M. 331 Guo, Z.X. 251 Han, D. 23 Han, Y.S. 3, 399, 433 Hashimoto, H. 353 Hikida, M. 353, 593 Hsu, L. 141 Huang, A.Y.L. 259, 539 Huang, C.J. 561, 625 Huang, E. 251 Huang, H.Y. 581 Huang, M.C. 613, 637 Huang, M.Y.F. 259, 539 Hürlimann, M. 411 Iio, T. 121 Imre, B. 229 Itoh, T. 151, 659 Jackson Jr, L.E. 377 Jaramillo, M. 377 Jayko, A.S 55 Jia, S.W. 479 Jiang, Y.H. 479 Kaitna, R. 269 Kang, Z. C. 531 Krylenko, I.N. 703 Krylenko, I.V. 703 Kurihara, J. 455, 603 Laigle, D. 281 Laperdin, V.K. 31 Larcan, E. 223 Laue, J. 229 Lee, B.J. 625 Li, F.D. 735 Li, G. 35 Li, H.C. 423 Lin, C.P. 549

Lin, J.Y. 647 Lin, P.S. 581, 647 Liu, C.H. 581 Liu, H.J. 3, 399, 433 Liu, J.H. 443 Liu, K.F. 423, 613 Liu, X.N. 251 Mancarella, D. 45 Martinez, C. 189 Martino, R. 197 McKean, J. 319 Medina, V. 411 Miralles-Wilhem, F. 189 Mitani, Y. 209 Mizuyama, T. 121, 471 Mori, K. 455 Mori, T. 455 Moriyama, M. 593 Moscariello, A. 165 Murgese, D. 389 Naaim, M. 281 Nagai, Y. 593 Nakano, Y. 471 Nakaya, S. 341 Nosov, K.N. 691 Osti, R. 659 Ou, G.Q. 735 Ousset, F. 281 Pan, H.L. 735 Papa, M.N. 197 Peng, S.H. 241 Perov, V.F. 463 Perron, T. 319 Petrakov, D.A. 691, 703 Petrushina, M.N. 67 Qi, L.H. 501 Reid, M.E. 55 Rickenmann, D. 269 Roth, A. 681 Ru, Z.L. 515 Sassa, K. 365 Sati, V.P. 715 Satofuka, Y. 121 Schatzmann, M. 669 Seinova, I.B. 77, 691 Shakhmina, M.S. 703 Shen, N.Q. 501 Shieh, C.L. 525 Shu, A.P. 131 Sidorova, T.L. 77 Simeone, V. 45 Sklar, L.S. 141 Springman, S.M. 229 Su, F.H. 399, 725

Suwa, H. 341 Takanashi, K. 471 Takaoka, H. 353 Takezawa, N. 603 Tan, R.Z. 399, 433 Tanaka, H. 455 Tecca, P.R. 179 Thibert, E. 281 Tian, B. 111 Tiberghien, D. 281 Tognacca, C. 669 Tsang, Y.C. 525 Tsuzuki, N. 455 Tutubalina, O.V. 691, 703 Vilchez, M. 377 Volkwein, A. 681 Wang, C.X. 209 Wang, D.J. 725 Wang, G.H. 365 Wang, G.Q. 443, 531 Wang, Q. 293 Wang, Y.Y. 111 Wartmann, S. 681 Wei, F.Q. 433, 479, 507 Wei, J.J. 501 Wendeler, C. 681 Wie, F.Q. 293 Wieczorek, G.F. 55 Wilson, R.C. 55 Wu, H.Y. 241 Wu, Y.H. 613 Xu, J. 479 Yafyazova, R.K. 87 Yamakoshi, T. 603 Yanagimachi, T. 603 Yang, C.H. 581 Yeh, C.H. 625 Yin, H.Y. 561, 625 Zaporozhchenko, E.V. 691 Zegarra, J. 377 Zeng, W.Q. 507 Zhang, B.L. 491 Zhang, C.M. 501 Zhang, G.P. 479 Zhang, J.H. 507 Zhang, Q.Y. 735 Zhang, S.C. 571 Zhang, S.M. 491 Zhang, Y. 293 Zhao, H.B. 515 Zhou, G.R. 433 Zhou, W.C. 491 Zhu, Y.Y. 3, 305, 725

745

Keyword Index

2D model 189, 377 acoustic characteristics 571 alluvial-fan 389 Andorra 411 antecedent precipitation 3 antecedent seasonal rainfall 55 Atsumari River 353 bedrock erosion 141 building 293 Campania 45 capillary barriers 45 Caucasus 67, 691 Central Caucasus 703 centrifuge testing 229 channel bed failure 11 climate change 87 clogging of river 31 close type check dam 659 cloudburst 715 comprehensive assessment 491 concentration by volume 241 concentration profile 197 confluence angle 251 critical diameter 131 crop bottomland 735 Cross rheological formulation 189 dam-break 223 data processing 603 debris avalanche 341 debris cone 87 debris flow 3, 31, 35, 45, 67, 141, 151, 165, 179, 189, 209, 223, 251, 259, 293, 341, 353, 389, 423, 433, 471, 479, 501, 515, 525, 571, 581, 593, 603, 637, 647, 691, 703, 715 debris flow activity 77, 87 debris flow basins 463 debris flow bottomland 735 debris flow control 669 debris flow control dikes 31 debris flow deposits 87, 725 debris flow detecting 549 debris flow disaster 455 debris flow fan 305 debris flow forecast 507 debris flow formation factors 463 debris flow formation processes 77 debris flow hazards 399 debris flow mapping 463 debris flow material 539 746

debris flow mitigation 669, 681 debris flow monitoring station 625 debris flow resistance 197 debris flow rheology 99 debris flow slurry 111 debris flow triggering threshold 55 debris flows 55, 229, 377, 463 debris volume estimation 377 DEM 539 density current 241 deposited length 525 deposited volume 525 deposited width 525 Devdorak 691 dielectric constant 613 digital terrain model 319 digital watershed model 443 dimensionless numbers 269 disaster assessment 423 disaster direct loss 423 disaster prevention 593 discharge ratio 251 Dolomites 11, 165 Dongchuan district 433 Doppler weather radar 507 drum 141 dynamic response 293 dynamics 67 early warning system 593 earthquake 31, 365 electrical conductivity 581 empirical modelling 411 energy dissipation 131 entrainment 229 environmental impact 715 equilibrium bed slope 151 erosion 229 error characteristics modelling 23 evacuation 593 experimental study 647 field experiment 305 field studies 571 field testing 681 finite-element method 189 flexible debris flow barriers 681 FLO-2D 179 flow regimes 269 flow scale 151 flowslide 365

flow–structure interaction 281 fluid soil creep 31 flume gradient 647 forest bottomland 735 Froude number 281 Geographic Information Systems 209, 491 geophones 561, 625 Georgia 691 GIS 389, 433, 455, 479 glacial collapses 77 glacial disaster 691 glacial dynamics 77 glacial lake outburst 703 grain size 539 granular flow 223 ground tremor 593, 603 ground vibration 561 ground vibration frequency 625 ground vibration sensor 603 groundwater level 613 hazard assessment 179 hazard map 377, 411, 455 Herschel-Bulkley model 197 Himalaya Mountains 715 hydraulic energy gradient 131 hydrograph deformation 99 hyperconcentrated flow 443, 725 image 539 image preprocessing 549 image recognition 549 impact force 647 impact load 293 impact regimes 281 indicator 67 infiltration 45 infrasound 571 initiation conditions risk analysis 501 integrated countermeasures 637 ion concentration 581 irrigation 725 Jiangjia Ravine 3, 531, 725 Jinsha River Basin 399 Kazbek 691 Kolka 691 laboratory 581 laboratory experiments 141 lake outburst 77 land use 735 landscape structure 67 landslide 353, 479 landslides 331 landslides and debris flows 491 laser scan 539 layered-media method 613

leaky barrel model 331 log jam 31 losses of life and property 715 machine vision 549 mass movement 581 mechanism 365 mesoscale region 507 microscale region 507 microwave 613 Miyagawa 341 mobility 411 modelling 99 monitoring 99 monitoring system 571 mudflow 281 natural disaster 703 natural hazard 389 nonstructural measures 455 normal stress 141 numerical modelling 179, 411 numerical simulation 681 orthophoto 455 periglacial zone 77 phase transition 151 physical modelling 229 planar velocity 531 potential storage volume 659 power formula 111 precipitation 507 prediction 479 pressure 281 propagation speed 561 pyroclastic covers 45 radar velocimeter 531 rainfall intensity and duration 55 rainfall measurement 23 rainfall monitoring 55 rainfall runoff 443 rainfall threshold 11 rainfall-induced 209 rainstorm 341 remote sensing 491 response function 353 rheological properties 179 rheology 269 ring-shear test 365 risk assessment 399, 433, 515, 691 risk management 669 river blocking 251 rock motions 561 rock slide 341 rotating drum 269 rotating flume 141 Russia 691 747

sediment control 659 sediment sorting 121 sedimentology 165 seepage failure 259 seismic loading 365 shallow landslide 389 shallow landslide size 319 Shalstab 331 Sichuan Province 491 simulation experiment 293 slit dam 647 slope 35 slope failure 305, 715 slope stability 319 soft countermeasures 471 soil erosion 443 soil nutrient 735 soil properties 735 Southern Italy 331 Southern Leyte 341 southwestern China 479 stability analysis 305 stony debris flow 121 stratigraphy 165 succession 67 support vector machine 515 system theory 389 thermal erosion destruction 77 thixotropy constitutive relation 111 thixotropy energy 111 three-dimensional numerical map 471 topography 259 triggering of debris flow 11 two-dimensional numerical simulation 209 two-layer model 121, 151 two-layer shallow water equations 241 vegetation 35 velocity profile 197 velocity ratio 251 viscous debris flow 131, 531 warning system 603 water balance 35 water flooding 31 weather radar 23 wetting process 259 Yellow River 443

748

735

Physical and chemical soil properties in debris-flow bottomland plots Q.Y. Zhang Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu 610041, China; Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 Japan

F.D. Li Graduate School of Science and Technology, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 Japan

C.P. Chang College of Resource and Environment Science, Hebei Normal University,Shijiazhuang050016,China

H.P. Pan & G.Q. Ou Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu 610041, China

Keywords: land use, soil properties, debris flow bottomland, soil nutrient, crop bottomland, forest bottomland ABSTRACT: In the Xiaojiang River Basin of Yunnan Province, conflicts between humans and land become more and more serious, and debris-flow bottomland is one of the main land resources under development. In order to study the effect of different land uses on physical soil properties and soil nutrients, Daqing Gully is an example study. Soil samples were taken at depths of 0~10cm, 10~20cm, 20~40cm, 40~60cm, and 60~80cm from three representative land use patterns (crop bottomland, forest bottomland, and natural bottomland). Their physical properties and soil nutrients, including total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), available nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), and soil organic matter (SOM) were analyzed. Results showed that development of bottomland promotes soil TP and AP accumulation, pH value changes from alkalescency to neutral and significant organic matter decreases due to cultivation. Furthermore, the contents of TN and AN in crop bottomland are lower than forest bottomland and natural bottomland due to the growth of crops in soil consuming more nutrients. At the same time, the distribution and formation of water-stable aggregates in debris-flow bottomland soils under different land use has been studied. Results show that the content of water-stable aggregates is highly correlated with the content of organic matter; moreover, organic matter cements the soil-aggregate structure. The increased decomposition and decreased input of organic matter after reclamation to crop bottomland is responsible for decreases in both the water-stability of aggregates and in the amount of water-stable aggregates in debris-flow bottomland soil. The results also showed that the contents of TP, AP and AK in soil were positively correlated with soil-particle composition. 1

INTRODUCTION

Modern agriculture emphasizes the sustainability of soil resources and other essential resources including water, air, and light, sustaining our food production (Schjonning et al. 2004). Thus, a major concern for sustainable societies should be the impact of soil-management practices on the physical-chemical process of soils that the influence the sustainability of agriculture. As many soil processes are readily affected by human intervention, especially through agricultural practices, soil degradation and the inherent quality of soil are inevitable. Therefore, priorities of land-use options should be given to those that can alleviate specific soil and ecological constraints while achieving agricultural sustainability (Lal 1997). Land use plays an important role in light of the current phenomena of global changes and is directly related to food security, human health, biodiversity, environmental protection, water and soil quality, runoff and sedimentation rates. Soil structure and fer-

736

tility vary under different land use conditions (Wang et al. 2000). Soil fertility is defined as the ability of the soil to supply essential nutrients for plant growth (Troeh & Thompson 1993). Thus, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and soil organic matter (SOM) are often quantified to evaluate soil-fertility. However a negative effect on soil quality and soil fertility caused by incorrect or unsuitable land-use patterns is usually ignored. In addition, soil-aggregate stability can be moderately variable on different land-use patterns. Vazquez et al. (1991) reported that soilaggregate stability was more sensitive to the intensity of land-use than to its content of labile C and N. Therefore, the size, quantity and stability of aggregates, and the water-stability of micro aggregates (crop bottomland. For crop bottomland and forest bottomland, the variation range of soil pH value is higher than that of natural soil above 20cm. This indicates the effect of bottomland use on soil pH value; thus, we can roughly determine the extent of human activities from soil pH value. PH value 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8

9

0

Depth/cm

20 40 60 80 100 Fig.1 Vertical variation of pH (◆ forest bottomland ▲ crop bottomland ■ natural bottomland)

4.3

Effect of land use on soil aggregate

An aggregate is a group of primary soil particles that cohere to each other more strongly than to other surrounding soil particles. Our results of soil aggregates (see Table 3) show that the content of air-dried aggregates in debris flow bottomland is highest, having a total content of > 0.25mm airdried aggregate greater than 80%. Moreover, the content of great sized classes accounts for a larger proportion of the air-dried aggregates, thus indicating each size class of air-dried aggregates is asymmetrically distributed. The content of larger air-dried aggregates is high and its reuniting ca-

740

pability is good. After soil samples are dipped in water, unstable air-dried aggregates decompose into smaller units, and the content of 0.25 mm aggregates reduces. Furthermore, decrease in the content of 0.5 mm aggregates is sharp. This indicates that the difference in the stability of the aggregates among soils exists due to their erosion-resistantance and water-holding capacities. Although the soils form from the same parent material, the composition and quality of soil aggregates vary greatly due to different land use patterns. Thus the effect of land use on formation of soil aggregates is great. Zhang et al. (1997) studied the effects of five land use patterns on the formation of water-stable aggregates in red earth. Study results (see Table3) show the content of airdried aggregates increased as follows: forest bottomland>natural bottomland >crop bottomland. The content of aggregates in forest bottomland is the highest, with the content of >0.25 mm and >0.5 air-dried aggregates 94% and 50%. Correspondingly the content of water-stable aggregates are 40% and 1%. The percentage of aggregate destruction represents the stability degree of the soil aggregates. Table 3 shows that the percentage of aggregate destruction of forest bottomland is the lowest by wet sieving procedure and is 57%, and that of natural soil is highest. This indicates that forest bottomland has a better structure. While the contents of aggregates in crop bottomland and natural bottomland reduce and content of large size class aggregates obviously decrease, indicating that some large air-dried aggregates are transformed into small class size affected by human activities. The water stability of soil aggregates varies greatly with particle size and land use patterns. The contents of >5mm water-stable aggregates increase in the following order: natural bottomland >forest bottomland >crop bottomland, which is in inverse proportion to the application of farm implements and human activities. Table 3. Composition of aggregate and its stability (%). Land use

Treatment

The size of aggregate(mm) >5

5-2

2-1

1-0.5

0.5-0.25

>0.25

Percentage of aggregate destruction

A

a 49.89 24.79 11.92 1.52 5.80 93.93 57.01 b 1.16 24.26 7.71 2.61 4.64 40.38 B a 43.99 30.92 11.38 1.63 5.50 93.41 60.66 b 1.19 21.73 6.84 2.65 4.33 36.74 C a 23.71 29.85 22.98 0.97 10.41 87.92 59.75 b 0.54 14.29 7.41 3.59 9.56 35.39 A forest soil B natural soil C crop bottomland; a dry sieving method b wet sieving method

4.4

Factors influencing soil aggregates

Zhang et al. (1997) considered that the contents of clay in red soil only had effect on air-dried aggregates, while little effect on wet-sieving aggregates and stability of the structure and contents of water-stable aggregates are correlative to the content of organic matter. Li (2000) showed that clay was an important cementing substance influencing the formation of soil structure in arid areas. In this paper, the relationship between aggregates and clay and the content of organic matter was analyzed. Correlation analysis shows that clay and organic matter are correlated with the contents of > 0.25mm and >0.5mm air-dried aggregates, and there exists a significant correlation with clay at 0.05 significance level. Although the content of >0.5mm air-dried aggregates is positively correlated with clay and organic matter, there is no significant difference among soil types. This indicates that the effect of clay on the content of >0.25 mm air-dried aggregates is great. When the quantity of cementing substance add up to a certain extent, the contents of >0.5mm air-dried aggregates are relative to human activity. The contents of water-stable aggregate are relative to clay, while it is affected by the content of organic matter. The percentage of aggregates destruction shows a significant negative correlation to organic matter (Table 4). This indicates that the factor

741

influencing the contents of >0.25mm water-stable aggregates and the stability of aggregates is organic matter due to the content of organic matter. Table 4. The correlation coefficients (r) between the contents of various aggregates and the main cementing substance. Treatment Dry sieving method

Wet sieving method

Aggregate >5 >0.25 >5 >2 >1 >0.25

Percentage of aggregate destruction *The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.

4.5

Organic matter 0.784 0.727* 0.634* 0.625* 0.557* 0.527*

Clay 0.517 0.473 0.430 0.369 0.339 0.184

-0.634*

0.019

Relationship between soil nutrient content and soil particle composition

Table 5 shows the content of soil nutrients correlated to soil particle composition, and the significant relationship that exists between TP and sand contents at 0.01 level, but not for other nutrients. Soil TP, AP and AK were significantly correlated with clay and silt content at 0.01 level, while other nutrients were not correlated with clay and silt content, and the contents of TN and AN were not significantly correlated with each particle fraction. The following reasons were accountable for this. On the one hand, debris bottomland soil consists of mainly silt and sand, the content of clay is low, so the capacity for holding water and fertility is very poor. Moreover, different land use patterns had a certain effect on the soil particle composition of debris bottomland, so differences exist among land use patterns. On the other hand, clay minerals in debris-flow deposits mainly include illite, chlorite and montmorillonite, which contain rich amounts of potassium, so there is great potential of potassium fertility in debris flow bottomland. Thus AK is closely allied with soil particle composition. The contents of TN and AN were not significantly correlated with each soil particle fraction, as seen in Table4. The correlation coefficient between TN and each particle fraction was greater than that of AN. This shows that the relationship between TN and each particle fraction was closer than that of AN. Table 5. Correlation coefficient between soil nutrient and particle composition. Soil slit contents

Soil sand contents