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Which is about 335-400 km above the surface of the dwarf planet. .... document to look at the surface detail in the small (red square) on Vesta as seen in the image above this text ...... Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones" .

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Copyright (C) 2013 All Rights Reserved On Text and Images A Open Peer Reviewed Journal Publishing In The Sciences of Astronomy, Astrophysics, & Earth-Sciences

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH CONTACT ICOMMR (International Consortium On Microscopic-Macroscopic Research) Texas, United States of America Editor-In-Chief Ronald Stewart,[email protected]

(Preparation and Editorial Content of this journal is in Times New Roman #12 Font and is according to the standard Scholarly accepted: "Chicago Manual Style Format")

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A Journal of Astronomy,Astrophysics, & Earth-Sciences (Published-Online)

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS RESEARCH VOLUME NUMBER - 1 2013

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF Ronald Stewart, Ph.D. (CEO)- Stewart-Research, Texas, United States of America) Email; [email protected]

ASSISTANT-EDITOR Francis Benot'i, Ph.D (Int'l Journal of Astronomy,& Astrophysics Research) Email; [email protected]

ASSOCIATE-EDITOR Walter Trentadue ((EXO-SCOPE)-Project-Coordinator), (Astronomy, Telescopy Systems & Instrumentation, Planetary Sciences, Geology)-Adjunct Instructor- Rock Valley College, Illinois), )

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TABLE OF CONTENTS ASTRONOMY and ASTROPHYSICS

Vesta's Orbiting Asteroid Satellites ; What The Dawn Spacecraft Did Not Investigate, and Could It Pose Concerns For Ceres?............................................................................................5-17 Vesta A Closer Look................................................................................................................18-39

Theoretical Projection For Ceres A Sub Earth Minor Planet...................................................40-52

First Views of Gliese-581 d; A Preliminary Surface Survey. (Part1)...............................................................................................................................................53-69

IMMI Orion Nebula Exoplanet Space Exploration Demonstration Examples..................................................................................................................................65-67

EARTH SCIENCES

Theory of Freeze-Zone morphology For Mammoths...........................................................103-105

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Vesta's Orbiting Asteroid Satellites ; What The Dawn Spacecraft Did Not Investigate, and Could It Pose Concerns For Ceres? 1

Ronald Stewart 2 Walter Trentadue

Abstract- As the Dawn Spacecraft closes in for it's orbital status above Vesta at a safe mode altitude of approximately 400 kilometers above Vesta's surface there exists two probable smaller asteroid satellites confirmed by an HST image taken of Vesta in 2006. These asteroids are verified a second time in one of the images taken by the Dawn Spacecraft on board cameras on July 09th,2011.Each asteroid measures one-half of a kilometer to one - kilometer in length. However, the question is ; it possible that these smaller asteroids could have posed a danger to the Dawn spacecraft ? If so, is it also possible that other moon-like satellites could pose a concern for the Dawn Spacecraft when it makes its way to Ceres, where it may arrive sometime during the summer of 2015? This paper proposes to answer this and other questions about this subject as well. However, these asteroids were discovered using a new space exploration imaging technology known as IMMI. Which is the acronym for - (Infinite - Microscopic -Macroscopic Imaging).(See important footnote below). In which the Dawn Spacecraft did not investigate nor was there previous knowledge of its existence. Therefore, this paper is to make the scientific community aware in both astronomy and astrophysics aware of what was not known when Vesta was investigated by the Dawn Spacecraft and what it should also be aware of on it's way to Ceres in like manner. Keywords : Keywords: Vesta, Discovery Program, Electric Propulsion, Gravitational Perturbations, Spacecraft Operations

1.0 Introduction and Background 1.1 First A Look At Vesta In this research paper IMMI will present and demonstrate extreme up close images of not only the proto-planet but of these asteroids in orbit around Vesta at about the same altitude the Dawn spacecraft will be orbiting Vesta. Which is about 335-400 km above the surface of the dwarf planet. This research paper will also address if these smaller asteroid satellites orbiting Vesta should be a concern for both scientists and Dawn spacecraft engineers at NASA. ________________________________ 1- (Th.D.)- Ancient History/ Religious History-(4000-B.C.-1400-C.E.) With An Emphasis In Historical Archaeology, and retains a (PhD)Theoretics In The Arts, Humanities, and Sciences. Stewart also peer reviews for Ancient History Encyclopedia, is Editor-In-Chief for IJAAR(Int'l Journal of Astronomy/Astrophysics & Earth Sciences Research), to be promoted World-Wide By: "Pro-Quest"-(Indexing/ Scholar Journal Services), (Asst. Editor for: "Pluralidade"-(In English)-"Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciences" ) read in (42}countries/ (5)continents-Earth wide),, Recently invited to be: "A Guest Editor For The Oldest/ Largest Peer Reviewed Journal In The World: "Royal Society Publishing Proceedings-(A & B" ),(September, 15th, 2013, appointed as: "Editor-In-Chief" for the: " Blind/ Open-Peer Reviewed journal known as: "Independent Archaeology Notes, Art-History & Earth Sciences". Stewart is also a member of the NEAS-(Near Eastern Archaeological Society). 2-Walter Trentadue-(BSc.)- (EXO-SCOPE)-Project-Coordinator), (Astronomy,Telescopy Systems & Instrumentation, Planetary Sciences, Geology)-Adjunct Instructor- at Rock Valley College),

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Figure 1 - (A-D) - (A) is Vesta as seen through (HST) in 2006.(B) is the image NASA's Dawn Spacecraft on or about July 09th, 2011. (C-D) are the images that IMMI produced of Vesta presented in (C) in black and white and in color as seen in (D). 2.0 Does Asteroid Vesta Have a Moon? [1]-Right before NASA's Dawn Spacecraft was still making its close approach to Vesta at that time NASA still did not know if Vesta did not have a moon or not. A person might think of asteroids as isolated bodies tumbling alone through space, but it's entirely possible for these old "loners" to have companions. Indeed, 19-mile-wide Ida, 90-mile-wide Pulcova, 103-mile-wide Kalliope, and 135-mile-wide Eugenia each have a moon. And 175-mile-wide Sylvia has two moons. Measuring 330 miles across, Vesta is much larger than these other examples, so a "Vesta moon" is entirely possible. Some scientists suggest one source: "When another large body collides with an asteroid, the resulting debris is sprayed into orbit around the asteroid and can gradually collapse to form a moon." Another possibility is "gravitational pinball": A moon formed elsewhere in the asteroid belt might, through complicated gravitational interactions with various bodies, end up captured by the gravity of one of them.[1] Hubble and ground based telescopes have looked for Vesta moons before, and seen nothing. Dawn is about to be in position for a closer look. On Saturday, July 9th, 2011just one week before Dawn goes into orbit around Vesta, the moon hunt will commence. [2] The cameras will begin taking images of the space surrounding the asteroid, looking for suspicious specks. If a moon is there, it will appear as a dot that moves around Vesta in successive images as opposed to remaining fixed, like background stars," says Dawn Coinvestigator Mark Sykes, who is also director of the Planetary Science Institute. "We'll be able to

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use short exposures to detect moons as small as 27 meters in diameter. If our longer exposures aren't washed out by the glare of nearby Vesta, we'll be able to detect moons only a few meters in diameter." However Dr. Sykes continued to state: "While you won't see "find a moon" among the mission's science goals, a moon-sighting would be a nice feather in Dawn's cap. Not that it will need more feathers. The probe is already primed to build global maps and take detailed images of the asteroid's surface, reveal the fine points of its topography, and catalog the minerals and elements present there." Unquote. Therefore this is why the authors of this paper have taken the initiative to write about this. primarily, because it was not a mission by NASA or the Dawn Mission to specifically hunt for moons when investigating the asteroid Vesta." Therefore, for this very reason is why this paper has been written

Figure 2- (A-B) - (A) is the image that the Dawn spacecraft took on or about July 09th, 2011. (B) is what IMMI was able to show pertaining to the same image in color.

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Looking At Vesta Up Close (5) Days Ahead of Time

Fig. 3 - (Left) is the image that the Dawn Spacecraft took of Vesta on or about July 09th,2011. The middle very detailed colored image is what IMMI has been able to do with the same image. Therefore, if the Dawn Spacecraft had this technological process the detailed image shown in the middle would have allowed you and the world to see Vesta as we show you in this example. (Note)-If needed, and if you would like to use the (+) magnification tool on this pdf document to look at the surface detail in the small (red square) on Vesta as seen in the image above this text, in order to compare that surface feature with the projected image we encourage you to please do so. Thank you!). However, (Left) is the way that (Vesta ) appeared to the Dawn Spacecraft when it was still approximately still few thousand miles away from Vesta is what is how it appeared on the far left. When the Dawn Spacecraft was about five-hundred and eighty miles away from Vesta is how it appeared. At that time the IMMI-(Infinite Microscopic -Macroscopic Imaging) technology essentially zoomed in and captivated the imaged as it is enhanced and enlarged as seen the projection and that part of vest is seen in much greater significance.

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Figure 3 - The image above is from the HST from 2006 with the aid of IMMI no possible satellites are seen.

Fig. 4 - (A-C) - The concern for the Dawn spacecrafts orbit is to not get to let it get below 370 kilometers about Vesta's surface. Otherwise the spacecraft would be on a crash course on Vesta's surface. Therefore the Dawn spacecraft will maintain an orbit of no closer than 400 miles above the surface.The image above is a black and white IMMI enhancement of the 2006 image taken by HST. (A) could be a satellite. It's orbit could be 125-160 kilometers above the surface of Vesta. It 9

most likely would not pose a threat to the spacecraft. However, (B) is about 300-335 kilometers above the surface of Vesta and it could pose the greatest concern.. (C). Is much further away.

Figure 5 (B)- this research paper proposes, presents, a demonstrates a much close view of appears to be two possible smaller satellites and / or asteroids that could pose the greatest concern for the Dawn spacecraft. Which could be about 325-350 miles or more above the surface of Vesta. Which also could be too close to the orbital path that the Dawn spacecraft will maintain it's orbit above the surface of Vesta at a safe orbiting distance from the asteroids surface.

Figure 6 - These are the two asteroid satellites that the 2006 image of Vesta also shown in Fig. 20-21, that came from the 2006 image of Vesta taken by the HST that are about 350 km above 10

Vesta.. The asteroid on the left could be 1/2-1 mile in length. The asteroid on the right may be about 1/2 miles in length.

Figure 7 - (1) is the larger asteroid (2) is the smaller asteroid and (3) is the dwarf - planet Vesta that is being researched by the recent arrival of the Dawn Spacecraft. (1-2) are in an orbit of about 335-400 miles above (3).Vesta. However several points need to be considered when studying the above image. Which are : 1).- The first point to the above image is to present that (1-2) as asteroids, were taken in an image produced by HST-(the Hubble Space Telescope) in 2006. When IMMI was used to investigate the HST 2006 image further asteroids (1-2) were discovered as also shown in Fig.20-22. However the blue color represented by (A) as it can be seen in asteroids (1-2), is the about the same blue color as also seen on the surface features of (3) Vesta. However, the (3) image of Vesta was produced by IMMI in relation to a photo recently taken by the Dawn Spacecraft on or about 7/09/2011. 2). - The second point to the above image is the brown color represented by the letter (B). In which can also be seen in asteroids (1-2) and again in(3) which is the dwarf planet Vesta. 3).- The third and last point about the image above is that asteroids (1-2) were produced from the 2006 HST image taken of Vesta , and these two asteroids have the

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same colors as seen in the 7/09/2011 images of Vesta and enhanced by the IMMI technology. Case in point being : "There are two separate photos taken from two different time periods that are consistent in evidence that (1-2) are two smaller asteroids, that were once part of (3) Vesta. Therefore this research paper proposes, presents, and demonstrates imaging evidence from two different photos from two different time periods, that these smaller asteroids were once part of Vest's composition itself. No doubt (1-2) these smaller asteroids were created when ( 3) Vesta, was evidently hit by another larger asteroid or object. Which then tore asteroids (1-2) out of Vesta's surface very long ago. " [4-8] However, a question that should be asked is : " Are the asteroids that were discovered from the 2006 HST image, still in orbit around Vesta now (on July, 23rd, 2011 at the writing of this paragraph in this research paper), and if so do any of the recent Dawn Spacecraft images show the same asteroids around Vesta now, that could present a possible concern for the orbital path of the Dawn Spacecraft at this time ? ". [10] First, what has to be realized is that in the aforementioned previously presented evidence of two asteroids orbiting Vesta from a 2006 HST image. [9] (Mc Cord Thomas B. et al (1970), proposes and presents evidence that meteorites found on earth came from Vestal and in evidence that other objects in space -(such as larger meteors or even asteroids) have had impact with Vesta, as it also evidenced by the impact craters on Vesta as well. [11] (Feierberg M.A. and Drake M.J. (1980), show that when infrared reflectance spectra have been obtained for the meteorites that were from Vesta in Shergotty and Allan Hills 77005, a unique Chondrite apparently related to the shergottites was discovered. Further comparisons using the reflectance spectra data of also eucrites and asteroid 4 Vesta indicate that the surface of Vesta is covered with eucrite-like basalts and that, if shergottite-like basalts are present on the surface of Vesta, they must be a minor rock type. This would be consistent with the imaging data presented in this research paper that when considering that the meteorites found in these areas are also a brown and blue like colored formation as was presented in the smaller satellites asteroids orbiting Vesta that both eucrites and shergottites are derived from Vesta, and that this asteroid is compositionally and isotopically heterogeneous, and that the meteors found on earth came from either Vesta or these smaller asteroid satellites orbiting Vesta as shown in earlier images in Fig. 2 and 3. Furthermore, that are much more consistent with these previous facts as derived from the research papers of [9] (Mc Cord Thomas B. et al (1970) and [11] (Feierberg M.A. and Drake M.J. (1980).

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Fig. 8 - The yellow arrow points upward and away from another what could be a part of the former asteroid satellites presented in Fig. 20-23. Except, either one of these asteroids could be shown from a different position because of the imaging position in which the Dawn spacecraft was in when imaging Vesta at over 77,000 km away from Vesta when this image was taken on or about 7/09/2011. The yellow arrow also points to a larger projection of that smaller asteroid orbiting Vesta, and shows what it looked like on July 09th,2011 when this image was taken by the Dawn spacecraft but enhanced much more with IMMI. What is consistent with the HST 2006 image is that in that image smaller satellite asteroid (B) as shown in Fig. 20-22 is also orbiting at about the same orbital height of about 335-400 kilometers above the surface of Vesta as also shown in the image above in Fig. 24 as well.

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Fig. 9 - However, where the yellow arrow points away from the smaller asteroid satellite ain orbit above Vesta and in which is shown in a larger projection of what it looks are also part of a research paper by [14] Richard P. Binzel R.P, and Xu (1993). In which in their research paper provides data on a scientific study of Vesta by the HST. In which this paper speaks of the results and scientific study of object impacts against Vesta. Thus, this paper proposes and presents and again demonstrates that in the research paper by [14] that the study collected from the HST provides another window of opportunity. That again in 1996 the same HST results show Hubble Space Telescope images of asteroid 4 Vesta obtained during the favorable 1996 apparition show an impact crater 460 kilometers in diameter near the south pole. Which in fact may be from where the aqua colored arrow points away from. Which also may be consistent with the fact that the two smaller asteroid satellites orbiting Vesta may have come also from where the aqua colored arrow also points away from Vesta in this specific large impact crater. Where in this scientific paper also shows that HST color measurements within the 13kilometer-deep -(or deeper) crater are consistent with excavation deep into a high-calcium pyroxene-rich crust or olivine upper mantle. About 1 percent of Vesta was excavated by the crater formation event, a volume sufficient to account for the family of small Vesta-like asteroids 14

that extends to dynamical source regions for meteorites. This crater may be the site of origin for the eucrite, and diogenite classes of basaltic Chondrite meteorites. This is also evident of the numerous impact crater cavities seen on Vesta as in like manner. 3.0 Concern With Too Low of An Orbit On or about July 15, 2011 NASA's Dawn spacecraft was only approximately 9,900 miles (16,000 kilometers) away from it's orbit rendezvous with Vesta between them. If in fact there are smaller asteroids orbiting Vesta which all the evidence presented in this research paper propose that there could be more debris around Vesta than previously thought that there may be some concern with such orbiting debris, especially in about the same orbital altitude about Vesta anywhere from approximately 370-400 miles and more should be a concern at some point in the dawn mission around Vesta and as it gathers more and more information sending it back to scientists and engineers on earth. 4.0 Tricarico P. and Sykes M.V. (2010) - Dawns need To Maintain High Orbital Status Around Vesta As expressed in [12] (Tricarico P. and Sykes M. V (2010), details of Vesta's high-order gravitational terms had to be determined when Dawns' arrived at Vesta Of course one of the concerns that will dictate the success of the Vesta Dawn Spacecraft mission is preliminarily set in stone when gravitational perturbations give rise to oscillations in Dawns' orbital radius, and it is found that trapping of the spacecraft is possible near the 1:1 resonance between Dawns' orbital period and Vesta's rotational period, located approximately between 520 and 580 km orbital radius. The decisive means to make sure that the Dawn Spacecraft has a correct rotating gravitational orbital revolving altitude around Vesta depends largely upon the types of conditions that gravitational perturbations will impose. The minimum radius for low-altitude operations to in order to maintain a safe maximum orbit around Vesta is about 400 km, in order to safely prevent surface impact. The lowest practical orbit is desirable in order to maximize signal-to-noise and spatial resolution of the Gamma-Ray and Neutron Detector and to provide the highest spatial resolution observations by Dawns Framing Camera and Visible Infrared mapping spectrometer. One of the major concerns is because of Vesta's complex gravity field, there is the potential that Dawn could be trapped near the 1:1 resonance, as it slowly decreases its radius through 550 km. Dawn can escape trapping by increasing thrust at the appropriate orbit libration phase. However, it is crucial to remember that the lowest and safest altitude above Vesta would achieve would be no more than 370 kilometers above Vesta's surface. Why ? The primary reason is because once Dawn is able to make it through this resonance, Dawn can continue to decrease its orbital radius to around 400 km before the effect of perturbations begin to progressively increase orbital radial oscillations until impact with the surface becomes a hazard. However, once the Dawn Spacecraft would exceed an orbital path radius below 370 km, than the mission otherwise could become into a perilous stage of no return, 15

and the Dawn Spacecraft could become a phenomenon of Vesta's gravitational pull, causing the spacecraft to crash into Vesta's surface. So should scientists and engineers at Dawns Command Center be concerned ? It certainly would not hurt to take extra precautions, in the event these asteroids are too close for comfort into the orbital altitude path of the Dawn spacecraft, as a precautionary measure to help ensure the complete success of the entire Dawn mission. As it also makes it's way to the next dwarf planet on it's list to visit. Which is the dwarf planet named : " Ceres". After the Dawn spacecraft finishes it's mission and study of Vesta. In order to determine with greater accuracy how the solar system developed. However, such a problem is not expected to result into the next part of Dawns' exploratory mission when it leaves Vesta for Ceres, which is expected to reveal a large amount of water on or below it's surface/ Ceres may have moons. Bibliography (In Alphabetical Order) [1]-NASA (2011). DAWN'S MISSION TO VEST ASTEROID VESTA-In addition to having moons, asteroids can also be double: Binary asteroids sometimes form when a spinning parent body splits. The body is spun up by a phenomenon called YORP that occurs when the body absorbs photons from the sun and reradiate them as heat: more. Athttp://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2011/06jul_vestamoon/ [2]-NASA (2011).- Dawn will perform dedicated observations in search of moons for about 15 hours. However, if no moon is found at Vesta on July 9th, that doesn't mean there isn't one. Rayman says: "If there is a moon, it might show up by coincidence in other observations, but we have no other observations dedicated in this mission to finding a moon. There is just so much to learn about Vesta itself, that is where we are focusing our time." [3] From NASA press release:-(2011)- When Vesta captures Dawn into its orbit on July 16, there will be approximately 9,900 miles (16,000 kilometers) between them. When orbit is achieved, they will be approximately 117 million miles (188 million kilometers) away from Earth. During the initial reconnaissance orbit, at approximately 1,700 miles (2,700 kilometers), the spacecraft will get a broad overview of Vesta with color pictures and data in different wavelengths of reflected light. The spacecraft will move into a high-altitude mapping orbit, [4]-ASMAR, S. et al (2009). Simulations of Dawn Gravity for Vesta and Ceres And Implications For Interior Structure. AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 41, #50.01. [5]-BRITT, D. T. and Consolmagno, G.J., (2004). Meteorite Porosities and Densities: A Review of Trends in the Data. Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 35, 2108. [6]-BRITT, D. T. et al , (2002). Asteroid Density, Porosity, and Structure. Asteroids III 485-500. [7]-CONSOMAGNO, G. J., and Britt, D. T. (1998). The density and porosity of meteorites from the Vatican collection. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33, 1231-1241.

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[8]-DAVIS, D. R., et al 1985).Chapman, C. R., Weidenschilling, S. J., Greenberg, R. 1985. Collisional history of asteroids: Evidence from Vesta and the Hirayama families. Icarus 62, 3053. Everhart, E. 1985. An efficient integrator that uses Gauss-Radau spacings. Dynamics of Comets: [9]-Mc CORD T. B. et al (1970). Thomas B. McCord, John B. Adams, and Torrence V. Johnson.- Asteroid Vesta: Spectral Reflectivity and Compositional Implications (1970)-and Torrence V. Johnson. Science 19 June 1970: 1445-1447. [DOI:10.1126/science.168.3938.1445]. [10]-CHIKPS OFF OF ASTEROID 4 Vesta: Evidence for the Parent Body of Basaltic A chondrite Meteorites Richard P. Binzel and Shui Xu Science 9 April 1993: 186-191. [DOI:10.1126/science.260.5105.186. [11]-FEIERBERG M.A. and DRAKE M.J. (1980).The Meteorite-Asteroid Connection: The Infrared Spectra of Eucrites, Shergottites, and Vesta. Science 15 August 1980: 805-807. [DOI:10.1126/science.209.4458.805]. [12]-TRICARICOA, P.(2010).The Dynamical Environment of Dawn at Vesta P. Tricaricoa, M. V. Sykes a Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Rd. Ste. 106, Tucson AZ 85719. [13]-TURRINI, D. et al (2010). Probing the history of Solar System through the cratering records on Vesta and Ceres. [14]-BINZEL, Richard P. Binzel R.P, and Xu (1993). [14]-Other Notes - http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/dawn/main/index.html . Ceres Images A few preliminary Images of Ceres may be Seen At http://orie-technologies.weebly.com/8-9-ceres--a---closer-look.html http://orie-technologies.weebly.com/10-11-ceres-volcano--rotations.html Acknowledgements The authors of this research paper would like to thank all of the scientists who have contributed to the scientific research either in the publications of their papers or in research involved with NASA and in the Dawn Spacecraft program which are providing a wealth of information about Vesta and the early formation of our solar system involving asteroids in the Kuniper Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter.

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Vesta A Closer Look 1Ronald

Stewart 2 Francis Benot'i

Abstract- NASA's Dawn Spacecrafts' encounter with the dwarf planet asteroid planet known as Vesta has finally come true after a four year journey to this dwarf planet which started in 2007. This research paper will present and demonstrate images showing very close-up views of Vesta's surface topography before the Dawn Spacecraft takes up an orbit around the dwarf planet in order to captivate images of Vesta's surface as well. A new imaging process known as IMMI-(Infinite Microscopic -Macroscopic Imaging)- was used to take these images of Vesta.(See important footnote below).This new data, images, and evidence are also consistent with other published research papers such as : (Russell et al., 2004) and (Tricarico P. and M. V. Sykes M. V (2010) in which in these research papers are correct in their investigative results when they present and demonstrate that Vesta : "Enables a study of the earliest stages of planetary development for an object that formed dry (Vesta) and another that formed with substantial amounts of water (Ceres)." These research papers again consistent with the images presented in this scientific research paper which also shows that Vesta is dry, rocky, and has many impact craters upon it (much like earths' moon).However, at the same time in Dawns' next mission to Ceres in July, 2012 after leaving Vesta when dawn gets to Ceres in 2015 most likely will find the opposite conditions on Ceres which will be that Ceres has a substantial amount of water. Keywords : Keywords: Vesta, Ceres, Dwarf Planets, Discovery Program, Electric Propulsion, Gravitational Perturbations, Spacecraft Operations

1.0 Introduction and Background 1.1 The Approach A chronological history of the Dawn Spacecraft mission is necessary,. in order to understand that what has taken place has an effect on the mission to the dwarf planet/ asteroid known as Vesta.. Especially, when it comes to any and all data, images, and evidence that has come about since the Dawn spacecraft has come close in making it's orbit around Vesta as it investigates the origins of our solar system. Therefore, it is important for this research paper to propose, present, and demonstrate in new data and images what the Dawn Spacecraft investigation and study of Vesta ________________________________ 1- (Th.D.)- Ancient History/ Religious History-(4000-B.C.-1400-C.E.) With An Emphasis In Historical Archaeology, and retains a (PhD)Theoretics In The Arts, Humanities, and Sciences. Stewart also peer reviews for Ancient History Encyclopedia, is Editor-In-Chief for IJAAR(Int'l Journal of Astronomy/Astrophysics & Earth Sciences Research), to be promoted World-Wide By: "Pro-Quest"-(Indexing/ Scholar Journal Services), (Asst. Editor for: "Pluralidade"-(In English)-"Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciences" ) read in (42}countries/ (5)continents-Earth wide),, Recently invited to be: "A Guest Editor For The Oldest/ Largest Peer Reviewed Journal In The World: "Royal Society Publishing Proceedings-(A & B" ),(September, 15th, 2013, appointed as: "Editor-In-Chief" for the: " Blind/ Open-Peer Reviewed journal known as: "Independent Archaeology Notes, Art-History & Earth Sciences". Stewart is also a member of the NEAS-(Near Eastern Archaeological Society). 2-Francis Benoti'-(Ph.D.)- Is the Assistant Editor For IJARR and is also a retired Astronomer, and consults part-time., and still writes periodic papers. She also peer reviews for other journals as well when requested to. [email protected]).

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will not show the world. In order to help give a different perspective of some other areas of scientific research that are just as important in like manner what the Dawn spacecraft is accomplishing as well. Therefore, new hypotheses, theories, and evidence in images and investigative scientific research areas NASA will not show are not because NASA could not show these things. Rather, it is that the IMMI has the capability to show other research other than what NASA presents to help give a wider and broader perspective in what is learned about Vesta, as never seen before. Therefore a chronological order of what has also happened in the Dawn mission outside what is currently recognized or realized this research paper is able to provide additional new data and evidence about the Dawn spacecraft mission that will only compliment what the Dawn spacecraft finds out as well. What is listed first is what NASA has remarkably been able to accomplish between the dates of 2007when the Dawn Spacecraft was first launched until the day prior to when it's first images of Vesta started coming through at a distance of over 144,000 kilometers or 88, 848 miles on June 24th,2011 from Vesta. This is as follows : 2.0 Where Vesta Was When Imaged Between 1/31/2007 - June 23rd, 2011 In 2007 Vesta lifted off to start it's long many years mission to explore areas in and around the sun and then head on a special journey to the proto planets known as Vesta and Ceres as follows: January 31rst, 2011 - Spacecraft and Operations Team Practice for Vesta . In addition to thrusting most of this month, the spacecraft executed a rehearsal of one of the activities it will need to perform in its low altitude mapping orbit at Vesta. The operations team spent a week handling simulated problems during the approach phase to Vesta. February 28th, 2011 - Mission controllers conducted another test of the spacecraft's capability to operate in orbit around the giant asteroid. March 31, 2011 - Dawn was commanded by navigators to check out it's thrusters and had dawn align them with the earth. Than calculated the radio signal and were able to determine that Dawn was traveling at a speed toward Vesta at about 13, 000-MPH Final Checkouts Before Vesta. April 30, 2011 - As usual, Dawn thrust for most of the month, bringing its orbit around the sun still closer to Vesta's orbit. Dawn is now only 3.4 times farther from Vesta than the moon is from Earth. The spacecraft is approaching Vesta at less than 0.39 kilometers per second (870 mph). May 10, 2011 - The approach phase is going smoothly. Dawn stopped thrusting today for its second opportunity to acquire images of Vesta for use in navigation. In addition, the visible and infrared mapping spectrometer observed Vesta for the first time. Dawn is one million kilometers (620,000 miles) from Vesta. June 1, 2011 - Dawn continues to devote most of its time to thrusting with its ion propulsion system. Today it conducted its fifth session of acquiring images of Vesta for use in navigation. Dawn is 470,000 kilometers (290,000 miles) from Vesta today and approaching it at 220 meters per second (490 mph). 19

June 23rd, 2011 - The Dawn Spacecraft closes in on Vesta and is preparing to take it's first images of Vesta as it's is about 144,000 kilometers from Vesta at this point or about 88,848.0 miles from Vesta. The next day is when it captured it's first images of Vesta.

Fig. 1 - (A-D) - (A) Is Vesta as seen through (HST) /2006.(B) Is The Dawn Spacecraft on when it took this image of Vesta on or about 6/23/11. (C) Is the black and white original image that The Dawn Spacecraft took of Vesta on or about 7/09/2011, when of course it was much closer to the multi-colored dwarf planet. It is important to understand, that the reason for needing to take the image of an anomaly in outer space at the correct calculated time is so the difference in what is seen in image (B) would be able to look more like image (C). In other words, if the aforementioned was applied, when the image (B) was taken by the Dawn Spacecraft on or about 6/23/2011 it would have more of the appearance of image (C). (D) Was imaged by IMMI as seen in a great detail and color variations.

Fig. 2 - The dawn Spacecraft took the image to the left on or about June 24th, 2011 (Right) IMMI.when the spacecraft was about141,000 to 144,000 kilometers or 88, 478 miles away from 20

The Dawn Spacecraft was straining too hard when Vesta was still to far away to be photographed. The image on the left has lost more than twenty-five percent of it's image data because of this problem. This can also be a problem with any camera system if the timing is not just right. The on board Dawn Spacecraft camera was zooming in on Vesta at that time at it' maximum remote imaging capacity. This can be seen because the image to the left that IMMI produced of the same image demonstrates pixelation approximately in the center of the image where the blue topography of Vesta is seen. Such pixelation and zooming in this hard with the camera causes loss of data information and will not as good of an image to be produced at this type of remote imaging. If the camera would have zoomed in at the correct preprogrammed moment the image would have come out much clearer (Stewart R., (1977). (" A Study In The Supplemental Camera Attachments and Their Capabilities and Limitations and When To Photograph On Earth and In Space Exploration ), Elkins Institute Photography and Imaging).

Fig. 3-(A-B) - (A) is the image that the Dawn spacecraft took on or about July 09th, 2011. (B) is what IMMI was able to show pertaining to the same image in color. The IMMI technology at its point of development is far better than what the Dawn Spacecraft was capable of producing even in 2011.

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Figure 4 - Above is a large image produced from IMMI that presents and demonstrates what Vesta looks like.

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Figure 5 - Top half of Vesta

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Figure 6- The bottom half of Vesta

.

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Figure 7 - The left top quarter of Vesta in the image taken from this position.

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Figure 8 - (A) is the right top quarter of Vesta. In the image taken from this position. The light blue part of what is seen in the image above could be suggestive evidence that what is seen is a mixture of frozen nitrogen and H20 that is in a large frozen mountain range upon the surface of vestal. The light greenish and gray color could be rock. (B) is a evidently is an impact crater that hit the surface of Vesta very hard and the white colored impact impression around the crater cavity can be seen in like manner. The next image will present and demonstrate a close up of that impact crater and the white impact impression around the cavity in much more detail..

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Figure 9 - presents a projected image of the upper right top quarter of Vesta. Demonstrating detail of what may be a mixture nitrogen and H20. Deep impact craters can be seen as well. (Stewart R., (1977). (" A Study In The Supplemental Camera Attachments and Their Capabilities and Limitations and When To Photograph On Earth and In Space Exploration ).

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Figure 10 - Presents the left lower bottom quarter of Vesta. Striking detail can be seen in very deep impact craters, fissures and other remarkable detail of the surface topography that Vesta illustrates. Some of the impact craters are evidently very old and large .

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Figure 11- Presents and demonstrates a sky blue color, which could be according to IMMI spectrography and spectrometry could be the combinational mixture and presence of nitrogen and oxygen. The blue textured swirl like ridges that are formulated on the south polar hemisphere of Vesta could be due to very slight gravitational and magnetic field presence over time. (Stewart R., (1977). (" A Study In The Supplemental Camera Attachments and Their Capabilities and Limitations and When To Photograph On Earth and In Space Exploration ).

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Figure 12- (A-B) - (A) is Vesta as the image was taken by the Dawn Spacecraft at over 77,000 miles away from Vesta. The yellow arrow points the next area that will be investigated. This dark brown to red colored area is very interesting. However, what is it ? could it be a mountain range on Vesta ? Or is it perhaps a very ancient old extinct volcano demonstrating that at one Vesta may have had geo-thermal activity when it was first formed ? (B) presents Vesta turned slightly to the right, in a right clock-wise rotation. So that the area where the yellow area points to under (B) will be better seen, so it may be more readily studied to see exactly what this topographical feature on Vesta either may be determined as to what this specific topographical feature may be on Vesta or not.

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Figure 13 - display topographical surface features that have some resemblance to an elevated mountain range. However, more detail should become more prevalent as IMMI allows another close investigation at this geological topographical feature that rises high above the surface of Vesta, as will be seen in Fig. 14.(Consolmagno, G. J., and Britt, D. T. (1998) propose, presents, and demonstrates in this technical research paper that the density and porosity of meteorites from the Vatican collection. which was reported and published in : " Meteoritics and Planetary Science " clearly give hypothetical and theoretical models and observational and microscopic examination of the same types of meteorites found in the Vatican collection and surmise that these came from the dwarf planet Vesta that contend to have very similar porous appearance as seen here on Vesta in Figures 13 - 15.

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Figure 14 - The top northern hemisphere presents and demonstrates what seems to resemble an extraordinary large topographical surface area that could be a vastly large accumulation of smaller mountains on one larger mountain like shaped mountain range. A mountain range that is in the shape and geological morphological formation as seen above no doubt has never been seen before.

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Figure 15 - A much closer look at what was seen in Fig. 14. regarding to what resembles a mountain range or either one exceptionally large mountain at the top of the northern hemisphere of Vesta. No doubt the about of equalizing thrust forces and counter balances it takes the above mountain and /or mountain range acts as a counter balance to keep Vesta in it's current vertical upright position. The green colored rock geological formational areas on top of the brown to beige colored under lying sub-surface features and characteristics of this mountain and/ or mountain range have an appearance and resemblance to a much more massive non-porous base sliding surface area, than what is seen in the upper green colored rock formational areas of this surface feature of Vesta in like manner. The larger porous cavity like areas in the brownish to beige colored rock formations most likely are extremely large craters caused by meteors hitting the surface over a very significant amount of time.. However, another observation this paper proposes, presents and demonstrates, is that the green mountainous rock formation area seem to present evidence of as much crater activity.

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Figure 16 - shows a yellow arrow which points to the next area that will be investigated. This is in the topographical geological formation on Vesta that could resemble the eye of a bird's face and beak. This is attaining an extreme close up of this area on the surface of Vesta. The tip of the yellow arrow points to the inside of the cavity area will be seen.(Use the magnification tool in the pdf document).

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Figure 17 - In this image the yellow arrow points to the area that will be investigated next as IMMI a attains a much closer look.

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Figure 18 - The area above that could resemble the eye of a bird is at this point very close to the surface of Vesta. In the next image where the tip of the aqua colored arrow points to, will show the inside of a cavity like area in what resembles the eye of a bird, also seen in Figure 18 . The surface feature where the aqua arrow points to is again most unusual. It appears that there is an equally left sized cavity on the opposite side of this surface feature. Features like this are further explained in (Mc Cord Thomas B. et al (1970).

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Figure 19 - Specifically presents the topographical geological surface area feature of Vesta, which is being investigated and studied and shown in the red square. Whereas a closer look at this area with much more detail can be seen in the larger image projection seen to the right. The area that could resemble the eye of a bird at a distance when looking at it shows on the right side of the projection what also represents some sort of natural geological land formation archway, in like manner as a person would see on earth.

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Fig. 20 - shows an enlarged projection of a bird-like eye land formation on Vesta's surface.An opposite opening is seen on the left side.

Bibliography (In Alphabetical Order)

[1]-Asmar, S. et al (2009). Asmar, S., Konopliv, A., Bills, B., Park, R., Raymond, C., Russell, C., Smith, D., Zuber, M. 2009. Simulations of Dawn Gravity for Vesta and Ceres And Implications For Interior Structure. AAS/Division for Planetary Sciences Meeting Abstracts 41, #50.01. [2]-Britt, D. T. and Consolmagno, G.J., (2004). Meteorite Porosities and Densities: A Review of Trends in the Data. Lunar and Planetary Institute Science Conference Abstracts 35, 2108.

[3]-Britt, D. T. et al , (2002). Yeomans, D., Housen, K., Consolmagno, G. 2002. Asteroid Density, Porosity, and Structure. Asteroids III 485-500. [4]-Consolmagno, G. J., and Britt, D. T. (1998). The density and porosity of meteorites from the Vatican collection. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 33, 1231-1241. 38

[5]-Davis, D. R., et al 1985).Chapman, C. R., Weidenschilling, S. J., Greenberg, R. 1985. Collisional history of asteroids: Evidence from Vesta and the Hirayama families. Icarus 62, 3053. Everhart, E. 1985. An efficient integrator that uses Gauss-Radau spacings. Dynamics of Comets: [6]-Mc Cord Thomas B. et al (1970). Thomas B. McCord, John B. Adams, and Torrence V. Johnson.- Asteroid Vesta: Spectral Reflectivity and Compositional Implications (1970)-and Torrence V. Johnson. Science # 19 June, 1970. [7]-Chips off of Asteroid 4 Vesta: Evidence for the Parent Body of Basaltic Achondrite Meteorites Richard P. Binzel and Shui Xu Science 9 April 1993: 186-191. [8]-Feierberg M.A. and Drake M.J. (1980).The Meteorite-Asteroid Connection: The Infrared Spectra of Eucrites, Shergottites, and Vesta. Science 15 August 1980: 805-807. [9]-Stewart R., (1976). ("Photographic Formats Solving The Problems"). (Theses In Photography,Imaging and Electronics), Elkins Institute , San Antonio, Texas. [10]-Stewart R,., (1977). ("A Study On Imaging Concepts and Applications In Solving Graininess and Loss of Resolution In Round Pixilated Photography"), Elkins Institute, (Department of The Study of Photography and Imaging), San Antonio, Texas. [11]-Stewart R., (1977). (" A Study In The Supplemental Camera Attachments and Their Capabilities and Limitations and When To Photograph), Elkins Institute Department of The Study of Photography and Imaging), San Antonio, Texas. [12]-Tricaricoa, P.(2010).The Dynamical Environment of Dawn at Vesta P. Tricaricoa,, M. V. Sykes a Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E. Ft. Lowell Rd. Ste. 106, Tucson AZ 85719 [13]-Turrini D. et al (2010). Probing the history of Solar System through the cratering records on Vesta and Ceres [14]-Other Notes - http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/dawn/main/index.html Acknowledgements The authors of this research paper would like to thank all of the scientists who have contributed to the scientific research either in the publications of their papers or in research involved with NASA and in the Dawn Spacecraft program which are providing a wealth of information about Vesta and the early formation of our solar system .

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A Theoretical Projection of Ceres A Sub Earth Minor Planet Ronald Stewart Abstract- "Earth-Like-Exo-Planets" have been the research dream of most astrobiologists for the last ten to fifteen years. However, is it possible there may be a small exo-planet within the boundaries of our own solar system that could have :"Proto -Earth-Like -Attributes " ? Some scientists like -(McCord and Sotin - (2005),( Mousis and Albert-(2005), and others believe the dwarf-planet named : "Ceres" , may qualify as a : " Proto-Sub-Like-Earth Dwarf-Planet". A new imaging process entitled with the acronym : " IMMI-(Infinite-Microscopic-Macroscopic Imaging) " was used to captivate new images of Ceres. However, the question that pervades the mind is: "Could Ceres be a combination of either a spherical dwarf planet or is Ceres more like a :"Ellipsoid -Proto-Sub-Like-Earth Dwarf-Planet" instead ? This research paper proposes,presents, and demonstrates which of these two options that the new data and evidence on Ceres supports. Keywords : Ceres, Proto-Planet, Dwarf-Planet, Vesta, Solar System, Dawn Spacecraft

1.0 Introduction and Background 1.1 Ceres The Dwarf Planet In 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi discovered the first as well as largest Main-Belt asteroid ever found, now commonly designated as 1 Ceres. Giuseppe Piazzi at first thought among other astronomers of his day that Ceres was actually a planet most likely like earth. However, to one previous NASA estimate, Ceres may have over one-third of the total mass of the Main Asteroid Belt. Although relatively round, its diameter actually varies between 579 to 597 miles (or around 932 to 960 kilometers) across. Although rocky and icy proto planets beyond the Solar System's 2-AU "ice line" formed in the Main Asteroid Belt, However, although it has been quite controversial for the last several years, or about August 24, 2006, the International Astronomical Union voted at the end of its 26th General Assembly to establish a new class of celestial objects in Solar System called a "dwarf planet,". There are other names for a dwarf planet. One of the other names are :" proto planets ". Which includes Ceres. _____________________ (Th.D.)- Ancient History/ Religious History-(4000-B.C.-1400-C.E.) With An Emphasis In Historical Archaeology, and retains a (PhD)Theoretics In The Arts, Humanities, and Sciences. Stewart also peer reviews for Ancient History Encyclopedia, is Editor-In-Chief for IJAAR(Int'l Journal of Astronomy/Astrophysics & Earth Sciences Research), to be promoted World-Wide By: "Pro-Quest"-(Indexing/ Scholar Journal Services), (Asst. Editor for: "Pluralidade"-(In English)-"Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciences" ) read in (42}countries/ (5)continents-Earth wide),, Recently invited to be: "A Guest Editor For The Oldest/ Largest Peer Reviewed Journal In The World: "Royal Society Publishing Proceedings-(A & B" ),(September, 15th, 2013, appointed as: "Editor-In-Chief" for the: " Blind/ Open-Peer Reviewed journal known as: "Independent Archaeology Notes, Art-History & Earth Sciences". Stewart is also a member of the NEAS-(Near Eastern Archaeological Society).

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This paper will show that especially since about the latter part of 2006 and into 2007 new data and evidence has come into light to show that Ceres is truly unique unto itself. Other scientists believe: "The Dawn spacecraft of the NASA space mission to asteroids 1 Ceres and 4 Vesta was launched in September 2007. The choice of these two asteroids is deeply grounded: they are the largest and most massive objects of the main belt that are completely different in material composition, history, and internal structure. Recently, the results of observations and numerical modeling have shown their amazing uniqueness: "they both have experienced the complex process of thermal and differentiation of their internal mineral resources", but have a completely different internal structure ".(Original Russian Text © D.F. Lupishko, R.A. Mohamed, 2009, published in Astronomicheskii Vestnik, 2009, Vol. 43, No. 6, pp. 493–501). Other scientists believe that the study of Ceres is very important. Why ? Because they believe that to solve the riddle about Ceres is to also solve any cosmogonic problems regarding the asteroid belt and the Solar System as a whole. 2.0 Reasons Why The Spherical Shape of The Dwarf Planet Ceres Is Gravitationally and Magnetic Field Conducive In Keeping Water Upon It's Topographical Surface This sub-section of this research paper proposes, presents, and will demonstrate two options as to the shape of Ceres and in what most likely choices are. However, the gravitational and magnetic field resonance may play a part in the dawn Spacecraft finding Ceres to be a combination of several compositional factors. In some respects some scientists believe that Ceres is more similar to a spherical shape more like the earth. On the other hand within the last few weeks with the recent visit of the Dawn Spacecraft to the dwarf planet Vesta before it makes it's next scheduled mission to Ceres leaving Vesta in July, 2012, that after studying Vesta that Ceres may have more of a shape and composition like Vesta. However, this paper will investigate these options and will provide new data and evidence showing what Ceres will most likely look like in this paper before when the Dawn Spacecraft arrives at Ceres in about May to August , 2015. In the asteroid belt that is positioned in the solar system between Mars and Jupiter are literally thousands upon thousands of irregularly shaped asteroids. However the two what some believe are asteroids and others have been classified as proto dwarf planets have this direct application to Vesta and Ceres. It is because all of these asteroid have many irregular shapes it has long been believed that Vesta and Ceres were planets when they were first discovered. However, since 2006 when Pluto, Vesta, and Ceres were re-classified as smaller proto or dwarf planets the more circular shape of Ceres has held the greatest interest that it could have an opportunity to hydrostatic systems that would contribute to Ceres having a large amount of water. However, past thinking is that this water was more in the form of H20 is believed to consist in it's composition of a layer of dust-like crust, with an underlying "water ice mantle" and rocky based core. Other scientists believe that condensation makes it's way up to the surface in readily available pools of water that may cover a large part of Ceres. However, is only soon to evaporate. 41

Could the circular shape of Ceres have anything to do with large reservoirs of water upon it's surface ? 3.0 Asteroid Perturbations In Mass Determination That The Gravitational and Magnetic Field Constants Based Upon Conceptual ASTROD Spacecraft (Bierman, G. J., (2007) ; (Chiou, D.-W., (2000a) ; (Chiou, D.-W.,(2000b) ; (Bowell, E., (1999) ; (Brumberg, V. A., (1991) first to one varying degree or another contend in hypothesis, theory, tables, models, and computerized model simulations, propose that Ceres is an dwarf planet ranging in mass and size anywhere from 487.5 to 510.5 kilometers in diameter and that proto or dwarf planet is semispherical to spherical in shape. Particularly in their research papers engage that because of high technological concepts proposed to the (ESO)-(European Space Organization), and due to the high-precision nature of the ASTROD (Astro dynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices) mission concept, the asteroid perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft is crucial. The concept for a space mission to Ceres concerning the represented perturbations need to be modeled and determined together with relativistic effects and other solar-system parameters. In a previous investigation (Su et al., Planetary and Space Science, 47, 339-43 [1999]). The aforementioned research papers ascertained by scientific investigation of the mass estimation of Ceres, Pallas and Vesta in the literature to calculate perturbations on the ASTROD spacecraft. Recently, scientists involved with the ASTROD concept for a new theoretical spacecraft that could conceptually do the work of several spacecraft envisioned by other scientists. Who believe that a framework to simulate the determination of the masses of over 492 asteroids throughout the Kuniper Asteroid Belt could help them to better understand for formation of the two largest asteroid / proto planets known as Vesta and Ceres. The combined masses and average median point in this frame work of understanding the perturbations of all of these 492 asteroids, would help scientists to evaluate Vesta and Ceres from different perspectives, in order help them understand the early formation of Vesta and Ceres in relation to the rest of the solar system. Although the Dawn Surveyor spacecraft is currently assessing Vesta, it is still unclear at this time how these asteroid perturbations particularly effect Vesta and Ceres when it comes to these two dwarf planets masses. There is an assertion based upon a hypothetical concept involving accuracies pertaining to models based on the conception spacecraft named ASTROD-(Astro dynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices), that in the event approved could have implemented instrumentation that could help determine the gravitational and magnetic field undertures and overtures that would help determine the masses of Vesta and Ceres more explicitly in relation to early formation of the solar system.. Especially when it comes to how all the gravitational and magnetic field balances and consonants are concerned. In a previous investigation (Ni, 1997), and (Bierman, G. J., (2007) proposed that the temporal variation in the gravitational constant can be measured to 10-13/yr or better in fraction in the ASTROD mission. In a subsequent paper (Su et al., 1999), used the mass estimation of 42

Ceres, Pallas and Vesta to calculate the perturbations of the spacecraft and propose to determine the masses of asteroids through their perturbations which would had been the primary mission of the conceptual ASTROD spacecraft. However , this concept for such a spacecraft is still conceptual and the financing and building of it never emerged. Since this is the case all that can be implemented are simulations and computer modeling to see if such a spacecraft could be a future workable model. 4.0 The Role of Magnetic Fields For Planetary Formation and of Ceres (Anders Johansen (2009) presents in this research paper points as far as magnetic fields and their development concerning most carbonaceous chondrites that it is thought the Ceres in composed of. One strong reason is believed that dwarf planets like Ceres have a remnant magnetisation as high as a few Gauss, frozen in as the material cooled past the blocking temperature (Levy & Sonett 1978). A quote from the excellent review paper by Levy & Sonett (1978) is also believed to particularly be concise on the origin of such a strong magnetic field.

Figure 1 - J. Parker, P. Thomas, L. McFadden, ESA, NASA , (Image-Credit)-(2004) Those who took this image and who have studied it , according to their study believe that :"Although very dark, the asteroid has a relatively brighter area of unknown composition (more from hubblesite.org and APOD). The point is : " This is the best image that could be produced with HST in 2004, and is still the best image (other than IMMI) to date of Ceres. However when estimating the true shape of Ceres by HST in 2004 suggests Ceres is spherical in shape like earth. However, is this truly Ceres' shape ? figure 2 will present and demonstrate most likely the best image of Ceres yet. There seems to be many impact crater activity when taking a look at the surface of Ceres. The yellow arrows point to areas of the location in and around the circumference of Ceres where previous formation debris of Ceres seems to be abundant in lack of forming a most likely a full magnetic field to where it could be come a planet with a possible atmosphere compared to just a planetoid. 43

Figure 2 - (Nazzario R. et al (2002) - (Source)-(Ronald Stewart-(2013-2014). The above image is most likely the best image of Ceres, and how it likely truly appears. Ceres and that this most likely causes a somewhat hazy look to the planet at times and in this semi-elliptically shaped formulation of dust grains that partially encircle Ceres, that the orbital behavior around Ceres derived from it's early formation when the solar system was formed. The above image was using IMMI to enhance the 2004 image taken by HST. What is seen above is the way Ceres truly appears and what it look like today in 2011 in like manner. The above image is shown as the pixilated 2004 HST images shows it would look like prior to more investigation if Ceres were to be spherical like the earth. The yellow arrows show the consistency of the (Nazzario R. et al (2001) (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) explains in : "Table - 2 " of their research paper that when Ceres is compared with the same images available to them in 2001 from the HST in their analysis of the first disc resolved images of Ceres in ultraviolet light. However, the analysis and descriptions fits more of a description of a sub-like earth and cross compared with sub-solar pixel coordinates. In which in the final analysis there are close approximates according to the measurements shown in the table above. That Ceres is more like a proto sub earth, as earth also may have been in it's early formation in a young solar system. It was also noted that the annular photometry of the features seen on Ceres matches this background value at a radius of ∼4 pixel-widths, which is our estimate for the mean radius. Essentially meaning that the studies with HST reveal that the shape of Ceres than would more match the shape of an : " Ellipsoid " . This information was also derived from studies of Ceres during periods of occultation measurements. Which also agree with the research paper by (Millis et al. (1987), and are in better agreement with the adaptive optics values. Some of the differences could be due to the effect of differing rotational phase and sub-Earth latitude for the different observations. Observations taken at different epochs see the disk cross-section at different subEarth latitudes and longitudes, so comparisons are problematic. Which would also coincide and 44

be in agreement with (Drummond et al. (1998) observations provide an estimated 3-dimensional shape for Ceres. However, for an object rotating this slowly, the equilibrium shape is expected to be a Roche ellipsoid. It was also discovered in (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) that the axes of Ceres also has a integrated red spectral slope in it's shape that were also determined in these ultraviolet HST studies. It is also agreed that more imaging studies needed to be done in order to have better sampling of the rotation period to finally resolve the continuing, longstanding uncertainty in Ceres’pole position. Furthermore, a greater need to obtain more information on the search for surface ice and to be able to distinguish to much greater detail not only surface features and topography on Ceres, but also determine where surface ice may be located and better mapping of ice absorption patterns that Ceres seems to exhibit as well as also agreed in other scientific research papers by (e.g. Hudson 1971) and (Wagener & Caldwell 1988). Comments in (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) also made observations could be with the next generation of HST imaging space better images will be able to be used to determine these areas of scientific investigation to a much deeper degree. Ten years later these aforementioned guidelines establishing what would be required into the future in order to be able learn more about Ceres would have to be in the type of instrumentation that would have to do with considerable advancements in imaging that could research proto planets and any other celestial body in the solar system and exo-planets exploration as well. That time is now, it is here with the IMMI system will present and demonstrate such future imaging technology as follows :

Figure 3 - Research papers like (e.g. Hudson 1971), (Wagener & Caldwell 1988)., and (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) worked with the HST seen like in Fig. 1. By the time the HST was able to improve it's imaging systems and better images as shown above (left) in Fig. 3 where another HST image was taken in 2004, the images improved compared to previous pixilated 45

images available in 2001. When (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) discusses that future imaging instrumentation, and technological processes would improve image of Ceres. The IMMI system has been able to take preliminary results of the HST image from 2004 on the left and was able to eliminate all of the problems with it seen in photography and imaging today.

Figure 4 - In all likelihood Ceres somewhere between what recently has been seen in images of Vesta and what is a : " Ellipsoid -Proto-Sub-Like-Earth Dwarf-Planet" .

Figure 5 - (A) is a partial dust layer belt around part of Ceres. (B) shows the approximate 500 kilometer ellipsoid diameter of Ceres.(C) is ice. (D could be reservoirs of some surface water. 46

Figure 6 - As (Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001) and other scientists who have written research papers mention the ice on the surface of Ceres. However, with the aid of IMMI a better understanding may now be able to come into view. In the left top corner of the image above where the yellow arrow points to, is an IMMI image of Vesta. The small yellow square is the original area that projection (A) is extending from of the same enlarged area. (A) gives evidence that Vesta is heavily saturated with :"Ice-like Perforations". In like manner, in the upper right top corner of the image above the yellow arrow points to Ceres. Within this second yellow square is an area on Ceres that is enlarged and projected represented in (B). Just like the ice-perforations seen in (A) for Vesta, the same ice perforation conditions for Ceres in also seen in projection (B). Therefore, in this area Vesta and Ceres have striking similarities in the fact that both of certain topographical areas of both Vesta and Ceres have :" Ice - Perforations " on the surfaces of both Vesta and Ceres. No doubt because of the lack of the warmth of the sun each asteroid like dwarf planet has striking similarities, that would also give imaging evidence at this point that both Vesta and Ceres formed at about the same time under similar conditions when the solar system was very young. Furthermore, when the Dawn Surveyor Spacecraft leaves from it's current investigating mission of studying Vesta in about July of 2012, and then head for the next part of it's mission to Ceres, in which it will arrive there sometime between May to August, 2015 , what the Dawn Surveyor Spacecraft will find is what is being shown now in this research paper. That just like 47

Vesta Ceres will show that it has :" ice perforations" in different areas upon it's surface just like Vesta in like manner.

Figure 7 - This last image present another comparison of the striking similarities of : " Impact Craters " on both Vesta on the upper left top corner of the image, where in (A) represents a enlarged close up of the yellow square area on Vesta that shows an impact crater. As can be seen the proliferation of colors, detail, and even smaller impact crater cavities in the impact crater on Vesta provides a wealth of new data and evidence about Vesta, how it formed, and it's state of condition it is in today. Again in like manner in the upper right top corner is Ceres. Again inside the yellow square is an impact crater on Ceres and is demonstrated in projection (B) how this impact crater looks up close to the surface of Ceres. Again several smaller detailed impact craters are seen. Therefore the similarities that are seen in even the impact craters on Vesta and Ceres have consistent similarities. Again providing evidence that Vesta and Ceres both were formed about the same time when the solar system developed so long ago.

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Fig. 8 - Conclusion - So according to the new data and evidence presented in this research paper what the Dawn Surveyor Spacecraft will find in about August, 2015 when it arrives to Ceres will be much of what is proposed,presented, and demonstrated in this research paper four years ahead of time. Based upon what is known and the new data and evidence presented in this research paper what the Dawn Surveyor Spacecraft will find when it arrives at Ceres in 2015 is an : "Ellipsoid -Proto-Sub-Like-Earth Dwarf-Planet" . Pretty much as earth may have appeared very long ago when it's atmosphere was quite thin, and the formation of land masses past the active volcanic stage of development and ice and some surface water formation appeared. That Ceres is a proto ellipsoid dwarf planet that has now some of the early attributes earth once had. That Ceres composition is in some respects similar to what is seen in Vesta. That there are topographical surface areas that have ice perforations and that most likely these ice perforations are part of what make up part of the crust of Ceres and beneath the top of the surface of Ceres this ice also composes of a :"Water Ice Mantle". Other surface areas of Ceres' will show craters, ice, and some surface water. 49

Acknowledgements The authors of this scientific research paper would like to thank the countless, scientists, researchers, around the world and our special thanks to NASA for making the science of Astrobiology a reality in our lifetime. Bibliographical References (May Not Be In Numerical Order Mentioned In This Research Paper) (In Alphabetical Order) [1]-Bierman, G. J., (2007). Factorization Methods for Discrete Sequential Estimation, Academic Press, New York (1977); and references therein. [2]-Bowell, E., (1999). The Asteroid Orbital Elements Database in ftp://ftp.lowell.edu/pub/elgb/astorb.html (1999). [3]-Brumberg, V. A., (1991). Essential Relativistic Celestial Mechanics, Adam Hilger, Bristol, England (1991); and references therein. [4]-Carry, Benoit; et al. (November 2007). "Near-Infrared Mapping and Physical Properties of the

Dwarf-Planet Ceres" (PDF). Astronomy & Astrophysics 478: 235–244. doi:10.1051/00046361:20078166. http://www2.keck.hawaii.edu/inst/people/conrad/nsfGrantRef/2007-arXivBenoit.Carry.pdf. [5]-Chamberlain, Matthew A.; Sykes, Mark V.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A. (2007). "Ceres lightcurve analysis – Period determination". Icarus 188: 451–456. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.11.025. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007Icar..188..451C. [6]-Chiou, D.-W., (2000a). and W.-T. Ni, ASTROD Orbit Simulation and Accuracy of Relativistic Parameter Determination, Advances in Space Research 25, 6, pp.~1259-1262 (2000a). [7]-Chiou, D.-W.,(2000b) ; and W.-T. Ni, Orbit Simulation for the Determination of Relativistic and SolarSystem Parameters for the ASTROD Space Mission, presented to 33rd COSPAR Scientific Assembly, Warsaw, 16-23 July, 2000 (2000b).

[8]-Li, Jian-Yang; McFadden, Lucy A.; Parker, Joel Wm. (2006). Icar.182.143.pdf "Photometric analysis of 1 Ceres and surface mapping from HST observations" (PDF). Icarus 182: 143–160. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2005.12.012. http://www.astro.umd.edu/~jyli/publications/2006. Icar.182.143.pdf. [9]-Moomaw, Bruce (2007-07-02). "Ceres As An Abode Of Life". spaceblooger.com. http://www.spaceblogger.com/reports/Ceres_As_An_Abode_Of_Life_999.html. Retrieved 200711-06.

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[10]-Nazzario R. et al (2001). Dust Grain Orbital Behavior Around Ceres . Authors: R. Nazzario, T. W. Hyde, L. Barge Comments: 8 pages, Presented at COSPAR '03. Subjects: Space Physics (physics.space-ph. [11]-Parker J.Wm and Stern S. Allen (2001). Analysis of The First Disc Resolved Images of Ceres From Ultraviolet Observations With The Hubble Space Telescope. Joel Wm. Parker,1 S. Alan Stern Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, Suite 426, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. [12]-Russel, C. T.; Capaccioni, F.; Coradini, A.; et al ; (2006). "Dawn Discovery mission to Vesta and Ceres: Present status". Advances in Space Research 38: 2043–2048. doi:10.1016/j.asr.2004.12.041. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdSpR..38.2043R. [13]-Saint-Pé, O.; Combes, N.; Rigaut F. (1993). "Ceres surface properties by high-resolution 105: imaging from Earth". Icarus 271–281. doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1125. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Icar..105..271S. [14]-Thomas, P. C 2007).; Parker, J. Wm.; McFadden, L. A.; et al. (2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature 437 (7056): 224–226. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005Natur.437..224T. Retrieved 2007-12-09. [15]-Vitagliano Aldo (2009 ). "The Mean Plane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. http://home.comcast.net/~kpheider/MeanPlane.gif. Retrieved 2009-04-10. (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also Invariable plane). [16]-Yeomans, Donald K ; a b c d e f - (2007). "1 Ceres". JPL Small-Body Database Browser. http://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/sbdb.cgi?sstr=Ceres;orb=1. Retrieved 2009-04-10. —The listed values were rounded at the magnitude of uncertainty (1-sigma). References Supporting Images Shown In This Research Paper [17]-Constraining Ceres' interior from its Rotational Motion Authors: Nicolas Rambaux (IMCCE), Julie Castillo-Rogez (JPL), Véronique Dehant (ROB), Petr Kuchynka (IMCCE, JPL) Comments: submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics Subjects: Solar and Stellar Astrophysics (astro-ph.SR); Earth and Planetary Astrophysics (astro-ph.EP). [18]-Vesta and Ceres: crossing the history of the Solar System .Authors: Angioletta Coradini, Diego Turrini, Costanzo Federico, Gianfranco Magni Comments: 27 pages, 1 figure, 2 tables; the final publication is available at this http URL Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics. [19]-A Search for Satellite around Ceres Authors: A. Bieryla, J. Wm. Parker, E.F. Young, L. A. McFadden, C. T. Russell, S. A. Stern, M. V. Sykes, B. Gladman Comments: Accepted for publication in AJ Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics. 51

[20]-The role of magnetic fields for planetary formation Authors: Anders Johansen Comments: Invited Review for IAU Symp. 259: Cosmic Magnetic Fields: From Planets, to Stars and Galaxies (Tenerife, Spain. Nov. 3-7, 2009). K.G. Strassmeier, A.G. Kosovichev & J.E. Beckman (eds.) Journal-ref: IAU Symp. 259, p. 249-528 (2009) Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics. [21]-Probing the history of Solar System through the cratering records on Vesta and Ceres Authors: D. Turrini, G. Magni, A. Coradini Comments: 34 pages, 26 figures and 6 tables, accepted for publication on the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (accepted 2011 January 10; received 2010 November 23; in original form 2010 August 6). [22]-Catalogue of ISO LWS observations of asteroids Authors: Felix Hormuth (1 and 2), Thomas G. Müller (3) ((1) Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán, Almería, Spain, (2) Max-PlanckInstitut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, Germany, (3) Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Garching, Germany) Comments: 11 pages, 6 figures, accepted for publication in A& ; A Subjects: Earth and Planetary Astrophysics [23]-Near-Infrared Mapping and Physical Properties of the Dwarf-Planet Ceres Authors: Benoit Carry, Christophe Dumas, Marcello Fulchignoni, William J. Merline, Jerome Berthier, Daniel Hestroffer, Thierry Fusco, Peter Tamblyn Comments: 11 pages, 8 Postscript figures, Accepted for publication in A& ; A Subjects: Astrophysics [24]-On the composition of ices incorporated in Ceres . Authors: Olivier Mousis, Yann Alibert Comments: Accepted in MNRAS . Journal-ref: Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 358 (2005) 188-192 Subjects: Astrophysics (astro[25]-On the composition of ices incorporated in Ceres .Authors: Olivier Mousis, Yann Alibert Comments: Accepted in MNRAS Journal-ref: Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 358 (2005) 188-192 [26]-Benoˆıt Carry et al. ; (2007) -" Near-Infrared Mapping and Physical Properties of the Dwarf-Planet Ceres " - (November, 2007) [27]-NASA Puts Squeeze on Asteroid [DOI:10.1126/science.303.5664.1595c]

Mission

Science

12

March

2004:

1595.

[28]-Asphaug Erik (2007) -" The Shifting Sands of Asteroids. " Science 18 May 2007: 993-994. [DOI:10.1126/science.1141971] [29]- http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/destination-asteroid-nasa-probearrives-at-ancient-mini-moon/2011/07/15/gIQAsOxdGI_story.html? tid=sm_twitter_washingtonpost - If all goes well, next summer the 65-foot-wide craft will depart Vesta and head toward the largest asteroid in the solar system, Ceres, with arrival scheduled for 2015. Ceres intrigues scientists because it apparently holds a huge reservoir of water, Russell said.

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FIRST VIEW OF GLIESE-581- d ; A PRELIMINARY SURFACE SURVEY (PART - 1) 1R.

Stewart, 2V. Celebonovic, 3O.Aguiar, 4E. Chatzitheodoridis, 5G. Artuso, 6A. Samadi, 7C.I.O.Aristizabal, 8M. Bingham, 9W.Trentadue, 10R.Robinett, 11J.R. Ackerman, 12M.S. Roman, 13R. Fraisse, 14M. Huguet Abstract- In 2007 the exoplanet known as Gliese-581-d was confirmed. From (2009 to 2011) re assessment of the (HZ-(Habitable Zone) concluded that Gliese-581-d was deeper into the (HZ) than previously thought, and likely has at least one or more oceans upon its surface. However, over many years current imaging, remote imaging, and telescopy, technologies have only very rarely been able to captivate images of larger gas giant exoplanets the size of Jupiter and larger. Therefore,what is needed is not only a combination telescopy and imaging technology that has the capability to captivate images of exoplanets smaller than Jupiter, but also would be able to image the exoplanet's surface up very close and in an extreme amount of detail; in this case applicable to Gliese-581-d. Keywords : Gliese-581-d, Exoplanets, Oceanography, Geology, Geophysics, Glaciology, _________________________ 1-(PhD.)- Director-For-(EXO-SCOPE)-Project)-(CEO/Chief-Scientist)-Stewart Research,-(Independent Research Company)- Texas-USA,( 2(PhD.)- Astronomy, Astrophysics)-( Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Belgrade ), (3-DSc.)- Oceanographic Research Director at Plural Foundation (Sao Vicente, Brazil), 4-(PhD.)- Astronomy, Astrophysics, Astrobiology, Planetary-Sciences)-Assistant Professor at National Technical University of Athens Demographic info Greece, 5-(PhD.)- (Geology, Geo-Physics, Glaciology), Geologo presso Agenzia Regionale Campana Difesa Suolo Località, Napoli, Italia), 6- (PhD.-Student)- Lecturer in Physics-Astrophysics at- ( ZANJAN university, Lecture in Physics at PAIAM NOOR university, Urmia-Naghadeh Branch), 7-(DSc-Student)-at-Geo-Sciences Institute Federal-Fluminense University), (Geology, Geo-Physics, Glaciology), 8-(MSc.)-(Glacial-Geology, Glaciology, Geology, Environmental Sciences)-Program Director at Advanced Environmental-Boston Mass., USA), 9-(BSc.)- (EXO-SCOPE)-Project-Coordinator), (Astronomy,Telescopy Systems & Instrumentation, Planetary Sciences, Geology)Adjunct Instructor- at Rock Valley College), 10-(MSc.)-(Geology, Geophysics, Glaciology, Oceanography)-(Science Research at Orion research Associates), 11-(MSc.)- Geology, Geo-physics, Glaciology, Civil Engineering)-Principal at Twin Oaks Consulting, LLC), 12- (MSc.)Astronomy, Astrophysics)-Scientific Researcher at Centro de Astrobiological (CSIC-INTA)-Madrid Spain), 13-(Satellite Image Quality-TeamLeader and expert at EADS-ASTRIUM, Toulouse, France), 14-(MSc.)- Atmospheric-Sciences, Cloud Physics, Environmental Sciences, Meteorology)-(Environmental Consultant /Meteorologist at Source Environmental Services, Inc.).

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1

Introduction

1.1 Methodology, The Problem and Solution For Exoplanetary Viewing, Imaging and Research The methodology used is a new imaging technology using the acronym entitled :-(IMMI) which means ; " Infinite Microscopic To Macroscopic Imaging " , which in application to the science of telescopy and telescopic instrumentation such as would be seen in the use of telescopes and how this applies first using the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE-(Exoplanetary-Telescope-Interlink System) is first best explained and described in [1] a series of videos that first explain and describe in simple terms how the IMMI and EXOSCOPE technologies work. (For a greater explanation on how the IMMI /EXO-SCOPE technologies work, please refer to the Bibliographical Reference #1 in the Bibliographical Reference Section at the end of this paper. However, by the time you read further in this paper and if you have seen two of these videos just go to the next step.). The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technologies not only have the capability to view, but also image other solar systems at extremely close ranges. [2] in the research paper by (W. Trentadue and R. Stewart, (2013) entitled:"Overview of The Theoretical Aperture and Projected Capabilities of The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE Technologies"), and [3] R. Stewart, (2013). "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies In Preliminary Imaging Application and Fundamental Analysis of Other Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones", present and demonstrate the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technologies in a series of simple to complex steps. When combined, these two technologies have capabilities to extend one or more telescopes magnification viewing capabilities, when the IMMI/ EXO-SCOPE technologies inter-link one or more telescopes together.In addition to making one or more telescopes magnification capabilities more powerful, there are three separate zooming capabilities. [4-5] For example; please watch the two videos entitled: "How The IMMI/ EXO-SCOPE Technologies Are Able To Attain Extreme Close up Images of Planets/ Exoplanets"- (This video is -(1:29) in length. Scroll down about half way down the web-page and that is where the first video may be found). Then watch the video entitled: "IMMI"/ EXO-SCOPE Technologies- How Do They Work Together"?-(8:16) in length. Especially the second video actually demonstrates zooming into the Gliese-581 star system explains where the capability of for example a 8.6 meter telescopes capability would end and where the IMMI/EXO-SCOPE's capabilities take over from that point onward. (Note)-This is an actual demonstration-(not a simulation) where the IMMI/EX)-SCOPE technologies demonstrate two of it's three telescopy zooming capabilities(that can be used on an image whether in hard copy or in electronic signature form).(Or could use the EXO-SCOPE technology capabilities through a telescope to do the same in like manner) to also zoom into the Gliese-581-star system-(or any other star system). Then in the second zooming capability zoom into the exoplanet (as it is actually done in this demonstration), up to an exoplanet and attain extreme close ups of not only the exoplanet, but also of any astronomical planetary phenomenon, such as it's Moon etc. As further demonstrated in the second video. These 54

two videos may be watched at this following URL- http://www.stewart-researchconsulting.com/how-immi-exo-works.html . While the third zoom in capability has the capability of attaining extreme close up views and/ or images of an exoplanet's surface in great detail. Whereas in theory [3] R. Stewart, (2013) brings to the reader's attention that the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technologies may also be combined with different types of LIDAR technologies through a telescope. That have even greater capabilities to open up new dimensions analyzing potential (HZ) exoplanets in extreme close up views, images, and/ or scientific experimentation capabilities as well. This paper examines in a preliminary first view the confirmed exoplanet known as Gliese-581-d. presenting the first imaging survey of another planet in another solar system. Especially, in it (HZ)-habitable zone. It also shows that current telescopy and imaging technologies have not been able to resolve with remote viewing through a telescope and remote imaging problems as seen today such as expanding an image, it becoming pixilated, and it loosing imaging data, resolution, graininess, blurriness, clarity, focus, and formatting problems. However, the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technology have resolved these problems. That is why it not only has the capability of viewing and imaging in extreme close ups exoplanets in especially their (HZ), but also is very applicable in attaining extreme close up views or images of planets, planetary bodies, and/ or other astronomical phenomenon in Earth's solar system in like manner. [6]"The Closest One-Hundred Star Systems Research Consortium of Nearby Stars" . (2009-2012). (Georgia State University). Previous known observations are consistent suggesting Gliese-581- star system is a large planetary system. Previous data confirms four exoplanets a as exoplanets (e,b, c and d). [7] R. Stewart, (2013).[In Print] "Gliese-581-Extra-Solar Imaging Survey" provides a look at the initial first stages of the Gliese-581 star system survey which imaged different sort of astronomical phenomenon and possibly the exoplanets also known as Gliese-581-e,b,c, and d. This paper is the first stepping stone to this paper. Another way to [8] Another way to understand that an image such as a mosaic can be expanded to extremely large proportions without any loss of data etc. Therefore, certainly it should make sense, be logical, and reasonable that if this can be done with a mosaic it could also be done within the capabilities of the IMMI technology as well. Just like the following example of an extremely large super mosaic that may be as large as one-million X one-million pixels can be shrunk down to an image consisting of only 6 X 6 inches in height and width, in reverse order it could be re-expanded as well. This is another way of understanding at the IMMI technology. That it has the capability of doing this is very similar ways. Yet no one questions the fact that the microscopic detail of the mosaic when it was at its full size did not have the same detail in it as far as the suns stars, planets etc. changed when shrunk down to a smaller size. The same detail would be in the 6 X 6 inch image. Rather, the detail would now be microscopic in size within the 6 X 6 inch image. However, if that 6 X 6 was again re-expanded would not change and could be seen once again and the again. An example of this mosaic may be seen at this URLhttp://djer.roe.ac.uk/vsa/vvv/iipmooviewer-2.0-beta/vvvgps5.html . 55

In the upper top right corner is a magnification symbol for making the image larger (+) symbol. Next to it is also a (-) to make the mosaic smaller. The IMMI technology works much in the same way as this mosaic. When added to the maximum viewing power of a telescope it essentially creates a super mosaic of the area and has a primary basic first zoom capability (which like the mosaic example), that zooms out to the star system. A second zooming capability not only zooms into an exoplanet and show great detail, but will also zoom down to the exoplanets surface attaining extreme close ups. The IMMI technology is many times more powerful then what you just viewed in this mosaic demonstration. It is also many times more powerful than the [ELT]-Europe's Extra Large Telescope. That will have an optical lens as large as half of a football field. However, those building it are not even sure or not if it will even be able to image a exoplanet up close. Other drawbacks to this Super Telescope is it has a thirty billion dollar price tag. A pretty expensive experiment to see if it can image exoplanets or not. One of the biggest drawbacks is that it will not be online and ready to use for nine to ten more years, not until 2022. The IMMI technology is one separate technology and hardware by itself. "EXO-SCOPE' is a second separate technology and piece of hardware. Inter-linking the viewing magnification capability of 1- 100 telescopes together combining one or all of these telescope's maximum viewing magnification capabilities together creating a super-telescope also capable of imaging exoplanets. 1.2 A Nearby Comparison of The IMMI's Capability To Image The Surface of A Planetary Body In Detail Pertaining To The Vesta Asteroid In Earth's Solar System [9] R. Stewart and F. Benot'i, (2011). " Vesta A Closer Look ", demonstrates the IMMI telescopy imaging technology captivating better and much closer images of the surface of Vesta than NASA's Dawn Spacecraft " Encounter" , was able to captivate. In like manner, the IMMI technology can view, image, and captivate extreme close ups of an exoplanet and it's surface. This paper provides a look at the Vesta minor planet/ asteroid approximately three days ahead of time before NASA's Dawn robotic spacecraft: "Encounter" arrived at the asteroid to take close up images of it. The images ahead of schedule shown by the IMMI technology was able to show not only the Vesta asteroid in extreme close up images, but is was also able to show extreme close ups of the surface topography and terrain features and characteristics not only in black and white images , but in true color images in like manner. The IMMI technology was also able to show some possible small mountain ranges on the Vesta asteroid. A few examples were also shown of craters. The IMMI technology was also able to provide extreme close up images of the inside of the impact craters on the Vesta Asteroid as well. Besides the surface features and characteristics of the Vesta asteroid, there appeared to be some ice in the impact craters as in like manner. Which may mean that according to the recent current data that since it is thought that asteroids like Vesta were of carbonaceous chondrite

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composition containing at least twenty percent water according to [10] Mason and Bryan (1962)."Carbonaceous Chrondrites". However, ice in Vesta's craters suggests more H2O. 2.0 Gliese-581-d Is Closer To Its Star and Deeper Into The (HZ) Than Previously Thought

Figure 1-(Image Credit)-Courtesy of NASA). In the scientific paper by [11] Udry et. al (2007). "The Lick-Carnegie-Exoplanet Survey", it was originally thought that Gliese-581-d had a orbital rotational path just outside of the (HZ)-(habitable-zone) where the orange arrow points to in Figure 1 above. The habitable zone exists approximately between the orbital rotational paths of Gliese-581-c and the previously known orbital path of Gliese-581-d shown where the orange arrow points to in Figure 1 above). However, the orbital rotational path was revised in the scientific paper by [12] Mayor, M.; et al. (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XVIII ; An Earth mass planet in the GJ-581 planetary system. " when after two years using HARPS instrumentation that M. Mayor and his research team were able to revise Udry's paper from 2007, and when further models strongly suggested that Gliese-581-d was closer to it's parent star and deeper into the Gliese-581 (HZ) in like manner.

57

However, the paper by [12] Mayor, M.; et al. (2009) was further confirmed and revised again by [13]- Wordsworth, R.; et al. (2011). " Gliese 581d is the first discovered terrestrial-mass exoplanet in the habitable zone". When several computer models again strongly suggested and reinforced [10] Mayor, M. et al. (2009) paper and HARPS instrumentation data that again strongly suggested that Gliese-581-d was closer to its parent red dwarf star and deeper into the (HZ) than previously thought. In [11] Udry et. al (2007) paper and [13] Wordsworth, R.; et al. (2011) paper suggests because computer models indicate that Gliese-581-d was closer to its parent red dwarf star that infrared sunlight would create more Co2 in the Gliese-581 d's atmosphere creating a greenhouse affect. Meaning; that because Gliese-581 would be warmer that at least one or more large liquid oceans could exist upon its surface. However, the research team in this paper used the IMMI technology attaining extreme close up image not only of the orbital rotational path and location of Gliese-581-d, but were also able to compare this orbital rotational path with the current estimated orbital path for Gliese-581- in images and models, and as also explained in the paper of [12] Mayor, M.; et al. (2009) and of [13] Wordsworth, R.; et al. (2011). Which explains that Gliese-581-d was closer to its parent star and deeper into the (HZ) than previously thought. The IMMI images were strikingly consistent with the data in the orbital rotational path of Gliese-581-d was deeper in the Gliese-581 star system (HZ) as both the papers and data of [12] Mayor, M.; et al. (2009) and of [13] Wordsworth, R.; et al. (2011) had previously indicated. Based upon this revised data from Mayor and Wordsworth, and the images captivated by the IMMI technology, the research team of this paper was able to approximate a corrected location and orbital path for Gliese-581-d as seen in the letter/symbol "d" -(for the new approximated location and orbital path for Gliese-581-d instead.The new re-adjusted approximate orbital rotational path as indicated as "d" in figure 1 would place the new orbital rotational path and location for Gliese-581-d about two-third's of the way into it's habitable zone as shown in Figure 1. Images indicated that the (blue colored areas) seen in the right image of Figure 2 are most likely oceans.

Figure 2 (Left-Image-Credit)-(Keck-Observatory/Zuckerman - Press Release-Photo-(2010). (Right-Image)-(Ronald Stewart-(2011 2012). (Left-Image)- (A)- Is an example of some of the latest images of exoplanets at least the size of 58

3.0 Comparison Example of Current Exoplanet Imaging Capabilities To The IMMI Technology Which was seen better in figure 2. Jupiter. Four such like planets were imaged in (2010) which are three exoplanets in orbit around the HR-8799 extra-solar system. None of the exoplanets in the image to the left are in the HR-8799 (HZ). All four of these exoplanets are too close to its parent star as shown in the paper by [14] C. Marois et al.(2010). "Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799". Compared to the (Right-Image)- (B)-Is the Gliese-581-star system. The largest star in the center is Gliese-581. (C-D)-Were imaged by the IMMI technology.(C)-Is likely the known confirmed exoplanet Gliese-581-d. (D) -Is Gliese-581-d''s largest moon. There is a very clear and distinct difference when (A) is compared in the left image compared (C-D) in the right image. Especially, when it comes to being able to image exoplanets much smaller than the size of Jupiter and even much larger. Secondly, in addition to the size of the exoplanets imaged, only the thermally hot exoplanets the size of Jupiter and larger have been imaged as shown in the image to the left marked (A). 4.0 - More Incoming (IR) - Infrared Sunlight In The Gliese-581-d Star System Then Previously Thought

Figure 3 (Please enlarge with the PDF document (+) magnification tool). (1) is Gliese-581. (Upper Top Left Image Credit)-(ESO/2007). Which is also enlarged in the left bottom corner in Fig. [2]. (2-4) are three or more stars imaged by the IMMI technology (in addition to the Gliese581 parent star), which have similar-like red dwarf star characteristics like (1) Gliese-581. These three-(or more) red dwarf stars, is new imaging evidence, that there is more (IR) infrared sunlight coming into the Gliese-581- star system than previously known. This could be true in countless other star (red dwarf) and other star systems. This, makes the Gliese-581 star system and it's exoplanets warmer than previously thought. If these additional stars are letting in additional (IR)(infrared sunlight/ radiation) into the Gliese 581 star system it could add additional warmth to all exoplanets in this star system especially into its (HZ). Why is this important? This could allow a higher amount of Co2 in the atmospheres of Gliese-581-(c,d),(and (g) if it exists), in the atmosphere(HZ) warmer. If any of these exoplanets are also volcanically active, this could add even more Co2 into their atmospheres making these exoplanets in the (HZ) much warmer, and more habitable than previously known. It would also allow a greater chance for 59

oceans to exist as well. However, as time progresses the author and co-authors of this paper will be giving these new discoveries much more study involving Gliese-581-(c,d,), and (g)-"if" it exists. The fact that there the primary parent star in the Gliese581-star system and at least three more red dwarf stars are possibly providing at least a degree of additional sunlight into the Gliese-581 star system certainly help to make any of the (HZ) exoplanets in a better position to stand a better chance of being more habitable. Of course there needs to be more study on this. Since the research team just made this discovery they are not entirely finished yet with all of the facts and additional research that still needs to be accomplished, in order to see exactly how much more sunlight may be contributing to the total sunlight into the Gliese-581 star system. The other facts that there may still be more than three more red dwarf sun allowing sunlight into the Gliese-581 star system, including the sunlight from other types of brighter stars still has to be investigated and researched further. 5.0 - Gliese-581-d's Largest Moon and Asteroid / Dwarf-Planet-Like-Satellites

Figure 4 (Image-Credits)-(Ronald Stewart-(C)-2011-2012)-(Please use this PDF document's magnification tool for closer view and study). (A) Is most likely Gliese-581-d. (B)-Is likely the largest moon of Gliese-581-d. Which is enlarged again and shown in (D). Which is approximately 4,000-(km) in diameter and is about 250,000-(km) from Gliese-581-d. It is a little larger than earth's moon and a little farther away than Earth's moon is from Earth. (C) Are-likely a groups of five asteroid-like satellites that after being observed and studied are likely in permanent fixed stationary position approximately 12,500 (km) above the southeast corner surface of Gliese-581-d. (D) Is an enlargement of likely Gliese-581-d's largest moon. However, the yellow arrow points to the northern hemisphere. Which is shown again in Figure 5 of Gliese581-d's largest moon-(marked with a small (A) 60

Figure 5 (left image) depicts and projects what the northern hemisphere of the largest moon of Gliese-581 d looks like. Which is projects in the larger projected yellow outlined rectangular view of what the northern hemisphere on the top of this moon looks like. The small area in the yellow rectangle marked (B), is very likely an active volcano on the top of Gliese-581-d's largest moon's Northern Hemisphere. In which in the image to the (right) has a green arrow pointing to enlargements of Gliese-581-d's moon's northern hemisphere's volcano, marked (B) in the image to the left in Figure 5 above. (Right Image), is this moon's volcano apparently erupting out large white hot ejecta. 4.0 Assumption and Estimation Is :" Scientifically Acceptable " When Scientifically Investigating The Known and Unknown

Is there anything wrong making " Scientific - Estimations " in any " Field of Science " , and if not, is this "Scientifically - Acceptable "in all science disciplines? At times especially when investigating the unknown there is the possibility of finding new discoveries and where in the intents and purposes of this paper to where astronomical anomalies may be encountered never seen before. Therefore, when trying to find similarities whether it be in imaging recognition patterns in what is known about outer space and especially in another star system, there has to be:" a way of being able to connect the proverbial dots together between the known and unknown. In order to identify and relate to what is known to see if the new discovered unknown in another star system (in this case in Gliese-581) has any similarities in what is seen in known images of planets, planetary bodies, and other astronomical phenomenon, so scientists may be able to relate as to what either the new astronomical phenomenon may either be or not be. An example of this may be seen in another paper [3] R. Stewart, (2013). "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies In Preliminary Imaging Application and Fundamental Analysis of Other Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones" in Figure 2 page 12 depicts Both Earth's Moon and that of Gliese-581-b having very similar : "last quarter half moon phase-like features and characteristic recognizable imaging patterns when compared side by side to each other". It is here in examples like this between what is seen in this phase of Earth's Moon and that of a possible moon of Gliese-581-b 61

where some estimation and the connection between the known aspects of the phases of Earth's Moon and that of another planet and /or planetary body in another solar system is where the known scientific phenomenon and unknown can be connected in similar astronomically related images and when this is done it is likely to be what is seen in Earth's solar system as well. This is just one of many examples that could be given by the author and co-author research team of this paper. Therefore, when evaluating such unknown new data and comparing it with the known data about what is known in astronomy, astrophysics, in Earth's solar system and applying such data between the known and unknown new astronomical data of the Gliese-581 star system -(or any other star system for that matter) helps a person studying these events to have a better understanding of the new discoveries. Attaining new enlightenment and insights into new scientific data as well. Therefore, it would than be: "Scientifically Acceptable" to make scientific, assumptions / presumptions, calculations and estimations across all scientific disciplines, subdisciplines, and sub-related scientific fields . [15] Resnick J. , and Stewart R., (2010) and 2011) entitled : " Micro-orders of Magnitude in Microscopy " ), [16] Rice University. (2010). Entitled : "Measurement with light microscopes/spectrophotometry/Beers-law") and [17] Stewart, R. (2012). "Assumption and Estimation Is :" Scientifically Acceptable " When Scientifically Investigating The Known and Unknown"- gives numerous scientific examples of this. [18] Resnick J., and Stewart R. (2010 and revised (2011)." Micro-orders of Magnitude in Microscopy " explains that needing to use a methodology of either assumptions, estimations, and approximations is not only applicable to one realm of scientific disciplines, sub-disciplines or other scientifically related subject categories, but could also be applied to a range of scientific disciplines as well, where no doubt numerous examples could be used in each scientific disciplines that at times when trying to connect the unknown to the known data that these type of approaches have to be used. These types of approaches also have to be used when pioneering with new data the theoretics and experimental methodologies regarding the discovery of the unknown in like manner. 5.0 Magnetic Field, Thermal, Co2, Cloud Cover, Water Vapor, Ice and Liquid Water estimations On Gliese-581-d

Figure 6 (Left and Middle Image Credits)-(NASA-(2010).(Right-Image-Credit)-(Image Credit: Ronald Stewart © (2011-2012). For instance, the estimated magnetic field for Gliese-581-(d) 62

compared to earth presents and demonstrates a comparison of earth in a left image and middle image of earth taken by "The NASA-(2011) GOES-(Geo-Stationary-Operational-Environmental Satellite"), that demonstrates in color coded sequences the: "Thermal and Co2-(carbon dioxide)Levels" on earth compared to the imaging capabilities of the IMMI technological process capabilities. Whereas similar to the capabilities of the "The NASA-(2011) GOES-(Geo-StationaryOperational-Environmental Satellite"), the IMMI technology has the capability to duplicate in similar Raleigh scattering color spectrum sequences similar as would be seen in some types of LIDAR remote sensing and imaging technologies to attain similar results. More of similar technology is also discussed in the paper [3] R. Stewart, (2013). "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies In Preliminary Imaging Application and Fundamental Analysis of Other Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones" . In similar ways just like GOES satellite can calculate the earth's magnetic field, Co2, cloud cover, water vapor and other atmospheric conditions of the earth, in like manner the IMMI technology has the capability of determining in an image of an exoplanet a:"Virtual Reality Modeling Image" of the same areas of diagnosis in an image of an exoplanet. In this case applicable to Gliese-581-d. The IMMI capabilities show the Gliese-581 (d) surface areas as (red) as the hottest thermal surface areas, followed by (Rose) colored surfaces, while (Purple Areas) indicate surface water, (Gold) surface areas depict-(Co2)-(carbon dioxide)-levels, (White)-cloud cover (H2O) as ice, and the (Black) surface areas mostly indicated in these regions seen in black would represent the coldest regions of this exoplanet. Which are observed at being mostly in the North and South Pole regions of this exoplanet. Estimations were given that the purple to blue primarily represent water. As had been verified when making close observation investigations of these areas in extreme close ups of this exoplanet's surface. This is the first example where "scientifically acceptable" estimations have been made on the surface of Gliese-581-(d). In the next paper [19] R. Stewart et al,(2013). "Gliese-581-d A View of Its Atmospheric,Geological, Topographical, and Oceanic Conditions"-(Part-2) very detailed observations and studies are made by the research team showing an assorted type of different oceanic conditions that exist not only in the large and small oceans and seas on the surface of Gliese-581-d but an assortment of similar oceanic like laws and physics and empirical as seen on Earth. However, when looking at Gliese-581-d, it has its own unique oceanic conditions unlike Earth's oceans. In summer months of June July,/ August the average surface temperature would have to be 32 degrees (F) /above for liquid water to exist.

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6.0 A View of The Sunrise, Sky, and of Outer Space, From The Surface of Gliese-581-d

Figure 7 Gliese-581-(d) Sunrise and View of The Clouds and Sky (Copyrighted)- Ronald Stewart © 2011-2012). (A)- Is a view and how the Gliese-581-Sun appear at a likely morning sunrise over the horizon. (B) which is a mountain. Which is part of the Gliese-581-(d) landscape in the background of this image to the left. The arrow pointing away from (C) points toward a remarkably beautiful view looking at the Gliese-581-(d) most unusual clouds and sky. The blue and black areas are likely is what outer space above the surface of this exoplanet looks like. Instead of being black as it would appear from the surface of earth, here on the surface of Gliese-581-(d) the color appearance of outer space when looking up at the sky is both black and blue in color. The small bright white areas in the background are likely stars. The larger white areas could be a group of asteroid-like-satellites that are in likely fixed positions about 12, 500 (km) above the surface of Gliese-581-(d). (See-Fig.-[8]- especially the right images (A-C) and it's explanation). These either individual or group asteroid-like satellites could give appear this large from the surface of Gliese-581-(d). Primarily because observations indicate imaging evidence that likely there are crater-like raised protrusions upon this asteroid-like satellite's surface are likely filled with "ice". This creates reflection off the ice back into the atmosphere of Gliese-581-(d). The tan to brown colored area in the image to the right are likely various types of clouds. That rise above the surface above Gliese-581-(d) that at an estimated from about 9-20 kilometers. It has been observed and estimated that the thickness of atmosphere on Gliese-581-(d) is about two-thirds as thick as earth atmosphere. It has also been observed and estimated that there are various clouds that composed of H2O, Co2, and some sulphide clouds as would be expected in and around the plume involving volcanic activity. However, the clouds on Gliese-581-(d) are exceptionally long. A cloud / group of clouds in excess of fifty (km) is likely normal on Gliese581-(d). In the cloud dynamics of this exoplanet is was also observed that possibly because of the heavier gravitational forces on this exoplanet may have something to do with the clouds cover on this exoplanet to be a lower evelations levels closer to the surface of Gliese-581-d. Since it has also 64

been observed and studied from an assortment of different scientific disciplines it appears as though because the heavier gravity on Gliese-581-d also seems to make it's mountain ranges more flat and not as high in elevation as seen on earth. It may be because Gliese-581-d has at least 2.00-3.00 times more gravity than the earth does. Therefore, this is also why the mountain ranges and mountain summits and peaks in images that the IMMI technology has captivated in extreme image close up of the surface of Gliese-581-d, seem to look more like mountains with plateau-like tops on them, instead of being much more triangularly shaped mountains as would be seen on Earth. 7.0 Asteroid Like Moons/ Satellites Above Gliese-581-d

Figure 8 (Left Side of Top Image)-(Please use the PDF document (+) magnification toll for a closer view)-(Image-Credit)-(Ronald Stewart © 2011-2012). (A) Is likely the bottom / Southern Hemisphere of Gliese-581-d. In front of (B) is a very small gray dot which upon further observations and study when enlarged and projected as seen and viewed in (C) in the yellow outlined square box resembles what likely is an irregularly-shaped asteroid-like satellite. This is 65

just one of four other asteroid-like irregularly shaped satellites that were observed in images above the surface of Gliese-581-(d). Where these asteroid-like satellites are estimated to be at a distance of about 12,500 (km) above the southwest corner southern hemisphere's surface of Gliese-581-d in permanent fixed orbital positions. (Right-Side-of-Top-Image)- (A)-(where the small yellow arrow points to) is the same enlarged asteroid-like satellite (also seen in (B-C) on the left side of the top image of Figure 8),about 12,500 km above the southwest corner hemisphere of Gliese-581-d. (B)-(on the right side of the top image in Figure 8 where the small aqua colored arrow points to) has resemblances to what may be an impact crater filled with ice. Which is projected in (C) in the yellow box. located in the right bottom corner of the top image of Figure 8. 9Lower Bottom Image of Figure 8) is an enlargement of the possible ice filled impact crater seen on the right side of the top image marked-(B-C). Furthermore, it is likely that the ice in the crater as seen in (D) could reflect any and all light from it's icy surface to appear in the sky as the large bright star-like phenomenon, when in reality they are asteroid-like satellites with pockets of craters that are filled full of ice that any and all light may reflect off of.

Conclusion The IMMI technology has not only been able to produce extreme close up images of different and new astronomical phenomenon for the first time ever seen in another star system, but it has also been able to captivate extreme close up images of the confirmed exoplanet known as Gliese-581-d's, it's largest moon, imaging evidence of possible volcanic activity on the northern hemisphere of Gliese-581-d's largest moon, asteroid-like satellites that appear to be transfixed in a possible fixed stationary positions approximately about 12,500 km above this exoplanet's surface, and there is other imaging evidence that there may be a combination of many small and large seas and oceans of water upon the surface of Gliese-581-d. In the next paper [19] R. Stewart et al, (2013). "Gliese-581-d A View of Its Atmospheric, Geological, Topographical, and Oceanic Conditions"-(Part-2) and [20] Odmir Aguiar et al, (2013)."The First Exo-Ocean"{In Print] continues to explain about the surface of Gliese-581-d and its first extreme close up views of the first exo-oceans. Acknowledgements The Author and Co-Authors of this research paper would like to thank all scientists, space agencies like NASA, ESO, and many more, including researchers, universities, colleges, observatories, and any and all other professionals involved with astronomical and extra solar planetary research. For without their overall contributions papers like this one would not be possible.

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Financial Research Statement The research for this project was financed by :"Stewart Research and Consulting". Suggestions, recommendations, inquiries comments, and correspondence may be sent by email to [email protected] Bibliographical References (In Order As Appearing In This Paper) [1]- How The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE Technologies Work- For a series of simple to detailed complex steps and examples explaining/ describing how the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technologies work, please follow the directions in this first reference as follows: A). To start off with it is recommended that you start from the beginning with the simple videos explaining/ describing how both the IMMI and EXO-SCOPE technologies work. Why? This way if the simple explanation/ description satisfies you, then it save you time and trouble in needing to go through more detailed and complex steps and videos. However, if you want a deeper more detailed explanation of these technologies than follow more of the steps listed below. B). Please watch the first video entitled:"ELT-(Extra Large telescope)" or EXO-SCOPE athttp://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/elt-or-exo-scope.html . Then it is recommended to watch the next three more videos at- http://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/how-immiexo-works.html . (Note)- If you have already seen these videos due to the URL mentioned at the beginning of this paper, then please continue reading and proceed to the net step). C). You may also want to read the two PDF documents after video #3 entitled:"IMMI/ EXOSCOPE Explanations" and: "Additional Technological Capabilities of the IMMI and EXOSCOPE Interlinked System Capabilities". In the event you need more information. After this, if this still does not satisfy your needs for more data you may read the scientific paper by: (W. Trentadue and R. Stewart, (2013) entitled: "Overview of The Theoretical Aperture and Projected Capabilities of The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE Technologies"), after the two previous PDF documents. Or you may also read it on the same web-page, or at the following URL athttp://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/1-astronomy.html . However, if this is still not enough data for you than you may find one more scientific paper again at the bottom of the web page in a research paper by (R. Stewart, (2013). "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies"). or you may also read this scientific paper in the both blind and open peer reviewed journal entitled-(ISPR) at this URL- http://www.stewart-researchconsulting.com/3-astronomy.html . Last it is also recommended that you see the Supplemental materials video entitled: "Gliese-581 (d) a Much Closer View-(Part-1)".Which may also be found at - http://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/gliese-581d.html .

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[2]- Trentadue W. and Stewart R. (2013). Overview of The Theoretical Aperture and Projected Capabilities of The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE Technologies. (ISPR). Sub-category (A)(Astronomy). Page #1. At this URLhttp://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/1astronomy.html . [3]- R. Stewart, (2013). "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies In Preliminary Imaging Application and Fundamental Analysis of Other Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones". (ISPR), under: "Astronomy-Category", page3. At- http://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/3-astronomy.html . [4-5] For example; please watch the two videos entitled: "How The IMMI/ EXO-SCOPE Technologies Are Able To Attain Extreme Close up Images of Planets/ Exoplanets"- (This video is -(1:29) in length. Scroll down about half way down the web-page and that is where the first video may be found). Then watch the video entitled: "IMMI"/ EXO-SCOPE Technologies- How Do They Work Together"?-(8:16) in length. This video may be watched at- http://www.stewartresearch-consulting.com/how-immi-exo-works.html [6]- "The Closest One-Hundred Star Systems Research Consortium of Nearby Stars" . (20092012). (Georgia State University). [7]- R. Stewart, (2013).[In Print] "Gliese-581-Extra-Solar Imaging Survey". Which may be viewed at the following URL- http://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/6-astronomy.html . [8]- IMMI-Example of Technology demonstration with similarities to : "Outer Space Super Mosaic " . At http://djer.roe.ac.uk/vsa/vvv/iipmooviewer-2.0-beta/vvvgps5.html ). [9]- R. Stewart and Benoti F.(2011). " Vesta A Closer Look ", (Journals of Science). (Astronomy Briefs) - At [10]- Mason and Bryan. (1962). "Carbonaceous Chondrites". [11]- Udry et. al (2007). "The Lick-Carnegie-Exoplanet Survey". [12]- Mayor, M.; et al. (2009). "The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets XVIII ; An Earth mass planet in the GJ-581 planetary system. Astronomy and Astrophysics . 507 ; 487. [13]- Wordsworth, R.; et al. (2011). " Gliese 581 d is the first discovered terrestrial-mass exoplanet in the habitable zone".17 [14]-C. Marois et al.(2010)."Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799". arXiv:1011.4918v1 [astro-ph.EP] . [15]- Resnick J. , and Stewart R., (2010) and 2011) entitled : " Micro-orders of Magnitude in Microscopy " ), (Sciences)-pp. 13 - top of 14 reads : [1.2.2] - Scientifically Acceptable Dimension Estimations, Assumptions, and Calculations Pertaining To Unidentified Organisms " In many areas of exploratory and experimental science, including bio sciences the ability to estimate and make reasonable scientific assumptions is completely acceptable in 68

[15]-(cont'd)-from page # 13 as follows:)-.......all forms of science disciplines and sub-disciplines as well and can be considered quite a valuable skill. At- http://www.journals-ofscience.com/uploads/6/8/9/3/6893524/immi_-_micro_-_orders__-_of__magnitude__basics__in__microscopy.pdf . [16] Rice University. (2010). microscopes/spectrophotometry/Beers-law").

Entitled

:

"Measurement

with

light

[17]- Stewart R.. et. al, (2012) Stewart R., P.M. Snider, V.E.Spaulding, Francis Benot'i, Gregorio Matuz (2012). "Assumptions, Presumptions, and Estimation Are :" Scientifically Acceptable " When Scientifically Investigating The Known and Unknown".(Sciences) at-( http://www.journalsof-science.com/3-articles.html . [18]- .- J. Resnick and Stewart R. (2010) and (revised) - (2011). Entitled : " IMMI - Micro Orders of Magnitude Basics In Microscopy ". PP-1-3, subtitle - (Current Microscopic and Telescopic Instrumentation Limitations). The abstract to this paper may be found athttp://www.journals-of-science.com/a-immi-micro-abstract.html . Second, on the top of pp.13 under the subtitle: "Scientifically Acceptable Dimensions, Estimations, Assumptions, and Calculations Pertaining To Unidentified Organisms", up ( through the first paragraph on top of page 14. In the peer reviewed journal entitled : " Sciences ", at this following URLhttp://www.journals-of-science.com/b-immi-micro-orders-mag.html , is found an in depth explanation how not only in (microscopy and pertaining to cells, viruses, and the such, but also across a very wide and varied amount of broad spectrum of sciences, scientific disciplines, subdisciplines, and their related subject categories there can be found many examples where this type of methodology in connecting the known data and factors of a specific scientific subject and when trying to connect the proverbial dots together between the known and new discovery unknown terms of a subject that these type of methodological conditions are scientifically acceptable under such circumstances to apply now and then when confronted with such situations and circumstances in all realms of applicable science. [19]- R. Stewart et al, (2013). "Gliese-581-d Topographical, and Oceanic Conditions"-(Part-2).

A View of Its Atmospheric, Geological,

[20] Odmir Aguiar et al, (2013)."The First Exo-Ocean" continues to explain about the surface of Gliese-581-d and its first extreme close up views of the first exo-oceans.

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IMMI Orion Nebula Exoplanet Space Exploration Demonstration Examples Ronald Stewart Abstract-"IMMI" is the acronym for, and means; (Infinite Micro-Macro Imaging) and technology, has infinite capability to diagnose and directly image anything relating to space, mass, or energy. Since IMMI also has the infinite capability to diagnose and directly image anything in the macroscopic universe including and relating to space exploration, IMMI also has infinite capability to diagnose and directly image any planets in the solar system, or exoplanets in another solar system no matter how far away it is.This research paper presents and demonstrates IMMI's infinite capability to image exoplanets in another solar system located in the far away galaxy known as M-42. Or: "The Orion Nebula Core Galaxy" which is over fifteenhundred light years away from earth. Keywords : Space Exploration, M-42, Orion Nebula, Galaxy, NASA, Photography, Imaging, Infinite, Macroscopic

1.0 Introduction and Background 1.1 Current Telescopic Instrumentation Limitations Both binocular and/ or telescopy instrumentation have definite limitations, when used to looking at the macroscopic universe within the human experience on earth, and beyond earth in this solar system and when diagnosing and imaging this galaxy, other galaxies, their solar systems and planets. Compared to this IMMI has infinite capability to diagnose and directly image earths' solar system, the closest solar system which is about 4.2 light years away from earth, and any other solar systems within our galaxy. The best ground telescopic is currently the ELT-(Extra large Telescope). In about 2022-2023, the [ELT]- (Extra Large telescope) is supposed to be ready. However IMMI also has the infinite capability to diagnose and directly image any other galaxy, solar system, star, or exoplanet no matter how far it is. The methodologies, and the direction in which these will be applied, presented, and demonstrated will be in at least two exoplanet examples. Complex demonstrations will compare the telescopic capability of the HST _____________________ (Th.D.)- Ancient History/ Religious History-(4000-B.C.-1400-C.E.) With An Emphasis In Historical Archaeology, and retains a (PhD)Theoretics In The Arts, Humanities, and Sciences. Stewart also peer reviews for Ancient History Encyclopedia, is Editor-In-Chief for IJAAR(Int'l Journal of Astronomy/Astrophysics & Earth Sciences Research), to be promoted World-Wide By: "Pro-Quest"-(Indexing/ Scholar Journal Services), (Asst. Editor for: "Pluralidade"-(In English)-"Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciences" ) read in (42}countries/ (5)continents-Earth wide),, Recently invited to be: "A Guest Editor For The Oldest/ Largest Peer Reviewed Journal In The World: "Royal Society Publishing Proceedings-(A & B" ),(September, 15th, 2013, appointed as: "Editor-In-Chief" for the: " Blind/ Open-Peer Reviewed journal known as: "Independent Archaeology Notes, Art-History & Earth Sciences". Stewart is also a member of the NEAS-(Near Eastern Archaeological Society).

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(Hubble Space Telescope) and the IMMI technological process, being able to see much, much, deeper and far away not only into The Orion Nebula Core, but will also be able to achieve and reveal an planet into one of the solar system of The Orion Nebula Core. The best current telescopic instrumentation is expressed in the HST.-(Hubble Space Telescope). HST has been in space taking images of the solar system and far away galaxies. This paper will compare images taken of The Orion-(M-42) Nebula Core imaged by HST in l994, 1995, and 2006 which is the last images taken of The Orion Nebula Core Center before the upgrade to HST in 2008, and compare these with IMMI capabilities. To the right of that IMMI will eventually show a gas giant like Jupiter will an unusual amount of cloud cover that no doubt are extreme swirling masses of storms of the gas giants surface. 2.0 IMMI In Macroscopy (e.g., Telescopy / Telescopes) and Space Exploration How does IMMI compare macroscopy, when it comes to telescopes either on earth or HST when in looking out into the universe ? [1-6] discusses a detailed comprehensive discussion on this.In modern mathematics spaces are defined as (much like manifolds of space one backing up the other after another),with some added structure. that locally approximates and apply to Euclidean space, and where the properties are defined largely on connectedness of points that lie on the manifold. [7] Blaauw, A.; Morgan, W. W. (1954). There are however, many diverse mathematical manifolds that make up themacroscopic part of the universe beyond the confines of earth. For example, 'vectorspace' such as 'functional spaces' may have infinite numbers of independent dimensions and of distance which is in abstract difference compared to Euclidean space, and 'topological spaces', which separate and replace the concept of distance. [8]-Carnap, R, (1966). In Newton's concepts of classical space functional mechanics these concepts in how space and the universe functioned was not as expanded as Einstein's Theory of Relativity, where Einstein's before work on relativistic physics, time and space were viewed as independent dimensions. Einstein's discoveries showed that due to relativity of motion that space and time can be mathematically combined into a singular object. Or which is also referred to as 'space time'. Furthermore, because space and time have a direct relation to each other, many times this is also known as 'The Space Time Continuum". [9] Cushing, J. [1998]. Earth is almost non-existent, when compared to the astronomical distances of the macroscopic universe at least with respect to the laws of physics. Earth is one infinitesimal place among many in space.The sheer scale of astronomical objects requires the use of larger, more convenient units. The distance to the Sun is no easier to imagine as 93 million miles in distance from earth. Since the universe is so infinitely unimaginably large, astronomers need a system to describe positions in the sky so they can report to each other where to look for things they have found. The basic unit used in the celestial coordinate system to describe positions and the distances between them is the degree of arc, just like the degrees used to give latitude and 71

longitude on the Earth's surface. One degree is divided into 60 minutes of arc, each of which is in turn divided into 60 seconds of arc. The same basic concept and it's applications is also found on earth when considering measurements of latitude and longitude. In the outer space, measurements in distance are measured the same. However, this second of arc is also the basis of another commonly used astronomical distance, the parsec. As Earth moves in its orbit, nearer stars appear to shift position relative to the more distant background stars. This is called parallax. A parsec is the distance from Earth that would shift exactly one parallax second of arc over the Earth's orbit. [9-10]. There are about 3.26 light years to one parsec For distance, the Astronomical Unit (A.U.) is defined as : " the mean distance from Earth to the Sun ", and is a convenient way to compare distances on an interplanetary scale. Similarly, the masses of Earth and the sun are useful equivalents when talking about the masses of other planets and stars. (Earth's mass is about 1.3 x 10^25 pounds, and the sun is approximately 333,060 Earth-masses.), [11] Jammer, M, (1993). This paper will not use the close proximity of the (A.U.) measurement. Since the exoplanet examples are in another galaxy, light year and parsec measurements are used. Cosmologists measuring the expansion of the universe have units derived from the Hubble constant, and deal in both the very large (billions of light-years) and the very small (nanoseconds after the Big Bang). There are measurements of wavelengths and frequencies, gravitational and magnetic fields, redshifts, temperature, pressure, density, and more, all beyond imagination in size.

Figure 1-(Top Image), (A) Is a 1995 image taken by HST and the yellow arrow marked (A) points toward one of the brightest stars in and around the outside rim of The Orion Nebula Core, 72

which is also referred to and known as (M-42). The closest HST was able to attain in images was the bottom image which shows again (A) as the first star, which also has some exoplanets IMMI will investigate and study. (B) is the second giant red star and /or quasar that is much farther away and cannot be seen by the naked human eye in the bottom image above. Behind (B) Is also the approximate area and location of the last giant gas exoplanet with a great amount of cloud cover on this exoplanets' surface that IMMI will investigate and study

Figure 2 -(1) Presents as seen in Fig. 1 a 1995 NASA image of The Orion Nebula Core-(M-42) and a red sun. While image (2-(A) Is a 1994 image is the closest the HST was able to image this area.(2-(B) Presents is another red star behind (A). (3-(A) Is a 2006 image of the same red star. (4) Is a projection of the 2006 image showing red stars (A-B). Behind (C) is a gas giant exoplanet.

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Figure 3, (A) Is the original NASA image taken by HST in 1995, which is about 24 light years in diameter.(B) Is also the same 1995 NASA HST image. Except, it is put into this position allows an easier understanding where these exoplanets are located in M-42. (Tucker W.H. (1971) ; (Lobanov A.P and Zensus J.A. (2001) also refer to the diameter of M-42 seen in (A) in about 7.36 parsecs in diameter.(1)-One parsec is approximately 3.26 light years in distance. Tucker Wallace H., (1971) ; (Lobanov A. P. and Zensus J.A., (2001) refer to generalized measurements in space at (1 parsec 3.26 light years), and that such a measurement is consistent with measuring space in a radius and arche. When looking at Figure 4.

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Figure 4 - Presents and demonstrates M-42 and a larger projection under higher IMMI magnification.

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Figure 5 -(A-D) Present and demonstrates a much closer look at the area where the gas giant exoplanet exists as IMMI increases magnification from one image to the next, (A-D) Also presents a telescopic measurement scale measuring (1)-One-(L.Y.)-(Light Year) in diameter is based upon the approximate diameter of diameter (37 - Light Years), of the position of M-42 as seen in Fig. 3 2.0 A Journey To M-42 - Stars (A-B) The IMMI technological process has the capability of measuring the macroscopic universe in outer space beyond any earth telescope or the HST, and includes the phenomenal upgrade HST received in 2008, that will enable its' primary viewing camera to be approximately ninety times more powerful than before. Despite these upgrades made to the HST when compared to IMMI, the HST would still not have the infinite capability to diagnose and directly image any object, 76

anomaly, galaxy, solar system, star, exoplanet, and /or anything else in outer space as far away as IMMI is capable of.. Secondly, the HST doe not have the capability to diagnose or directly image an exoplanet in - the closest solar system and exoplanet closest to earth's solar system which only about 4.2 light years away from earth, much less being able to diagnose an exoplanet (1500) -- fifteenhundred light years away from earth in (M-42) and /or The Orion Nebula Core Galaxy and show what it looks like at extremely close up views. IMMI would also have the capability to diagnose and directly image much further away and closer than NASA's near future mission to launch the (WST) -(Weber Space Telescope) into outer space in orbit around the earth sometime by 2014 will also not be able to compare to the IMMI technological process applications in space exploration. This includes any infrared imaging limited capability that the WST will be able to accomplish in like manner. When it comes to visualizing what a super large gas giant would look like in outer space the closest image that would come to mind would be that of the gas giant Jupiter in earths' own solar system. On the exoplanet that IMMI will image in the example used in this paper, there is a large amount of cloud cover that when looked at and compared with other close up images of Jupiter's surface, the cloud cover and violent storm activity on Jupiter has some similarities as seen in the up close images of M- 42s' gas giant exoplanet.

Fig. 6 - Again IMMI demonstrates it's capability for space exploration as it gets yet closer to the Orion Nebula Core Galaxy which is over 1,500 light years away from earth. The yellow arrow points to the largest red star and /or quasar and generalized area that IMMI will continue to investigate and study. The two arrows pointing between star (A) and a neighboring start to the 77

left is a distance of about (1)-One- Light Year) or less between them. (A-B) have some exoplanets that will be further investigated and studied.

Figure 7-(A-B)-(Left Image) is of M-42 which shows giant red stars / quasars marked -(A-B) and their relative positions. Star (A) Has an aqua arrow pointing away from it, and the next eight images left to right IMMI has increased magnification to view (A-B) closer.

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Figure 8-(left Image)- (A-B) as seen in M-42. However, again magnification has been increased and IMMI shows (A-B) much closer.The distance between giant red stars /quasars (A-B) is approximately (1) parsec-(= 3.26 light years). A 'parsec' as aforementioned in this paper is the next larger macroscopic /telescopy measurement scale when measuring distance in the universe.

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Fig 9- (A)-(1-3) and (B-C) Is a larger view where IMMI again has increased magnification.(Right Image) (A) is a very detailed view of the giant red star /quasar. (1) is likely a white dwarf star that has three to four exoplanets in it's orbit. (B) is the second giant red star,and (C) is the giant gas exoplanet behind (B).

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Figure 10-(A) Is the giant red star see above and the red radiation solar flares can be seen shooting outward and emitting away from the circumference of the giant red star itself. It the lower right bottom corner of this giant red star in the far off background is a much smaller white dwarf star with four exoplanets rotating in a counter-clockwise orbits around it.

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Figure 11-(1) Most likely is a white dwarf star with three to four exoplanets in orbit around it. IMMI will continue to increase magnification in the right lower quadrant of this giant red star which may be as much as 0.125 light years in diameter. (1) is most likely a considerable distance away from this red giant star. However, (1) and its' three to four exoplanets are very large in like manner.

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Figure 12- Not only is the first red giant star immense in size, but as IMMI is increased in magnification (1) (not marked) can be seen increasing in size as well. This giant star has a variable amount of thermo-radiation heat ratios. There seems to be the thermo radiations as would be seen in a combination of different kinds of stars like a white, yellow and red star as seen in the image above

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Figure 13 (1) again points to the small white dwarf star and other orbiting exoplanets around it.

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Figure 14- As (A) is the giant red star. (1) Attains greater size and clarity, there can be four exoplanets seen at this point. Are any of the exoplanets in orbit around (1) the dwarf star have any 'habitable zone' earth like attributes that is The Holy Grail of Exoplanetary research ? This is not discernable in enough detail and is too premature at this point, to what any of these four exoplanets look like.

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Figure 15 - The three to four possible exoplanets are seen a little closer.

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Figure 16 -Two of exoplanets are projected outward and seen.

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Figure 17- The next second giant red star and / or quasar is in view to proceed to the last exoplanet example.

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Figure 18 - The yellow arrows point the way to (B) the second giant red star where the giant gas exoplanet is located behind it.

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Figure 19-(B-C)-(B) Is the second giant red star where (C) the giant gas exoplanet is located.

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Figure 20- The yellow arrow points to the giant gas exoplanet.

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Fig. 21- Magnification in IMMI has been increased and (C) the giant gas exoplanet is coming into much better view and detail.

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Fig. 22 - The giant gas exoplanet behind the second giant red star is much closer.

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Figure. 23- From this point onward the second stars' giant gas exoplanet will be taking on more and more detail and IMMI will get closer to the exoplanets' surface.

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Fig. 24-The giant gas exoplanet begins to take on more and more detail.

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Fig. 25- A considerable amount of detail is presented and demonstrated in the above image of this exoplanet.

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Figure 26-IMMI under greater magnification has attains much more detail in this giant gas exoplanet. It is estimated that this gas giant exoplanet is at least fifty times larger than Jupiter. The giant gas exoplanet exhibits more of it's true atmospheric cloud cover colors.IMMI applies greater magnification and captivates the top half of this giant gas exoplanet, as it is seen up very close. IMMI uses a higher magnification capability and where the yellow arrow points to is the next area on this giant gas exoplanet that IMMI will investigate and study. IMMI presents and demonstrates evidence that in this giant gas exoplanets' atmosphere has a large amount of color variations in the cloud cover, evidence of many different rapid changing weather conditions.

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Figure 27 - IMMI attains a closer look at this giant gas exoplanets' extremely turbulent cloud cover and atmospheric conditions, the evidence demonstrates unimaginably large constantly ever changing weather, demonstrated in hurricane force like storms in the atmosphere and upon this exoplanets' surface. No doubt which could be attributed to it's giant red stars' gravitational forces. Conclusion IMMI Exploration of M-42 could be studied rapidly compared to other space exploration investigative methods. The images in this research paper also correspond and are consistent with [15], Where in the images were expanded to tremendous proportions without any loss of digital image data, pixelation, or any of the other problems that are experienced in photography and imaging. The IMMI technological process will be used in near future papers in space exploration other than just the M-42-Orion Nebula Galaxy. This paper also substantiates that : 98

1). That a photograph or image is a captivation and immobilization of time, space, mass, and energy, and therefore when using the IMMI technological process and it's infinite magnification capabilities in space exploration, this allows microscopic details in a photograph or astrograph (too small to be seen by the naked human eye), to be seen when expanded to a certain point and are large enough to discern what it is. In this paper presented and demonstrated the exploration of the M-42 / Orion Nebula Core Galaxy. 2). Bibliographical references [15-240 give notable specific points made about the Orion Nebula Core Galaxy. Acknowledgements The author of this paper would like to express his deepest thanks and appreciation to any and all scientists and researchers involved with space exploration. Without their dedication research papers like this one would not have been possible. Special thanks would also like to be extended to any and all scientists in the past and present who are also doing space exploration research into the M-42 Orion Nebula Core Galaxy. Bibliographical References (In Alphabetical Order) IMMI Used In: "Telescopy Instrumentation"/Used In: ("Archaeology, Astronomy, & Astrophysics). Also Known As: "EXO-SCOPE" [1]- STEWART, R., (1978, 1980, 1982, and 2005). "Petrified Petroglyph and Pictograph Rock Art of West Texas Indians". (1978, 1980, 1982), published through: "Seagraves, Texas Library & Small Museum Association News-Letter" ), Seagraves, Texas. (Republished in (2005) through)(Independent-Archaeology-Notes). Under (Archives under year 1978. However, revised and republished in VOL. #1 on pages 22-26, (2013). At URLhttp://www.independentarchaeologynotes.com/uploads/8/9/9/3/8993980/indend-arch-vol1.pdf . The predecessor to the IMMI technology today was first invented in approximately 1977 as a combination microscopic/telescopic apparatus. That was used in the bibliographical reference above to examine archaeological petroglyphs from far away and/ or also used as a combination microscope to examine archaeological artifacts up close even as a optical light telescope as well. Also see bibliographical reference [38b] and [38c] URLs. [2]- ROBINSON, R. and STEWART, R. (1980). "(Letter) and Law Enforcement Imaging Study". The (1980) letter mentions and verifies the 1978 study and use of the predecessor technology to the (IMMI technology), and its use on revealing hidden details on Caddo Indian pottery shard artifacts. The letter may be viewed and read at- http://www.stewart-researchconsulting.com/1-archaeology.html .

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[3]-Research With Private Companies-(2007-2011). (See Nex-Gen-USA, Corporation). refer to this letter where it mentions the IMMI technology and the author of this paper-(Ronald Stewart), also performed in his duties private sub-contractual archaeology and space exploration projects performed arc At- http://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/3-archaeology.html . [4]- STEWART, R.(2013). (Two videos) entitled: "Astronomical Phenomenon Like Planets and Their Surfaces In Great Detail " ?How Do These Two Technologies Work Together ?" These two videos at the URL below will help a person to watch, observe, and study in depth how these technologies function in fundamental basics in space exploration. That is, in terms of being able to understand these two separate and different unique technologies. Therefore this paper is to present and demonstrate in bot detailed comprehensive explanation, description a better understanding of these two technologies in depth, and how they are to accomplish the feats they can perform and achieve in space exploration. At[5]-TRENTADUE, W. and STEWART (2013). Entitled: "Overview of The Theoretical Aperture and Projected Capabilities of The IMMI and EXO-SCOPE Technologies". Published through "ISPR"-(International Society of Peer Reviewers). On or about 2/15/2013. Which may also be found at[6]- STEWART, R., (2013). Entitled: "Observational Comparisons of The IMMI To LIDAR Remote Sensing Technologies In Preliminary Imaging Application and Fundamental Analysis of Other Solar Systems and Exoplanets In Their Habitable Zones". Published through-(ISPR)-(Int'l Journal Society of Peer Reviewers). Under: "Astronomy-Category-Letter- "A", page-3. Athttp://www.stewart-research-consulting.com/3-astronomy.html . [7]-BLAAUW, A.; MORGAN, W. W. (1954). "The Space Motions of AE Aurigae and μ Columbae with Respect to the Orion Nebula". Astrophysical Journal pp. 119. [8]-CARNAP, R, (1966). An introduction to the philosophy of science, p. 126, 134-136, 148, and 177-178. [9]-CUSHING, J. [1998], Philosophical Concepts in Physics, Cambridge: CUP. [10]-JAMES, ANDREW (October 29, 2005). "The Great Orion Nebula M-42 and M-43", Southern Astronomical Delights, Page 204. [11]-JAMMER, M, (1993). Concepts of Space, p. 165. [12]-KIRSHNER, ROBERT P., (2004). Throwing Light on Dark Energy. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street Cambridge, MA 01238, USA. [13]-LOBANOV, A.P and ZENSUS J.A. (2001). A Cosmic Double Helix in the Archetypical Quasar, Science. 100

[14]-REID, M. J.; et al. (2009). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of Massive Star Forming Regions: VI. Galactic Structure, Fundamental Parameters and Non-Circular Motions". Astrophysical Journal, 700 : 137. [15]-RESNICK and STEWART, R., (2011). Micro Orders of Magnitude Example In Microscopy, Journals of Science under subject category entitled :"Photography and Imaging " . - http://www.journals-of-science.com/b-immi-micro-orders-mag.html . [16]-RESNICK J.A. and STEWART, R., (2011). Micro Orders of Magnitude Example In Microscopy, Journal of Science under subject category entitled:"Photography and Imaging",p.9 13 and 27-29.- http://www.journals-of-science.com/b-immi-micro-orders-mag.html [17]-SKLAR, L, (1992). Philosophy of Physics, p. 20 - 25, and 43 - 57. [18]-TIBOR HERCZEG, NORMAN (1999). " The Orion Nebula; a chapter of early nebular studies", History of Astronomy. [19]-TUCKER W.H. (1971) . Left x-rays from Cygnus Loop Interpretation, Science. Image Credits (In Alphabetical order) [20]-(HST)-Hubble Space Telescope Web site-(Hubble-Site.org)-http://www.hubblesite.org [21]http://www.physlink.com/Education/AskExperts/ae281.cfm?CFID=37785180 &CFTOKEN=a93bbf6ecbea3d58243FCD63-15CEE01-B958F4B1ED9B1378 [22]- http://www.ruf.rice.,edu/~bioslab/methods/microscopy/measuring.html . STEWART Ronald (C) - (1996 - 2011). Imaging of Simple Methodological IMMI Basics involving the proposal, presentation, and demonstration with the eye of a needle. [23]-STEWART RONALD (C) - (2005 -2006) - IMMI Imaging of Outer Space of The Orion Nebula Core -(IMMI)_ Verses and In Comparison With HST-(Hubble Space Telescope)-(Series In Imaging The Orion Nebula)- Journal of Science. At- http://journals-of-science.com . [24]-STEWART RONALD (C) - (2011) - Flat Plained Pixel Verses and Compared To IMMI Inverted Diagramic Digital Inverted Vortexed Concentrated Pixels and Digital Imaging Formats

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EARTH

SCIENCES

Earth Sciences is defined as: "Sciences Any of several essentially geologic sciences that are concerned with the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth, and may more specifically include the study and research of sciences, disciplines, sub-disciplines, fields, and /or study of and all science that have to do with the physical earth. Such as geology, vulcanology, oceanography, some paleontology, meteorology and atmosphere.

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The Theory of Freeze Zone Morphology For Mammoths 1Marcos

Valenswego

2Ronald

Stewart

Abstract- What is The Theory Freeze Zone Morphology when applicable to Mammoths? Freeze zone morphology is a combinational dual theory that both as to why there is a mixture of finding Mammoths and other past cold environmental animals like the Mammoth, Wooly Mammoth Wooly Bison, Wooly Rhinoceros and other such like animals are discovered. In these discoveries from time to time there may also be found parts and / or fragments of their skeletal remains such as bones that still may have soft tissue still attached to them. The hypothesis and new theory proposes and presents that there are certain geographical locations and areas primarily in the northern hemispheres of earth, that because these existed at much higher elevations than earth's equator zones such as the Northern parts of Alaska in North America, Siberia, and other similar cold environmental geographical locations on the earth, that when these colder environmentally natured animals died their skeletal remains became as a whole, partially, and / or preserved in fragments of bone with flesh still upon them. However, at that time the entire earth was about the same median temperature. However these types of animals existed at these higher colder elevations and when winter came about on an annual basis these animal's hair would grow longer. However, during these periods of time of course such like animals died and their remains became a permanent part of the permafrost sedimentary conditions and this is a new theory as to why some of these animals are found this way. Keywords: Mammoth, Wooly Mammoth, Bison, Wooly Bison 1.0 Introduction and background 1.1 19th Century Biblical Application In the Biblical sense [1] (Dillow, J.C.,(1981). " The waters above: Earth’s pre-Flood vapor canopy, suggests a water canopy once existed above the earth's atmosphere and that the complete disappearance of the mammoth, mastodon, wooly bison, and wooly bison and such like animals that thrived and lived long ago in the snowy and icy reaches of earth's northern hemisphere died this way because a water canopy once broke and thus resulted in a global deluge and so is encased in the Biblical story and narrative of Noah and The Ark. ______________________________________ 1 Marcos Valenswego obtained his Bachelors Degree in Microbiology and Masters Degree in Vertebrate Paleontology. 2 (Th.D.)- Ancient History/ Religious History-(4000-B.C.-1400-C.E.) With An Emphasis In Historical Archaeology, and retains a (PhD)Theoretics In The Arts, Humanities, and Sciences. Stewart also peer reviews for Ancient History Encyclopedia, is Editor-In-Chief for IJAAR(Int'l Journal of Astronomy/Astrophysics & Earth Sciences Research), to be promoted World-Wide By: "Pro-Quest"-(Indexing/ Scholar Journal Services), (Asst. Editor for: "Pluralidade"-(In English)-"Journal of Interdisciplinary Sciences" ) read in (42}countries/ (5)continents-Earth wide),, Recently invited to be: "A Guest Editor For The Oldest/ Largest Peer Reviewed Journal In The World: "Royal Society Publishing Proceedings-(A & B" ),(September, 15th, 2013, appointed as: "Editor-In-Chief" for the: " Blind/ Open-Peer Reviewed journal known as: "Independent Archaeology Notes, Art-History & Earth Sciences". Stewart is also a member of the NEAS-(Near Eastern Archaeological Society).

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Therefore the complete disappearance of the woolly mammoths and other animals that thrived during the theory of the Ice Age is a major mystery of paleontology today Based on the carcasses and the state of preservation of the stomach food, a quick freeze appears reasonable. However, when looking at other evidence the authors of this research paper propose that in the northern hemispheres of earth's northern colder locations that although there is evidence to suggest that at one time the earth was warmer and had a more median average range of temperature's for the most part around 70 degrees Fahrenheit. [1] (Dillow, J.C.,(1981). " The waters above: Earth’s pre-Flood vapor canopy suggests as do many in religious circles propose a quick freeze to account for the frozen mammoths and other animals in Siberia, as well as the lowlands of Alaska and the Yukon. While The quickfreeze hypothesis is an old idea, developed by scientists in the late 19 th century, there are other geologists and paleontologists alike [2-3] who disagree with this concept and propose the Ice Age is where these types of animals lived and died. Some believe that for a water canopy quick freeze to have taken place temperature had to quickly fall below –150°F (–100°C). [2.0]-Area and Conditions of Permafrost [4] (Tolmachoff, I.P., (1929). " The carcasses of the mammoth and rhinoceros found in the frozen ground of Siberia" proposes and reports that in these permafrost regions of the northern hemisphere like in Siberia for example , that very small number of carcasses compared to the number of decomposed mammoths that are entombed in the permafrost. In 1929, there were only 39 known carcasses of woolly mammoths and rhinoceroses. [4] (Tolmachoff, I.P., (1929), also stipulates and reports that of these, only about a six carcasses found were fairly complete; most of the 40 or so animals that had been found up to that time in the 20th century consisted of only a few small remnants of soft tissue attached to the bones. However, more recent discoveries reported and discovered as collaborated in [3] (Stewart, J.M., "Frozen Mammoths From Siberia bring the ice ages to vivid life "Since 1929, a few dozen new carcasses have been discovered, include the baby mammoth, Dima, found in 1977. Conclusion The authors of this research paper propose a new theory. That animals living in earth's northern hemispheres like Siberia, Alaska, and elsewhere when it comes down to the study of microbiological application that the animals like the mammoth, wooly mammoth, wooly bison and rhinoceros lived in the spring, summer, and fall months of the year in median temperatures that covered the entire earth at one time. However, because these animals lived in the colder climates of the northern hemisphere their hair grew longer in the colder winter months where evidently a number of these have died leaving their soft tissue on their bones in the permafrost.

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Acknowledgements The authors of this papers would like to thank any and all paleontologists, scientists, and researchers who have made their research available. for without it papers like this would have not been possible. Bibliographical References (In Alphabetical Order) [1]-DILLOW, J.C.,(1981). " The waters above: Earth’s pre-Flood vapor canopy, Moody Press, Chicago, IL, pp. 383–396, 1981. [2]-OARD, M.J., The extinction of the woolly mammoth: Was it a quick freeze? TJ 14 (3):24– 34, 2000. [3]-STEWART, J.M., Frozen mammoths from Siberia bring the ice ages to vivid life, Smithsonian 8:60–69, 1977. [4]-Tolmachoff, I.P., The carcasses of the mammoth and rhinoceros found in the frozen ground of Siberia, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 23:20, 1929.

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