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Pro oceedings off the Asia-Pa acific Advannced Networkk 2014 v. 377, p.30-41. http p://dx.doi.org g/10.7125/APA AN.37.4

ISS SN 2227-302 26

A FIEL LD MONIITORING G STATIO ON NETW WORK FOR R SUPPO ORTING T THE DEVELO OPMENT OF INTE EGRATED D WATER R RESOUR RCES MAN NAGEMEN NT 1 Satyanto o K. Saptomo o 1*, Budi I. Setiawan S , Chusnul C Arif1 , Sutoyo1, Liiyantono2, I W Wayan Budiiasa3, 5 Hisaki Ka ato4, Takao Nakagiri N , an nd Junpei Ku ubota4

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Dept. of Civil C and Env vironmental Engineeringg, Bogor Agrricultural Unniversity Kampu us IPB Darm maga, Bogo or, Indonesiaa

Dept. of Meechanical an nd Biosystem m Engineerinng, Bogor Aggricultural U University Kampu us IPB Darm maga, Bogo or, Indonesiaa 3

Udayana U Univ versity, Bali , Indonesia

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Research R Insstitute for Hu umanity and Nature, Kyooto, Japan 5

Osaka O Prefeccture Universsity, Japan

E-mail: E [email protected] mail.com * Author to whom correespondence should s be adddressed; Tell.: +62-251-8627225

Abstractt: Fielld monitorin ng systems were w installeed in six loccations of innterest for fiield weatherr and d environmen nt monitorin ng in suppo ort of the deevelopment of an integgrated waterr reso ources management sy ystem in tw wo watersh eds, Saba in Bali prrovince andd Jeneeberang in South Sulaawesi provin nce, Indonessia. The staations were situated inn low wer, middle, and upper sections s of the t watersheeds, with ann intention oof obtainingg info ormation reg garding variation in weeather and sooil that reprresents variaation in the paraameters of the t respectiv ve watershed ds. The systtems includee an automaatic weatherr 30   

station, a soil monitoring system, and a FieldRouter remote monitoring system that delivers data daily via Internet. Data handling procedures were developed to process the data and calculate the water balance of each field. The result yielded a description of the current condition of each field that can serve as a basis for local field water management assessment. This real-time monitoring network can support water management in watersheds that are facing water-related risks resulting from land-use change and climate change. Keywords: water resources, remote monitoring, climate change, agricultural water management.

1. Introduction Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a comprehensive, participatory planning and implementation approach for managing and developing water resources in a way that balances social and economic needs and that ensures the protection of ecosystems for future generations. IWRM is an open, flexible process that unites all decision makers across various sectors involved in the water resources and brings all stakeholders to the table to set policy and make sound, balanced decisions in response to specific water challenges. As a rice producing country, Indonesia faces a great challenge in water conservation in rice farming because of scarce water resources and competition for their use. Climate change has been affecting agricultural activities, particularly in paddy fields [5]. Water saving technologies has become one of the priorities of rice research [2]. The IWRM system should accordingly be developed for field water management in the production of rice and other crops, and requires the collection of information from the field. In the present study, two locations were selected as focus sites: the Saba watershed, in Bali province, and the Jeneberang watershed, in South Sulawesi province, Republic of Indonesia. The two sites have contrasting socioeconomic backgrounds; however, the sites have faced similar problems of water availability under the influence of climate and land-use changes in recent years. Water management in the Saba watershed has a long historical background involving several aspects of nature and human life, and it is widely known as the Subak system [4]. In contrast, water management in the Jeneberang watershed applies a modern approach based on the newly established Bili-bili dam [3]. Under traditional water management by the Subak system, quantification and measurement of water-related variables are not performed in modern ways, in contrast to the Bili-bili dam system equipped with a modern monitoring system including rainfall, water level, and discharge monitoring. Information from a weather and water monitoring system is important for evaluation 31   

of modern water management systems facing the expectation of increasing water scarcity. Both locations require information obtained onsite to evaluate field level water management. For this reason, monitoring at the field level, which also provides data for watershed-level analysis, is necessary in the design of a local water-management framework A field level monitoring system supplies real-time conditions of weather and soil at a location, and the information can be used to evaluate quantitatively the impact and efficiency of the site’s current agricultural water management. Based on the result, assessment to improve local water resources management can be performed as a subsequent step of the research. This study aimed to develop a field monitoring station network to support the development of a local framework for IWRM. 2. Methods 2.1. Study Location Two distinct watersheds were selected as the location for the research based on their background differences and similarity in water management problems. The Saba watershed is situated in Buleleng regency, Bali province, Indonesia, where, as in all areas in Bali, agricultural water management follows the Subak. In contrast, the Jeneberang watershed in South Sulawesi was recently developed with the establishment of the newly built, modern Bili-bili dam. Within the two basins, three locations were selected to represent lower, middle, and upper regions based on preliminary study and surveys. Six monitoring stations were set up in rice fields, as the main agricultural fields. In fields where rice is not cultivated, primarily because of unavailability of water for rice cultivation, the selected field turns into upland corn field. 2.2. Instrumentation A monitoring system was used at field monitoring stations. The instruments comprise of three main parts as follows: the first two being an automatic weather and soil measurement systems that employ an integrated data logger and the third part is a remote monitoring system called a FieldRouter (FR) [1], which is connected to the two measurement systems and to the data server via a Global System for Mobile Communications Internet connection. The FR is responsible for retrieving data from the monitoring systems, and for acquiring images of the field with a digital camera and storing the data in the FR’s solid-state memory. Measurement and data acquisition by the monitoring systems were conducted every 30 min. On a daily basis, the FR uploads all data to a server via Internet connection. This system is also known as a quasi-real-time monitoring system [9], in which a higher frequency of real-time data acquisition is replaced by a lower frequency of acquisition. The latter mode is more powersaving and Internet-cost-effective than that of remote monitoring systems that send real-time data several times a day [8]. This field monitoring system enables the collection of the field weather 32   

and wateer status at all a locations that have th he system in stalled. Figuure 1 shows the schemattic of the field monitoring system. Weather monitoring g is perform med by auto omatic weatther stationss measuringg solar radiiation 2 (W/m ), rainfall (mm m), wind speeed (m/s), wiind directionn sensor (--)), temperaturre (°C), hum midity (%), and d atmospheriic pressure (kPa). ( The weather w statiions also auutomatically calculate seeveral parameteers based on n the acquirred data. An n important estimate m made by the station is oof the referencee evapotranspiration (mm m).

Figure 1. Schematics S of Sensor In nstallation aand Field M Monitoring S System The soil monitoring g system hass an array of o sensors tthat are useed to measuure soil moisture, ure, electrocconductivity y, and soil water w potenntial. Soil m moisture in vvolumetric w water temperatu 3 3 content terms t  (m /m / ) represeents the amo ount of wateer in the soiil pores. Soiil temperatuure Ts (°C) can be used to analyze a heat flow in the soil s and tem mperature deppendent propperties in thee soil. The fertiility or salin nity of the soil can be represented r bby its electrroconductiviity, EC (mS S/cm). The soil water potential  (kPa) describess the availabbility of waater for roott uptake and the strength with which the soil hollds water in its pores. F Figure 1 shoows the scheematics of sensor installatio on. The FR connects to weather an nd soil monitoring systeems via Bluuetooth and a USB cabble. It nager that do ownloads daata from thee two monitooring data looggers and sstores serves ass a data man the data in i its memorry. In additio on, the FR regularly r phootographs thhe field with a digital cam mera. All data and imagess are upload ded daily an nd automaticcally to a sserver managed by the FR’s manufactturer. In the event that the t FR fails to establishh a wireless connection to the server, the

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data will be stored temporarily in the FR’s memory, and the data would be uploaded on the next successful connection to the server. 3. Results and Discussions 3.1. Field Monitoring Stations The six installed monitoring stations are listed in Table 1, which describes the geographical locations, elevations, and place names of lower, middle, and upper stations. The coordinates of the stations were acquired by GPS and elevation was determined from a terrain map provided by Google. Differences in elevation are well represented by the Saba stations, as the lower station is situated near the Saba Weir at an elevation between 20 and 40 m. The second station, near Titab Sabo dam, is located at approximately 200 m, and the third station, Umejero, is 680–700 m above sea level. Elevations are not well represented by the Jeneberang station locations, owing to the physical features of the Jeneberang watershed. The Bili-bili dam and reservoir are situated in the middle of the watershed. Table 1 Field Monitoring Stations Watershed

Location

Elevation

Coordinate

(m) Saba

Lower

Lokapaksa

20–40

S 8°12′42.44″; E 114°55′45.19″

Middle

Titab

200

S 8°16′16.43″; E 114°58′2.87″

Upper

Umejero

680–700

S 8°17′1.43″; E 115° 2′13.00″

Lower

Kampili

0–20

S 5°22′56.40″; E 119°26′21.60″

Bisua

20–40

S 5°18′10.20″; E 119°30′51.00″

Malino

860

S 5°16′31.20″; E 119°51′6.00″

Jeneberang Middle Upper 3.2. Saba

Figure 2 (a) shows the location of the stations in the Saba watershed. The dashed lines show the centers of distance between pairs of stations, roughly indicating the extent of influence by the site’s local weather on the watershed. Figure 2 (b), (c), and (d) show the monitoring results of the upper, middle, and lower Saba stations. The data presented in these figures are limited to one planting season from land preparation to harvest. The upper graphs show soil moisture and soil water potential measured by the soil monitoring system at four different depths beneath the surface. Rainfall and reference evapotranspiration, as the main data in irrigation assessment, are

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shown in n the middle graphs. Imaages at the bo ottom of thee figure are ffield photos taken daily aat the field duriing land prep paration, gro owing, and harvest. h

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d)

Figure 2. 2 (a) Locatiion of Field Monitoring g Stations in n Saba Wattershed, (b) Upper Field d (c) Middle Field, (d) Loweer Field At the lo ower field, Lokapaksa, L the t monitoriing stations showed thatt soil moistuures at all ddepths were alw ways above field capaccity, and thee soil waterr potential w was below pF 2 duringg the growing period. Thiss result show ws that the so oil moisture regime wass suitable forr plant grow wth, as water waas sufficienttly availablee in the soil. The condiition of the middle stattion at Titabb was similar to o those of th he lower stattion, where soil s moisturee and soil w water potentiaal are in the state of water is available for root upttake. Soil moisture m leveels at all deppths were allways above field capacity and soil watter potential below pF 2 during the ggrowing periiod. This ressult also indiicates that perco olation occu urred as pF feell below 2, an event connsidered as w water loss. At the upper u station ns, there weere apparentlly problemss with the m monitoring sstations, as some sensor daata were nott available. Fortunately,, the workinng sensor shhowed that ssoil moisturee was

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above fieeld capacity y during the period. Theese results s how that geenerally watter was suffi ficient during reecorded perio od at every station. s  

 

  (a) 

(b)   

 

(c) 

 

(d) 

Figure 3. (a) Locattions of Fielld Monitoring Stations in Jeneberaang Watersshed. (b) Up pper Field d (c) Middlee Field, (d) L Lower Field d

3.3. Jeneberang he locations of field mon nitoring statiions in Jenebberang waterrshed, namelly the Figure 3 (a) shows th Kampili, Bissua, and d Malino sitees. The wateershed bounddary depicted in this figuure is not the one delineateed based on topography, t but has beeen already exxtended to cover the area irrigated bby the Bili-bili reservoir sy ystem. The area a surroun nding the Kaampili statioon receives w water througgh an artificial irrigation caanal, but thee fields wherre the monittoring system m was statiooned did not have irrigation n canal, and farmers used d groundwatter during thhe dry periodd. Figure 3 (b), (c), and (d) show the results of o monitorinng during onne productioon season. A At the lower fieeld, Bissua, soil moistu ure at the su urface layerrs sometimees fell below w the permanent

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wilting point (PWP), but at lower layers was above PWP and soil water potential was below pF 2. Here, the field can be presumed water-sufficient. At the Kampili site, soil moisture readings at all depths were almost always below PWP and soil water potential was between pF 2 and 4 during the growing period. Corn was planted in the fields during the described period, and the farmer used some groundwater for irrigation. This condition confirmed the partial water sufficiency of the field as shown by monitored data. At the Malino station, field monitoring data in Fig. 3(d) were acquired only during early growth in a rice field, when the field was ponded with standing water. The data for soil moisture and soil water potential show the water-saturated condition of the field. In this period, water was sufficient for the field but the percolation was also expected. 3.4. Station Management As mentioned previously, the stations were designed as remote monitoring stations that automatically acquire and update data on the server. The server is accessible online via the website of each station. Figure 4 (a) shows one example of a website displaying information of visibility (normal or abnormal status of the station), location, and measurement data in text and graphical form. The data can be downloaded via the links provided on the site. Data should be accessible by others, including those whose responsibility does not include online data download and management. This can be done by sharing the data folder with the other members via Internet. Cloud technology is an option for this purpose, as it generally offers an Internet folder that can be shared among several users and provides automatic updating of the folder on users’ computers. Cloud storage provides storage services through the network and data are stored by a local storage service provider (SSP) that provides online storage space [6]. Figure 4 (b) shows how this technology looks on a personal computer. The acquired data are then processed for further analysis. To date, a simple procedure based on spreadsheet and macro programming was used to process the data. In general, daily data are preferred for most of the analyses in the project, and accordingly one of the procedures is to summarize the real-time data as daily values. Table 2 shows the daily values of each parameter (average, minimum, maximum, cumulative). Although the station was designed for ease of operation and maintenance, managing six remote stations at once is not simple. Effort is required to ensure that the stations work well, and capable local staff should be present to help with operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting whenever problems occur. The station configurations of the field monitoring systems presented in this study have provided rich data for water management purposes, but the groundwater-table component of water balance is missing. An additional sensor able to measure the groundwater table is needed. Groundwater37   

table tem mporal variattions can alsso be used for f percolatiion analysis and will coomplete the w water balance equation. e

(a)

(b) Fiigure 4. (a) Sample of station’s s website (b) Clooud storagee and desktoop folders Table T 2. Sum mmary of daaily data

No

Parrameter

Da aily Data

Meethods

1

Rain nfall

To otal daily (mm))

Sum ummation

2

Rad diation

To otal daily (MJ)

Nuumerical integrration (trapezoiid method)

3

Tem mperature

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

4

Relaative Humidity y

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

5

Win nd speed

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

6

Barrometric pressu ure

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

7

Evaapotranspiration n (ETo)

To otal daily (mm))

Sum ummation

8

Soill moisture

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

9

Soill Temperature

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

10

Soill EC

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

11

Soill water potentiaal

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

12

Soill water table

Av verage, Min, Max M

Avverage, Min, M Max

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3.5. Further Use of the Data Water-use efficiency has more than one definition, which two are of water efficiency are water conveyance efficiency and water application efficiency. The first describes the ratio of water that reaches the field to the water conveyed through canals and indicates the success of water delivery to the field. The second term defines the ratio of water stored in the root zone for crop evapotranspiration to the total amount applied to the land. Either definition will be considered for assessment in the continuation of this research. Another key term in agricultural water management is water productivity [10], which defines the amount of mass or weight of product produced by consuming one unit volume of water (kg/l). This describes the productivity of water use for agricultural production. These terms describe the quality of the land and water management of the site, from both water and production standpoints. The data acquired from these stations is also required for calibration of water-related models such as the Darcy’s-law based model [7] or water balance equation [11]. The stations themselves can be used for online promotion of the site’s product. For instance, if the farmer grows special organic rice, the images and field-condition updates can be placed on a website; thus, they are visible to potential buyers. However, introduction of this technology should be accompanied by capacity building of the local inhabitant who will use or operate this system. There had been issues of troubleshooting difficulties as the monitoring system is meant to be remotely operates. While the scientists group is far away, problems related to power supply, insects, broken sensors etc. occurred several time at the station without sufficient help from the local staffs as they are not well prepared for this task. Therefore technical training regarding maintenance and troubleshooting should be given.

4. Conclusions Field monitoring systems were installed in six locations of interest for field water-balance monitoring. The systems are delivering data on a daily basis and the data is regularly downloaded from a server and analyzed. Data handling procedures were developed to process the data and calculate the water balance of each field. The systems are adequate for the project and can improving work efficiency by increasing the frequency of data acquisition and reducing travel required for data download. The results of field monitoring show that there are fields with water sufficiency and others with water insufficiency. The description of the current condition of each field can be one basis for local field water management assessment. Furthermore, water productivity should be analyzed to determine the land and water management efficiency of the field. Moreover, it should be 39   

determined whether improvement of water management could improve land and water efficiency. Further use of the monitoring data is possible in several aspects of this research, including but not being limited to water efficiency and productivity analysis for the improvement of local-scale and basin-scale water management. However, additional information regarding groundwater tables that is recommended for improvement of the stations is lacking. Furthermore, training of local operators to provide technical ability in the maintenance of the stations is needed.

Acknowledgment This manuscript is based on study performed under the Project C-09-Init “Designing Local Frameworks for Integrated Water Resources Management,” which is supported by Research Institute for Humanity and Nature. References and Notes 1

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3 4 5

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Mizoguchi, M., Ito, T., Arif, C., Mitsuishi, S., Akazawa, M., 2011. Quasi real-time field network system for monitoring remote agricultural fields, SICE Annual Conference 2011, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 1586-1589. 10 Molden, D. 2007. Water for Food Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture. International Water Management Institute. Colombo 11 van Lier, H. N., L. S. Pereira, F. R. Steiner. (1999) CIGR Handbook of Agricultural Engineering Volume I Land and Water Engineering. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. © 2014 by the authors; licensee Asia Pacific Advanced Network. This article is an open-access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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