Effect of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants on Application of Calcium ...

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Application of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles in. Paper Coating. Ahmed Barhoum,. †,‡* Hubert Rahier,†. Ragab Esmail Abou-Zaied,. ‡,§ Mohamed Rehan,‖ ...

Effect of Cationic and Anionic Surfactants on Application of Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles in Paper Coating Ahmed Barhoum,†,‡* Hubert Rahier,† Ragab Esmail Abou-Zaied,‡,§ Mohamed Rehan,∥Thierry Dufour,# Gavin Hill,† Alain Dufresne‡ †

Department of Materials and Chemistry, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels,

Belgium ‡

Grenoble Institute of Technology (Grenoble INP) –The International School of Paper, Print

Media and Biomaterials (Pagora), CS10065, 38402 Saint Martin d’Hères Cedex, France §

Cellulose and Paper Department, National Research Center (NRC), Dokki, Giza 11622, Egypt



Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM),

Wiener Street 12, D-28359 Bremen, Germany #

Faculty

of

Sciences

-

Analytical

and

Interfacial

Chemistry,

Libre de Bruxelles, 2, Bvd du Triomphe, CP-255, B-1050 Bruxelles, Belgium *Email: [email protected]

Université

Supporting Information

Figure 1s. The universal coating machine developed by CTP (Centre Technique du papier, Grenoble, France).

Figure 2s. FI-IR spectra of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium oleate

Coating Thickness

Coat Thickness [µm]

8 6 4 2 0 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 3s. Coating thickness of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and the prepared micro (MC) and nano (NC, CC and OC) calcium carbonates.

Coating Weight Coat Weight [gm/m2]

10 8 6

4 2 0 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 4s. Coating weight of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Air Roughness

Air Flow [ml/min]

700 600 500

400 300 200 100 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 5s. Air roughness of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Air Permeability

Air Flow [ml/min]

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 6s. Air permeability of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Brightness

Brightness [%]

90 88 86

84 82 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 7s. Brightness of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Whiteness

Whiteness [%]

90 88 86 84 82 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 8s. Whiteness of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Opacity 80

Opacity [%]

78 76 74 72 70 68 BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

Figure 9s. Opacity of reference paper (BK) and paper coated with the commercial GCC and the prepared calcium carbonates MC, NC, CC and OC.

Table 1s. Relative change of physical and optical properties of paper coated with the prepared calcium carbonates; the values are based on the comparison with GCC coated paper (based on data from tables 2 and 3). Paper Physical

Paper Optical Properties

Properties Sample

Coating Thickness [%]

Coating Weight [%]

Paper Roughness [%]

Air Permeability [%]

Brightness [%]

Whiteness [%]

Opacity [%]

Paper

MC

15.7

5.3

-9.3

-7.1

0.3

1.8

1.9

NC

-5.9

-15.1

-21.4

-25.2

1.3

2.1

0.9

CC

-13.7

-21.4

-8.9

-9.3

1.0

2.8

1.0

OC

-19.6

-25.5

-23.2

-25.8

0.6

2.3

2.3

Table 2s. The contact angle measurement the reference (BK) and coated papers GCC, MC, NC, CC and OC.

Drop Age

Paper Sample BK

GCC

MC

NC

CC

OC

[min]

[°]

[°]

[°]

[°]

[°]

[°]

0

122

118

132

134

125

143

1

121

117

123

128

104

137

2

120

116

119

122

92

131

3

119

115

114

107

77

126

4

118

115

110

101

67

125

5

117

114

108

91

58

121

6

116

112

105

90

54

118

7

115

110

103

89

52

116

8

113

108

99

88

48

115

9

112

106

97

87

45

114

10

111

104

92

86

42

112

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