effects of soil fauna on litter decomposition

3 downloads 0 Views 434KB Size Report
fetor fir ( Abie nephrolepis) and dahurian larch ( Larix gmelini). The samples are buried in artificial spruce and fir forst which has the similar habitat of the three.

!"#$%&% ’%(’)*+"#!*, &!#%$!% -./012 334 $01526 74 889 :;7 < :;;4 :==3 &>[email protected]>2 +62AA4 [email protected] [email protected]

!""!#$% &" %&’( ")*+) &+ (’$$!, -!#&./&%’$’&+

G"*$’ [email protected] [email protected] &?I>[email protected] "J*$’ !E0I/[email protected] ! "#$%&’(#)’ *+ ,#*-&%$./ *+ 0%&12) 3*&(%4 5)26#&72’/8

0%&12) 9:;; ?> @.2)% A

)0%$,)#$ K L.62AM /?MM26 ?A ME2 8ENA?>F/ 1FO208 8F6M .P P.62AM 2>.ANAM219 QE2 6FM2 .P R2>[email protected] .P P.62AM /?MM26 ?A /.S [email protected] M21826FM2 [email protected] >../ M21826FM2 [email protected] QE262 ?A [email protected] [email protected]?P?>[email protected]>2 M. A2F6>E [email protected] 0M?/?T2 ME2 [email protected]>[email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A4 [email protected] .6R26 M. 86.52 ME2 1FM26?F/ >?6>0/[email protected] [email protected] [email protected] P/.S [email protected] P.62AM 2>.ANAM219 U2 A2/2>M2R ME622 [email protected] .P 12AE 5FD S?ME [email protected] 12AE A?T2,[email protected] SE?>E4 /F6D2 8.62 12AE 5FD ?A /F6D2 [email protected] M. 8261?M ME2 F>M?V?M?2A .P F// [email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A4 12R?01 12AE 5FD ?A [email protected] M. 2W>/0R2 ME2 [email protected]>[email protected] .P A.?/ 1F>[email protected] SE?/2 A1F// 12AE 5FD ?A A1F// [email protected] M. 2W>/0R2 ME2 2PP2>MA .P [email protected] [email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A FA PF6 FA 8.AA?5/29 QE2 R2>[email protected] M?12 ?A ME622 N2F6A9 QE2 [email protected] 62A0/MA AE.S MEFMK ME2 R2>[email protected] A822R .P ME2 5FDA S?ME 5?D 12AE2A4 [email protected] [email protected]>[email protected] .P F// [email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A4 PFAM26 [email protected] ME2 5FDA S?ME 12R?01 12AE2A4 [email protected] [email protected]>[email protected] .P 12R?01 [email protected] A1F// A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A4 FA S2// FA ME2 5FDA S?ME A1F// 12AE2A MEFM 2W>/[email protected] F// 8.AA?5?/?MN .P [email protected]>[email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/AX [email protected] ME2 86.>2AA .P R2>[email protected] .P /?MM264 62/[email protected]?8 .P ME2 /?MM26 /.AM S2?DEM S?ME @01526 .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A ?A @.M .5V?.0A >/2F6/NX ME2 R2D622 .P [email protected]>[email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A M. A.PM /?MM26 E?DE26 [email protected] EF6R /?MM26X F>>[email protected] M. ME2 [email protected]/NA?A .P R?V26A?MN [email protected] @. 62D0/F6 >[email protected] S?// [email protected] M. ME2 R?V26A?MN .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A FA ME2 M?12 .P R2>[email protected] AF18/2A /[email protected]@9 1!2 3&,-K A.?/ [email protected]?1F/X P.62AM /?MM26X /?MM26 R2>[email protected] !,! @01526K +3YZ9 Z

[.>[email protected] >.R2K *

*6M?>/2 #[K 3==:I==\7 ] :==3 ^ =7I=:;7I=\

3 #$Q)([J!Q#($ L.62AM /?MM264 SE?>E ?A ME2 8ENA?>F/ 1FO208 8F6M .P P.62AM 2>.ANAM214 [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] F>[email protected] [email protected] 2>.ANAM219 ".S2V264 ?P P.62AM /?MM26 ?A F>>010/FM2R M. 2W>2AA4 ?M S?// 86.R0>2 A.12 @[email protected]@2D/?D?5/2 @2DFM?V2 [email protected] P/[email protected]>24 SE?>E >.0/R 52 ME2 >F0A2 .P F P.62AM P?62 .6 ME2 [email protected] EF65.6 P.6 R?A2FA2A [email protected] 82AMA [email protected] F P.62AM9 QE262P.624 ME262 F62 [email protected] ME2.62M?>F/ [email protected] 86F>M?>F/ [email protected]?P?>[email protected]>2A [email protected] [email protected] ME2 R2>[email protected] .P /?MM26 [email protected] M21826FM2 [email protected] >../ M21826FM2 [email protected] SE262 ME2 6FM2 .P R2>[email protected] .P P.62AM /?MM26 ?A /.S9 QE2 [email protected] 2PP2>MA .P A.?/ [email protected]?1F/A [email protected] R2>.18.I [email protected] .P /?MM26 EFV2 [email protected] AM0R?2R F56.FR 62/FM?V2/N 2F6/N4 ] "*’-*) #’ %494 3_;3X "(J&% #’ %494 3_;a ^ [email protected] F P2S

628.6MA [email protected] ?M >[email protected] F/A. 52 [email protected] R.12AM?>F//N ] !"%$ #’ %494 3_;ZX ,#*( #’ %494 3__=X G"*$’ #’ %494 3__\X b*$’ #’ %494 3__YX ’J( #’ %494 3__: ^ 9 QE2A2 AM0R?2A S262 >[email protected]>M2R M. 86.52 [email protected] ME2 ?18F>MA .P A.?/ [email protected] ?1F/A [email protected] R2>[email protected] 86.>2AA .P M21826FM2 >[email protected]?P26.0A /?MM26 [email protected] ME2 >[email protected][email protected] .P A.?/ [email protected] M. R2>[email protected] >.06A2 .P [email protected]>24 A. MEFM ?M >[email protected] 86.V?R2 A.12 ME2.I 62M?>F/ [email protected]>2A P.6 ME2 R2V2/[email protected] .P P.62AM 2I >.ANAM219 : &*‘+,% +,(Q QE2 AF18/2 8/.M ?A /.>FM2R FM ,[email protected]? @FM06F/ 86.M2>[email protected] F62F,/[email protected] [email protected] [F?/[email protected] [?AM6?>M .P b?>[email protected] !?MN .P "2?/[email protected][email protected] [email protected]>24 [email protected] F/A. [email protected] ME2 [email protected] 8F6M

)2>2?V2R RFM2K :==3I=ZI3= B?.D6F8ENK G"*$’ [email protected] ] 3_\: < ^ 4 P21F/24 F @FM?V2 .P "[email protected] !?MN4 FAA.>?FM2 86.P2AA.64 ‘FAM269 "26 62A2F6>E [email protected] [email protected]>/0R2 A.?/ [email protected]?1F/ 2>./.DN [email protected] [email protected][email protected]@M 2>./.DN9

!"#

DE+FG H6$C-")2I

$% &’($ )’*++(* ,$-*.(’*/0 12343 ’./ *(.-4(5 63+3.(.’$* ’/ ( 7’839 :4$(9;53(639 .433/ (*9 390 ’. ’/ $*3 $% .23 7(?$4 ’*9’+3*$-/ $% =5$. (43( ’/ 5$1 7$-*.(’*,(*9 ’./ E$*(5 /$’5 .>=3 ’/ 9(4 2’+2 5(.’.-93C D23 73(* (*; *-(5 .37=34(.-43 ’/ F GC HI 0 .23 (634(+3 (**-(5 =43; @’=’.(.’$* ’/ JKJ770 .23 +3*34(5 @5’7(.’@ @2(4(@.34’/.’@/ .( @$59 (*9 94> (*9 /2$4.;5(/.’*+ /-7734/ ’* 12’@2 ’. ’/ @$$5 (*9 4(’*>C D23 .2433 /.-9> /[email protected]’3/ $% @$*’%34$-/ 5’..34 -/39 :> .2’/ 38=34’73*. (43 (7( /[email protected] (!"#$% &’(%"$)*"*)0 %3.$4 %’4 L +,"$ )$-.(’/$-"* M (*9 9(2-4’(* 5([email protected] L 0%("1 23$/")" M C D23 /(7=53/ (43 :-4’39 ’* (4.’%’@’(5 /[email protected] (*9 %’4 %$4/. 12’@2 2(/ .23 /’7’5(4 2(:’.(. $% .23 .2433 /[email protected]’3/ (*9 ’/ 9$7’*(.39 :> (7( /[email protected],1’.2 %3.$4 %’40 7(=53 :’[email protected](4$56/% #’*5%5%) (/ 1355 (/ %’/2 /@(53 /[email protected](!"#$% 7$8’$)*"*),12’53 ’./ (4:$4 @(*$=> 93*/’.> ’/ GC ",.23 ’*.34’$4 $% .23 1$$9/ ’/ 9’7C H ,ND)OP Q* $4934 .$ 53(4* .23 3%%[email protected]/ $% /$’5 (*’7(5/ $* 5’..34 [email protected]$7=$/’.’$*0 13 /[email protected] .2433 >3(4 .23 5’..34 :(+/ ’/ 43.4’3639 %4$7 /.-9> /’.3 ’* U-*30 V-; +-/.0 [email protected]$:34 %$4 .2433 .’73/C N634> .’73 3(@2 .>=3 $% 53(% 5’..34 :(+/ ’/ 43/[email protected]’635> 43.4’3639 %$4 J :(+/ L ! 5(4+3 73/2 :(+/0 ! 739’-7 73/2 :(+/0 ! /7(55 73/2 :(+/ M 0 ’* .$.(50 .2343 (43 R" :(+/ %$4 .23 .2433 :-4’390 (%.34 13’+2’*+ ’./ 94> 7(// M C D23 73.2$9 $% /(7=5’*+ /$’5 (*’7(5/ ’* .23 5’..34 5(>34 $% .23 =5$. 12343 .23 /(7=53/ (43 :-4’39,’/ .2(. ’. @$*.’*-/ %$4 H >3(4/0 H .’73/ %$4 3(@2 >3(40 H /34’3/ $% /(7=53/ %$4 3(@2 .’730 H 1(>/ $% /(7=5’*+ %$4 3(@2 /3; 4’3/, *(735> .23 /$’5 7(@4$ %(-*( 1’.2 /(7=5’*+ (43( [email protected] T [email protected], (43 /$4.39 $-. :> 2(*90 12’53 .23 /$’5 73/$%(-*( (*9 /$’5 7’@4$%(-*( 1’.2 /(7=5’*+ (43( [email protected] T [email protected], (43 38.4(@.39 %4$7 /(7=53/ -/’*+ D-55+43* %-**35 38.4(@.’$*/0 (*9 .23 2-7’9$+3*3 /$’5 (*’7(5/ 1’.2 /(7=5’*+ (43( [email protected] T [email protected], (43 /3=(4(.39 %4$7 /$’5 ’* W(347(** %-**35 0 (*9 /(7=539 "R (5.$+3.234 ’* .2433 >3(4/C # XNYZ[D V\P V\V[]YQY #C R Y$’5 V*’7(5/ ’* Y(7=53 ^5$. (*9 [email protected]$7=$/’.’$* [email protected]’73* 9: ;: ; 3(4/ %$4 /$’5 (*’7(5/ $% .23 5’..34 5(>34 ’* /.-9> /’.30 13 @[email protected] #R ?%*() = 0)&53$.2%.)$ ./%.; 1-2$.(@; ./) A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ %11):.-3+ ./) ./2)) 6-30$ 51 ()%7)$ 8 $’29:); 1-2; (%2:/ < -$ 0-11)2)3.; %’’)%2-3+ %$ (%2:/B 1-2B $’29:); %30 ./) C D E 2%.-5(3%&)(@ -30-7-09%( 39&)2%( 2%.-5 51 C:%2-3% .5 E5(()&*5(%) 51 ./) ./2)) $%&’()$ *)-3+ $’29:) B 1-2 B (%2:/ > ?/) 59.:5&) 51 %3%(@$-$ $/5,$ ./%. ./) .)F.92) 51 ./2)) [email protected]’)$ 51 ()%7)$ 0-11)2$ $-+3-1-G :%3.(@; (%2:/ 2)(%.-7)(@ $51.,1-2 .2%3$-.-53%(,$’29:) 2)(%G .-7)(@ /%20> ?/) &%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ %2) &52) )%$-(@ :53.2-*9.)0 .5 ./) 0):5&’5$-.-53 51 $51. *(%0)$ 2%./)2 ./%3 /%20 53)$; %30 E5(()&*5(% -$ )$’):-%((@ $)3$-.-7) .5 ./) 7%2-%.-53 51 .)F.92) 51 (-..)2,./) 39&*)2 51 -30-G 7-09%($ 51 E5(()&*5(% -3 2)(%.-7)(@ /%20 $’29:) (-..)2 -$ 53(@ )A9-7%()3. .5 53)G./-20 51 ./%. -3 (%2:/ (-..)2> ?/) 0).)2&-3%.-53 51 ./) :53.)3.$ 51 ’25.)-3; 1%. %30 .5.%( $9+%2 51 ./2)) [email protected]’)$ 51 :53-1)259$ ()%7)$ 0)&53$.2%.)$ ./%. ./) :53.)3.$ 51 0-11)2)3. 6-30$ 51 )3)[email protected] $9*$.%3:) %30 .5.%( )3)[email protected] 7%(9) 51 ./2)) [email protected]’)$ 51 (-..)2 %2) $-&-(%2; ./9$; ./) $)():.-7) :53.2-*9.-53 51 $5-( %3-&%($ .5 (-..)2 :%3 &5$.(@ *) :53$-0)2)0 %$ % 2)$9(. 51 -31(9)3:) 51 .)F.92) 51 *(%0)$ 8 IJCKL !" #$>; !MM= < > N):530(@; ./) A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ 0-11)2$ -3 $%&’() *%+$ ,-./ 0-1G 1)2)3. &)$/ $-4)$; %’’)%2-3+ %$ (%2+) &)$/ B &)0-9& &)$/B $&%(( &)$/ > ?/) A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ -3 *5./ 1-2 %30 (%2:/ (-..)2 *%+$ -$ $-&-(%2 -3 $’-.) 51 0-11)2)3. &)$/ $-4)$; %’’25F-&%.)(@ -3 ./) 520)2 51 OMP Q R#P Q #P > ?/) A9%3.-.%.-7) ’25’52.-53 51 $5-( %3-&%($ -3 $’29:) (-..)2 *%+$ 0-11)2$ -3 ./2)) [email protected]’)$ 51 &)$/ 0-$G .-3:.(@; %’’)%2-3+ %$ SMP Q !#P Q #P > ?/-20(@; ./) $’):-)$ 51 $5-( %3-&%($ %:.-3+ -3 (-..)2 *%+$ ,-./ 0-11)2)3. &)$/ %2) 35. %(,%@$ 93-152&> ?/) $’):-)$ %30 A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ %:.-3+ -3 *5./ 1-2 %30 (%2:/ (-..)2 *%+$ %2) 3)%2; ./%. 51 T-’.)2% %3-&%($ %$ ,)(( %$ E5()5’.)2% -3 $’29:) (-..)2 %2) 0-$.-3:.(@ ()$$ ./%3 ./%. 51 (-..)2 *%+$ 51 ./) 152&)2 .,5 ()%1 $’):-)$> %& ’& ( )*+,#-./*0 1!"2!!0 /*.$ #0.+#$/ .0 /#+,$! ,$*" #03 /*.$ #0.+#$/ .0 $.""!- 1#4/ ?/) 39&*)2 51 $5-( %3-&%($ -3 $%&’() *%+$ -$ 0-$.-3:.(@ ()$$ ./%3 ./%. -3 $9225930-3+$(?%*() =); $/52.(@ %1.)2 ./) 0):5&’5$-.-53 $%&’()$ ,%$ *92-)0 -3 $%&’() ’(5.; 0-11)2)3. 6-30$ 51 $5-( %3-&%($ :%&) -3.5 ’(%@ %30 ./) -3.)[email protected] 51 %:[email protected](-30-7-09%( 39&*)2;

!"#

7%2-)[email protected] 39&*)2)-3:2)%$)0 ,-./ .-&)> ?/) :/%2%:.)2-$G .-:$ 51 0-$.2-*9.-53 53 A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ -3 &)$/ *%+$ 7%2-)0 ,-./ .-&); 0-11)2-3+ 125& )%:/ 5./)2 -3 U93); C9+9$. %30 V:.5*)2 %339%((@> J5,)7)2; ./) :/%3+-3+ (%, 51 A9%[email protected] 51 $5-( %3-&%($ -3 %(( ./) ./2)) &)$/)$W $%&’() *%+$ 51 )%:/ ()%1 $’):-)$ $9*$.%3.-%((@ %+2))$ ,-./ .-&)> X> ! ?/) T-7)[email protected] 51 N5-( C3-&%($ -3 T):5&’5$-.-53 N%&’()$ %& 5& ’ 67! #0#$8".9 -!/:$" *; 3.
!"#

"/#$% 01’)23,-

A&=’* B A7* C21=*0 $% ($,’ &5,1&’( ,5 (&1)’,5: 7&=,6&6 &58 8*+$1)$(,6,$5 (&1)’*( F)02+*

G59,0$51*56 F$,’ &5,1&’

’,66*0

I($6$1,8&* J5/+7,20,8&* G56$1$=0/,8&* K/)$:&(6020,8&* A$1$+*0,8&* L(*28&+7$026,8&* C*&520,8&* F1,56720,8* J5+$)$820,8&* J0,=&6,8& M&1&(,8& ?;6)/ 02 /;-.?) >;9/ @01( 6033)4)21 -)/( (;A) ;?? 4)6B+)6 /092030+;21?:% ’() )C.)40-)21;? 4)/B?1/ 6)-,2/14;1) 1(;1 1() 4;1)/ ,3 -;// ?,// ,3 6033)4)21 =026/ ,3 >?;6)/ 6B4029 6033)4)21 .(;/) ;4) 6033)4)21% 826 -;D 1)40;? 6)+,-.,/010,2 0/ ;2 B2)A)2 6:2;-0+ .4,+)6B4) 02 ; :);4< -;// ?,// ,3 ?);A)/ 6B4029 )09(1 -,21(/ ,3 E+D 1,>)4 1, FB2) ,3 1() 2)C1 :);4 0/ 2);4 1, 1(;1 6B4029 1() [email protected], -,21(/ 02 /B--)4< 1(;1 0/ 1, /;:< /B>/1;210;? 6)D +,-.,/010,2 .4,+)// .402+0.;??: +,2+)214;1)/ 02 @;4/);/,2/% ’() /B>/1;210;? 6)+,-.,/010,2 ;-,29 :);4/ +;2 >) +,2/06)4)6 1, >) ; 4)?;10A) )A)2 /B++)//0A) +(;29) .4,+)//% 8-,29 1(4)) :);4/ ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 )C.)40D -)21< -;// ?,// .4,+)// ,3 1() 304/1 :);4 @;/ 4)?;10A)?: 3;/1< ?;1)4 ,2< /?,@029 9)21?: 4)?;10A)?:% !" #" 5 %&’ 1(6)7. )2)+8*1* ,- *,1+ )21()+* ., ()** +,** 39/12: 3’7,(6,*1.1,2 6/,7’** ,- +1..’/ ’() 6)+,-.,/010,2 )33)+1 ,3 /,0? ;20-;? ,2 ?011)4 0/ /(,@)6 02 +,--,2 4)/B?1 ,3 ; 2B->)4 ,3 .4,+)//)/% G,-.;4029 -;// ?,// .4,+)//)/ ,3 1(4)) =026/ ,3 >?;6)/< );+( ,3 1()- /(,@/H ?;49)4 -)/(I -)60B- -)/(I /-;?? -)/(% J;-)?:< /,0? ;20-;?/ ;++)?)4;1) 1() .4,D +)// ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2% G,-.;4029 -;// ?,// .4,+)//)/ ,3 1(4)) =026/ ,3 >?;6)/< )/.)+0;??:< 1(;1 ,3 /-;?? -)/( /;-.?)/(1()4) ;4) /10?? ; 3)@ /,0? ;20-;?/K 3B2+10,2/< ,2 1() .4)-0/) ,3 )C+?B6029 /,0? ;20-;?/K 3B2+10,2/ ;/ 3;4 ;/ .,//0>?))< @) +;2 =2,@ 1(;1 /,0? ;20-;?/ +)41;02?: .?;: ; .;41 02 6)+,-.,/010,2 ,3 /;-.?)/,(,@)A)4< /B+( 02D 3?B)2+) 0/ @01( 2;1B4;? ?);+(029 ?,// ,3 6033)4)21 /B>D /1;2+) ,3 ?011)4< -0+4,>0;? ;+10A01:< ,1()4 )2A04,2-)21 3;+1,4/ 3B2+10,2/% L,4 1() 6033)4)2+)/ 02 -;1)40;? +,-.,2)21/ ;26 ?;@ ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 ,3 6033)4)21 1:.)/ ,3 ?);A)/,6)94)) ;/ @)?? ;/ ?)A)? ,3 /,0? ;20-;?/K )33)+1 ,2 ?011)4 ;4) 6033)4)21 1,,< 1()4)3,4),1() +,44)?;10,2 >)D

L04 &$ $&SO !% SWT# S% V"$W V% V&"" S% TW!O

\;4+( &T $#&! T% OOO S% V"!T $% OSV! S% TV"!

[email protected]))2 /,0? ;20-;? 0260A06B;? 2B->)4 ;26 MB;2101: ,3 -;// ?,// ,3 ?011)4 0/ 2,1 ,>A0,B/% ’() +,44)?;10,2 ;2;?D :/0/ >)[email protected]))2 /,0? ;20-;?/K 0260A06B;? 2B->)4 ;26 MB;2101: ,3 -;// ?,// ,3 ?011)4 N /;-.?029 O 10-)/ 02 & :);4/ P 6)-,2/14;1)/ 01 (;/2K1 ,>A0,B/ +,44)?;10A01: ;D -,29 1(;1 $ =026/ ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 /;-.?)/< ;26 1() ,1()4 [email protected], =026/ .4)/)21 6)30201) 4)?;10A01:% E2) ,3 1()0/ -)60B- -)/( ?;4+( ?011)4 >;9/ @(0+( /,0? ;20-;?/ Q 0260A06B;? 2B->)4 ;26 MB;2101: ,3 -;// ?,// ,3 ?011)4 ;4) 0260+;10A) ,3 4)?;10A)?: A0/0>?) 4)?;10A01:< / R S% # $TO 94);1)4 1(;2 - R O< +,44)?;10,2 +,)330+0)21 1(4)/(,?6 ,3 ! R S% ST 0/ / R S% # &$"% ’() ,1()4 ,3 1()- 0/ -)60B-)/( 304 ?011)4 >;9/ @(0+( 1(): ;4) 0260+;10A) ,3 02A)4/) +,44)?;10,2< / R U S% V WWT 94);1)4 1(;2 - R O< +,44)?;D 10,2 +,)330+0)21 1(4)/(,?6 ,3 / R S% TS 0/ / R S% V !T$% ’() ;2;?:/0/ ,3 +;B/)H 1() 3B2+10,2 ?)A)? ,3 /,0? ;20-;?/ 02 ?;4+( ?011)4 >;9/ =))./ /B.4)-) ;1 ;?? 10-)/< ;26 1() 1)C1B4) ,3 ?);3 >?;6) ,3 ?;4+( 0/ 4)?;10A)?: /,31< /, 1() 023?B)2+) ,3 /,0? ;20-;?/ ,2 ?;4+( ?);A)/ 0/ 60/102+1% X,@)A)4< 1() 02A)4/) +,44)?;10,2 >)[email protected]))2 MB;2101: ,3 /,0? ;20-;?/ 02 304 /;-.?) >;9/ ;26 -;// ?,// ,3 /;-.?)/ 0/ /10?? 2)+)//;4: 1, >) /1B60)6% !" #" # %&’ 12-+9’27’ ,- *,1+ )21()+*; )7.1,2 ). .&’ 29(< 4’/ ,- 8’)/* ,- 3’7,(6,*1.1,2 ,- +1..’/ 8?,29 @01( .4,+)// ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 ,3 /;-.?) >;9/ @01( 1(4)) =026/ ,3 -)/( /0Y)/< -;// ,3 ?011)4 64,./ ,33< ;26 3,4 1() /;=) ,3 6033)4)2+) 02 +,2/14B+10,2;? +,-.,D 2)21/ ,3 6033)4)21 =026/ ,3 ?);3 /.)+0)/ ;26 6)94)) ,3 >0,?,90+;? ;+10,2< 01/ 4;1)/ ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 ;4) ;?/, 6033)4)21< )A)2 03 1() ?011)4 0/ 1;=)2 34,- 1() /;-) 14)) /.)+0)/< 1() 4;1)/ ,3 6)+,-.,/010,2 ;4) 6033)4)21 1,, 3,4 1() A;40;10,2 ,3 (:64,1()4-;? +,26010,2 02 6033)4)21 -,21(/ 6B4029 1() /;-) :);4% ’() 6:2;-0+ .4,+)6B4) ,3 @)09(1 ?,// 02 6)+,-.,/010,2 .4,+)// ,3 6);6 ?);A)/ +;2 6:2;-0+;??: >) -,6)?)6 >: )C.,2)210;? 6)+;: -,6)? +4);1)6 >: E?/,2 N ZXE[< TOOT P < -,6)? 3,4-B?; 3,4 =. > =? R ) U =1

CD&E8 !0/>2,.+$

!""

#$ %&’()*+, !" -.$&/.0 1$1/1+* 2.134/1$.00 &% -.+*.+5.0 +/ /4. 6.31$$1$3 &% -.7&(8&01/1&$, ! -.$&/.0 2.134/1$.00 &% -.+- *.+5.0 +/ /4. /1(. &% #$ % -.$&/.0 +5.’+3. -.7&(8&01/1&$ 5.*&71/9 7&$0/+$/ (/4. *+’3.’ % 5+*). 10, /4. %+0/.’ ’+/. &% -.7&(8&01/1&$ &% -.+: *.+5.0) ;$-.’ -1%%.’.$/ -.3’..0 &% +7/1&$ &% 0&1* +$1(+*0 &$ /4’.. ? &% 7&$1%.’&)0 *1//.’ 4+0 %1$104.-, /4. ’[email protected])1’.- /1(. #>: = 7+$ 6. 7+*7)*+/.- 69 +88*17+/1&$ &% /4. (&-.*, +$/4. #>: A= 7+$ 6. 7+*7)*+/.-, /&&, 24.$ -.7&(8&01/1&$ &% A=? &% *1//.’ 4+0 %1$104.-: B4. ’.0)*/ 10 04&2$ 1$ B+6*. C: D9 B/+6*. C, /4. ’+/.0 &% -.7&(8&01/1&$ &% /4’..

DF&E8 *".+

: =

J: HI

L(+** (.04

O.-1)( (.04

N+’3. (.04 #

#

>: A=

K: C"

#

>: =

J: =!

#

>: A=

K: =I

#

>: =

J: AK

#

>: A=

": HA

M1’

J: HJ

K: J!

J: HJ

K: J!

J: KK

I: J"

N+’74

J: "=

"

J: "=

"

!: !J

A: =K

/4.1’ ’[email protected])1’.- /1(. ’10.0 69 !: JJ 9.+’, J: >K 9.+’ +$J: =K 9.+’ ’.08.7/15.*9: #$ 01(1*+’ (+$$.’, 24.$ =>? &% 0+(8*.0 4+0 6..$ -.7&(8&0.-,-.7&(8&01/1&$ /1(. 10 *&$3.’ 1$ 0(+** (.04 6+30 /4+$ /4+/ 1$ *+’3. +$- (.-1)( (.04 6+30:

01b. +$- 0&1* +’/4’&8&-0 W X Y : 5/3"9,"*"+,(, C>Z C=J [ CK>: N#V] S4&$34E)1, JAA>: S&$0)(8/1&$ .%%.7/ &% /.’(1/. &$ *1//.’ 1$ c1+&*1+$3 +’/1%171+* 6’&+- *.+% (1^.- %&’.0/ W X Y : &’#( )’"*"+,’( -,.,’(, J> F ! G Z JIC [ JIA: F 1$ S41$.0. G dVR\ O1$3E^1+$ , JA"=: O+/4.(+/17+* (&-.* +6&)/ -.7&(8&01E /1&$ .%%.7/ &% 0&1* +$1(+*0 &$ *1//.’ W X Y : &’#( )’"*"+,’( -,.,’(

PQMQPQRSQL

F 0)88*.(.$/ D G J=Z J!> [ J!H: F 1$ S41$.0. G d#R e.$E91$3, !>>>: -",* &.,4(* ,. /@# )’"@[email protected]#/[email protected] W S Y : T+’61$Z R&’/4.+0/ M&’.0/’9 ;$15.’01/9

\;] X1E^)$ , JAA!: V 0/)-9 &% .$.’39 %*&2 6./2..$ (.+-&2 *1//.’ +$- -.7&(8&0.’0 1$ &./01"*/2,3,04 W X Y : 567#"/’"*"+7 (.3 8/"9"#(.7 :"01.(*, JK (! )Z JHC [ JH": F 1$ S41$.0. G

gTVR\ c)8E1$3, JAAJ: B4. .%%.7/ &% 0&1* +$1(+*0 &$ -.7&(E 8&01/1&$ 7&)’0. &% 6’&+-*.+% *1//.’ W X Y : A"1/@#17 -’,/.’/ (.3 B/’6."*"+7$ !J ( C )Z J [ H: F 1$ S41$.0. G

TV\_VP L +$- ‘X]RaVN D P,

gTVR\ c).E81$3, !>>J: L/)-9 &% /4. %)$7/1&$ &% (1**18.-.0 1$ 0)60/+$7. -.7&(8&01/1&$ W X Y : &’#( )’"*"+,’( -,.,’(, !J F J G Z I= [ IA: F 1$ S41$.0. G

JA"J: L)77.001&$, -15.’01/9,

+$- %..-1$3 4+61/0 &% (17’&+’/4’&80 1$ -.7&(8&01$3 *.+% *1//.’ W X Y : ;/’"*"+,($ C"Z AC [ AA: T];LQ \ X +$- LB#RRQP P Q, JA"I: a.7&(8&01/1&$ &% 8*+$/ ’.01-).0 1$ $&E/1**+3. +3’&.7&090/.(Z 1$%*).$7. &% *1//.’6+3 (.04

U)6*1041$3 T&)0., !!" [ !=>: F 1$ S41$.0. G

Suggest Documents