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lowest from NOKIA phone (Model-105) with MTN Network along the Y-plane. The highest radiation intensity was recorded for calls made during the dial (before ...

International Review on Modelling and Simulations (I.RE.MO.S.), Vol. 10, N. 5 ISSN 1974-9821 October 2017

Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment from Mobile Phones Based on Call-Related Factors Joseph Isabona, Viranjay M. Srivastava Abstract – For many years, there have been concerns about possible human health risks connected to the usage of mobile phones especially at close proximity. This is primarily due to the exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) radiations that emanate from them. These concerns have in turn provoked a large bulk of research studies. However, the conflicting reports of previous research works on the effect of the exposure to EMF sources lead researchers to continue studying the issue. In this work, by means of the exposure evaluation technique, measurements of EMF radiations, in terms of power density, are conducted on different models of mobile phones in an indoor environment via the call-related factors: between the dial and reception of a call from different models of mobile phones, for a period of six months. The investigated brands of mobile phones were all placed to face the field strength meter sensor in active call modes at 0.05m measurement interval when taking reading on the tri-axis planes. The results obtained revealed that the EMF radiation intensity, in terms of measured power density from the mobile phone, varies and depends on the mobile phone model brand. It ranges from 1.25 to 800.5 mW/m2 with the highest from ITEL phone (Model-TI65800) with MTN Network along the Z-plane and the lowest from NOKIA phone (Model-105) with MTN Network along the Y-plane. The highest radiation intensity was recorded for calls made during the dial (before picking) from all the selected mobile phone models. In particular, from the results, it was observed that the amount of EMF radiations decreased about 20 to 30 % if the mobile phone handset is moved away from the EMF meter from 1cm to 5cm. Accordingly, for EMF exposure safety, it is recommended that the mobile phone is placed 5–10 cm away from the body during conversation. Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved.

Keywords: Mobile Phones, Electromagnetic Field, Radiation Exposure Level, Radiation Intensity, Human Health, Power Density

I.

out the potential health effects associated to the exposure to EMF radiation from mobile phone use. Moreover, a number of possible biological and adverse health effects from the exposure to different EMF sources have been documented in [1]-[6]. The above concern led some countries such as Switzerland, Poland, Italy, etc., to reduce the recommended EMF exposure assessment level guidelines made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Tables I and II display the reference EMF exposure level guidelines recommended by ICNIRP and the percentage reduction made by other countries in terms of power density. Experimental studies by Salford et al., 2003 [7], Adlkofer, 2004 [8] Schwarzet et al., 2008 [9], Odaciet et al., 2008 [10], Odaciet et al., 2008 [1],Tomruk et al., 2010 [12], Guler et al., 2011 [13] and Muluk et al., 2011 [14], have reported that below the EMF exposure limits, EMF radiations generated by mobile phones induced a number of biological and health issues ranging from brain cancers, blood-brain barrier functions, eye and liver damages, among others.

Introduction

For many years now, people have been concerned about the possible health problems associated to electromagnetic fields (EMF) radiation exposure [1][27]. Devices such as mobile cell phones, microwave ovens, electrical ovens, fluorescent lights, hairdryers, telephone base station transmitters and computers produce EMF of varying intensities. Particularly, broad concerns about radio frequency (RF) EMF exposure arising from the continuous use of mobile phones have also been raised recently and this has attracted frequent media attention. People have questioned if the intensity of EMF radiations from them and their base stations can cause cancers, glioma, acoustic neuroma or other related health problems. Many professional organizations such as the World Health Organisation (WHO), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) have acknowledged that it cannot entirely rule

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https://doi.org/10.15866/iremos.v10i5.11200

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Joseph Isabona, Viranjay M. Srivastava

Despite the positive effects reported in various studies on the effects of EMF radiations on human health, a good number of other studies have also signposted no effects. For instance, experimental work by Schuz et al., [15] indicated that glioma or meningioma are not associated to EMF radiations from mobile phone usage. Many of such similar reports are also contained in [16]-[19]. The assessment of general public in Kenya on electromagnetic radiation exposure related to different brands of mobile phones is presented in [20], using broadband RF measurement meter. The results showed that the background radiation intensity level ranged from 0.007681 to 0.010643 mWcm-2, which represented 1.7% and 2.4% of ICNIRP reference level, respectively. Given the brief literature review of different conflicting reports highlighted above, it is clear that the current knowledge on the effect of exposure to EMF sources is still unclear and this has lead researchers to continue studying the issue. In this contribution, by means of the exposure evaluation technique, measurements of EMF radiations, in terms of power density, were conducted on commonly used models of mobile phones in an indoor environment via the call-related factors using three commercial telecom service providers networks operating at 900 MHz frequency. The exposure evaluation technique centers on assessing or evaluating the degree of EMF exposure encountered in occupational and domestic settings using the sensitive measurement equipment.

exposure evaluation technique. As earlier explained, this technique centers on assessing the degree of EMF exposure encountered in occupational and domestic settings using sensitive measurement equipment. II.1.

The measurements were performed from September 2015 to February 2016 at the Physics laboratory of Adamkolo Campus, Federal University, Lokoja. The University, popularly known as Fulokoja, is a Federal Government University sited at Lokoja, in the NorthernCentral political zone. Lokoja lies at the confluence of Niger and Benue rivers. It is located at 6°31′0″N 3°23′10″E / 6.51667°N 3.38611°E / 6.51667; 3.38611. II.2.

Measurement Equipment

The equipment used for data collection consisted of EMF Extech meter (Model: 480836), a metre rule and different models of mobile phone handsets. The meter is a broadband device for monitoring high frequency radiations in a range from 50 MHz to 3.6GHz. It is used in three axis (isotropic) measurement mode and the five digits LCD display shows mV/m, V/m, μA/m, mA/m, A/m, μW/m2, mW/m and μW/cm. The Extech broadband EMF meter has been used and proven reliable for measuring EMF radiation exposure levels in many previous experimental studies (e.g. [23][25]). The different models of mobile phone handsets were collected from some Physics students and staff members of the Physics Department for the measurement. The mobile phones are: ITEL phone (Model-TI65800 and Model-TI520), TECHNO phone (Model-P5, ModelM3 and Model-T340), Nokia phone (Model-105, ModelE51 and Model-2700), and Sony Ericsson phone (ModelZ530i, and Model-FLIP).

TABLE I REFERENCE LEVEL RECOMMENDED BY ICNIRP ([21]) Frequency range (f in MHz) Power density (W/m2) GSM - 900 MHz 4.5 GSM - 950 MHz 4.75 GSM - 1800 MHz 9 GSM - 1850 MHz 9.25 TABLE II POWER DENSITY LIMITS (W/m²) REDUCTION BY SOME COUNTRIES RELATIVE TO ICNIRP([22]) Country Power Density Relative to Country ICNIRP Switzerland 1% Poland 2% Italy 2% and above Luxembourg 5% China 8% Israel 10% Russia 20% Belgium 25% Greece 80%

II.

Measurement Location

II.3

Measurement Procedure

Measurements of EMF radiations in terms of power density, electric field and magnetic field strength were conducted on different models of mobile phones in an indoor environment via the call-related factors: between the dial and reception of a call from different brands of mobile phones. The different models of mobile phone which operate in one or all the MTN, Airtel and GLO GSM networks, were placed facing the field strength in X, Y and Z directions at 5 cm measurement intervals until reaching a distance of 20 cm. Before each reading was taken, points of 5cm spacing were marked with the metre rule. The reading was then taken when the mobile phone dialed and another reading when the call was picked and released. A snapshot of the EMF radiation measurement set-up in the Physics laboratory is shown in Fig. 1.

Materials and Methods

Many techniques have been adopted in academic literature to study the effects of radiation from different devices such as mobile phones and mobile phone base station transmitters. These techniques include Epidemiological studies, Animal studies, Exposure evaluation, Biological interaction and Dosimetry. Our focus in this work is on

Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 10, N. 5

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Joseph Isabona, Viranjay M. Srivastava

effects and long-term exposure". The scientific body which is made of more than one hundred EMF advocacy and education nongovernmental organizations from 23 nations also lay claims that ICNIRP guidelines are insufficient in protecting public health.

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Fig. 1. A snapshot of Experimental setup with the 3-axis Extech EMF broadband meter

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III. Results and Discussion

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The measurement results and the graphical representation of the obtained results are shown in Figures 2-24, respectively. The results obtained have revealed the presence of different levels of EMF radiations from all the selected mobile phone models, ranging from 1.25 to 800.5 mW/m2 with the highest value coming from ITEL phone (Model-TI65800) with MTN Network along Z-axis and the lowest from NOKIA phone (Model-105) with MTN Network along Y-axis. As clearly seen in Figs. 2-24, the power (and hence the EMF exposure on a user) falls off rapidly with the increasing distance from the mobile phone handset. In particular, from the result it was observed that the amount of EMF radiations obtained in terms of power density, is decreased about 20 to 30 % if the mobile phone handset is moved from the EMF meter at every 5 cm measurement interval. It is also clearly seen from the results presented in Figures 2-24, that the amount of EMF radiations was far higher when the phones dialed before picking (B/P) than after picking (A/P).This implies that a large amount of radiation exposure can be reduced if the receiver is allowed to pick a call first before placing the mobile phone close to the head during conversation. Furthermore, our measurement results show that the radiation levels vary only with the different mobile phone handset models monitored, and not with the network operators. This may be due to the different materials or different antenna types used in the design of these phones. Though the measured radiation levels from all the investigated phone models are within the exposure limit of 4500mW/m2 (in terms of power recommended by ICNIRP and WHO) for cellular networks operating at 900MHZ, it is still advisable to keep the phone at a better distance of at least 5cm from the head during conversation. This advice is in line with the recent notification/petition made by the International EMF Scientific Appeal in March 10, 2016 [26], which claims that "the ICNIRP guidelines do not cover low-intensity

Fig. 2. MeasuredPower density values of the ITEL phone (MT1665800) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter

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ITEL phone (M-TI65800) with GLO Network

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 3. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MT1665800) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

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Measurement slot From RF meter (m) Fig. 4. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MT1665800) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter

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TECHNO phone (Model -P5) with MTN Network Power density (mW/m2)

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Fig. 5. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (M-T1520) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 8. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELP5) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter TECHNO phone (Model - P5) with GLO Network Power density (mW/m2)

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 9. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELP5) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 6. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (M-T1520) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

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Fig. 7. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (M-T1520) with ETILASAT at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 10. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELP5) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter

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Power density (mW/m2)

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Fig. 11. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELM3) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 14. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-105) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 15. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-E51) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 12. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELM3) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter TECHNO phone (Model - M3) with Etisalat Network

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 13. Measured Power density values of the ITEL phone (MODELM3) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 16. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-E51) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

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NOKIA phone (Model - 2700) with Etisalat Network

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Fig. 19. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-2700) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter SONY ERICKSON phone (Slide) with MTN Network Power density (mW/m2)

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Fig. 16(a). Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-E51) with ETISALAT at different distances from the EMF meter

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 17. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-2700) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 20. Measured Power density values of the SONY ERICSON phone (MODEL-SLIDE) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter Power density (mW/m2)

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Fig. 18. Measured Power density values of the NOKIA phone (MODEL-2700) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

Fig. 21. Measured Power density values of the SONY ERICSON phone (MODEL-SLIDE) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

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International Review on Modelling and Simulations, Vol. 10, N. 5

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Joseph Isabona, Viranjay M. Srivastava

IV.

SONY ERICKSON phone (Slide) with Etisalat Network Power density (mW/m2)

450

Mobile phones are low-powered radiofrequency transmitters, operating at frequencies between 450 and 2700 MHz with peak powers in the range of 0.1 to 2 watts. The handset only transmits power when it is turned on. In this research work, measurements of EMF radiations in terms of power density, electric field and magnetic field strength were conducted on different models of mobile phones in an indoor environment via the call-related factors: between the dial and reception of a call from different models of mobile phones. The different phone models were placed facing the field strength meter at 5 cm measurement intervals until reaching a distance of 20 cm in the X, Y and Z planes. The results obtained have revealed the presence of different levels of EMF radiations from all the selected mobile phone models, ranging from 1.25 to 800.5 mW/m2 with the highest value from ITEL phone (ModelTI65800) in MTN Network along Z-plane and the lowest from NOKIA phone (Model-105) also with MTN Network along Y-plane. The highest radiation intensity was recorded for calls made between the dial (before picking) and reception (after picking) from all the selected mobile phone models. The power (and hence the radiofrequency exposure on a user) falls off rapidly while increasing the distance from the mobile phone. Accordingly, the following measures can be adopted to reduce the intensity of EMF radiation exposure from mobile phones. Firstly, a person using a mobile phone 5–10 cm away from the body will therefore have a much lower exposure to EMF than somebody holding the phone against the head. Secondly, the use of mobile phones loudspeaker function during phone calls is preferred in order to keep the phone away from the head and body. Thirdly, the EMF exposure can be reduced by limiting the number and length of calls. Fourthly, using the phone in areas with good coverage can as well decrease exposure levels as it allows the phone to transmit at reduced power.

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 22. Measured Power density values of the SONY ERICSON phone (MODEL-SLIDE) with ETILASAT at different distances from the EMF meter

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Measurement slot from RF meter (m) Fig. 23. Measured Power density values of the SONY ERICSON phone (MODEL-FLIP) with MTN at different distances from the EMF meter SONY ERICKSON phone (Flip) with GLO Network Power density (mW/m2)

Conclusion

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References

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Fig. 24. Measured Power density values of the SONY ERICSON phone (MODEL-FLIP) with GLO at different distances from the EMF meter

[5]

Copyright © 2017 Praise Worthy Prize S.r.l. - All rights reserved

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Authors’ information Department of Electronic Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban - 4041, South Africa. E-mails: [email protected] [email protected] Joseph Isabona, Ph.D is a Post-Doctoral Researcher in the Department of Electronic Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. He received Ph.D and M.Sc. degrees in Communication Electronics, 2013 and 2007 respectively, and a B.Sc in Applied Physics in 2003. He has published both nationally and internationally in the area of Wireless Mobile communications. His area of interest is RF Propagation Modelling and radio resource management in wire-less networks. Prof. Viranjay M. Srivastava is Doctorate (2012) in the field of RF Microelectronics and VLSI Design from Jaypee University of Information Technology, Solan, Himachal Pradesh, India and received the Master degree (2008) in VLSI design from Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC), Noida, India and the Bachelor degree (2002) in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering from the Rohilkhand University, Bareilly, India. He was with the Semiconductor Process and Wafer Fabrication Centre of BEL Laboratories, Bangalore, India, where he worked on the characterization of MOS devices, the fabrication of devices and the development of circuit design. Currently, he is a faculty member of the Department of Electronics Engineering, School of Engineering, Howard College, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa. His research and teaching interests include VLSI design, Nanotechnology, RF design and CAD with particular emphasis in low-power design, Chip designing, Antenna Designing, VLSI testing and verification and Wireless communication systems. He has more than 12 years of teaching and research experience in the area of VLSI design, RFIC design, and Analog IC design. He has supervised a number of B. Tech., M. Tech. and PhD theses. He is a member of IEEE, IITPSA, ACEEE and IACSIT. He has worked as a reviewer for several conferences and Journals both nationally and internationally. He is author of more than 80 scientific contributions including articles in international refereed Journals and Conferences and he is also author of the following books, 1) VLSI Technology, 2) Characterization of C-V curves and Analysis, Using VEE Pro Software: After Fabrication of MOS Device, and 3) MOSFET Technologies for Double-Pole Four Throw Radio Frequency Switch, Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, October 2013.

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