EMC VSPEX for Virutalized Oracle Database 11g OLTP

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This Design Guide describes how to design virtualized Oracle Database ... EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP. Design ... Essential reading .

DESIGN GUIDE

EMC VSPEX FOR VIRTUALIZED ORACLE DATABASE 11g OLTP

EMC VSPEX Abstract This Design Guide describes how to design virtualized Oracle Database resources on the appropriate EMC® VSPEX™ Proven Instrastructure for VMware vSphere. This document also illustrates how to size Oracle on VSPEX, allocate resources following best practices, and use all the benefits that VSPEX offers. April 2013

Copyright © 2013 EMC Corporation. All rights reserved. Published in the USA. EMC believes the information in this publication is accurate of its publication date. The information is subject to change without notice. The information in this publication is provided as is. EMC Corporation makes no representations or warranties of any kind with respect to the information in this publication, and specifically disclaims implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. Use, copying, and distribution of any EMC software described in this publication requires an applicable software license. EMC2, EMC, and the EMC logo are registered trademarks or trademarks of EMC Corporation in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks used herein are the property of their respective owners. For the most up-to-date regulatory document for your product line, go to the technical documentation and advisories section on the EMC online support website. EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Part Number: H11449.1

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EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction ........................................................................... 11

Purpose of this guide .................................................................................... 12 Business value.............................................................................................. 12 Scope............................................................................................................ 13 Audience....................................................................................................... 13 Terminology .................................................................................................. 14 Chapter 2

Before You Start ..................................................................... 15

Documentation workflow .............................................................................. 16 Essential reading .......................................................................................... 16 Solution overviews............................................................................................... 16 Implementation Guide for Oracle Database 11g ................................................... 16 VSPEX Proven Architecture ................................................................................... 16 Backup and Recovery ........................................................................................... 16

Chapter 3

Solution Overview .................................................................. 17

Overview ....................................................................................................... 18 Solution architecture .................................................................................... 18 Key components ........................................................................................... 19 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 19 EMC VSPEX .......................................................................................................... 20 Oracle Database 11g............................................................................................ 23 VMware vSphere 5.1 ............................................................................................ 23 VMware vSphere HA ............................................................................................. 23 VMware vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler ................................................ 24 VMware vSphere PowerCLI ................................................................................... 24 EMC VNX series .................................................................................................... 24 EMC Virtual Storage Integrator ............................................................................. 25 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 ................................................................................ 25 EMC Unisphere .................................................................................................... 25 EMC Avamar......................................................................................................... 25 EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Contents

EMC Data Domain ................................................................................................ 26

Chapter 4

Choosing a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure ................................. 27

Introduction .................................................................................................. 28 Step 1: Evaluating the customer use case with the qualification worksheet . 28 Step 2: Designing the application architectures ............................................ 29 Step 3: Choosing the right VSPEX Proven infrastructure ................................ 29 Chapter 5

Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices ................. 31

Overview ....................................................................................................... 32 Designing the network .................................................................................. 32 Overview .............................................................................................................. 32 Networking best practices .................................................................................... 33

Designing the storage layout......................................................................... 34 Overview .............................................................................................................. 34 High-level architecture ......................................................................................... 34 Storage layout...................................................................................................... 34 Storage best practices ......................................................................................... 35 VSPEX storage layout example ............................................................................. 36

Configuring FAST Cache for Oracle ................................................................ 37 Overview .............................................................................................................. 37 FAST Cache best practices.................................................................................... 37

Designing the virtualization layer .................................................................. 38 Overview .............................................................................................................. 38 Virtualization best practices ................................................................................. 38

Designing the Oracle Database 11gR2 implementation ................................ 41 Overview .............................................................................................................. 41 Oracle dNFS Client configuration .......................................................................... 41 Automatic shared memory management .............................................................. 41 Enabling the HugePages setting ........................................................................... 41 I/O operations for file system files ....................................................................... 42 Database file layout for NFS ................................................................................. 42

Designing backup and recovery .................................................................... 42 Overview .............................................................................................................. 42 High level architecture ......................................................................................... 42 Considerations..................................................................................................... 43 Backup and recovery best practices ..................................................................... 44

Chapter 6

Solution Verification Methodology .......................................... 47

Verifying the solution .................................................................................... 48 Overview .............................................................................................................. 48 4

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Contents

Creating the test environment ....................................................................... 49 Populating the test database ........................................................................ 49 Implementing your solution .......................................................................... 49 Chapter 7

Reference Documentation ...................................................... 51

White papers................................................................................................. 52 Oracle .................................................................................................................. 52 EMC ..................................................................................................................... 52 VMware................................................................................................................ 52

Product documentation ................................................................................ 52 Oracle .................................................................................................................. 52 EMC ..................................................................................................................... 53 VMware................................................................................................................ 53

Appendix A

Qualification Worksheet...................................................... 55

Qualification worksheet overview ................................................................. 56 Printing the qualification worksheet ............................................................. 57 Appendix B

VSPEX Sizing Tool ............................................................... 59

VSPEX Oracle qualification worksheet example ............................................ 60 Manually sizing a virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP for VSPEX .............. 63 Overview .............................................................................................................. 63 Oracle manual sizing procedure ........................................................................... 63

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Contents

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Figures

Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18.

Validated infrastructure architecture .................................................. 19 VSPEX Proven Infrastructure ............................................................... 20 Network layer: High availability (VNX) ................................................. 32 Enable the dNFS Client ODM library .................................................... 33 Oracle Database 11gR2 storage elements .......................................... 34 Storage layout example: Oracle Database 11gR2 for the VNX series ... 36 Avamar server and Avamar Plug-in for Oracle...................................... 43 Qualification worksheet for EMC VSPEX for Oracle 11g OLTP............... 56 Printable qualification worksheet ....................................................... 57 Viewing the qualification worksheet ................................................... 57 EMC Oracle qualification worksheet example ..................................... 60 The init.ora Parameters from the AWR Report ...................................... 60 Querying the user session high watermark ......................................... 61 Calculate Database Size with SQL query ............................................. 61 IOStat by Function summary from the AWR Report .............................. 61 Foreground Wait Event from the AWR .................................................. 62 Transactions in load profile from AWR report ...................................... 62 EMC Oracle Qualification Worksheet example .................................... 63

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Figures

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Tables

Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Table 4. Table 5. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. Table 10. Table 11. Table 12. Table 13. Table 14.

Terminology........................................................................................ 14 VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database deployment process 16 Reference virtual machine characteristics ........................................... 21 Mapping the Oracle sizing model to the VSPEX Reference Virtual Machine ............................................................................................. 22 VNX storage layout for Oracle Database .............................................. 34 Database file layout for NFS ................................................................ 42 Avamar backup terminology ............................................................... 44 High-level steps for application verification ........................................ 48 Mapping Application user to VSPEX reference virtual machines .......... 64 RAID type and write penalty and capacity utilization ........................... 65 Random disk IOPS by drive type ......................................................... 65 Storage pool calculation example ....................................................... 65 Mapping reference virtual machines to the virtual infrastructure pool (example) ........................................................................................... 67 Choosing the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure model ............................... 67

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Tables

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Chapter 1

Introduction

This chapter presents the following topics:

Purpose of this guide ................................................................................. 12 Business value .......................................................................................... 12 Scope ........................................................................................................ 13 Audience ................................................................................................... 13

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Purpose of this guide EMC® VSPEX™ Proven Infrastructures are optimized for virtualizing business-critical applications. VSPEX provides modular solutions built with technologies that enable faster deployment, more simplicity, greater choice, higher efficiency, and lower risk. VSPEX provides partners with the ability to design and implement the virtual assets required to support a fully integrated virtualization solution for an Oracle relational database management system (RDBMS) on a VSPEX private cloud infrastructure. The VSPEX for virtualized Oracle infrastructure provides customers with a modern system, capable of hosting a virtualized database solution that is scalable and delivers a constant performance level. This solution uses VMware vSphere™ backed by an EMC VNX® storage array, and EMC Avamar® and Data Domain® for backup. The compute and network components, while vendor-definable, are designed to provide redundancy and sufficient power to handle the processing and data needs of the virtual machine environment. This Design Guide describes how to design the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for virtualized Oracle OLTP Database with best practices and how to select the right VSPEX Proven Infrastructure with the EMC VSPEX Sizing Tool for guidance.

Business value Database management systems software continues to be the dominant software used to manage data in nearly all commercial segments. This growth is expected to continue despite the increasing market share of other data management tools. This growth is expected to accelerate as customers continue to diversify their infrastructures and supporting technologies and drive towards more hardware and software appliances and configurations. This VSPEX Proven Infrastructure is focused on helping EMC partners understand the value that the VNX series, EMC backup and recovery systems, and Oracle bring to customers who often have growing, isolated IT environments running server-centric applications and who face increasing Oracle backup and recovery issues. This VSPEX solution is designed to meet the customer’s Oracle database challenges while enabling customers to grow in performance, scalability, reliability, and automation. By consolidating their database applications on EMC VNX, customers can consolidate onto a single centralized storage platform enabling a more effectively managed exploding data growth, which is challenging businesses today. This solution has been sized and proven with EMC backup and recovery systems to:

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Reduce the customer’s backup storage requirements and costs



Meet backup windows



Enable fast disk-based recovery

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Chapter 1: Introduction

Scope This Design Guide describes how to plan and design a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for VMware vSphere virtualized Oracle Databases. Furthermore, this guide illustrates how to use the available VSPEX Sizing Tool for Oracle, allocate resources following best practices, and use all the benefits that VSPEX offers.

Audience This guide is intended for internal EMC personnel and qualified EMC VSPEX Partners. The guide assumes that the VSPEX Partners who intend to deploy this solution are: 

Qualified by EMC to sell, install, and configure the EMC VNX family of storage systems



Qualified to sell, install, and configure the network and server products required for VSPEX Proven Infrastructures



Certified for selling VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

Partners implementing this solution should also have the necessary technical training and background required to install and configure: 

VMware vSphere



Redhat Enterprises Linux 6.x



Oracle Database 11g or above



EMC next-generation backup, which includes EMC Avamar® and EMC Data Domain®

This document provides external references where applicable. EMC recommends that you are familiar with these documents. For details, refer to Chapter 7, Reference Documentation.

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Chapter 1: Introduction

Terminology Table 1 lists the terminology used in the guide. Table 1.

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Terminology

Term

Definition

AWR

Automatic Workload Repository

DNFS

Direct NFS client

DNS

Domain name system

FAST VP

Fully Automated Storage Tiering for Virtual Pools

FQDN

Fully Qualified Domain Name

FRA

Fast Recovery Area (Oracle)

IOPS

Input/output operations per second

NFS

Network File System

NL-SAS

Near-line serial-attached SCSI

ODM

Oracle Disk Manager

OLTP

Online transaction processing

Oracle EE

Oracle Enterprise Edition

Oracle SE

Oracle Standard Edition

PowerCLI

A Windows PowerShell interface to the VMware vSphere and vCloud APIs

Reference virtual machine

Represents a unit of measure for a single virtual machine to quantify the compute resources in a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

SGA

System global area

Statspack

Oracle database monitoring and reporting utilities

TPS

Transactions per second

VMDK

VMware Virtual Machine Disk

VMFS

VMware Virtual Machine File System

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Chapter 2

Before You Start

This chapter presents the following topics:

Documentation workflow ........................................................................... 16 Essential reading ....................................................................................... 16

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Chapter 2: Before You Start

Documentation workflow EMC recommends that you refer to the process flow in Table 2 to design and implement your VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database. Table 2.

VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database deployment process

Step

Action

1

Use the VSPEX for virtualized Oracle qualification worksheet (Appendix A: Qualification Worksheet) to collect customer requirements.

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Use the VSPEX Sizing Tool to determine the recommended VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database 11g based on the user requirements collected in Step 1. For more information about the VSPEX Sizing Tool, refer to the VSPEX Sizing Tool on the EMC Business Value Portal. Note: You need to register the first time you access the tool. If the VSPEX Sizing Tool is not available, you can manually size the application using the sizing guidelines in Appendix B: Calculating the VSPEX storage requirement for Oracle 11g Database OLTP.

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To select and order the right VSPEX Proven Infrastructure, refer to the Virtualization Information Infrastructure site.

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To deploy and test your VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database 11g, refer to the EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP

Implementation Guide.

Essential reading Before implementing the solution described in this document, EMC recommends that you read the following documents, available from the VSPEX space in the EMC Community Network or from EMC.com and VSPEX Partner Portal. 

EMC VSPEX Server Virtualization for Midmarket Businesses



EMC VSPEX Server Virtualization for Small and Medium Businesses

Implementation Guide for Oracle Database 11g



EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Implementation Guide

VSPEX Proven Architecture



Reference Architecture: EMC VSPEX Private Cloud VMware vSphere 5.1 for up to 500 Virtual Machines

Backup and Recovery



White Paper: EMC Avamar Backup for Oracle Environments



White Paper: EMC Avamar Backup with Data Domain

Solution overviews

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Chapter 3

Solution Overview

This chapter presents the following topics:

Overview ................................................................................................... 18 Solution architecture ................................................................................. 18 Key components ........................................................................................ 19

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview

Overview This chapter provides an overview of the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database 11g and the key technologies used in this solution. The solution described in this Design Guide includes servers, storage, network components, and Oracle Database 11g components. The solution enables customers to quickly and consistently deploy a virtualized Oracle Database 11g in the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure. The reference architecture will consume the reference virtual machine resources, based on the sizing guidance in the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure, and combine with additional storage for Oracle Database 11g application data. This Design Guide can help EMC personnel and qualified EMC VSPEX Partners to deploy a simple, effective, and flexible Oracle Database 11g solution on a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for their customers.

Solution architecture Figure 1 shows the architecture that characterizes the infrastructure validated for an Oracle Database 11g overlay on a VSPEX infrastructure. To validate this solution, we1: 

Deployed all Oracle Database 11g servers as virtual machines on VMware vSphere 5.1.



Used the VSPEX sizing tool for Oracle Database 11g to determine the number of, and the detailed compute resources for, each Oracle Database 11g database. Figure 1 displays the three Oracle sizing options (small, medium, and large). Use the sizing tools provided with this solution to size your customer’s environment and choose the options that best suit your customer.



Determined the recommended storage layout for Oracle Database 11g and the virtual infrastructure pool in the VNX series storage arrays (using the VSPEX sizing tool).

Note: The minimum Oracle version for this solution is 11.2.03 (or 11gR2). We refer to this as 11g throughout this document.

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In this paper, "we" refers to the EMC Solutions engineering team that validated the solution.

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Chapter 3: Solution Overview

Figure 1.

Validated infrastructure architecture

Key components Introduction

This section provides an overview of the key technologies used in this solution, including: 

EMC VSPEX



Oracle Database 11g



VMware vSphere 5.1



VMware vSphere HA



vSphere Distributed Resources Scheduler



EMC Unisphere



VMware vSphere PowerCLI



Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3



Reference virtual machine



Small/Medium/Large database model



EMC VNX® series



EMC Virtual Storage Integrator (VSI)

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview

EMC VSPEX

EMC has joined forces with the industry’s leading providers of IT infrastructure to create a complete virtualization solution that accelerates the deployment of private cloud technologies. Built with best-of-breed technologies, VSPEX enables faster deployment, more simplicity, greater choice, higher efficiency, and lower risk. VSPEX Proven Infrastructure, as shown in Figure 2, is a modular, virtualized system validated by EMC and delivered by EMC partners. VSPEX includes a virtualization layer, server, network, and storage, designed by EMC to deliver reliable and predictable performance.

Figure 2.

VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

VSPEX provides the flexibility to choose the best network, server, and virtualization technologies that fit a customer’s environment to create a complete virtualization solution VSPEX provides a virtual infrastructure for customers looking to gain the simplicity of a truly converged infrastructure, while gaining flexibility in individual components of the stack. VSPEX solutions, proven by EMC, are packaged and sold exclusively by EMC channel partners. VSPEX provides channel partners with more opportunity, a faster sales cycle, and end-to-end enablement. By working even more closely together, EMC and its channel partners can now deliver an infrastructure that accelerates the journey to the cloud for even more customers. Reference virtual machine To simplify the virtual infrastructure discussion, the VSPEX solution has defined a typical customer workload (described in this section) as a reference virtual machine.

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview

For VSPEX solutions, we define the reference virtual machine as a measure unit of a single virtual machine to qualify the compute resources in the VSPEX virtual infrastructure. Table 3 lists the characteristics of this virtual machine. Table 3.

Reference virtual machine characteristics

Characteristic

Value

Virtual processors per virtual machine

1

RAM per virtual machine

2 GB

Available storage capacity per virtual machine

100 GB

I/O operations per second (IOPS) per virtual machine

25

I/O pattern

Random

I/O read/write ratio

2:1

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview

VSPEX for virtualized Oracle sizing model Scale-up testing formed part of the validation process. We used a standard computesizing model for Oracle, which simplified and standardized the validation testing. It also enabled us to identify the configuration required to run a TCP-C like OLTP database workload with a 60:40 read/write ratio, yielding acceptable response times. Table 4 shows how we mapped the Oracle sizing model to the VSPEX reference virtual machine. Table 4.

Mapping the Oracle sizing model to the VSPEX Reference Virtual Machine

Oracle model

Resources

Equivalent reference virtual machine

Small—virtual machine for up to 150 users

Compute requirement

4



2 vCPU



8 GB memory

Storage Requirement (OS & Oracle binaries)

Medium—virtual machine for up to 250 users



100 GB



25 IOPS

Compute requirement 

4 vCPU



16 GB of Memory

8

Storage requirement (OS & Oracle binaries)

Large—virtual machine for more than 250 Users



100 GB



25 IOPS

Compute requirement 

8 vCPU



32 GB of memory

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Storage requirement (OS & Oracle binaries) 

100 GB



25 IOPS

We calculated the database storage I/O thresholds and capacity separately from those required by the VSPEX reference virtual machine.

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview

Oracle Database 11g

Oracle Database 11g is available in a variety of editions tailored to meet the business and IT needs of an organization. In this solution we will be considering 

Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Standard Edition (SE)



Oracle Database 11g Release 2 Enterprise Edition (EE)

Oracle SE is an affordable, full-featured data management solution that is ideal for all companies. It is available on single or clustered servers and can be licensed on a maximum capacity of four processor sockets, regardless of core count. The SE license includes Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC) as a standard feature with no additional cost. Oracle Database 11g EE delivers industry-leading performance, scalability, security, and reliability on a choice of clustered or single servers running Windows, Linux, or UNIX. It supports advanced features, either included or as extra-cost options, that are not available with Oracle Database 11g SE. These include security features such as Virtual Private Database and data warehousing options such as partitioning and advanced analytics. Oracle Database 11g Release 2 EE extends the processorlicensing model for multi-core processors and is priced using the following formula: (number of Processors) x (number of cores) x (Oracle Processor Core Factor) For example, two 10-core Intel® Xeon® Processor E7-2870s (with an Oracle Processor Core Factor of 0.5) are licensed as follows 

Oracle Database 11g Release 2 SE: 2 processor socket SE licenses



Oracle Database 11g Release 2 EE: 2 x 10 x 0.5 = 10 EE licenses

The Oracle Database 11g R2 edition can affect the licensing cost and the size and number of VMware ESXi clusters you can configure. This affects how you place and manage the virtual machines. For more information on virtualization and Oracle processor licensing, see the section DRS Host Affinity and Oracle processor licensing. VMware vSphere 5.1

VMware vSphere 5.1 abstracts applications and information from the complexity of underlying infrastructure through comprehensive virtualization of server, storage, and networking hardware. This transformation creates fully functional virtual machines that run isolated and encapsulated operating systems and applications just like physical computers. This virtualization of hardware resources enables efficiencies through consolidation of multiple applications on fewer physical servers.

VMware vSphere HA

VMware vSphere High Availability (HA) provides easy-to-use, cost effective high availability for applications running in virtual machines. In the event of a physical server failure, affected virtual machines automatically restart on other production servers with spare capacity. HA enables you to create a cluster out of multiple ESXi or ESX servers, enabling you to protect virtual machines. If one of the hosts in the cluster fails, the impacted virtual machines automatically restart on other ESXi hosts within that same VMware vSphere cluster

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VMware vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler

VMware vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler (DRS) is an infrastructure service run by VMware vCenter Server (vCenter). DRS aggregates ESXi host resources into clusters and automatically distributes these resources to virtual machines by monitoring utilization and continuously optimizing virtual machine distribution across ESXi hosts. DRS can also use vMotion® and Storage vMotion® to ensure that the virtual machines have access by rebalancing resource capacity to make room for larger virtual machines. VMware recommends enabling DRS to achieve higher consolidation ratios.

VMware vSphere PowerCLI

VMware vSphere PowerCLI provides a Windows PowerShell interface for the users of vSphere 5.x and above and VMware Infrastructure 4.x and above. VMware vSphere PowerCLI is a powerful command-line tool that lets you automate all aspects of vSphere management, including network, storage, VM, guest OS and more. PowerCLI is distributed as a Windows PowerShell snap-in, and includes 330 PowerShell cmdlets for managing and automating vSphere and vCloud, along with documentation and samples.

EMC VNX series

The EMC VNX family is optimized for virtual applications delivering industry-leading innovation and enterprise capabilities for file, block, and object storage in a scalable, easy-to-use solution. This next-generation storage platform combines powerful and flexible hardware with advanced efficiency, management, and protection software to meet the demanding needs of today’s enterprises. The Intel® Xeon® processor for intelligent storage that automatically and efficiently scales in performance, while ensuring data integrity and security powers the VNX series. VNX customer benefits 

Next-generation unified storage, optimized for virtualized applications



Capacity optimization features including compression, deduplication, thin provisioning, and application-centric copies



High availability, designed to deliver five 9s availability



Automated tiering with FAST™ VP (Fully Automated Storage Tiering for Virtual Pools) and FAST Cache that can be optimized for the highest system performance and lowest storage cost simultaneously



Simplified management with EMC Unisphere® for a single management interface for all NAS, SAN, and replication needs



Up to three times improvement in performance with the latest Intel Xeon multicore processor technology, optimized for Flash

VNX Software suites available

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FAST Suite: Automatically optimizes for the highest system performance and the lowest storage cost simultaneously.



Local Protection Suite: Practices safe data protection and repurposing.



Remote Protection Suite: Protects data against localized failures, outages, and disasters.

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Chapter 3: Solution Overview



Application Protection Suite: Automates application copies and proves compliance.



Security and Compliance Suite: Keeps data safe from changes, deletions, and malicious activity.

Software packs available

EMC Virtual Storage Integrator



Total Efficiency Pack: Includes all five software suites.



Total Protection Pack: Includes local, remote, and application protection suites.

The EMC VSI for VMware vSphere Unified Storage Management feature can provision Network File System (NFS) datastores on NAS storage and Virtual Machine File System (VMFS) datastores and Raw Device Mapping (RDM) volumes on block storage, and perform array-based compression and array-based cloning of virtual machines in NFS datastores. The cloning functions include Full Clones (copies) and Fast Clones (snaps) of Virtual Machine Disk (VMDK) files. VMware administrators can use the feature to manage NAS and block storage in VMware environments by using the existing vSphere Client user interface. VMware administrators can use the tool to: 

Provision new NFS, VMFS, and RDM storage



Extend existing NFS and VMFS storage



Compress virtual machines in NFS datastores



Clone virtual machines in NFS datastores



Provide Fast Clones support–Limited to the same file system

Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3

Red Hat Enterprise Linux is a versatile platform for x86 and x86-64 that can be deployed on physical systems, as a guest on the major hypervisors, or in the cloud. It supports all leading hardware architectures with compatibility across releases. Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.3 includes enhancements and new capabilities that provide rich functionality, especially the developer tools, virtualization features, security, scalability, file systems, and storage.

EMC Unisphere

EMC Unisphere™ is the central management platform for the VNX series, providing a single, combined view of file and block systems, with all features and functions available through a common interface. Unisphere is optimized for virtual applications and provides industry-leading VMware integration, automatically discovering virtual machines and ESX servers and providing end-to-end, virtual-to-physical mapping. Unisphere also simplifies configuration of FAST Cache and FAST VP on VNX platforms.

EMC Avamar

If you decide to implement a backup solution, EMC recommends EMC Avamar®. Avamar deduplication backup software and system performs variable-length deduplication at the client, so that backup data is reduced before it moves across networks (LAN or WAN). Avamar identifies duplicate data segments and sends only unique segments across the network to the backup appliance. This means shorter

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backup windows, less backup storage consumed, and maximum use of available bandwidth. EMC Avamar provides:

EMC Data Domain



Flexible deployment options. Avamar offers flexibility in solution deployments, depending on the specific use case and recovery requirements. Avamar is a turnkey backup and recovery solution that integrates with EMC-certified hardware for streamlined deployment.



Scalability, high availability, and reliability. . Avamar uses a scalable grid architecture, which enables linear performance and storage scaling by simply adding storage nodes.



Manageability and support. You can securely access Avamar systems through existing network links and integrate them with management frameworks to use SNMP for remote access.

If you use Avamar to implement a backup and recovery solution, you can choose to direct backups to an EMC Data Domain® system instead of to the Avamar server. Avamar and Data Domain enable partners to adopt a purpose-built backup appliance for Exchange Server. Data Domain deduplication storage system deduplicates data inline so that the data lands on disk already deduplicated, thus requiring less disk space than the original dataset. With Data Domain, you can retain backup and archive data on site longer to quickly and reliably restore data from disk. The Data Domain software suite includes the following options:

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EMC Data Domain Replication



Virtual Tape Library (VTL)



Data Domain Boost



Retention Lock



Encryption



Extended Retention

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Chapter 4

Choosing a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

This chapter presents the following topics:

Introduction............................................................................................... 28 Step 1: Evaluating the customer use case with the qualification worksheet . 28 Step 2: Designing the application architectures .......................................... 29 Step 3: Choosing the right VSPEX Proven infrastructure............................... 29

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Chapter 4: Choosing a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

Introduction This chapter describes how to design the EMC VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle and how to choose the right VSPEX solution to meet your requirements. This chapter describes the three main steps required complete the selection process, including: 1.

Evaluating the customer’s Oracle 11g OLTP workload by using the VSPEX for virtualized Oracle qualification worksheet based on business requirements. See the Qualification worksheet in Appendix B.

2.

Determining the required infrastructure, application resources, system, and architecture using the EMC VSPEX sizing tool for Oracle.

3.

Choosing the right VSPEX Proven Infrastructure based on recommendations provided in the reference architectures.

For more information, see the document entitled Deploying Oracle Database on EMC VNX Unified Storage available on EMC.com and EMC Online Support.

Step 1: Evaluating the customer use case with the qualification worksheet Before you choose a VSPEX infrastructure solution, it is important that you understand your customer’s real workload and dataset, based on the business requirement. To help you better understand the customer’s business requirements for the VSPEX infrastructure design, EMC strongly recommends that you use the EMC VSPEX for virtualized Oracle qualification worksheet-sizing tool when evaluating the workload requirements for the VSPEX solution. The section Appendix A: Qualification Worksheet provides an example of this worksheet. In the VSPEX for virtualized Oracle qualification worksheet, we used some simple questions to understand and describe the customer’s Oracle OLTP workload requirements and usage characteristics.

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Chapter 4: Choosing a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure

Step 2: Designing the application architectures An example customer workload was defined for this VSPEX Proven infrastructure solution. For more information about a reference virtual machine and its characteristics, refer to VSPEX Oracle qualification worksheet example. Once you gather the customer’s information and populate the VSPEX for virtualized Oracle qualification worksheet, you can use that information to populate the VSPEX sizing tool located on the EMC Business Value Portal. If the sizing tool is not available on the EMC Support website, use the sizing instructions provided in Appendix B Manually sizing a virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP for VSPEX.

Step 3: Choosing the right VSPEX Proven infrastructure The VSPEX program has produced many solutions designed to simplify the deployment of a consolidated virtual infrastructure using VMware vSphere and the EMC VNX family of products. Once you confirm the application architecture, you can choose the right VSPEX Proven infrastructure based on the calculated results. For Oracle OLTP, refer to the document entitled EMC VSPEX Private Cloud VMware vSphere 5.1 for up to 500 Virtual Machines solution. EMC recommends that you use the following steps when choosing a VSPEX Proven Infrastructure: 1.

Use the VSPEX sizing tool for Oracle 11g OLTP to calculate the total number of reference virtual machines and the suggested storage layout. If this portal is not available, use Appendix B, which describes how to manually size the storage for an environment.

2.

Design the other applications’ resource capacity based on business needs. The VSPEX sizing tool calculates the total number of required reference virtual machines and recommended storage layouts for Oracle 11g OLTP.

3.

Select your network vendor, hypervisor software vendor, and the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure with number of required reference virtual machines. For more information, visit the EMC VSPEX website.

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Chapter 5

Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

This chapter presents the following topics:

Overview ................................................................................................... 32 Designing the network ............................................................................... 32 Designing the storage layout ...................................................................... 34 Configuring FAST Cache for Oracle .............................................................. 37 Designing the virtualization layer ............................................................... 38 Designing the Oracle Database 11gR2 implementation ............................... 41 Designing backup and recovery .................................................................. 42

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

Overview This chapter describes the EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Database 11g OLTP solution design and best practices for the network, storage, virtualization, application, and backup and recovery, and includes the following sections: 

Designing the network



Designing the storage layout



Configuring FAST Cache for Oracle



Designing the virtualization layer



Designing the Oracle Database 11gR2



Designing backup and recovery

Designing the network Overview

Networking in the virtual world follows the same concepts as networking in the physical world, but some of these concepts are applied in the software instead of using physical cables and switches. Although many of the best practices that apply in the physical world continue to apply in the virtual world, there are additional considerations for traffic segmentation, availability, and throughput. Figure 3 shows the high availability design of the network layer in the VNX® series. The advanced networking features of the VNX family provide protection against network connection failures at the array. Each hypervisor host has multiple connections to user and storage Ethernet networks to guard against link failures. Spread these connections across multiple Ethernet switches to guard against component failure in the network. For more information, see the VSPEX Proven Architecture section on page 16.

Figure 3.

32

Network layer: High availability (VNX)

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Networking best practices

In this VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for virtualized Oracle Database 11g R2, EMC recommends that you consider network redundancy and ESX Server advanced settings when designing your network for this solution. Network redundancy A network that is designed to be reliable and tolerant to failures should recover rapidly so that any faults are transient to the running applications. In this solution, the network includes a redundant pair of switches and all subnets have redundant links. ESX Server advanced settings and timeout settings for NFS Aggregate multiple network connections to increase throughput beyond what a single connection can sustain, and to provide redundancy in case one of the links fails. For example, in the VMware virtualization environment, use two physical NICs per vSwitch and uplink the physical NICs to separate physical switches. When configuring the NIC teaming settings, it is a best practice to select no for the NIC teaming failback option. If there is some intermittent behavior in the network, this will prevent the NIC cards from flip-flopping. When setting up VMware High Availability (VMware HA), also set the following ESX Server timeouts and settings under the ESX Server advanced setting tab: 

NFS.HeartbeatFrequency = 12



NFS.HeartbeatTimeout = 5



NFS.HeartbeatMaxFailures = 10

To access the NFS advanced options: 1.

Log into the VMware vSphere Client.

2.

Select the ESXi/ESX host.

3.

Click the Configuration tab.

4.

Click Advanced Settings.

5.

Select NFS.

Configure the Oracle 11g Database to use the Oracle 11g dNFS Client ODM disk libraries. This is a one-time operation and once set, the database uses the OracleOptimized, native Oracle dNFS client, rather than the operating system hosted NFS client. We replaced the standard ODM library with one that supports the dNFS Client. Figure 4 shows the commands that enable the dNFS Client ODM library.

Figure 4.

Enable the dNFS Client ODM library

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

For other best practices in network design for the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure, refer to the EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Implementation Guide.

Designing the storage layout Overview

The best practice and design considerations in this section provide guidelines for effectively planning storage for various business requirements in Oracle Database 11g R2 environments.

High-level architecture

Figure 5 shows the high-level architecture between the Oracle Database 11gR2 components and storage elements validated in the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database 11gR2 on a VMware vSphere 5.1 virtualization platform. All the Oracle Database 11gR2 volumes are on network files system storage (NFS).

Figure 5. Storage layout

In addition to the infrastructure pool for virtual machines, EMC recommends that you use the three additional storage pools in which to store Oracle Database 11gR2 data for different purposes. Table 5 provides an example. Table 5.

34

Oracle Database 11gR2 storage elements

VNX storage layout for Oracle Database

Storage pool name

RAID type

Disk type

No. of disks

Oracle Data pool

RAID 5 (4+1)

15,000 rpm SAS disks

30

Oracle FRA pool

RAID 6 (6+2)

7,200 rpm NL-SAS disks

8

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Storage best practices

Storage pool name

RAID type

Disk type

No. of disks

Oracle Redo pool

RAID 5 (4+1)

15,000 rpm SAS disks

5

Consider the following best practices for storage and layout design in your VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for virtualized Oracle Database 11gR2 solution. Oracle Database 11gR2 data pool Use SAS disks with RAID 5 (4+1) protection for the Oracle /data and /temp file systems. This combination of RAID protection and disk type provides high capacity utilization along with good I/O performance at a low cost, while at the same time ensuring data availability in the event of a drive failure. Oracle Database 11gR2 redo log pool In this solution, we configured the file system for REDO logs on the same physical pool protected by RAID5 on SAS disks. For highly write-intensive workloads, or workloads for which random read response times are more important, you should consider a separate pool for REDO file systems on physically separate disks. Oracle Database 11gR2 FRA pool Considering that backup has relatively low client access and the main design factor is the capacity, we used NL-SAS drives for the Oracle FRA. EMC recommends that when using high capacity NL-SAS drives, you should use RAID 6 protection. Customization EMC recommends that customers work with vendors to estimate the capacity and IOPS requirements for the storage layout. Make sure to consider future growth when laying out the storage, and include projected growth as input to the VSPEX sizing tool. Administrators can choose to manually create pools for file systems or use the Automated Volume Management function from Unisphere. If the administrator chooses to manually layout the storage pool LUNs, they should consult the document entitled EMC VNX Unified Best Practices for Performance. Additional performance requirements for FAST Suite The EMC FAST Suite— FAST VP and FAST Cache—provides two key technologies available on the VNX series that enable extreme performance in an automated fashion, when and where needed. For more information on FAST Suite for VSPEX Proven Infrastructures, see the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure website. Enabling FAST Cache is a transparent operation to Oracle Database 11gR2 and no reconfiguration or downtime to the database is necessary. EMC recommends that you only use FAST Cache on the storage pool or LUNs that require it. If you enable FAST technology on the Oracle Database 11gR2, the response times, read/write throughput, and latencies will improve the Oracle Database 11gR2 user experience.

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

VSPEX storage layout example

This section describes the VNX storage layouts in this VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for virtualized Oracle Database 11gR2 based on the VSPEX private cloud. This example follows the best practice and design considerations as previously discussed. Figure 6 shows a storage layout for an example Oracle Database 11gR2 for the VNX series.

Figure 6.

Storage layout example: Oracle Database 11gR2 for the VNX series

Note: This is only one example of a storage layout. To plan and design your own storage layouts for Oracle Database 11gR2 over a VSPEX stack, follow the guidance in the VSPEX Sizing Tool and the best practices in Designing the storage layout on page 34.

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Configuring FAST Cache for Oracle Overview

FAST Cache uses Enterprise Flash drives to add an extra layer of cache between dynamic random access memory (DRAM) cache and rotating disk drives, thereby creating a faster medium for storing frequently accessed data. FAST Cache is an extendable, read/write cache. It boosts application performance by ensuring that the most active data is served from high-performing Flash drives and can reside on this faster medium for as long as is needed. FAST Cache tracks data activity at a granularity of 64 KB and promotes hot data into FAST Cache by copying it from the HDDs to the Flash drives assigned to FAST Cache. Subsequent I/O access to that data is handled by the Flash drives and is serviced at Flash drive response times—this ensures very low latency for the data. As data ages and becomes less active, it is flushed from FAST Cache to be replaced by more active data. A small number of Flash drives implemented as FAST Cache provides a greater performance increase than a large number of short-stroked HDDs. FAST Cache is particularly suited to applications that randomly access storage with high frequency, such as Oracle OLTP databases. In addition, OLTP databases have inherent locality of reference with varied I/O patterns. Applications with these characteristics benefit most from deploying FAST Cache. The optimal use of FAST Cache happens when the working dataset can fit within the FAST Cache.

FAST Cache best practices

EMC recommends the following: 

Only enable FAST Cache on pool/LUNs that require it



Size FAST Cache appropriately, depending on the application's active dataset



Disable FAST Cache on pool/LUNs where Oracle online redo logs reside



Never enable FAST Cache on archive logs because these files are never overwritten and are rarely read back (unless you need to recover the database)

EMC recommends that you enable FAST Cache for the Oracle data files only. Oracle archive files and redo log files have a predictable workload composed mainly of sequential writes. The array's write cache and assigned HDDs can efficiently handle these archive files and redo log files. Enabling FAST Cache on these files is neither beneficial nor cost effective.

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

Designing the virtualization layer Overview

Oracle Database 11gR2 is fully supported when you deploy it in a virtual environment with VMware vSphere ESXi™ technology. The following sections describe the best practices and design considerations for Oracle Database 11gR2 virtualization.

Virtualization best practices

In this VSPEX Proven Infrastructure for Oracle Database, EMC recommends that you consider implementing best practices for managing the following resources in your virtualization design. 

Compute resources



Network resources



VMware features



VMware vCenter

Compute resources EMC recommends that you implement the following compute resource best practices:

38



Enable hyper-threading. Hyper-threading technology allows a single physical processor to execute multiple independent threads simultaneously. ESXi is designed to make use of hyper threading by controlling the placement of logical processors on the same core and intelligently managing processor time to guarantee that load is spread evenly across all physical cores in the system.



Use Hardware-Assisted MMU Virtualization (Intel EPT and AMD RVI) to reduce memory consumption and speed up workloads that cause guest operating systems to modify page tables too frequently.



Use Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), a computer architecture in which memory located closer to a particular processor is accessed with less delay than memory located farther from that processor.



Make sure that the number of vCPUs in a virtual machine is less than or equal to the number of cores in a processor socket.



Allocate Virtual machine memory (vRAM) in a virtual machine to be less than the local memory accessed by NUMA node (processor).



Schedule the vCPU to use the fewest sockets required using the virtual machine parameter numa.vcpu.preferHT=TRUE.



Install VMware Tools, including several utilities that enhance the performance of the virtual machine's guest operating system and improve the ability to manage the virtual machine.



Allocate vRAM to be at least twice the size of the Oracle System Global Area (SGA)



Configure the virtual machine memory reservations to be, at a minimum, the size of the Oracle SGA

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Network resource EMC recommends that you implement the following network resource best practices: 

Use the most recent paravirtualized virtual network device from VMware, currently VMXNET Generation 3 (VMXNET3), which supports 10 GbE.



Use vLANs to separate vSphere infrastructure traffic from virtual machine traffic for security and isolation.



Enable and configure Jumbo frames throughout the virtual and physical stack for the vMotion and the IP storage networks.



Use an In-guest NFS mount from an Oracle DNFS client within the virtual machine rather than VMDK on an NFS datastore.

VMware features EMC recommends that you implement the following VMware features: 

vSphere HA—This feature uses multiple ESXi hosts, configured as a cluster, to provide rapid recovery from outages and provides cost-effective highly availability systems for applications running in virtual machines. vSphere HA protects applications against: 

A server failure by restarting the virtual machines on other ESXi servers within the cluster



Application failure by continuously monitoring a virtual machine and resetting it in the event of a guest OS failure



VMware DRS—This feature automatically balances the workload between the hosts using the vMotion function when migrating virtual machines. When Oracle Database workloads increase, DRS automatically moves a bottlenecked virtual machine to another host with more available resources, without downtime.



DRS Affinity rules—This feature controls the placement of virtual machines on hosts within a cluster. DRS provides two types of affinity rules: 

A VM-Host affinity rule, which specifies an affinity relationship between a group of virtual machines and a group of hosts



A VM-VM affinity rule, which specifies whether particular virtual machines should run on the same host or be kept on separate hosts

DRS Host Affinity and Oracle processor licensing The Oracle processor licensing option is based on the interaction of the software with hardware. For Oracle EE, this is based on the number of physical cores that are available to the installed Oracle software. For Oracle SE, this is based on the number of processor sockets that are available to the installed Oracle software. Oracle does not permit the soft partitioning of CPUs as a means to calculate or limit the number of software licenses required for a physical server. Oracle regards VMware vSphere technology as soft partitioning. In a vSphere environment, you must license all hosts where the Oracle executable files are installed and/or running.

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

This means that the design and size of the vSphere ESXi cluster, along with placement and movement of virtual machines hosting the Oracle executable files, are essential to minimize Oracle licensing costs. When a customer’s Oracle requirements do not justify a dedicated VMware cluster, that customer can license a subset of servers in the VMware cluster for Oracle Database 11g EE. In this case, use DRS Host Affinity rules to appropriately restrict the movement of virtual machines within the cluster, including during an HA event. DRS Host Affinity is a clustering technology and is not a mechanism for soft or hard partitioning within a given server. (See Understanding Oracle Certification Support and Licensing in VMware –Environments) VMware templates In VMware terms, a template is a master copy of a virtual machine that you can use to quickly create and provision virtual machines. By using a template, you can install a guest OS onto a virtual machine with application users and software configured and ready for use with minimal user intervention. Templates minimize deployment time and automate repetitive installation and configuration tasks for each virtual machine that is required. Customization specifications stored in vCenter further simplify the rollout of virtual machines. A deployment wizard, automation tool, or script can use these templates to automatically create or amend server settings (such as server name, time zone, and network configuration) prior to building the new virtual machine. Monitor the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure regularly Make sure you monitor the performance of the VSPEX Proven infrastructure regularly. Monitoring performance not only happens at the virtual machine level, but also at the hypervisor level. For example, with an ESXi hypervisor, you can use performance monitoring within the Oracle Database machine to ensure that the virtual machine or Oracle Database performs as expected. Meanwhile, at the hypervisor level, you can use esxtop to monitor host performance.

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Designing the Oracle Database 11gR2 implementation Overview

Design considerations for Oracle Database 11gR2 involve many aspects. The best practice and design considerations in this section provide guidelines for the most common and important ones to follow.

Oracle dNFS Client configuration

Enable the Oracle dNFS client. It provides both resiliency and performance over an OS-hosted NFS with the ability to automatically failover on the 10 G Ethernet fabric and to perform concurrent I/O that bypasses any operating system caches and OS write-order locks. dNFS also performs asynchronous I/O that allows processing to continue while the I/O request is submitted and processed.

Automatic shared memory management

Automatic Shared Memory Management (ASMM) is a standard method of dynamically managing memory in Oracle 11g databases and has been available since Oracle Database 10g. This method is compatible with Linux HugePages. EMC recommends that you implement ASMM to automate the management of the following shared memory structures: 

DB_CACHE_SIZE



SHARED_POOL_SIZE



LARGE_POOL_SIZE



JAVA_POOL_SIZE



STREAMS_POOL_SIZE

To implement this feature, the following initialization parameters must be set: 

SGA_TARGET set to a nonzero value



STATISTICS_LEVEL=TYPICAL (or ALL)

Do not use Oracle Automatic Memory Management (AMM) since AMM is incompatible with HugePages. If you want to use HugePages, make sure that both MEMORY_TARGET / MEMORY_MAX_TARGET initialization parameters are not set. For more information, see My Oracle Support, Note ID 749851.1. HugePages is crucial for faster Oracle database performance on Linux if you have a Enabling the HugePages setting large RAM and SGA. If your combined database SGAs are large (more than 8 GB), you need to configure HugePages. The size of the SGA matters. The advantages of enabling HugePages include: 

Larger page size and fewer pages



Better overall memory performance



No swapping



No kswapd operations EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

I/O operations for file system files

Set FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS=SETALL. This setting enables both direct I/O and async I/O. With async I/O, processing continues while the I/O request is submitted and processed. Direct NFS does not depend on the value of FILESYSTEMIO_OPTIONS. Direct NFS always issues async and direct I/O, as it does not depend on OS support. However, you can always fall back to the OS NFS client in the case of misconfiguration. As a precaution, set the filesystemio_options parameter to SETALL if the OS supports it.

Database file layout for NFS

Data files, online redo log files, FRA files, temp files, and control files reside on the NFS file systems. These file systems are designed (in terms of the RAID level and number of disks used) to be appropriate for each type of file. Table 6 lists each file or activity type and indicates where it resides. Table 6.

Database file layout for NFS

Content

Location

Database binary files

/u01/app/oracle/11.2.0.3

Datafiles, control files

/u02/app/oracle/oradata/vspex1

Online redo logs, control files

/u03/app/oracle/oradata/vspex1

FRA files

/u05/app/oracle/oradata/vspex1

Designing backup and recovery Overview

Design considerations for backing up Oracle Database 11gR2 involve many aspects. The following sections describe the best practices and design considerations necessary to back up and recover an Oracle 11gR2 Database.

High level architecture

The Avamar Plug-in for Oracle works with Oracle and Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to backup an Oracle database, tablespace, or data files to an Avamar server or a Data Domain system. The Avamar Plug-in for Oracle serves as a backup module using the Avamar server or Data Domain system as a storage device. RMAN initiates the backup and recovery operations. The Avamar plug-in for Oracle interprets RMAN backup and recovery commands, and then routes the commands to the Avamar server. The Avamar server sends commands to the Avamar Plug-in for Oracle to perform the backup and restore activity. Figure 7 illustrates how the Avamar server and the Avamar Plug-in for Oracle interface with an Oracle database and RMAN.

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Figure 7. Note

Avamar server and Avamar Plug-in for Oracle

Using EMC Data Domain as the backup target for Avamar is also a supported option. The Avamar client and plug-ins are installed in the same way as when using Avamar as the backup target.

Customers who are protecting VMware vSphere using Avamar’s virtual machine image protection can restore those virtual machines without installing an Avamar client on those hosts. Users restore those hosts from VMware VADP-based backups if they have instances or databases. For disaster-level recovery, virtual machine image recovery enables OS-level recovery. Oracle server-level recovery is applied after those resources are restored. The implementation of vSphere image-level protection is beyond the scope of this guide, but is a viable option to restore base operating systems. Considerations

As you design an Avamar backup solution, it is important to understand how you want to back up your Oracle database. Critical design criteria include: 

Backup type—For example, do you wish to perform a full backup or an incremental backup?



Backup schedule—For example, do you wish to back up your data daily, weekly, or monthly?



Backup data retention—For example, do you wish to retain the data for a month or for a quarter? EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

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Chapter 5: Solution Design Considerations and Best Practices

In addition to defining your backup operations, you need to understand Avamar backup terminology as described in Table 7. Table 7.

Avamar backup terminology

Term

Description

Datasets

Avamar datasets are lists of directories and files to back up from a client. Assigning a dataset to a client or group enables you to save backup selections. Each dataset defines a source data list, an exclusion list, an inclusion list, and plug-in options.

Schedules

Schedules are reusable objects that control system backup activity at one of the supported intervals. The intervals include daily, weekly, monthly, and on-demand.

Retention policies

Backup retention policies enable you to specify how long to retain a backup in the system. The typical retention settings include a retention period, a specific end date, or no end date.

Backup groups

Avamar uses groups to implement various policies that automate backups and enforce consistent rules and system behavior across an entire grid or most likely, a group. Group members are client machines that have been added to a particular group to perform the same policy-based scheduled backups.

Backup and recovery best practices

Consider the following best practices for backing up and restoring your Oracle 11gR2 Database. Network resources For network resources, use: 

VMware VMXNET Generation 3 (VMXNET3) paravirtualized virtual network at 10 GbE.



A vLAN to separate backup data network and Oracle database network.

Oracle RMAN parameters settings For Oracle RMAN settings:

44



Do not use database encryption or compression. It will decrease the data deduplication ratio to either supported backup target.



Use multiple channel allocation for backup and restore performance. The maximum number of supported channels is six.



Set FILEPERSET=1 or MAXOPENFILES=1 in the RMAN configuration file when backing up data to Data Domain as the target device.

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Flashback database recovery The Avamar plug-in for Oracle supports Oracle Flashback database restores. You must configure the FRA before you can use the Flashback database recovery type. Crosschecking backups EMC recommends that you implement an Oracle RMAN crosscheck regularly in order to keep the persistent backup datasets. Backup and restore using Oracle RMAN EMC provides optional RMAN scripts to manually backup and restore Oracle databases. This requires experience with operating system shell commands on the Oracle server using the Oracle software and Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN).

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Chapter 6

Solution Verification Methodology

This chapter presents the following topics:

Verifying the solution ................................................................................. 48 Creating the test environment .................................................................... 49 Populating the test database ..................................................................... 49 Implementing your solution ....................................................................... 49

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Chapter 6: Solution Verification Methodology

Verifying the solution Overview

EMC recommends that you test the new VSPEX for Oracle Database 11gR2 application overlay proven architecture before deploying it to the production environment. This confirms that your design achieves the required performance and capacity targets and enables you to identify and optimize potential bottlenecks before they impact users in a live deployment. This section gives a summary description of the high-level steps we performed when verifying this solution. Before verifying the Oracle Database 11gR2 performance in the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure, make sure you have deployed Oracle Database 11gR2 in your VSPEX Proven Infrastructure based on the Implementation Guides for Oracle Database 11gR2. Table 8 describes the high-level steps required before you can implement the Oracle Database 11gR2 environment in production. Table 8.

High-level steps for application verification

Step

Description

Step

1

Define the test scenario (as noted in the VSPEX sizing tool) to demonstrate a common business workload scenario.

Creating the test environment

2

Understand the key metrics of your Oracle Database 11gR2 environment to achieve performance and capacity that meet your business requirements.

Step 1: Evaluating the customer use case with the qualification worksheet

3

Use the VSPEX Sizing Tool for Oracle Database 11gR2 to determine the architecture and resources required by your VSPEX Proven Infrastructure implementation

EMC VSPEX website

4

Design and build the Oracle Database 11gR2 solution on VSPEX Proven Infrastructure.

Implementation Guide for Oracle Database 11gR2 OLTP

5

Populate the data using a test tool that simulates a real environment.

Use Swingbench to populate the database

6

Run the tests, analyze the results, and optimize your VSPEX architecture.

Swingbench for sample Oracle Database 11gR2 performance

In addition to the test scenario, it is important to understand the goal of the Oracle Database 11gR2 testing to make it easier to decide which metrics to capture and which thresholds you need to meet for each metric when running the Oracle Database 11gR2 validation tests. To verify the VSPEX Oracle Database 11gR2 solution, consider the following key metrics:

48



Transactions per second (TPS)



Change rate

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Chapter 6: Solution Verification Methodology



Average wait time for User I/O



Average wait time for Commit

The VSPEX sizing tool helps you to define the basic metrics and thresholds to meet your customer’s business requirements. For more information about using the VSPEX sizing tool, refer to VSPEX Sizing Tool for Oracle Database 11gR2 available on the EMC VSPEX website.

Creating the test environment Once you have determined test objectives, defined the measurements, and calculated the capacity requirements for your database, the next step is to design and create the test environment for the VSPEX Oracle Database 11gR2 solution. The test database should duplicate the production environment as closely as possible. Consider all the features previously described, including storage layout, network load balance, and networking. In the VSPEX Oracle Database 11gR2 solution, we used Swingbench to simulate a common Oracle Database 11gR2 scenario. For more information on Swingbench, see http://www.dominicgiles.com/swingbench.html. When you set up your test environment, you need to create a plan for the servers and the Oracle Database, as well as for the machines needed to execute the tests. Use one of the machines as the Swingbench server. The Swingbench server will stress the database by simulating a workload of user-defined transactions, and issue requests to the Oracle Database 11gR2 Database. Store the test results on an Oracle Database. In addition to the test environment and test tool, you may also need to use other tools to prepare a complete test environment for Oracle Database 11gR2. For more information, refer to the Oracle Technology Network (TechNet) article (www.oracle.com/technetwork/index.html) on this topic.

Populating the test database After creating the test environment, determine what type of data you are going to run. For this solution, we applied a simulated OLTP workload by scaling users with the Swingbench tool, populating a 500 GB database. We then accessed the database using different sessions generated by Swingbench server.

Implementing your solution Once you have designed your VSPEX infrastructure, refer to the EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Implementation Guide (the companion to this document) for information on how to implement the solution.

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Chapter 7

Reference Documentation

This appendix presents the following topics:

White papers ............................................................................................. 52 Product documentation ............................................................................. 52

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Chapter 7: Reference Documentation

White papers Oracle

Refer to the following Oracle white papers, which are relevant to this solution: 

Oracle Edition Comparisons



Oracle Software Investment Guide



Oracle Database Licensing



Oracle Processor Core Factor Table



Installing and Using Standby Statspack in 11g [ID 454848.1]



How to Tell if the IO of the Database is Slow [Article ID 1275596.1]



HugePages on Linux: What It Is... and What It Is Not... [ID 361323.1] https://support.oracle.com (Requires Login)

EMC

VMware

Refer to the following EMC white papers, which are relevant to this solution: 

Deploying Oracle Database on EMC VNX Unified Storage



EMC Cost-Efficient Infrastructure for Oracle



Maximize Operational Efficiency for Oracle RAC with EMC Symmetrix FAST VP (Automated Tiering) and VMware vSphere - An Architectural Overview



EMC VNX7500 Scaling Performance for Oracle 11g R2 on VMware vSphere 5.1

Refer to the following VMware white papers relevant to this solution: 

Understanding Oracle Certification Support and Licensing in VMware – Environments



Oracle Databases on VMware Best Practices Guide



Best Practices for running VMware vSphere on NFS



Performance Best Practices for VMware vSphere™ 5.0

Product documentation Oracle

52

Refer to the following Oracle product documentation relevant to this solution: 

Oracle Database 11g Documentation Library 11g Release 2 (11.2)



Oracle Edition Comparisons



Oracle Software Investment Guide



Database Licensing



Oracle Processor Core Factor Table



Understanding Oracle Certification Support and Licensing in VMware – Environments

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Chapter 7: Reference Documentation

EMC

VMware

Refer to the following EMC product documentation relevant to this solution: 

VNX Family



VNX Series Documentation on EMC Online Support site

Refer to the following VMware product documentation relevant to this solution: 

VMware vSphere Documentation



vSphere PowerCLI Documentation



Best Practices for running VMware vSphere on NFS



Performance Best Practices for VMware vSphere™ 5.0



Oracle Databases on VMware Best Practices Guide



Understanding Oracle Certification Support and Licensing in VMware – Environments



VMware vSphere 5.1 Clustering Deepdive by Duncan Epping and Frank Denneman

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

53

Chapter 7: Reference Documentation

54

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix A

Qualification Worksheet

This appendix presents the following topic:

Qualification worksheet overview ............................................................... 56 Printing the qualification worksheet ........................................................... 57

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55

Appendix A: Qualification Worksheet

Qualification worksheet overview Before sizing the VSPEX solution, gather the information from the customer’s Oracle databases using the qualification worksheet shown in Figure 8. This worksheet is appropriate for qualifying multiple databases.

Figure 8.

Qualification worksheet for EMC VSPEX for Oracle 11g OLTP

You can use the Oracle Automatic Workload Repository or Statspack Reports to obtain this information as described in the Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide 11g Release 2 (11.2) documentation available at: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E11882_01/server.112/e16638/toc.htm

56

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix A: Qualification Worksheet

Printing the qualification worksheet A standalone copy of the VSPEX Oracle qualification worksheet is attached to this document in PDF format. To open that file, perform the following steps: 1.

From the PDF menus, choose View->How/Hide -> Navigation Panes -> Attachments as shown in Figure 9.

Figure 9.

Printable qualification worksheet

The attachment displays in the left panel, as shown in Figure 10.

Figure 10. 2.

Viewing the qualification worksheet

Double-click on the document to open and print the qualification worksheet.

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Appendix A: Qualification Worksheet

58

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix B

VSPEX Sizing Tool

This appendix presents the following topics:

VSPEX Oracle qualification worksheet example .......................................... 60 Manually sizing a virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP for VSPEX.............. 63

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Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

VSPEX Oracle qualification worksheet example You can obtain the information required to populate the EMC Oracle qualification worksheet from each Oracle database from the Automatic Workload Repository (AWR). The Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) and the Statspack Repository each provide key statistics on database performance, load, and resources (both internal and external). You can access this data using standard Oracle supplied scripts. You can obtain the remaining information from the customer or by using the simple queries provided in this appendix.

Figure 11.

EMC Oracle qualification worksheet example

Database Memory settings Use the init.ora Parameters section of the AWR report to calculate the System Global Area (SGA) and Program Global Area (PGA) values as shown in Figure 12

Figure 12.

The init.ora Parameters from the AWR Report

Finding the number of concurrent users Many customers will know the numbers of users connected to their system. However, you can use the SQL query shown in Figure 13 to confirm the maximum number of users connecting to the database concurrently. SQL> select SESSIONS_CURRENT, SESSIONS_HIGHWATER from v$license; SESSIONS_CURRENT

SESSIONS_HIGHWATER

----------------------------- ---------------------------------5

60

249

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool 1 row selected.

Figure 13.

Querying the user session high watermark

Database size Use the data and temporary file sizes used to populate the DB Size (MB) column and calculate the total as shown in Figure 14 SQL> select ltrim(to_char(sum(bytes)/(1024*1024))) as “Total size (M)” from

(

select sum(bytes) as bytes from v$datafile union select bytes from v$tempfile); Total size (M) ---------------------------------------256000 1 row selected.

Figure 14.

Calculate Database Size with SQL query

Finding the datafile IOPS and change rate for the Redo logs You can obtain the READ IOPS, WRITE IOPS, and Change Rate (MB/s) columns in the "IOStat by Function summary section of the in AWR report. Figure 15 shows these columns.

Figure 15.

IOStat by Function summary from the AWR Report

Obtaining user I/O time and commit time The following Oracle wait events (shown in Figure 16) provide key response time statistics for the Oracle database. 

Use db file sequential read to populate the User I/O column. Oracle recommends that this value is under 20 ms.



Use log file sync to populate the Commit column. Oracle recommends that this value be under 15 ms.

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Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

Figure 16.

Foreground Wait Event from the AWR

See the My Oracle Support Document ID 1275596.1 for the list of typical acceptable I/O response times2. Transactions in the Load Profile from the AWR report You can obtain the value used to populate the TPS column of the worksheet from transactions in the Load Profile as shown in Figure 17.

Figure 17.

2

62

Transactions in load profile from AWR report

Reference: My Oracle Support: How to Tell if the IO of the Database is Slow [ID 1275596.1]

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

Manually sizing a virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP for VSPEX Overview

This section describes how to calculate the resources required in a VSPEX virtual infrastructure for Oracle Database 11g OLTP from the total number of reference virtual machines. Using a completed EMC Oracle Qualification Worksheet (see Figure 18), you can estimate the resources required for vCPU, memory, and storage for your Oracle Database 11g OLTP environment. Note

Oracle manual sizing procedure

Use these instructions to manually determine the approximate size of a single application if the VSPEX Sizing Tool website is not available. EMC recommends that you use the VSPEX Sizing Tool, with its multi-application, multi-instance capability, as the preferred sizing approach.

This section presents a working example used to introduce the Oracle manual sizing methodology. The flow of the example is as follows:

Partner completes Qualification worksheet



User count identified from completed qualification worksheet mapped to Virtual Machine resources and VSPEX reference virtual machines.



Calculate the storage requirement for Oracle Database 11g

Figure 18.

EMC Oracle Qualification Worksheet example

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Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

Table 9.

Mapping Application user to VSPEX reference virtual machines

Oracle model (S/M/L)

Virtual machine resources

VSPEX reference virtual machines

Up to 150 users (small)

2 vCPUs and 8 GB memory

4

Up to 250 users (medium)

4 vCPUs and 16 GB of memory

8

For more than 250 users (large)

8 vCPUs and 32 GB of memory

16

Taking the user count for VSPEX1M and VSPEX1S from Figure 18, and referencing Table 9, we can obtain the size of the virtual machine required and the number of VSPEX reference virtual machines. 

VSPEX1M has 250 users and an SGA of 8,192. This requires a virtual machine with four vCPUs and 16 GB of memory, and maps to eight VSPEX reference virtual machines.



VSPEX1s has 150 users and an SGA of 4,096. This requires a Small Oracle Model with two vCPUs and 8 GB of memory, and maps to four VSPEX reference virtual machines.



This configuration, therefore, requires a total of 12 VSPEX reference virtual machines used for calculating the required VSPEX virtual Infrastructure pool size.

Calculating the VSPEX storage requirement for Oracle 11g Database OLTP As described in Designing the storage layout, all data and redo files should reside on RAID5 storage while the Oracle FRA files placed on RAID6. When calculating the storage requirement for a database, consider both I/O performance and capacity. As the disks drive capacity increases, unless a database is unusually large, you determine the storage requirement by performance. You calculate the storage requirements for each database using the values collected in the Qualification Worksheet and the information provided in Table 10 and Table 11. The database entry VSPEX1M (in Figure 18) has the following storage profile:

64



Database size of 256,000 MB (296 GB)



Five percent annual growth gives a three year capacity of 296 GB



The database has 13,44 read and 608 write IOPS



The redo change rate is 1.3 MB/s

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

To translate this into storage requirements, consider: 

RAID type and write penalty to calculate the actual IOPS on the array (see Table 10).



Drive type, capacity, and input/output operations and throughput.

Table 10.

RAID type and write penalty and capacity utilization

RAID

Capacity utilization

Multiple of

Write penalty

Active drives

Parity drives

RAID 5 (4+1)

0.80

5

4

4

1

RAID 6 (6+2)

0.75

8

6

6

2

To calculate the storage array IOPS, take the database read and write IOPS and apply the following formula: Array IOPS = read IOPS + (write IOPS x RAID write penalty) Table 11.

Random disk IOPS by drive type

Drive Type

IOPS

15 K SAS

180

10 K SAS

140

NL-SAS

90

SSD

3,000

In Table 12: 

The data pool uses a 300 GB 15 K SAS drive with a random read/write workload. Table 11 shows that this drive supports 180 random IOPS.



The redo pool also uses a 300 GB 15 K SAS drive with a sequential write workload. A conservative value of 60 MB/s per drive is used for sustained writes.



The FRA pool is made up of 1 TB 7.2 k NL-SAS drives with a sequential write workload. A conservative value of 20 MB/s per drive is used for these sustained writes.

Table 12.

Storage pool calculation example

Storage pool

Number of drives

Total capacity

Oracle data pool RAID 5

25 Drives

300 GB * 25 * 0.8 = 6,000

21 = (1344 + (608 *4))/180 Round up to a multiple of 5 to allow for RAID 5 (4 +1)= 25 drives

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Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool Storage pool

Number of drives

Total capacity

Oracle redo pool RAID 5

5 drives

300 GB * 5 * 0.8 = 1,200

1 = (1.3MB/s * 4) / 60 MB/s Round up to a multiple of 5 to allow for RAID 5 (4 +1)=5 drives

Oracle FRA pool

8 drives

RAID 6

1 = (1.3MB/s * 6) / 60 MB/s

1 TB * 8 * 0.75 = 6,000

Round up to a multiple of 8 to allow for RAID 8 (6+2)=8 drives

We do not calculate the effect of FAST Cache here as you enabled this setting at the array level and it affects performance on all disks/pools that use it.

OS capacity sizing One Oracle 11g Database instance will have one OS volume, and the capacity is fixed at 100 GB. For more information on capacity sizing, refer to Virtualization Infrastructure documents.

OS IOPS sizing The OS IOPS is fixed at 25 IOPS for each OS volume. For more information on OS IOPS sizing, refer to Virtualization Infrastructure documents. Select the right VSPEX Proven Infrastructure To calculate the appropriate VSPEX Proven Infrastructure type for your solution, use the following steps. 1.

Use the previously described manual sizing procedure to obtain the total number of reference virtual machines and any additional suggested storage layout for the application. For this example:

66



OracleRVM = Number of reference virtual machines required for VSPEX1M (8) + number of reference virtual machines required for VSPEX1S (4) = 12 reference virtual machines



VIPool=12 reference virtual machines = 29 drives (see Table 14)



Total drives suggested for Oracle 11g OLTP Database VSPEX1M = 38



Total drives suggested for Oracle 11g OLTP Database VSPEX1S = 28 (calculation not shown)



OracleDrives = Total drives suggested for both Oracle 11g OLTP Databases = 66



Total drive count = VIPool + OracleDrives (29 + 66) = 95 drives

EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide

Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

Table 13.

Mapping reference virtual machines to the virtual infrastructure pool (example)

Reference virtual machines

Base disk

Hot spares

EFD

SAS

SAS

EFD

50

2

25

1

1

29

100

2

45

2

1

50

200

2

85

3

1

91

300

2

125

5

1

133

400

2

165

6

1

174

500

2

205

7

1

215

Total

Refer to the appropriate EMC VSPEX Proven Infrastructure and calculate the number of disks number required for the VSPEX private cloud pool using the virtual infrastructure building block methodology. For VSPEX FOR VIRTUALIZED ORACLE DATABASE 11g OLTP, we have a requirement for 12 reference virtual machines and 95 drives. 2.

Use Table 14 to select the VSPEX VMware private cloud solution model. This example uses up to 125 reference virtual machines as the minimum VSPEX Proven Infrastructure. Table 14. Choosing the VSPEX Proven Infrastructure model VSPEX Proven Infrastructure model*

Maximum supported reference virtual machine

Supported storage array

Up to 125 virtual machines

125

VNX5300

Up to 250 virtual Machines

250

VNX5500

Up to 500 virtual machines

500

VNX5700

Note: To determine the number of reference virtual machines to use in your environment, refer to the document entitled EMC VSPEX Private Cloud VMware vSphere 5.1 for up to 500 Virtual Machines.

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Appendix B: VSPEX Sizing Tool

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EMC VSPEX for Virtualized Oracle Database 11g OLTP Design Guide