ENCYCLOPEDIA of ESTUARIES - Springer

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ENCYCLOPEDIA of ESTUARIES

Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ESTUARIES Volume Editor Dr. Michael J. Kennish is a world-class estuarine scientist and a research professor in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey (USA). In addition to his research on estuaries, Dr. Kennish has conducted biological and geological research on coastal ocean and deep-sea environments. Much of his research has involved the development and application of innovative methods to assess anthropogenic impacts and to determine the condition and health of coastal ecosystems. Dr. Kennish is the author or editor of 14 scholarly books in marine science, and he is the author or co-author of more than 170 articles in science journals and books. In addition, he has edited seven compendium science journal special issues on various topics in marine science.

Editorial Board Daniel M. Alongi Australian Institute of Marine Science Townsville, Queensland, Australia Donald F. Boesch University of Maryland Cambridge, Maryland, USA Walter R. Boynton University of Maryland Solomons, Maryland, USA Carlos M. Duarte Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados Esporles Mallorca, Islas Baleares, Spain Paul J. Harrison Department of Earth & Ocean Sciences University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Robert W. Howarth Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA Lisa Levin Integrative Oceanography Division Scripps Institution of Oceanography LaJolla, California, USA Scott W. Nixon (deceased) Graduate School of Oceanography University of Rhode Island Narragansett, Rhode Island, USA

Aims of the Series The Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series provides comprehensive and authoritative coverage of all the main areas in the Earth Sciences. Each volume comprises a focused and carefully chosen collection of contributions from leading names in the subject, with copious illustrations and reference lists. These books represent one of the world’s leading resources for the Earth Sciences community. Previous volumes are being updated and new works published so that the volumes will continue to be essential reading for all professional earth scientists, geologists, geophysicists, climatologists, and oceanographers as well as for teachers and students. Go to http://link.springer.com to visit the “Encyclopedia of

Earth Sciences Series” online.

About the Series Editor Professor Charles W. Finkl has edited and/or contributed to more than eight volumes in the Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. For the past 25 years he has been the Executive Director of the Coastal Education and Research Foundation and Editor-in-Chief of the international Journal of Coastal Research. In addition to these duties, he is Professor at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida, USA. He is a graduate of the University of Western Australia (Perth) and previously worked for a wholly owned Australian subsidiary of the International Nickel Company of Canada (INCO). During his career, he acquired field experience in Australia, the Caribbean, South America, SW Pacific islands, Southern Africa, Western Europe, and the Pacific Northwest, Midwest, and Southeast USA.

Founding Series Editor Professor Rhodes W. Fairbridge (deceased) has edited more than 24 Encyclopedias in the Earth Sciences Series. During his career he has worked as a petroleum geologist in the Middle East, been a WW II intelligence officer in the SW Pacific, and led expeditions to the Sahara, Arctic Canada, Arctic Scandinavia, Brazil, and New Guinea. He was Emeritus Professor of Geology at Columbia University and was affiliated with the Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF EARTH SCIENCES SERIES

ENCYCLOPEDIA of ESTUARIES edited by

MICHAEL J. KENNISH Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA

Library of Congress Control Number: 2015934443

ISBN: 978-94-017-8800-7 This publication is available also as: Electronic publication under ISBN 978-94-017-8801-4 Print and electronic bundle under ISBN 978-94-017-8802-1

Springer Dordrecht, Heidelberg, New York, London

Printed on acid-free paper

Cover photo: U.S. Geological Survey

Every effort has been made to contact the copyright holders of the figures and tables which have been reproduced from other sources. Anyone who has not been properly credited is requested to contact the publishers, so that due acknowledgement may be made in subsequent editions.

All rights reserved for the contributions Age; Benthic Ecology; Blue Carbon; Bulkheads; Carbon Sequestration; Climate Change; Endemic Species; Estuarine Sustainability; Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism; Estuary Conservation; Estuary Conservation Zone; Extratropical Storms; Extreme Events (Hurricanes); Flushing Time; Forested Wetland Habitat; Marsh Drowning; Nutrient Dynamics; Residence Time; Revetments; Secchi Disk; Storm Surges, Tidal Freshwater Habitat; Timescale; Water Clarity; Water Quality © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016 No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher, with the exception of any material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work.

Contents

Contributors

xiii

Preface

xxvii

Acknowledgments

xxix

Anthropogenic Impacts Michael J. Kennish

29

Archaea Antje Rusch

35

Artificial Reef Stephen A. Bortone

37

Autotrophic Antje Rusch

41

Back Dune Ken Munyikwa

43

43

Adaptive Governance Kalle Matso

1

Adaptive Management Kate Buenau and Michael Anderson

1

Aerobic Environments Ayman A. Elgamal

2

Age Lisa V. Lucas

3

Airborne Laser Terrain Mapping (ALTM) Michael J. Starek

4

Backbarrier Joseph F. Donoghue

7

Bar J. Javier Diez and Efren M. Veiga

46

Algal Blooms Patricia M. Glibert

17

Barrier Island Wenyan Zhang

47

Alkalinity Evgeniy Yakushev Amphipods Alistair G. B. Poore

17

Barrier Spits Wenyan Zhang

53

Anadromous Charles A. Simenstad

18

Beach Management Mafalda Marques Carapuço

53

Anaerobic Environments Ayman A. Elgamal

19

Beach Processes Vic Semeniuk and Margaret Brocx

55

Anoxia, Hypoxia, and Dead Zones Robert J. Diaz

19

Benthic Ecology Marguerite C. Pelletier

73

vi

CONTENTS

Bioaccumulation Monica Ferreira da Costa, Helena do Amaral Kehrig and Isabel Maria Neto da Silva Moreira

74

Bioavailability Monica Ferreira da Costa, Helena do Amaral Kehrig and Isabel Maria Neto da Silva Moreira

75

Biochemical Oxygen Demand Manuel Flores Montes

75

Biogenic Sedimentary Structures Luca Ragaini

76

Biogenous Sediment Lluı´s Gómez-Pujol

81

Bioindicators Stephen A. Bortone

82

Biomagnification Monica Ferreira da Costa, Helena do Amaral Kehrig and Isabel Maria Neto da Silva Moreira

82

Biomonitors Vanessa Hatje

Coastal Barriers Patrick A. Hesp

128

Coastal Bays Michael J. Kennish

130

Coastal Cliffs Nils-Axel Mörner

130

Coastal Erosion Control Mena Ciarmiello and Michele Di Natale

131

Coastal Indicators Mafalda Marques Carapuço

139

Coastal Lagoons Michael J. Kennish

140

Coastal Landforms A. C. Narayana

143

Coastal Risks: Floods J. Javier Diez

157

83

Coastal Squeeze Luciana S. Esteves

158

Bioremediation Monia El Bour

84

Coastal Wetlands Jorge R. Rey

160

Bivalve Aquaculture John N. Kraeuter

85

Cordgrass Keryn Gedan

164

Bivalve Molluscs Loren D. Coen and Raymond E. Grizzle

89

Cultural Seafood Management Islay D. Marsden

165

Blue Carbon Judith Z. Drexler

109

Cyanobacteria Monia El Bour

169

Blue Crabs Paul R. Jivoff

109

Delta Plain Colin D. Woodroffe

175

Bulkheads Harry C. Friebel

110

Deltas Vic Semeniuk and Christine Semeniuk

177

Carbon Sequestration Judith Z. Drexler

113

Density Stratification Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

187

Cheniers and Regressive Bedforms Federico Ignacio Isla and Jose Manuel Bedmar

113

Determining Geoheritage Values Margaret Brocx and Vic Semeniuk

187

Clean Water Act Michael J. Kennish

122

Detritus Food Webs Charles A. Simenstad

197

Climate Change Thomas M. Cronin

122

Diagenesis Steven Colbert

199

CONTENTS

Diffusion Murat Aksel

200

Dispersion Murat Aksel

201

Dissolved Oxygen Christopher F. Deacutis

202

Dredge and Fill Aysun Koroglu

204

Dredging Paul A. Work

204

Earthquake Disturbances Islay D. Marsden, Deirdre E. Hart, Catherine M. Reid and Christopher Gomez

207

Ecological Modeling Mark J. Brush and Lora A. Harris

vii

Estuarine Circulation Roberto F. C. Fontes, Luiz B. Miranda and Fernando Andutta

247

Estuarine Connectivity Pat Dale and Marcus Sheaves

258

Estuarine Deltaic Wetlands Vic Semeniuk and Christine Semeniuk

260

Estuarine Flocculation Dorothy Joyce D. Marquez

272

Estuarine Geomorphology David M. Kennedy

273

Estuarine Habitat Restoration Ronald M. Thom and Amy B. Borde

273

214

Estuarine Sediment Composition Vanesa Magar

285

Ecological Monitoring A. J. Underwood and M. G. Chapman

223

Estuarine Sedimentation Francisco Jose´ Lobo

289

Ecological Niche Xchel Moreno-Sa´nchez, Andre´s Abitia-Ca´rdenas, Juan M. Rodrı´guez-Baron, Mónica Lara Uc and Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez

227

Estuarine Sustainability Colin Levings

299 300

Ecological Stoichiometry Patricia M. Glibert

228

Estuarine Total Ecosystem Metabolism Autumn J. Oczkowski and Brita J. Jessen

303

Ecological Succession Hai Ren

231

Estuary Conservation Colin Levings

304

Ecosystem-Based Management Kalle Matso

232

Estuary Conservation Zone Colin Levings

304

Ecotourism Monica Ferreira da Costa and Carlos Pereira da Silva

236

Eutrophication Michael J. Kennish Evaporation and Transpiration Vic Semeniuk

311

Emergent Shoreline Nils-Axel Mörner

237

Exotic Species Francisco Barros

311

Endemic Species Karen Thorne

237

Extratropical Storms Harry C. Friebel

312

Environmental Gradients Mario Barletta and David Valença Dantas

237 Extreme Events (Hurricanes) Harry C. Friebel

312

Epibiont Monia El Bour

242 Fiddler Crabs Judith S. Weis

315

Estuarine Beaches C. Scott Hardaway, Jr., Donna A. Milligan and Lyle Varnell

243 Firth J. Javier Diez and Efren M. Veiga

316

viii

CONTENTS

Fish Assemblages Mario Barletta and David Valença Dantas

317

Herbivory Carol Thornber

357

Fjord Michael A. O’Neal

326

Heterotrophic Antje Rusch

357

Flocculation Dorothy Joyce D. Marquez

327

Ichthyofauna Selene Ortiz-Burgos

359

Flushing Time Edward H. Dettmann

329

Ichthyoplankton Kenneth W. Able

360

Food Chain Mónica Lara Uc, Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez and Juan M. Rodrı´guez-Baron

330

Infauna Francisco Barros

360

Food Web/Trophic Dynamics Charles A. Simenstad

331

Intertidal Zonation Brian Helmuth

361

Foredune Michael J. Kennish

334

Introduced Species Francisco Barros

361

Forested Wetland Habitat Jamie A. Duberstein and Ken W. Krauss

334

Invasive Species Judith S. Weis

362

Fringing Reef David M. Kennedy

338

Karst Processes and Estuarine Coastlines John E. Mylroie, Michael J. Lace, Patricia N. Kambesis and Joan R. Mylroie

373

Geoheritage Margaret Brocx and Vic Semeniuk

339

381

Geomorphological Mapping Michael A. O’Neal

344

Kelp Forests Gustavo Herna´ndez Carmona and Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez

383

Glaciated Estuarine Systems Michael A. O’Neal

345

Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Michael J. Starek

347

Littoral Cordon J. Javier Diez and Efren M. Veiga

384

Habitat Complexity Selene Ortiz-Burgos

385

Habitat Loss Laura Airoldi and Michael W. Beck

349

Littoral Zone Michael J. Kennish

349

Lobster Migration Jason S. Goldstein

385

Halocline Evgeniy Yakushev

387

Halogenated Hydrocarbons Michael J. Kennish

350

Macroalgae Michael J. Kennish

350

Macroalgal Blooms Michael J. Kennish

388

Headland Breakwaters C. Scott Hardaway, Jr. and James R. Gunn

355

Macrofauna Rolando Bastida-Zavala and Betzabe´ Moreno-Da´vila

388

Heavy Minerals Ilya V. Buynevich Herbivorous Grazers Carol Thornber

356

Macronutrients Manuel Flores Montes

389

CONTENTS

ix

Managed Realignment Luciana S. Esteves

390

Neural Networks M. C. Deo

453

Mangroves Daniel M. Alongi

393

Neuston Harold G. Marshall

454

Marine/Freshwater Mixing Vic Semeniuk

404

Nitrate Reduction Manuel Flores Montes

455

Marsh Drowning Judith Z. Drexler

417

Nitrification Manuel Flores Montes

455

Marsh Islands Ilya V. Buynevich

417

Nitrogen Manuel Flores Montes

456

Marsh Sediment Toxicity Judith S. Weis

418

Nonpoint Source Pollution Katherine C. Ridolfi

456

Mass Physical Sediment Properties Burghard W. Flemming and Monique T. Delafontaine

419

Nonstationary Forcing Sebastia´n Solari, Miguel A. Losada Rodrı´guez and Miguel Ortega-Sa´nchez

461

Mean Sea Level Abdullah BaMasoud

432

Nutrient Dynamics Melanie D. Harrison

462

Meiofauna Rolando Bastida-Zavala and Carmen Me´ndez-Trejo

433

Nutrient Limitation Manuel Flores Montes

463

Microbial Degradation Monia El Bour

433

Nutrients Manuel Flores Montes

464

Microbial Survivability Haruo Mimura

434

Oil Pollution Michael J. Kennish

467

Microfauna Michael J. Kennish

437

Overwash Harry Williams

468

Micronutrients Manuel Flores Montes

437

Oxygen Depletion Evgeniy Yakushev

469

Microphytobenthos Lawrence Cahoon

438

Oyster Reef Timothy M. Dellapenna

470

Mineralization Vic Semeniuk

438

Participatory Research Kalle Matso

475

Mixotrophic Plankton Jason E. Adolf

447

Pathogens Monia El Bour

475

Mosquito Ditching Keryn Gedan

448

Peat Xavier Comas

476

Mutualism Antje Rusch

449

pH Ayman A. Elgamal

480

Nekton Behavioral Ecology Dennis M. Allen

451

Pharmaceuticals Vanessa Hatje

481

x

CONTENTS

Phi Scale Joseph F. Donoghue

483

Salt Marsh Accretion Peddrick Weis

513

Phosphorus Manuel Flores Montes

484

Saltmarshes Paul Adam

515

Physiological Mechanisms Islay D. Marsden

485

Sand Mining/Beach Sand Mining Paul A. Work

535

Phytoplankton Harold G. Marshall

491

Sand Ridge Marci M. Robinson

536

Phytoplankton Blooms Edward J. Phlips

493

Sandbanks Vanesa Magar

537

Pneumatophores Luzhen Chen

494

538

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Michael J. Kennish

495

Sandflat Jorge Manuel López-Calderón, Alf Meling and Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez

538

Precautionary Principle Mafalda Marques Carapuço

495

Seabirds Joanna Burger

542

Predator–Prey Relationships Judith S. Weis

496

Seagrass Production Models Jessie C. Jarvis

545

Public Trust Rights Julien Victor Monnot and J. Javier Diez

499

Sea-Level Change and Coastal Wetlands Paula Pratolongo

549

Redox Conditions Evgeniy Yakushev

501

Secchi Disk Melanie D. Harrison

549

Residence Time Lisa V. Lucas

502

Secondary Dune Patrick A. Hesp and Graziela Miot da Silva

550

Residual Circulation Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

503

Sediment Budgets Wenyan Zhang

553

Revetments Harry C. Friebel

504

Sediment Compaction Nils-Axel Mörner

504

Sediment Erosion Ayman A. Elgamal

554

Rhodolith/Maerl Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez, Viviana Pen˜ a-Freire, Daniela Basso, Nestor M. Robinson and Gustavo Hinojosa-Arango

Sediment Grain Size Gautam Kumar Das

555

Ria J. Javier Diez and Efren M. Veiga

505

Sediment Resuspension Tian-Jian Hsu

558

River-Dominated Estuary David M. Kennedy

507

Sediment Sorting Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

560

Rocky Intertidal Shores M. G. Chapman and A. J. Underwood

507

Sediment Toxicity Steven Colbert

561

Rocky Shore David M. Kennedy

511

Sediment Transport Pedro J. M. Costa

562

CONTENTS

xi

Sedimentary Structures Gautam Kumar Das

568

Stratigraphy of Estuaries Vic Semeniuk

623

Seiche Murat Aksel

572

Structurally Dominated Estuary David M. Kennedy

648

Shannon-Weaver Diversity Index Selene Ortiz-Burgos

572

Subaqueous Soils Mark H. Stolt

649

Shell Beds Luca Ragaini

573

Sublittoral Zone Michael J. Kennish

649

Shellfish Production Islay D. Marsden

573

Submerged Coasts Lluı´s Gómez-Pujol

650

Shore Protection C. Scott Hardaway, Jr.

578

Submergent Shoreline Nils-Axel Mörner

651

Shorebirds Joanna Burger

585

Sustainable Use Mafalda Marques Carapuço

651

Shoreline Nils-Axel Mörner

589

Symbiosis Antje Rusch

660

Shoreline Changes A. C. Narayana

590

Tectonic Eustasy Nils-Axel Mörner

661

Shoreline Undulations Miguel Ortega-Sa´nchez, Alejandro López-Ruiz, Asunción Baquerizo Azofra and Miguel A. Losada Rodrı´guez

602

Thermal Biology Nicholas B. Colvard and Brian Helmuth

661

Tidal Asymmetry Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

664

Side-Scan Sonar Imaging of Sediment Bedload Juan A. Morales and Irene Delgado

602

Tidal Datum Ivan D. Haigh

664

Soft Computing M. C. Deo

605

Tidal Flat Vic Semeniuk

665

Soft Sediment Communities Francisco Barros

606

Tidal Flat Salinity Gradient Vic Semeniuk and Christine Semeniuk

678

Soldier Crabs (Mictyridae) Joy Unno and Vic Semeniuk

606

Tidal Freshwater Habitat Judith Z. Drexler

683

Species Richness Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez, Gabriela Andrade-Sorcia and Nestor M. Robinson

612

Tidal Hydrodynamics Bruce Parker

686

Tidal and Nontidal Oscillations Bruce Parker

701

Species Zonation Vic Semeniuk and Ian Cresswell

613 Tidal Ranges Ivan D. Haigh

703

Spit Wenyan Zhang

622

Storm Surges Harry C. Friebel

622

Tidal Reflection 704 Manuel Dı´ez-Minguito, Asunción Baquerizo Azofra, Miguel Ortega-Sa´nchez and Miguel A. Losada Rodrı´guez

xii

CONTENTS

Tides Ivan D. Haigh

706

Water Clarity Melanie D. Harrison

727

Timescale Lisa V. Lucas

712

Water Quality Melanie D. Harrison

729

Tombolo Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

713

Water Resources and Climate Change Vijay P. Singh and Qiang Zhang

731

Toxic Blooms Kevin G. Sellner

714

Watershed Canan Cengiz

734

Trace Metals in Estuaries Peddrick Weis

717

Wave-Driven Sediment Resuspension Malcolm O. Green

734

Trophic Dynamics Xchel Moreno-Sa´nchez, Andre´s Abitia-Ca´rdenas, Juan M. Rodrı´guez-Baron, Mónica Lara Uc and Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez

718 Well-Mixed Estuary Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

737

Turbidity Yuri Gorokhovich

720

Wetlands Jorge Manuel López-Calderón and Rafael Riosmena-Rodrı´guez

738

Tychoplankton Lawrence Cahoon

721

Wetlands Reclamation Aysun Koroglu

741

Uplifted Coasts Nils-Axel Mörner

723

Wrack Keryn Gedan

742

Vulnerability Index Aysun Koroglu

725

Zooplankton Dennis M. Allen

745

Washover Fans Davin J. Wallace

727 Author Index

747

Washovers Davin J. Wallace

727

Subject Index

749

Contributors

Andrés Abitia-Cárdenas Instituto Politécnico Nacional CICIMAR-IPN Av. IPN s/n, Playa Palo de Santa Rita La Paz, BCS 23096 Mexico [email protected]

Kenneth W. Able Marine Field Station, Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences Rutgers University 800 Great Bay Boulevard Tuckerton, NJ 08087 USA [email protected]

Paul Adam School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia [email protected]

Jason E. Adolf Department of Marine Science University of Hawaii at Hilo 200 W. Kawili St. Hilo, HI 96720 USA [email protected]

Laura Airoldi Dipartimento di Scienze Biologiche, Geologiche e Ambientali University of Bologna Via S. Alberto, 163 Ravenna Italy [email protected]

Murat Aksel Civil Engineering Department Istanbul Kultur University Atakoy Campus 34156 Bakirkoy, Istanbul Turkey [email protected]

Dennis M. Allen Baruch Marine Field Laboratory University of South Carolina PO Box 1630 Georgetown, SC 29442 USA [email protected]

Daniel M. Alongi Australian Institute of Marine Science PMB 3 Townsville MC, QLD 4810 Australia [email protected]

xiv

CONTRIBUTORS

Michael Anderson Coastal Ecosystem Research Marine Sciences Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 USA [email protected]

Gabriela Andrade-Sorcia Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico

Fernando Andutta School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences University of New South Wales ACT 2600 Canberra Australia [email protected]

Abdullah BaMasoud Department of Geography and Environmental Studies Wilfrid Laurier University 75 University Avenue West Waterloo, Ontario Canada N2L 3C5 [email protected]

Asunción Baquerizo Azofra Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research University of Granada Avd. del Mediterraneo s/n (CEAMA) 18006 Granada Spain [email protected]

Mario Barletta Laboratório de Ecologia e Gerenciamento de Ecossistemas Costeiros e Estuarinos, Departamento de Oceanografia Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Cidade Universitária Recife, PE CEP 50740-550 Brazil [email protected]

Francisco Barros Laboratório de Ecologia Bentônica Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia Rua Barão de Geremoabo s/n., Campus Ondina Salvador, Bahia 40170-290 Brazil [email protected]

Daniela Basso Università degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca Milano Italy [email protected]

Rolando Bastida-Zavala Laboratorio de Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Angel Puerto Angel, Oaxaca Mexico [email protected]

Michael W. Beck The Nature Conservancy, Center for Ocean Health University of California 100 Shaffer Road Santa Cruz, CA 95060 USA [email protected]

Jose Manuel Bedmar IGCC-IIMYC CONICET Mar del Plata Argentina [email protected]

Amy B. Borde Marine Sciences Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 USA [email protected]

Stephen A. Bortone Osprey Aquatic Sciences, Inc. 13550 Lake Magdalene Drive Tampa, FL 33613 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Margaret Brocx Department of Environmental Science Murdoch University Murdoch, WA 6150 Australia [email protected] Mark J. Brush Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William and Mary P.O. Box 1346 Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA [email protected] Kate Buenau Coastal Ecosystem Research Marine Sciences Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 USA [email protected] Joanna Burger Department of Cell Biology and Neurosciences, Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute Rutgers University 604 Allison Road Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA [email protected] Ilya V. Buynevich Department of Earth and Environmental Science College of Science and Technology Temple University 1901 N. 13th Street Philadelphia, PA 19122 USA [email protected] Lawrence Cahoon Department of Biology & Marine Biology University of North Carolina Wilmington 601 South College Road Wilmington, NC 28403-5915 USA [email protected]

Geórgenes H. Cavalcante Institute of Atmospheric Science Federal University of Alagoas Av. Lourival Melo Mota, s/n Cidade Universitária Tabuleiro dos Martins 57072–970 Maceió, Alagoas Brazil [email protected]

Canan Cengiz Faculty of Forestry Department of Landscape Architecture Bartın University 74100 Bartın Turkey [email protected]

M. G. Chapman Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, School of Biological Sciences University of Sydney Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia [email protected]

Luzhen Chen College of the Environment and Ecology Xiamen University Xiamen 361005 China [email protected]

Mena Ciarmiello DICDEA – Department of Civil Engineering, Design, Building and Environment Second University of Naples Via Roma, 29 81031 Aversa Italy [email protected]

Loren D. Coen Department of Biological Sciences and Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute Florida Atlantic University 5600 U.S. 1N., FAU-HBOI, c/o 16007 Waterleaf Lane, Ft. Myers. Fort Pierce, FL 33908 USA [email protected]

xv

xvi

Steven Colbert Department of Marine Science University of Hawai’i at Hilo 200 W. Kawili Street Hilo, HI 96720 USA [email protected] Nicholas B. Colvard Marine Science Center Northeastern University 430 Nahant Rd Nahant, MA 01908 USA [email protected] Xavier Comas Department of Geosciences Florida Atlantic University Boca Raton, FL 33431 USA [email protected] Pedro J. M. Costa Centro de Geologia, Faculdade de Ciencias Universidade de Lisboa Edificio C6 Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisbon Portugal [email protected] Ian Cresswell Land & Water National Research Flagship CSIRO GPO Box 1538 Hobart, TAS 7001 Australia [email protected] Thomas M. Cronin US Geological Survey 12201 Sunrise Valley Drive Reston, VA 20191 USA [email protected] Pat Dale Environmental Futures Research Institute Griffith School of Environment, Griffith University Brisbane, QLD 4011 Australia [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Gautam Kumar Das Department of Chemical Engineering Jadavpur University 700 032 Kolkata, West Bengal India [email protected] Christopher F. Deacutis Division of Fish & Wildlife 3 Fort Wetherill Road Jamestown, RI 02835 USA [email protected] Monique T. Delafontaine Department of Marine Research Senckenberg Institute Suedstrand 40 26382 Wilhelmshaven Germany [email protected] Irene Delgado Department of Geology, Excellence Campus of Marine Sciences (CEIMAR) University of Huelva Av. 3 de Marzo, s/n 21007 Huelva Spain [email protected] Timothy M. Dellapenna Department of Marine Sciences Texas A&M University at Galveston 341 Ocean and Coastal Studies Building Galveston, TX 77553 USA [email protected] M. C. Deo Department of Civil Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai 400 076 Mumbai India [email protected] Edward H. Dettmann U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Research and Development/NHEERL Atlantic Ecology Division 27 Tarzwell Drive Narragansett, RI 02882 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Michele Di Natale DICDEA – Department of Civil Engineering, Design, Building and Environment Second University of Naples Via Roma, 29 81031 Aversa Italy [email protected]

Robert J. Diaz College of William and Mary Virginia Institute of Marine Science 1375 Greate Road Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA [email protected]

J. Javier Diez Research Group on Marine, Coastal and Port Environment and Other Sensitive Areas, Department of Land and Urban Planning and Environment Universidad Politécnica de Madrid C/ Profesor Aranguren, s/n 28040 Madrid Spain [email protected]

Manuel Díez-Minguito Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research University of Granada Avd. del Mediterraneo S/N (CEAMA) 18006 Granada Spain [email protected]

Helena do Amaral Kehrig Laboratório de Ciências Ambientais, CBB Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Campos dos Goytacazes Rio de Janeiro 28013-602 Brazil [email protected]

Joseph F. Donoghue School of Geology Oklahoma State University 103 NRC Stillwater, OK 74074 USA [email protected]

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Judith Z. Drexler U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center 6000 J Street, Placer Hall Sacramento, CA 95819-6129 USA [email protected]

Jamie A. Duberstein Baruch Institute of Coastal Ecology and Forest Science Clemson University 177 Hobcaw Road Georgetown, SC 29440 USA [email protected]

Monia El Bour Marine Microbiology Unit, Department of Marine Biotechnology and Biodiversity National Institute of Sea Sciences and Technologies (INSTM) Rue du 2 mars 1934-2025 Tunis Tunisia [email protected]

Ayman A. Elgamal Marine Geology Department Coastal Research Institute National Water Research Center 15 street, Elpharanaa, El-Shallalat 21514 Alexandria Egypt [email protected]

Luciana S. Esteves Faculty of Science and Technology, Talbot Campus Bournemouth University Fern Barrow Poole, Dorset BH12 5BB UK [email protected]

Monica Ferreira da Costa Oceanography Department Federal University of Pernambuco Av. Arquitetura s/n Cidade Universitária 50740-550 Recife, Pernambuco Brazil [email protected]

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Burghard W. Flemming Department of Marine Research Senckenberg Institute Suedstrand 40 26382 Wilhelmshaven Germany [email protected] Manuel Flores Montes Department of Oceanography Federal University of Pernambuco Av. da Arquitetura s/n Recife, Pernambuco CEP 50740-550 Brazil [email protected] Roberto F. C. Fontes Littoral Campus/UNESP – Univ Estadual Paulista 11330-900 Pça. Infante Dom Henrique s/n São Vicente, SP Brazil [email protected] Harry C. Friebel U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Philadelphia District CENAP-EC-EH 100 Penn Square East Philadelphia, PA 19107-3390 USA [email protected] Keryn Gedan Department of Biology University of Maryland 4216 Biology-Psychology Building College Park, MD 20742 USA [email protected] Patricia M. Glibert Horn Point Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science 2020 Horns Point Road 775 Cambridge, MD 21613 USA [email protected] Jason S. Goldstein Department of Biological Sciences University of New Hampshire 46 College Road Durham, NH 03824 USA [email protected]du

CONTRIBUTORS

Christopher Gomez Department of Geography University of Canterbury Christchurch 8020 New Zealand [email protected] Lluís Gómez-Pujol Universitat de les Illes Baleares 07122 Palma (Balearic Islands) Spain [email protected] Yuri Gorokhovich Department of Earth, Environmental, and Geospatial Sciences Lehman College, City University of New York (CUNY) Gillet Hall 315, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West Bronx, NY 10468 USA [email protected] Malcolm O. Green Coastal and Estuarine Physical Processes NIWA (National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research) 11-115 Gate 10, Silverdale Road Hamilton 3216 New Zealand [email protected] Raymond E. Grizzle Department of Biological Sciences and Jackson Estuarine Laboratory University of New Hampshire 85 Adams Point Road Durham, NH 03824 USA [email protected] James R. Gunn Coastal Design & Construction Gloucester, VA 23061 USA [email protected] Ivan D. Haigh Ocean and Earth Science National Oceanography Centre University of Southampton European Way, Southampton S014 3ZH UK [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

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C. Scott Hardaway, Jr. Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William & Mary 1375 Greate Road Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA [email protected]

Patrick A. Hesp School of the Environment Flinders University Sturt Rd Bedford Park, SA 5042 Australia [email protected]

Lora A. Harris Chesapeake Biological Laboratory University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science P.O. Box 38 Solomons, MD 20688 USA [email protected]

Gustavo Hinojosa-Arango Centro para la Biodiversidad Marina y la Conservacion A.C. Calle del Pirata, #420 col. Benito Juarez CP 23050 La Paz, BCS Mexico [email protected]

Melanie D. Harrison Water Quality Specialist National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 777 Sonoma Avenue Santa Rosa, CA 95404 USA [email protected]

Tian-Jian Hsu Civil & Environmental Engineering University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 USA [email protected]

Deirdre E. Hart Department of Geography University of Canterbury Christchurch 8020 New Zealand [email protected] Vanessa Hatje Laboratório de Oceanografia Química – CIENAm Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal da Bahia – UFBA Salvador 40170-290 BA Brazil [email protected] Brian Helmuth Marine Science Center Northeastern University 430 Nahant Road Nahant, MA 01908 USA [email protected] Gustavo Hernández Carmona Instituto Politécnico Nacional- Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas Av IPN s/n Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita La Paz, Baja California Sur 23096 Mexico [email protected]

Federico Ignacio Isla IGCC-IIMYC UNMDP-CONICET Mar del Plata Argentina [email protected] Jessie C. Jarvis Centre for Tropical Water and Aquatic Ecosystem Research (TropWATER) James Cook University P.O. Box 6811 Cairns, QLD 4870 Australia [email protected] Brita J. Jessen Graduate School of Oceanography University of Rhode Island 215 S. Ferry Rd Narragansett, RI 02882 USA [email protected] Paul R. Jivoff Department of Biology Rider University 2083 Lawrenceville Rd Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 USA [email protected]

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Patricia N. Kambesis Department of Geosciences Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA [email protected] David M. Kennedy Department of Resource Management & Geography The University of Melbourne Parkville, VIC 3010 Australia [email protected] Michael J. Kennish Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers University 71 Dudley Road New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA [email protected] Aysun Koroglu Coastal Sciences and Civil Engineering Department Istanbul Technical University Maslak 34469 Istanbul Turkey [email protected] John N. Kraeuter Marine Science Education and Research Center, Department of Marine Science University of New England 11 Hills Beach Road Biddeford, ME 04005 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Mónica Lara Uc Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico [email protected] Colin Levings Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Science Branch, Pacific Centre for Aquaculture and Environmental Research 4160 Marine Drive West Vancouver, British Columbia Canada V7V 1N6 [email protected] Francisco José Lobo Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra CSIC-Universidad de Granada Avenida de las Palmeras, No. 4 18100 Armilla/Granada Spain [email protected] Jorge Manuel López-Calderón Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico [email protected] Alejandro López-Ruiz Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research University of Granada Avd. del Mediterraneo S/N (CEAMA) 18006 Granada Spain [email protected]

Ken W. Krauss U.S. Geological Survey National Wetlands Research Center 700 Cajundome Blvd. Lafayette, LA 70506 USA [email protected]

Miguel A. Losada Rodríguez Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research University of Granada Avd. del Mediterraneo s/n (CEAMA) 18006 Granada Spain [email protected]

Michael J. Lace Coastal Cave Survey 313 1/2 West Main Street West Branch, IA 52358 USA [email protected]

Lisa V. Lucas United States Geological Survey 345 Middlefield Road, MS #496 Menlo Park, CA 94025 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Vanesa Magar Oceanology Division/Department of Physical Oceanography CICESE Ensenada Mexico [email protected] Mafalda Marques Carapuço Institute Dom Luiz University of Lisbon Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisbon Portugal [email protected] Dorothy Joyce D. Marquez Nannoworks Laboratory National Institute of Geological Sciences, University of the Philippines Diliman CP Garcia corner Velasquez St Quezon City, PH 1101 Philippines [email protected] Islay D. Marsden School of Biological Sciences University of Canterbury Private Bag 4800 Christchurch 8140 New Zealand [email protected] Harold G. Marshall Department of Biological Sciences Old Dominion University Norfolk, VA 34208 USA [email protected] Kalle Matso NERRS Science Collaborative, Department of Natural Resources and the Environment University of New Hampshire 35 Colovos Road Durham, NH 03824 USA [email protected] Alf Meling Universidad Autónoma de Sonora Blvd. Luis Donaldo Colosio Edificio 7G Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 Mexico [email protected]

Carmen Méndez-Trejo Laboratorio de Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Angel Puerto Angel, Oaxaca Mexico Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo Praça do Oceanográfico 191 05508-120 Sao Paulo Brazil [email protected] Donna A. Milligan Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William & Mary 1375 Greate Road Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA [email protected] Haruo Mimura Graduate School of Maritime Sciences Kobe University 5-1-1, Fukae, Higashinada Kobe 658-0022 Japan [email protected] Graziela Miot da Silva School of the Environment Flinders University Sturt Rd Bedford Park, SA 5042 Australia [email protected] Luiz B. Miranda Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo Praça do Oceanográfico, 191 05508-120 São Paulo, SP Brazil [email protected] Julien Victor Monnot Civil Engineering: Land & Urban Management and Environment, Escuela de Caminos, Canales y Puertos Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Profesor Aranguren, S/N 28040 Madrid Spain [email protected]

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CONTRIBUTORS

Juan A. Morales Department of Geology Excellence Campus of Marine Sciences (CEIMAR) University of Huelva Av. 3 de Marzo, s/n 21007 Huelva Spain jmora[email protected]

Betzabé Moreno-Dávila Laboratorio de Sistemática de Invertebrados Marinos Universidad del Mar Campus Puerto Angel Puerto Angel, Oaxaca 70902 Mexico

A. C. Narayana Centre for Earth & Space Sciences University of Hyderabad Prof. C.R Rao Road Hyderabad 500 046 Andhra Pradesh India [email protected] Isabel Maria Neto da Silva Moreira Departamento de Química Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro Rua Marques de São Vicente, 225 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro Brazil [email protected]

Xchel Moreno-Sánchez Instituto Politécnico Nacional CICIMAR-IPN Av. IPN s/n, Playa Palo de Santa Rita La Paz, BCS 23096 Mexico [email protected]

Autumn J. Oczkowski Atlantic Ecology Division, Office of Research and Development U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 27 Tarzwell Drive Narragansett, RI 02882 USA [email protected]

Nils-Axel Mörner Paleogeophysics and Geodynamics Rösundavägen 17 13336 Saltsjöbaden Sweden [email protected]

Michael A. O’Neal Department of Geological Sciences University of Delaware Newark, DE 19716 USA [email protected]

Ken Munyikwa Centre for Science Athabasca University 1 University Drive Athabasca, Alberta T9S 3A3 Canada [email protected]

Miguel Ortega-Sánchez Andalusian Institute for Earth System Research University of Granada Avd. del Mediterraneo s/n (CEAMA) 18006 Granada Spain [email protected]

Joan R. Mylroie Department of Geosciences Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA [email protected]

Selene Ortiz-Burgos Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) Batalla 5 de mayo s/n esquina Fuerte de Loreto, Colonia Ejército de Oriente CP 09320 Delegación Iztapalapa, DF México [email protected]

John E. Mylroie Department of Geosciences Mississippi State University Mississippi State, MS 39762 USA [email protected]

Bruce Parker Center for Maritime Systems/Davidson Laboratory Stevens Institute of Technology Castle Point on Hudson Hoboken, NJ 07030 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Marguerite C. Pelletier U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division 27 Tarzwell Drive Narragansett, RI 02882 USA [email protected]

Viviana Peña-Freire Laboratorio de Algas Marinas, Departamento de Biología Animal Biología Vegetal y Ecología Universidade da Coruña Campus de DA Zapateira, s/n 15071 A Coruña Spain [email protected]

Carlos Pereira da Silva Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Humanas Universidade Nova de Lisboa Av. de Berna, 26C 1069-061 Lisboa Portugal [email protected]

Edward J. Phlips Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Program (SFRC) University of Florida 7922 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32653 USA [email protected]

Luca Ragaini Department of Earth Sciences University of Pisa Via S. Maria, 53 56126 Pisa Italy [email protected] Catherine M. Reid Geological Sciences University of Canterbury Christchurch 8140 New Zealand [email protected] Hai Ren South China Botanical Garden Chinese Academy of Sciences Xingke Road 723#, Tianhe District 510650 Guangzhou China [email protected] Jorge R. Rey Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory University of Florida – IFAS 200 9th St. S.E. Vero Beach, FL 32962 USA [email protected] Katherine C. Ridolfi LimnoTech 1015 18th St. NW, Suite 900 Washington, DC 20036 USA [email protected]

Alistair G. B. Poore Evolution & Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences University of New South Wales Sydney, NSW 2052 Australia [email protected]

Rafael Riosmena-Rodríguez Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico r[email protected]

Paula Pratolongo Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía CONICET-Universidad Nacional del Sur Cno. La Carrindanga km 7.5 Bahía Blanca Argentina [email protected]

Marci M. Robinson US Geological Survey Eastern Geology and Paleoclimate Science Center 926A National Center Reston, VA 20192 USA [email protected]

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CONTRIBUTORS

Nestor M. Robinson Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico

Charles A. Simenstad School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences University of Washington Postbox 355020 Seattle, WA 98195-5020 USA [email protected]

Juan M. Rodríguez-Baron Programa de Investigación en Botãnica Marina Departamento Académico de Biología Marina Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur Apdo. Postal 19-B La Paz, Baja California Sur 23080 Mexico

Vijay P. Singh Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Texas A&M University Scoates Hall, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 USA [email protected]

Antje Rusch Department of Microbiology and Center for Ecology Southern Illinois University Carbondale 1125 Lincoln Drive Carbondale, IL 62901 USA [email protected]

Sebastián Solari Instituto de Mecánica de los Fluidos e Ingeniería Ambiental Universidad de la República Julio Herrera y Reissig 565 11300 Montevideo Uruguay [email protected]

Kevin G. Sellner Chesapeake Research Consortium 645 Contees Wharf Road P.O. Box 28 Edgewater, MD 21037 USA [email protected]

Michael J. Starek Harte Research Institute for Gulf of Mexico Studies Texas A&M University 6300 Ocean Dr. Corpus Christi, TX 78418 USA [email protected]

Christine Semeniuk V & C Semeniuk Research Group 21 Glenmere Road Warwick, WA 6024 Australia

Mark H. Stolt Department of Natural Resources University of Rhode Island Kingston, RI 02881 USA [email protected]

Vic Semeniuk V & C Semeniuk Research Group 21 Glenmere Road Warwick, WA 6024 Australia [email protected]

Ronald M. Thom Marine Sciences Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 1529 West Sequim Bay Road Sequim, WA 98382 USA [email protected]

Marcus Sheaves Estuary and Tidal Wetland Ecosystems Research Group School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University Townsville, QLD 4811 Australia [email protected]

Carol Thornber Department of Biological Sciences University of Rhode Island 120 Flagg Road Kingston, RI 02881 USA [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Karen Thorne U.S. Geological Survey Western Ecological Research Center Modoc Hall, Suite 2007, 3020 State University Dr. East Vallejo, CA 95819 USA [email protected]

Davin J. Wallace Department of Marine Science University of Southern Mississippi 1020 Balch Blvd. Stennis Space Center, MS 39529-5005 USA [email protected]

A. J. Underwood Centre for Research on Ecological Impacts of Coastal Cities, School of Biological Sciences University of Sydney Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia [email protected]

Judith S. Weis Department of Biological Sciences Rutgers University Newark, NJ 07102 USA [email protected]

Joy Unno V & C Semeniuk Research Group 21 Glenmere Road Warwick, WA 6024 Australia [email protected]

David Valença Dantas Laboratório de Ecologia e Gerenciamento de Ecossistemas Costeiros e Estuarinos, Departamento de Oceanografia Universidade Federal de Pernambuco Cidade Universitária Recife, PE CEP 50740-550 Brazil [email protected]

Lyle Varnell Office of Research and Advisory Services Virginia Institute of Marine Science College of William & Mary 1375 Greate Road Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA [email protected]

Efren M. Veiga Civil Engineering: Land & Urban Management and Environment Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Escuela de Caminos, Canales y Puertos C/ Profesor Aranguren, s/n 28040 Madrid Spain [email protected]

Peddrick Weis Department of Radiology Rutgers – New Jersey Medical School Newark, NJ 07101-1709 USA [email protected] Harry Williams Department of Geography University of North Texas 1155 Union Circle # 305279 Denton, TX 76203-5017 USA [email protected] Colin D. Woodroffe School of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Wollongong Wollongong, NSW 2522 Australia [email protected] Paul A. Work School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Savannah 210 Technology Circle Atlanta, GA 30332-0355 USA [email protected] Evgeniy Yakushev Section of Oceanography and Remote Sensing Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA) Gaustadalleen 21 Oslo 0349 Norway [email protected]

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Qiang Zhang Department of Water Resources and Environment Sun Yat-sen University No. 135 Xingangxi Road Guangzhou 510275 China [email protected]

CONTRIBUTORS

Wenyan Zhang MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences University of Bremen Leobener Str. 1 D-28359 Bremen, Bremen Germany [email protected]

Preface

Estuaries are coastal environments with exceptional ecological, recreational, and commercial value. Their diverse habitats provide vital nursery, feeding, and refuge areas for numerous estuarine, marine, and terrestrial organisms. The rich food supply in estuaries supports a multitude of aquatic plant and animal communities. Many marine species of recreational and commercial importance utilize estuaries during at least part of their life history, and therefore these coastal ecosystems play a significant role in the production of marine fisheries. Adjoining wetland habitats are particularly important in the life cycles of fish, shellfish, migratory birds, and other wildlife. Aside from fisheries, businesses and industries depend on estuaries for successful operation. Most notable in this regard are businesses and industries involving aquaculture, electric power generation, oil and gas recovery, marine biotechnology, tourism, transportation, and shipping. Together, these operations inject hundreds of billions of dollars into the world economy each year. They also employ millions of people worldwide. Within the land-river-coastal-shelf continuum, estuaries serve a number of critical functions involving the filtering of contaminants, transformation of nutrients, and the biogeochemical cycling of substances. Consequently, they strongly influence the environmental quality of coastal waters. Estuaries also protect coastal watersheds, buffering infrastructure from the damaging effects of storms, floods, waves, and erosion. Because billions of people inhabit coastal areas, these buffering effects are extremely important for the sustainability of coastal communities. Estuaries and adjoining coastal areas are more vulnerable than ever to climate change effects, notably major storms and storm surges, sea-level rise, inundation and flooding, and other hazardous conditions.

Estuaries rank among the most heavily impacted aquatic ecosystems on earth, being affected by a wide range of anthropogenic activities both in adjoining coastal watersheds and on the water bodies themselves. Most of these activities can be linked to rapid population growth and overdevelopment of the coastal zone. While anthropogenic stressors have received the greatest attention of estuarine and marine scientists, some natural stochastic events (e.g., earthquakes, major storms, severe winds, and upwelling) also cause environmental perturbations that can have profound consequences. However, some natural events often occur less frequently than many anthropogenic stressors that affect estuarine environments persistently over more protracted time periods. In addition, multiple anthropogenic disturbances create both acute and insidious problems for many estuarine biotic communities and habitats. Major anthropogenic impacts on estuaries that can pose a threat to their ecological integrity and long-term viability include habitat loss and alteration, eutrophication, sewage, overfishing, chemical contaminants, human-altered hydrological regimes, introduced/ invasive species, sea-level rise, subsidence, and floatables/debris. These impacts, together with the other subject areas discussed above, are addressed in the Encyclopedia of Estuaries. The Encyclopedia of Estuaries is a volume in Springer’s Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series. It provides thorough and authoritative coverage of the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of estuaries. As such, it is a major reference work for estuarine and marine scientists, educators, and students. Highly respected authors from around the world have contributed to the encyclopedia on such diverse subjects as biotic

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communities, essential habitats, food webs, fisheries, hydrology, pollution, conservation, and many more. With a total of more than 260 topic entries, the Encyclopedia of Estuaries covers a broad range of estuarine science and also includes additional information on contiguous environments. It is designed to fulfill the multidisciplinary interests of contemporary estuarine

scientists. Although the coverage is not exhaustive on all subject areas of estuaries, the encyclopedia contains detailed information on the topic entries comprising the volume. January 2015

Michael J. Kennish

Acknowledgments

My special thanks go to the authors of the 269 topic entries comprising the Encyclopedia of Estuaries. These contributions constitute a tremendous amount of work by many outstanding scientists from around the world. I also acknowledge the Editorial Board assembled for this work consisting of world-class scientists, notably Drs. Daniel Alongi, Donald Boesch, Walter Boynton, Carlos Duarte, Paul Harrison, Robert Howarth, Lisa Levin, and the late Scott Nixon. I am grateful to the Springer personnel who were critical to the production of this volume, including Sylvia Blago, Johanna Klute, and Petra van Steenbergen. They were involved with the work from its inception.

Dr. Charles Finkl, Series Editor for the Encyclopedia of Earth Science Series, was instrumental in ensuring the successful completion of the encyclopedia. He continually provided the essential guidance to deal with the many pitfalls encountered during the road to publication. I cannot overemphasize Charlie’s important role in the process. Finally, I thank my colleagues in the Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences at Rutgers University who provided a great source of information during the development of the topic entries for the Encyclopedia of Estuaries.