Energy Harvesting from Electromagnetic Radiation

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on the possibility of charging the super capacitor battery of ... number of turns (N), Average radius of the coil in inches (R) and width ... It is interesting to note that the Voltage Vout increases ... 2.1V/5.1V. Inductance L1. 1.1nH. Capacitor C5. 220μF/35V. Capacitor C7 ... complete circuit diagram of project can be divided in two.

2017 Ninth International Conference on Advanced Computational Intelligence (ICACI) February 4-6, 2017, Doha, Qatar

Energy Harvesting from Electromagnetic Radiation Emissions by Compact Flouresent Lamp Mohamed zied CHAARI, Mongi LAHIANI and Hamadi GHARIANI National engineering school of Sfax, Laboratory of Electronics and Information Technology Sfax University, Sfax 3038, Tunisia Emails: [email protected]; [email protected]; [email protected] Abstract—The purpose of this paper is to present a new solution to produce DC energy from electromagnetic radiation generated by compact fluorescent lamps and stored in the super capacitor bank. The proposed device is based on a magnetic coupling between flat wound induction coil and pollution generator represented in the compact florescent lamp. Most of the energy will be stored in the super capacitor and then in battery through DC/DC Up convertor. It is shown that more than 0.91W can be generated from a 20W compact fluorescent lamp. So the proposed electronic device can absorb pollution at home, protect our children from radiation, and recycle EM radiation for charging battery. Besides, we can use it for many other applications. Keywords—RF energy harvesting; RF to DC convertor; electromagnetic pollution; compact fluorescent lamp; super capacitor; flat wound planar coil; magnetic coupling

I.

Fig. 1. Shows that the field strength very high near the CFL lamp.

INTRODUCTION

Compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) produce electromagnetic radiation. These unsafe radiate products directly from the lamp and distribution in all our rooms and offices. The nearer your seat to the CF lamp the greater your electromagnetic exposure. The electromagnetic radiation production from CFL is not the same amount of energy radiation, when the lamp power increases the radiation increases too.

Fig. 2. Block diagram of CFL energy harvesting device.

up convertor. Outcome observed by magnetic coupling the proposed harvester device with CF lamp all of the improvement ideas discussed in the present paper. II.

The research paper has focused on how much power energy can harvest from the pollution radiation energy. Electromagnetic radiation energy harvesting represents a promising solution to charging the super capacitor bank from free energy around us and we start making recycle radiation system [1]-[3]. The device consists of a flat wound planar induction coil used to collect electromagnetic radiation, a Radio Frequency (RF)-to-Direct Current (DC) rectifier, convertor DC/DC adjustable step-up power and high storage super-capacitor bank. In this paper, we focus on the possibility of charging the super capacitor battery of emergency exit lights from the compact florescent lamp in our office. In particular, we propose to exploit a near field magnetic coupling to harvest radiation emissions of Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs). Actually, experimental studies have demonstrated that CF lamp emit a relatively strong electromagnetic field in the frequency range from 26 kHz to 28 kHz [4], [5].

Planar coils are mostly used in high frequency applications and designed as tracks on a hard support [6]-[8]. The proposed coil shown in Fig. 3. was optimized by evolving the form of the flat spiral coils. In this section, the design of the flat wound coil is described and coil specifications for the effective permeability are introduced. The variables that parameterize the form of the coil are the wire thickness (t), inside diameter (d), outside diameter (d), number of turns (N), Average radius of the coil in inches (R) and width of the coil in inches(W). ‫=ܮ‬

(ேோ)మ ଼ோାଵଵௐ

(1)

Where: L = Inductance of coil in microhenrys (μH); It is interesting to note that the Voltage Vout increases with the area diameter and the number of turns (n). This can be used to select an adequate voltage [9], [10]. Since the

More precisely, the device presented here consists of a flat spiral coil, a rectifier, super capacitor bank and DC/DC

978-1-5090-4726-0/17/$31.00©2017 IEEE

CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURE OF FLAT WOUND PLANAR COIL

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W

R Fig. 5. Magnetic field measurements in the axis direction of the flat coil.

Fig. 3. Flat wound planar induction coil.

Fig. 6. Magnetic field measurements in the radial direction of the flat coil.

Fig. 4. 3D design of the inductive coupling method.

device is basically an inductor, in practice, the resistance to the electromagnetic coil can be neglected compared to the reactance. The inside diameter of the flat coil must be the same as the CFL diameter with average tolerance. Thus, we can put CF lamp inside the flat coil, as shown in Fig. 4. III.

ANALYSIS OF A RESONANT COUPLED SYSTEM

Fig. 7. Pictures of the flat coil coupled with a CF lamp.

To observe the emission of electromagnetic radiation from the lamp, the magnetic field produced by the lamp was measured as a function of position from the CF lamp. There are two ways to measure the H field in the axis direction of the flat coil and the radial direction of the coil, which can be seen in Figs. 5 and 6.

IV.

HIGH EFFICIENCY RF TO DC CONVERTER

The schematic of the proposed harvester circuit is given in Fig. 8. It consists of a coil, RF-to-DC bridge convertor, super capacitor bank and DC/DC step-up convector connected to battery of the emergency exit lamp.

It is encouraging to note that the energy recovered from the CF lamp is higher when the electromagnetic flat coil is in the direction of the axis of the lamp (near filed coupling) as shown in Fig. 5. During the test phase, we will use the magnetic field in the direction of the axis of the coil in our measure of construction and testing, as shown in Fig. 7.

The following Table I shows the components which are used to make the compact florescent lamp energy harvesting circuit. The objective of the device construction is to reduce electromagnetic pollution at home and re-generate energy form unsafe radiation.

After the construction phase of the flat wound planar induction coil coupled in the axis direction of the CF lamp, we will study the electronic circuit board which can convert the EM radiation energy to DC current. The high frequency signal collected from the coil will be rectified by the high frequency schottky diode stage and flows through super capacitor bank to battery.

Fig. 8. The schematic of a harvest and charging circuit.

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Table I. HARVESTING CIRCUIT COMPONENTS Components Name

Components Value or code

Coil Lx Diode D1,D2,D3,D4 Capacitor C1,C2,C3,C4 Sup Cap C6 DC/DC convertor Inductance L1 Capacitor C5 Capacitor C7

1μH HSMS 2820 56pF 2.7V/400F 2.1V/5.1V 1.1nH 220μF/35V 1nF

 The corresponding equivalent circuit is demonstrated in Fig. 8. The flat induction coil is coupled with the compact florescent lamp (inductive coupling method). All reported measurements prove that electromagnetic radiation emissions from CF lamp have a peak at about 26.74 kHz, more precisely, the spectrum of the signal received in the case of coupling between the flat coil and the fluorescent lamp (20W) was used as adjustable impedance matching circuit at 26.74 kHz. The maximum amount of energy is extracted from the coil when the capacitor is a conjugate match to the source. As illustrated in Fig. 9, compensating network maximizes the induced current at the secondary stage of harvesting circuit [11]-[13].

 Fig. 10. Experimental setup showing the magnetic coupling between CF lamp and the coil.

The high DC voltage generated by the multiplier stage will start charging the super capacitor battery bank. The battery charging time depends on the range of storage capacity. The Table II below shows the necessary time to charge super capacitor from the same CF lamp coupling 20W. The following table shows that charging time changes according to the storage capacity of Sup-cap. When the value of capacity gets important, the time of charging gets important too. The above table shows us that to charge a Sup-cap of 400F, we need a minimum of 15 days while the fluorescent is working 24h/24h, and a minimum of 5 days to charge a 1.0F Sup-cap. This phase demonstrated that the super cap is an excellent low temperature charger which is, so safe device to be used in our office and home.

Voltage multipliers rectify low Alternate Current (AC) collected from the coil to high voltage DC. It uses a series of capacitors and schottky diodes to concurrently step up and rectify the AC to DC. The energy is stored on a super capacitor. V.

INVESTIGATION EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS

The hardware configuration of CFL energy harvesting device is basically on inductive coupling method. The complete circuit diagram of project can be divided in two different sections:

Table II. CHARGE TIME OF A SUPER CAPACITOR WITH CFL 20W Charging Time (Hour)

• Transmission electromagnetic section (CF lamp) and • Convertor section (Rectifier)

0 1 10 24 48 72 96 120 240 360

The compact florescent lamp is connected to the power source through a high speed switching circuit which operates at 27 kHz. The receiver flat coil is connected to a convertor circuit through four stages. The first stage is a compensating network to maximize the induced current at the secondary stage by a matching circuit (LC) coil. The second stage is a voltage multiplier convertor AC to high DC output. The third stage is a super capacitor for storing energy. The last stage of the harvesting circuit is a DC-toDC power converter which steps up voltage (Fig. 10).

Sup-Cap 5.5V/1.0F

0V 0.3V 0.8V 1.35V 1.89V 3.45V 4.5V 5.5V 5.5V 5.5V

Sup-Cap 2.7V/400F/0.41Wh

0V 0V 0.1V 0.53V 0.89V 1.35V 1.55V 1.78 2.14 2.7V

There are many applications of the proposed idea such as: charging battery of the emergency exit lights, smoke detector battery or alarm system. Finally, measurements of the DC power generated by coupling between harvesting circuit (Sup-Cap 2.7V/400F) with a 20W CF lamp are illustrated in Fig. 11. From the illustrated figures, it’s obvious that the radiation from CF lamp can be used to charge many devices

Fig. 9. Matching network circuit.

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[9]

[10]

[11]

[12] [13] [14] Fig. 11. Photograph of the output signal from sup-cap after 15 days charging time.

[15]

as in emergency exit situation, but it needs a long charging time that varies from 15 to 20 days for a 400F/0.41Wh Super-cap. VI.

CONCLUSION

A new electronic device harvesting the electromagnetic radiation from Compact Fluorescent Lamps (CFLs) and charging battery through the super capacitor has been approved. The proposed device is based on coupling the axis direction with a resonant flat spiral coil and a voltage multiplier to charge a super capacitor in a first step then a battery in second step. Measurements of the RF power harvested by 20W CFL lamp and the essential time for charging the 2.7V/400F capacitor are reported and discussed. From the testing phase, it is confirmed that we can charge the super cap bank by CFL during long time (15 days/ 400F) and use the energy stored to charge battery. A direct current power of 0.91 mW can be generated by the magnetic coupling. REFERENCES [1]

[2] [3] [4]

[5] [6]

[7]

[8]

R. Henderson, “Harmonics of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in the Home,” Domestic Use of Electrical Energy Conference, Cape Town, 1999. W. G. Fano, “RF emissions of compact fluorescent lights”. Interference Technology, 2012. T. Ribarich, “How to design a dimming fluorescent electronic ballast,” International Rectifier, Power Management Design Line, 2006. P.F. Keebler and R. Gilleskie, “In-rush currents of electronic ballasts and compact fluorescent lamps affect lighting controls,” Industry Applications Conference (IAS'96), pp. 2201 – 2208, 1996. ETS Lindgren, Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic Cell Operation Manual, 2008. X. Huang, Y. M. Eyssa and R. W. Boom, “Vertically rippled flat coil configuration for SMES,’’ IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond., vol. 3, pp. 238 – 241, 1993. S. Bhuyan,S. Sahoo, R. Kumar and S. K. Panda, “Wireless energy transmission to piezoelectric component by flat spiral coil antennalike structure,’’ 2010 IEEE International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies, Kandy, pp. 1-4, 2010. W. H. Roadstrum, “Flat Coils,’’ IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 22, pp. 37-43, 2007.

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