Enhanced Modified LEACH (EMODLEACH) protocol

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Enhanced Modified LEACH (EMODLEACH) protocol for WSN. Debabrata Singh. Department of CS & IT. ITER, Siksha '0' Anusandhan. University. Bhubaneswar ...

2015 International Symposium on Advanced Computing and Communication (lSACC)

Enhanced Modified LEACH (EMODLEACH) protocol for WSN Sanjeet Kumar Nayak

Debabrata Singh

Department of CS & IT

Department of CS & IT

ITER, Siksha '0' Anusandhan

ITER, Siksha '0' Anusandhan

University

University

Bhubaneswar, India

Bhubaneswar, India

Abstract In LEACH, the minimum amplification energy required for

Many routing protocols have originated since the

inter cluster or Cluster head to Base station communication

development of this field in which LEACH [3] , TEEN [9] ,

and amplification energy required for cluster members to

M-SEP[2] and PEGASIS[lO] are some of them. LEACH,

cluster head transmission is identical. As a result packet

of them, proved to be more promising and became a bench­

drop ratio increases. The collisions or interference for other

mark in the designing of other protocols like A-sLEACH

signals also increases. LEACH chosen its cluster heads

[4] , Enhanced LEACH [5] , LEACH-CC [6] , Ad-LEACH

periodically and distributes energy consumed uniformly by

[7] and MODLEACH [8] are some of them. This technique

rotation. If we apply heterogeneity in this protocol it gives

performs data fusion, which combines data and transmit

poor performance and less efficiency. To get an another

from

chance to became a Cluster Head (CH) for next 1/p rounds

meaningful information.

source

nodes

Our

is very difficult once a CH is formed. For every round,

to

destination

proposed

protocol

node

with

Enhanced

set

of

Modified

cluster heads are replaced and whole design of the protocol

LEACH (EMODLEACH) is a reactive protocol which is

is changed. Basing on the mode of functioning, WSNs can

implemented in homogeneous network model. We have

be classified into proactive, reactive and hybrid networks.

implemented

the

Reactive networks, respond immediately basing on the

Replacement

scheme(ECHR)

decision parameters. Our proposed protocol Enhanced

power(DTP) level scheme of MODLEACH along with the

concept

of

Efficient and

Cluster

Dual

head

transmIttmg

Modified LEACH (EMODLEACH) is a reactive protocol

concept of Efficient Intra Cluster transmission Scheme of

which is implemented in homogeneous network model. We

TEEN

have implemented the concept of Efficient Cluster head

performances of the network mathematically and verified

in LEACH. We analyzed their effect on

the

Replacement scheme (ECHR)and Dual transmitting power

with the help of simulation. The result clearly indicates that

level (DTP) of MODLEACH along with the concept of

our proposed protocol EMODLEACH outperforms better

Efficient Intra Cluster transmission Scheme of TEEN.

network lifetime, packet transmitted to the Base Station, less dead nodes at each round, less energy loss per round

Keywords:

LEACH, Dr, MTE, CBRP, M-SEP, TEEN

and greater average energy of each node. The analysis helps particular wireless sensor networks applications.

1.

The remaining part of this paper is organized as

Introduction

follows. Section 2 introduces a related work, section 3 Progressive

work

on

Wireless

sensor

Networks

describes

the

problem

contains

dissipation

and routing protocols are data centric in nature. The data

evaluation of our protocol and comparison with other

centric approaches are assigning the sensing tasks to the

protocols. At the end we conclude the paper in section 6

sensor

with some references.

communicating

the

valuable

purpose data,

of

many

sensing

and

model,

proposed

4

sensors, which can be deployed randomly. Sensor networks

For

and

section

Network

nodes.

module

definition,

(WSNs) has enabled the designers to create autonomous

section

5

protocol

with

contains

performance

energy

energy-efficient

2.

routing protocols are developed basing on LEACH in

Related Work

WSNs. Sensor nodes in WSNs are usually battery operated sensing devices with limited energy resources.

So energy

A Sensor Node consists of sensors, processor, and

efficiency is one of the most important issues and designing

transceiver and power units. A sensor node is limited

power-efficient protocols is vital for increasing the lifetime

energy supply, so available energy at those nodes must be a

and throughput of the system. Performances of the system

major constraint. While designing a routing protocol,

in WSNs depends certain applications with limited power,

have to handle bulk of information sensed and passed over

we

reliable data transfer, short range communication, and

by every node in the network effectively and efficiently .

reasonably low cost [1] .

For

For

energy

efficiency,

extensibility

of

lifetime,

scalability and performance, cluster based routing protocol enforces a structure out of different routing protocols.

better

efficient routing

protocol

we

require

well

organized data fusion mechanisms, reliable data transfer, short range communication with low routing overhead. The simplest routing protocol method is flooding, which decreases the throughput, goodput, data delivery ratio, efficiency and energy of the nodes.

978-1-4673-6708-0/15/$31.00 ©2015 IEEE

For efficient use of energy in

routing protocol , the

LEACH chooses cluster heads periodically and distributes

network plays a vital role in bandwidth consumption,

energy consumed uniformly by rotation, but under this

security and energy conservations.

condition if we apply heterogeneity this protocol gives poor

Using Direct Transmission in the network, sensor

performance and less efficiency. To get an another chance

nodes directly transmits to the sink that are far away from

to became a Cluster Head (CH) for next lip rounds is very

the sink would die first . On the other hand, using

difficult once a CH is formed. For every round, cluster

Minimum transmission Energy (MTE), data is transmitted

heads are replaced and whole cluster is created. Also

to base stations via multi hop. In the approached protocol

EMODLEACH

having same problem that we had in direct transmission.

parameters and assigned them a fixed value. Experiments

Difference

are done in MATLAB (2013a) to analyze the accuracy and

is

that

in

minimum

transmission

energy

algorithm, far away nodes remain alive longer with respect

introduced

soft

and

hard

threshold

compare with other protocols.

to the nodes nearer to BS. This happens because nearer nodes transmits all data traffic to BS than farther nodes. To

4.

Network

overcome this problem Clustering based routing protocol (CBRP) has been suggested in which all the nodes of the

and optimizing the cluster head algorithm. By adding power factors, the distance between cluster head adjusting the number of clusters, cluster members etc. Clustering for energy conservation is proven as efficient mechanism for WSNs. When the sensor nodes are deployed in a wireless sensor network, they group themselves and elect one of them as Cluster Heads (CH) which are responsible for receiving

data

from

other

nodes

of

cluster.

Data

aggregation/ fusion of received data and transmitting them to Base Station is done by cluster heads. The Base station is the data processing point for data received from sensor nodes, where data is accessed by end user. It is generally fixed and presented at a distance from sensor nodes. Other nodes except the cluster head are called the Cluster Members of that cluster. Cluster head actually acts as a gateway link between cluster members and base station.

and

Proposed

4.1. Energy Dissipation Model

networks are divided into hoping cluster. Reduces the number of cluster due to frequent consumption of energy

module

EMODLEACH protocol We have taken an area A=Length*Breadth m

Z

over

which n nodes are randomly distributed. The sink is located all most at the middle of the field. In this model, a radio dissipates Ee/ec =50nJ/bit to run the transmitter or receiver z circuitry. Both the free space (d power loss) and the multi 4 path fading (d power loss) channel models are used. If the distance is less than a threshold crossover distance (do), the free space model is used; otherwise, the multi path model is used. Here

we

have

taken

dual

level

amplification

energy

according to the nature of transmission. For Cluster head to z base station transmission,Emp =O.0013pJ/bitlm (when z distance>do) and Ers =lOpJ/bit/m (when distancedl ) and z Ersl =lpJ/bitlm (when distance do)

to

For intra cluster transmission transmitting,

and backward region to the environment and transmit the sensed data to a cluster head. The cluster head then reduce

the

amount

of

information

that

must

be

transmitted to the BS, which drains out more energy of the cluster head as compared to the other nodes. In LEACH, amplification energy(minimum) required for inter cluster or cluster

head

to

Base

station

communication

and

amplification energy required for cluster members to CH transmission is same. As a result packet drop ratio and collisions

or

interference

for

other

signals

increases.

Erx(k,d)= Erx-elec(k) + Erx-amp(k, d) Erx(k,d) = Eelec * k + Erst * k * d12 (dt :5 do) Erx(k,d) = Eelec * k + Empt * k * dt (d1 > do) For receiving,

ERx(k)

=

ERx-elec(k),

Where bit

by

Eelec is the energy expended to process a single

SV (sensed value) by an amount equal to or greater than the

radio

ST.

transmission

ETx(k,d)

circuitry.

is

the

transmission energy dissipated for k bit transmission . In symmetric

radio

channel

we

assume

that

the

required to transmit a message from node A to node B is same as energy required to transmit a message from node B to node A.

Our

I: Specify the probability temperature

proposed

protocol

Enhanced

Modified

LEACH (EMODLEACH) is a reactive protocol which is implemented for homogeneous network model. We have implemented

the

concept

of

Efficient

Cluster

head

Replacement scheme(ECHR) and Dual transmitting power (DTP)scheme of MODLEACH along with the concept of Efficient Intra Cluster transmission Scheme of TEEN in LEACH.

(Popt),

number of nodes (n),

If the existing cluster head containing energy must be greater than the threshold value, It remains cluster head for next round as well, else set-up phase will be carried out again. Considering the threshold value as static, the energy wasted in routing packet for new cluster head and cluster formation is saved.

head to BS uses low energy level and saving much amount of energy. acting

as

cluster

member

requires low amplification energy to transmit. iii.

High energy level for inter cluster or cluster

head

to

base

station

transmission. iv.

Nodes those are acting as cluster head requires high amplification to transmit.

3. Efficient Intra Cluster transmission Scheme: i.

sensed value (SV)-The value sensed by each

node

is

stored

in

an

internal

variable. ii.

At

every

round

(change

time),

in

addition to the attributes, the cluster­ head broadcasts to its cluster members, Hard Threshold (HT): It is the absolute value the node sensing this value and

switch on its

transmitter and report to its cluster head. Soft Threshold (ST): This is a small change in the value of the sensed attribute

in which the node

trying to transmit. iii.

The

nodes

sense

their

environment

continuously. When the attribute value touches its hard threshold value, the node sends the sensed data. The nodes will

transmit

cluster

next

period,

,

in

only

the

current

when

both

conditions are true: I)

The current value of sensed attribute is greater than the HT (hard threshold).

2)

The

previous sensed value (sv); 2: Einitial (s) =Eo, s=l, 2 . . . n;

(I) PREPARATION PHASE (lIPopt) :;to)

1: if (Einitial (s»O & rmod

then

IIPopt

can be

set 0 to 1 2: r+- random (0, I) and compute T(s); 3: if (r < T(s)) then 4: CCH{s} =TRUE; II s node be a candidate of CH

7: end if 8: end if

(II) SET-UP PHASE I: for r=0 to n rounds {//repeat for n rounds 2: r�random (0, 1); 3: cv �

tempi

+

(temPrtempi)* random (1, 1); (l/Pop d :;to) then

5: compute T(s); Ilgiven by (I)

In intra cluster transmissions, cluster

Node

final

4: if (Einitial (s»O & rmod

2. Dual transmitting power level scheme:

11.

(tempi),

hard threshold (h), soft threshold(s),

6: CCH{s} =FALSE; II s node not be a candidate of CH

1. Condition for Cluster head selection:

i.

(temPt),

5: else

4.2.1. Efficient Cluster head Replacement scheme



protocol: "BEGIN

threshold for CH (a), initial temperature

4.2. Proposed Model



4.3. The pseudo code for EMODLEACH

energy

current

value

of

the

sensed

attribute differs from the previous

6: if (r < T(s)) then 7: CH{s} =TRUE; II s node may be a CH 8: else 9: CH{s} =FALSE; II s node may not be a CH 10: end if 11: end if 12: if (CH{s} =TRUE) then 13: packeUo_BS=packet_to_BS+l 14: Join (IDi); Iinon-cluster head node i join with CH 15: Cluster(c); Ilformation of cluster c; 16: if (CH{s}>a) then 17: set CH{s} =TRUE 18: packeuo_BS=packet_to_BS+1 19: end if 20: repeat step 2 to step 15 21: end if 22:end if

(III)

STEADY-STATE PHASE

1: If (CH(s) =TRUE) then 2:

If (cv :2':h) then

3:

set testdo) Emp in free space(intra

whereas the last node dies at 1843th round. So, the network life time of the LEACH protocol is 1843 rounds and has the h In TEEN, the first node dies at 71t round 1h whereas the last node dies at 1895 round. So, the network

life time of the TEEN protocol is 1095 rounds and has the

0.00013pJ/bit/ m2

cluster transmission)(d>dl) Emp 1

next

round. So, the network

life time of the MODLEACH protocol is 1298 rounds and d has the 3r highest value. h In LEACH, the first node dies at 54t round

IpJ/bit/m2

cluster transmission)(d

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