Essentials of Sociology, 6th Edition

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Class materials August 28 to September 25. ◦ Sociological Imagination. ◦ Sociological Paradigms. ◦ History of Sociology. ◦ Culture. ◦ Language. ◦ Socialization.

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Social Groups 

Aggregate - People Who Share a Space But Don’t See Selves as Belonging



A Category - People Who Share

Characteristics 

A Group - People Who Think of Themselves as Belonging Together

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

1

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Social Groups Primary

Groups

Face-to-Face



The Family



Friends

Producing

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

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a Mirror Within 2

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Social Groups Secondary

Groups

Larger, More Anonymous



Members Interact Based on Roles



Fail to Satisfy Need for Intimate Association

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

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3

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Voluntary Associations Organized

be primary or secondary

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Can

on Basis of Mutual Interest

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4

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

In-Groups and Out-Groups In-Groups

and Out-Groups Produce…



Loyalty



Sense of Superiority



Rivalries

Implications

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

for Socially Diverse Society 5

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Reference Groups Groups

Used as Standards to Evaluate Selves

Provide

a Yardstick

Exposes

Us to Contradictory Standards

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

6

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Social Networks Ties

that Extend Outward from Self

The

Small World Phenomenon—Six Degrees

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of Separation

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

7

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Bureaucracies 

Five Characteristics of Bureaucracies  Clear Cut Levels  Division of Labor

 Written Rules  Written Communication and Records  Impersonality Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

8

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Perpetuation of Bureaucracies 

Take on a Life of Own



Suffers from Goal Displacement



McDonaldization of Society

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9

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Coping with Bureaucracies 

Red Tape



Bureaucratic Alienation



Resisting Alienation

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

10

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Group Dynamics-Georg Simmel 

Group Size Affects Stability and Intimacy 

Dyad



Triad



Coalitions



As Size Increases, So Does Stability



As Size Increases, Intensity and Intimacy Decreases

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

11

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Group Dynamics 

Effects of Group Size on Attitudes and Behavior



The Larger the Group…

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Greater Diffusion of Responsibility



Increase in Formality



Division into Smaller Groups

12

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Leadership 

Leaders are People Who Influence Others’ Behaviors, Opinions, and Attitudes



Who Becomes a Leader?



Instrumental and Expressive Leaders

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

13

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Leadership Leadership 

Authoritarian



Democratic



Laissez-Faire

Leadership

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

Styles

Styles in Changing Situations

14

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Power of Peer Pressure and Authority The

Asch Experiment

The

Milgram Experiment

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

15

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Groupthink Collective

Global

Tunnel Vision Groups Develop

Consequences of Group Dynamics Groupthink Microsoft Image

Preventing

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

16

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Group Assignments Diary will examine the group dynamics  Must reflect awareness of:  Leadership  Peer Pressure  Groupthink  Organizational Style  In Group/Out Group Dynamics 

Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2006

17

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

 

 

Back Stage/Front Stage Role Playing Impression Management Managed Emotions

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

  





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Spoiled Identity Visible Stigma/Hidden Stigma Choice/No Choice—Blame Matters ―Passing‖ as Impression Management (―Closet‖) Social Isolation and Social Groups Stereotypes & Prejudices Sanctions: Medicalization & Criminalization

Social Groups and Formal Organizations



First 2 sections of Book:

◦ Sociological Perspective ◦ Social Groups & Social Control



Class materials August 28 to September 25 ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦

Sociological Imagination Sociological Paradigms History of Sociology Culture Language Socialization Social Groups Dramaturgy Stigma

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Sociological Imagination

Sociological Paradigms

History of Sociology

Functionalist

Conflict

Constructionist

Macro Sociology

Micro Sociology

Culture

Cultural Diversity

Language

Cultural Relativism

Counter-Culture

Sub-Culture

Sick Cultures

Norms

Mores

Folkways

Sanctions

Values

Culture Within

Status

Role

Social Influence

Role Conflict/Role Strain

Ascribed/Achieved Role

Social Darwinism

Nature versus Nurture

Socialization

Agents of Socialization

Primary/Secondary Group

In/Out Group

Peer Pressure

Leadership

Dyads

Reference Group

Group Dynamics

Social Control

Groupthink

Stigmatization

Impression Management

Mass Media

Social Deviance

Crime

Bureaucracies

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

Jane Addams

Solomon Asch

Auguste Comte

Charles Cooley

W.E.B. duBois

Emile Durkheim

Sigmund Freud

Harold Garfinkle

Erving Goffman

Harriet Martineau

Karl Marx

George Herbert Mead

Stanley Milgram

C. Wright Mills

Talcott Parsons

Jean Piaget

George Ritzer

Georg Simmel

Sapir-Whorf

Herbert Spencer

Max Weber

Social Groups and Formal Organizations

 

50 Multiple Choice -- 4 possible answers Six Kinds of Questions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

  

Knowledge – Recall Facts Comprehension – Demonstrate Understanding of Facts Application – Take Knowledge & Apply to situation Analysis – Critical Thinking that uses Knowledge Evaluation – Critical Thinking that evaluates situation Synthesis – Taking two or more concepts and applying them critically

Read Questions & Answers Carefully Eliminate Answers Skip & Return to harder questions – Be mindful of clock

Social Groups and Formal Organizations



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