Evaluation du fonctionnement du périmètre irrigué ...

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Especially for the drip irrigation, a good uniformity of water distribution has ..... evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated using the software CROPWAT and. Penman .... Table 3 shows the evolution of satisfaction rate of crops for the campaign.

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

DIAGNOSIS AND ANALYSIS OF THE FUNCTIONING OF THE REHABILITATED IRRIGATED AREA ZAAFRANA II (CENTRAL TUNISIA) DIAGNOSTIC ET ANALYSE DE FONCTIONNEMENT DU PERIMETRE IRRIGUE REHABILITE ZAAFRANA II (TUNISIE CENTRALE) Asma El AMRI, Rajouene MAJDOUB, Youssef M’SADAK & Ghalia AOUICHAOUI. Dept of Horticultural Systems Engineering and the Natural Environment. University of Sousse.High Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariem, Sousse, Tunisia. [email protected]

ABSTRACT: Because of the reduced performance of public irrigated perimeters (PIP) in Tunisia, important rehabilitation projects have been established within the context of the national strategy for water saving. Particularly in Kairouan region (Central Tunisia), ranked first in the country in terms of land conducted by irrigation, 24 perimeters among 81 in the region have been rehabilitated. This study aims to the diagnosis and the analysis of the functioning of the irrigated perimeter Zaafrane II rehabilitated in 2005, in order to know whether the desired objectives have been met and then the perimeter has earned the state investment on one hand, and to identify the constraints, still encountered, to improve their performance, on the other hand. The study based on the analysis of various performance parameters (rate of use of water resources allocated to the perimeter, distribution network efficiency, rate of water saving equipment, agricultural intensification rate, crop water satisfaction rate, and agronomic efficiency) revealed that the hydraulic network regarding the equipment and the functioning plans isn’t a constraint against the perimeter’s development. The network efficiency estimated at 95% has provided a, relatively, notable reduction in the rate of water loss and has ensured a crop water satisfaction of about 85% with an agricultural intensification rate exceeding 80%. The rehabilitation has encouraged farmers to practice the pressurized irrigation systems. Especially for the drip irrigation, a good uniformity of water distribution has been proved, however, a tendency to the clogging of drippers has been shown; which requires a periodic inspection of the installation in order to ensure more benefit from this water saving technology. Keywords: Performance indicators, hydraulic network, drip irrigation. 21

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

RESUME : Tenant compte des performances réduites des périmètres publics irrigués en Tunisie, d’importants projets de réhabilitation ont été établis, dans le cadre d’une stratégie nationale d’économie d’eau d’irrigation. Particulièrement, dans le gouvernorat de Kairouan (Tunisie Centrale), classée au premier rang en termes de terres conduites en irrigué, 24 périmètres, parmi 81 de la région, ont été réhabilités. La présente étude vise le diagnostic et l’analyse du fonctionnement du périmètre irrigué Zaafrana II créé en 1964 et réhabilité en 2005, en vue de connaître si les objectifs escomptés ont été atteints et s’il a mérité alors l’investissement de l’Etat d’une part, et d’identifier les contraintes auxquelles se heurte encore le périmètre, d’autre part. L’étude basée sur l’analyse de divers paramètres d’efficience (taux d’utilisation des ressources hydriques allouées, efficience de distribution, taux d’équipement en matériel d’économie d’eau, taux d’intensification agricole, taux de satisfaction des cultures et efficience agronomique) a permis de dégager que le réseau hydraulique sur les plans équipement et fonctionnement n’est pas contraignant quant à la valorisation de ce périmètre. L’efficience du réseau, estimée à 95%, a assuré une réduction relativement remarquable du taux des pertes d’eau et a permis d’assurer un taux de satisfaction des besoins en eau de l’ordre de 85% avec un taux d’intensification agricole moyen dépassant les 80%. La mise en valeur a encouragé les agriculteurs à s’orienter vers la pratique de l’irrigation sous pression. Spécialement au niveau du système goutte à goutte, une bonne uniformité de répartition de l’eau à la parcelle a été démontrée avec néanmoins une tendance de bouchage des goutteurs qui exige le contrôle périodique de l’installation afin de bénéficier davantage de cette technique économisatrice d’eau. Mots clés : Indicateurs de performance, réseau hydraulique, irrigation localisée. INTRODUCTION Water resources in Tunisia are scarce and agricultural demand has increased. As an indication, the agricultural sector is taking about 80% of mobilized resources which doesn’t cease to increase (Gharbi 2007). In addition, high water losses caused by the poor state of collective irrigation networks, the adopted irrigation techniques, and the absence of the tradition of pressurized irrigation among a lot of farmers (Louati 2008) posed a serious problem and incite the government to establish a policy of modernization of public irrigated perimeters (PIP) through a national 22

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

strategy for water conservation. The latter aims to valuing water and rationalize its use in the agricultural sector (MARE-DGGRRE 2007). The policy’s action plan focuses on the following points: i) the rehabilitation and modernization of the collective irrigation PIP ii) the promotion of various water-saving techniques inside parcels, and enhancement of water resources by a suitable choice of crops with high economic value and iii) the reinforcement of regional capabilities in saving water at the level of the applied research, of the popularization and management of irrigation systems, in order to provide better farmer’s training (Al Atiri 2005). Kairouan region (Central Tunisia) is considered among the regions with the biggest irrigated area in the country. Irrigated crop area estimated in 2005 at 63 370 ha presents 15.4% of the total irrigated area of the country and classes the region at the forefront in terms of land conducted under irrigation. 24 PIP (among 81 existing) were rehabilitated in Kairouan region in a perspective of rationalizing the use of water resources at the levels of collective irrigation and farm (field) networks. At the collective network level, modernization focused on improving the mobilization and transport infrastructure, however, the lack of maintenance of hydraulic equipment may lead to weaken the expected network efficiency and lead to quite large water losses. At the field level, the State’s undertaken actions mainly concerned the encouragement and the financial incentive for farmers (attractive subsidies between 40 and 60%) to the equipment of parcels by saving water systems (MA-DGGR 1996; Zayani et al., 2000). However, the farm irrigation efficiency doesn’t depend exclusively on the adopted irrigation technique, but also on the state of the installation. Specifically, drip irrigation, considered promising in water scarcity condition (Tizaoui 2004), shows a strong trends to occlusion of distributors (drippers) over time which could lead in some cases to water waste and hydromorphic conditions such the case of some irrigated areas in Tunisia (Slatni et al., 2004; Slama et al., 2004). Clogging also causes a lack of uniformity of water application that affects growth and crop yield quality and quantity. Production losses may greatly exceed the cost of renewing the installation (Turcotte 2005). To follow up the modernization efforts and the applied water policies, the functioning diagnostics and the analysis of hydraulic and agronomic performances of rehabilitated PIP will allow to: i) specify whether the State’s objectives of valorization and water saving have been achieved and ii) analyze the evolution of their state to identify deficiencies and problems in order to achieve better performances. This study focuses particularly on the public irrigated perimeter (PIP) Zaafrana II located in 23

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

Bouhajla zone (Kairouan region), built in 1964 and renovated in 2005. Based on a set of performance parameters, this work aims to conduct a diagnostic analysis of the perimeter concerning the exploitation of water resources and hydraulic infrastructure, the agricultural enhancement, the agronomic efficiency of irrigation water and the uniformity of water application in field. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study Area The study area Zaafrana II, as part of Bouhajla zone in the region of Kairouan, is located 14 km, in a straight line, from the center of Bouhajla and has the following geographic coordinates: latitude 35 ° 40, 'longitude 10° 05 ', and altitude of 60 m (Figure 1).

Fig. 1. Location map of the study area The perimeter covers an area of 145 ha, divided into 62 parcels exploited by 46 farmers. It is managed since its rehabilitation by an Agricultural Development Grouping (ADG) (BICHE 2005). Sizes of agricultural holdings in the irrigated are reported in Table 1, there are three types of exploitations. The considered perimeter is implanted in the alluvial plain of Zeroud wadi characterized by calcareous alluvium of almost all the perimeter and alluvial limestone encrusted on glacis. The soil is split into two categories: 24

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LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

slightly developed alluvial soil in the plain, and Calcimagnesian brown calcareous soils on glacis in southern perimeter.

Table 1. Farm sizes in the studied area Number of Exploitation Average Percentage of Area exploitations area, ha area, ha the total area, % A  1ha 15 12 0.8 8.3 1 5 ha 13 74 5.6 51 Total

46

145

3.1

100

This area belongs to the upper arid bioclimate with a moderated winter. It is a continental climate characterized by hot summer with an average maximum temperature of 37.1°C; in July and a cold winter with an average minimum of about 4.8°C; in January. The average annual precipitation is about 303 mm and is characterized by its inter-annual irregularity. For wind, the region is under the influence of two prevailing winds the Northwest in winter and the South East in summer with a warm wind of Saharan origin (Sirocco) whose average speed varies between 2 and 3 m/s. For the jelly, it is common, but not very frequent and began in December till March with an annual average of 3 to 4 days. The practiced production system is based, mainly, on field crops (cereals and fodder) that occupy 85% of the area. The oil olive tree occupies 15% with a density of plantation of 50 feet per ha, the spacing is 14 m x 14 m. The crops are generally seasonal. Summer crops, belonging to the Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae families, begin in April and finish in August, while winter crops such as cereals and fodder crops have a varied cultural calendar. Crop rotation is practiced by farmers is biennial or triennial. Perimeter’s water resources Irrigation water is taken from the drilling of Zaafrana II created in 1958 which exploits groundwater resources contained in the Quaternary plain of Zaafrana. Its discharge is 20 l/s and its chemical characterization shows relatively loaded water with a salinity of 2,7 g/l and a pH close to neutrality, 6,8. Irrigation network 25

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

Starting from the drilling, the irrigation water distribution is ensured by a common core diameter of 200 mm and a length of 89 m feeding three sectors A, B and C with an area of 52; 51 and 42 ha, respectively, and passing through a regulating tank with a capacity of 10 m3 (Figure 2). Distribution of water to three areas is on demand while the distribution within the sector is in turn. Area A is supplied by a flow rate of 7.2 l/s for 22 terminals irrigation, sector B with a flow of about 7 l/s for 17 terminals, and sector C by a flow of about 6 l/s for 13 terminals, so a total of 42 irrigation terminals.

Fig. 2. Irrigation network of the perimeter Field irrigation system The pressurized system is the most prevalent mode of irrigation in the perimeter. In fact, 57 ha are irrigated by drip irrigation method, 68 ha by sprinkler, while only 22 hectares are devoted to the improved gravity (surface) irrigation. The latter is adopted in the case of furrow irrigation. It consists on using pipes between plots to control water flow, improve the water distribution uniformity and reduce runoff in the head of the furrow. Diagnosis of resource exploitation and hydraulic infrastructure Diagnosis and analysis of functioning of the perimeter Zaafrana II were carried out relying on a survey accomplished among farmers and several 26

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LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

parameters as evaluation criteria related to i) the exploitation of available water resources and the implemented hydraulic infrastructure, ii) the agricultural development, iii) the socio-economic enhancement, and iv) the irrigation system in field. Given the importance of drip irrigation in terms of water savings and the considerable area occupied in the perimeter, the uniformity of distribution of water by this system was appreciated. Rate of use of water resources The rate of use of allocated water resources (Ru ) is determined by the ratio of the pumped volume (Vp ) to the available water volume (Va ) . The latter was calculated before and after rehabilitation, during the period 2002 2009, and assuming that the network operates 16 hours / day, 25 days / month and 10 months / year.

Ru (%)  (Vp Va ) x100

(1)

Water distribution efficiency The efficiency of water distribution (Ed ) is used to evaluate the rate of water loss through the ratio of the pumped (Vp ) and distributed water volumes (Vd ) in the perimeter. This parameter was determined during the period 2002 - 2009.

Ed (%)  (Vd Vp ) x100

(2)

Equipment rate of fields by water saving equipment The rate of water saving equipment (Re) is defined by the percentage of the equipped area with water-saving equipment (Ae) over the total area of the perimeter ( A) .

Re (%)  ( Ae A) x 100

(3)

Diagnosis of agricultural development Agricultural intensification rate The agricultural intensification rate (Ri ) expresses the ratio of the cultivated and irrigated area during a crop year (Ac ) to the irrigable area of the perimeter (Ai ) : 27

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LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

Ri (%)  ( Ac Ai ) x100

(4)

Crop water satisfaction rate The satisfaction rate of crop water requirements (Rs ) is defined as the ratio of the distributed water volume (Vd ) to the theoretical volume of water required for the installed crops (Vth ) .

Rs (%)  (Vd Vth ) x100

(5)

The net irrigation water requirements were calculated on the basis of the water balance (Doorenbos and Pruitt 1977). The reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was calculated using the software CROPWAT and Penman -Monteith Formula, given the theoretical basis of the latter which is derived from the balance of energetic flows at the surface canopy (Allen et al. 1994). The gross water requirements have been defined by considering the overall efficiency of collective and farmer irrigation networks. The overall efficiency ( Eg ) of the used irrigation system is 0.9 (0.95 x 0.95) for localized irrigation and 0.8 (0.95 x 0.85) for sprinkler system. Given that the irrigation system employed in the majority of perimeter is the sprinkling, the overall efficiency used was 0.8. For crops irrigated by the drip system, the gross water requirements have been reduced by 30% to reach a real need of about 70%. Socio-economic diagnosis The social and economic diagnosis focused particularly on the agronomic efficiency of water irrigation (Ea) for the overall crops during the period 2005-2009. This efficiency is also called productivity of water irrigation, is defined as the ratio of the average crop yield (Y) to the amount of water consumed (Cw) per cultivated hectare (Eq. 6).

Ea (kg / m 3 )  Y Cw Water application uniformity 28

(6)

Revue scientifique et technique.

LJEE N°23. Décembre 2013

Diagnosis of operating system (in field), focused on the measurement of emitter’s water distribution installed in a plot occupying 4 ha divided into 10 sectors. The experimental plot has been chosen randomly. It is cultivated in chilli, with a cross-row spacing of 1.5 m and an inter-plant spacing of 0.5 m. The used emitters are integrated-type GR, delivering a flow rate of 4 l/h under a pressure of 1 bar. The uniformity of water distribution in the plot is judged from the uniformity test carried for each sector according to the protocol adopted by the CEMAGREF (2003). Then the uniformity coefficient (CU) based on the least irrigated quarter (Keller and Karmeli 1974) was determined for each sector, by applying relationships (7), (8) and (9). The higher the coefficient of uniformity (CU), better the distribution is (Table 2). 16

 qi

q 

i 1

(7)

16 4

q 25 

 qlow

(8)

i 1

4

q Cu (%)  100 x 25 q

(9)

Where qi : drip emitter flow rate; q : average flow rate ; q25 : average of the 25% lowest values of flow rate; q low : lowest flow rates; and Cu : uniformity coefficient. Table 2. Criteria for assessing the uniformity coefficient of emitters Uniformity coefficient Network operation Cu > 90%, 70%