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(WTEC) and its companion. Japanese. Technology. Evaluation. Center. (JTEC) at Loyola. College provide assessments of foreign research and development.

NASA-TN-[09388

International

Technology

Research

Institute

ITRI NI A NASA/NSF

Panel Report

Satellite

on

Communications

oq

Systems

and Technology

EXECUTIVE

rM I •,I"

_ ," U

O, r_l 0

Z

_

0

N

Burton

I. Edelson,

Joseph Charles

N. Pelton, Co-chair W. Bostian

William Vincent

SUMMARY

Co-chair

T. Brandon W. S. Chan

E. Paul Hager Neil R. Helm Raymond D. Jennings Robert Kwan Christoph E. Mahle Edward F. Miller ,,,-..4

A. Landis

"Lance"

Riley

July 1993 0

0 0 J

,nternational

Technology Research JTECdWTEC Program Loyola College in Maryland 4501 North Charles Street Baltimore, Maryland 21210-2699

Institute

NASA/Iq_

PANEL ON SA_

Burton I. Edelson (Co-Chair) Director, Institute for Applied George Washington University

COMMUNICAYIONS

Space

Research

William

Robert

W. Bostlan

Clayton Ayre Professor V'mginla Tech

of Electrical

Raymond D. Jennings Engineer National Telecommunications and Information Agency U.S. Department of Commerce

Joseph Pelton (Co-Chair) Director of Graduate Telecommunications University of Colorado, Boulder Charles

S_/SYEMS AND YIlCHNOLOOY

Engineering

Kwan

Chief Engineer SATC_M Program Jet Propulsion Laboratory Christoph Executive

T. Brandon

Associate Department UHF and SHF Satellite

Head Communications

E. Mahle Director

Satellite Technologies COMSAT Laboratories

Division

Mitre Corporation Edward

F. Miller

Vincent W.S. Chart Associate Division Head Communications Division

Head, Communications NASA Lewis Research

MIT Lincoln

A. Landis Riley Manager NASA Communications Technology Jet Propulsion Laboratory

Laboratory

E. Paul Hager Associate Research George

Mason

Nell R. Helm Senior Research George

Professor

Systems Center

Branch

Program

University

Scientist

Washington

University

IN'I'ERNATIONAL

TIGI_IOLOOT

I_SL_O'H

J'rSC/W'l'Sa PBOG_,M The World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) and its companion Japanese Technology Evaluation Center (JTEC) at Loyola College provide assessments of foreign research and development in selected technologies under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Loyola's International Technology Research Institute (ITRI), R.D. Shelton Director, is the umbrella organization for JTEC and WTEC. Paul Herer, Senior Advisor for Planning and Technology Evaluation at NSF's Engineering Directorate, is NSF Program I)irector for JTEC and WTEC. Other U.S. government agencies that provide support for the program include the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Defense. ]TEC/WTEC's mission is to inform U.S. policy makers, strategic planners, and managers of the state of selected technologies in foreign countries in comparison to the United States. JTEC/WTEC assessments cover basic research, advanced development, and applications/commercialization. Small panels of about six technical experts conduct JTEC/WTEC assessments. Panelists are leading authorities in their field, technically active, and knowledgeable about U.S. and foreign research programs. As part of the assessment process, panels visit and carry out extensive discussions with foreign scientists and engineers in universities and in industry/government labs. The ITRI staff at Loyola College laboratories, organize workshop Dr. Michael ]. DeHaemer Principal Investigator Loyola College Baltimore, MD 21210

help select topics, recruit expert panelists, arrange study visits to foreign presentations, and finally, edit and disseminate the final reports. Mr. C,eoff Holdrkige JTEC/WTEC Staff Director Loyola College Baltimore, MD 21210

Dr. George

C,amota

Senior Advisor to JTEC/WTEC Mitre Corporation Bedford, MA 01730

NASA/NSF

Panel

on Satellite

Communications

Systems

and

Technology

EXECUTIVE

The

National

Aeronautics

Foundation status

(NSF)

of

emerging The panel hand.

communications

systems members

concepts, travelled

visited

major

associated the

The

panel,

manufacturers, by representatives compares

States

lesser

The

and

four

study

covers

service

reviewed The

in Russia.

by

report

These

providers,

the

sites

details

and

visited,

by

the information

line

lost

itB l_g

or even

_tion

Table

with

in many

1 shows

its international

that

the

competitors

aritic_I

Europe,

in most

of these

technologies

in the

aatelh'te

United in most

Furthermore, due to research and development abroad, the United States is likely to fall behind

extent

Science

international

are:

t_hnolog_w.

behind

technologies. underway

in Japan, was

the

and the attendant technologies. Russia to gather information first-

organizations,

report

the National

technology.

of U.S. industry.

conclusions

commurd_fform currently

panel's

and

to study

it to U.S. activities.

principal [Tnit_

20 sites

government The

and

The

and

services Japan and

in Europe,

and

panel's

o

17 sites

(NASA)

of U.S. experts

systems

applications, to Europe,

R&D facilities.

collected

Administration a panel

satellite

They

included

and Space

commissioned

States of the

projects Japan, and next

is key now to a

five to fifteen

years.

.

The

mar_t

Currently, position 1960s

sham the

largely and

developments communications

accordingly. their satellite of comparable to our declining respect

founded

1970s.

to a wide range communications These satellite

o," the

US.

U.S. industry

nts/Nm

retains

on technologies

However,

the

of technologies markets. have come as critical

European and communications

commm'do_tform/nd_try'/s

a leading United

position and

States

and

about largely to their future

capabilities is losing

systems

that

because economic

Japanese government policies industries both directly and

policies in the United States in recent years competitive position. Table 2 compares

to satellite

communications

in Europe,

Japan,

in the

and

,,t rh_c marketplace

-- a

developed ground

will

Europe growth,

be

in the

with key

respect to

future

and Japan view and have acted

are designed to numire indirectly. The absence is one factor government the

United

contributing policies with States.

2

Executive

U.S. Scorecard

in Admnced u_

High

Data Rate

USATs

Satellite

and Personal

Summary

Satellite

7BCBNOLO_

Communications

Technolo_u

_

Communications

Communications

Transceivers

Small Satellites Space

Applications

for High

On-Board

Processing

Traveling

Wave

Electric

Temperature

Superconductivity

Tubes

Europe

Propulsion

Spacecraft Antennas IntersateUite

Links

Autonomous

Control

Free

& Russia

Japan

& Europe

Japan Systems US.

HEMT

Japan

Japan

TBCHNOLOOT

LAG

Technology Space

Advanced

Japan

Optical

Japan & Europe

Communications

Batteries

Japan

Solar Array Systems Solid

Japan

State Power Amplifiers

Pointing Large

and Positioning Scale

Advanced New

Deployable System

Application

& Europe

Design

(FETs)

Japan

Systems Antenna and

Japan Systems

Long

Range

Japan Planning

Concepts

Japan

Development

Japan

Table Comparbon

Europe

and Russia

2

of Govermnent

lblu

1w

US.

Policy

Strong

Strong

Moderate

Planning

Moderate

Strong

Weak

Strong

Strong

Moderate

Advancmd

_t

Support

¢:f Industry

Strong

Strong

Weak

Su_

c_'Int_tion_

Strong

Strong

Weak

_teme

NASA/NSF

Panel

on

Satellite

Focus.

This

is not

CommunicaUons

Systems

and

Technology

3

SCOPE Teahno/ogy survey satellite

considered, low

a market

of advanced technology communications field. including

earth

fixed,

orbit,

small

w.

_tSa_F//m

k/_mced

broadcast,

satellites,

mobile,

vehicles

and

technologies and of the technology implementation

U.S. and the

Ofl_er

did

and

industry

L/m/_sffo.,m.

This

does not attempt communications

has

surveyed

has

been

with

respect

European,

report

The

used

focus

of the study R&D and Although

the primary

Japanese,

focus

is focused

and

for that made

on commercial

no

satellite

is on Most from

to a lesser

knowledge

of

evaluation.

U.S. site

But

visits.

technology,

and

or other confidential satellite States or other countries. The

industrial research and for structural differences

mix of public

and,

extensive

as a benchmark

military, defense-related, in either the United

to the

The

panelists'

U.S. technology,

report covers both government and The panel has attempted to account studied

a

in the were

navigation,

being developed in production capabilities.

are considered,

technologies.

review

to review capabilities

rather

systems.

panel

formally

but

unique to the field of satellite communications. in this study is five or more years away

The

not

study

communications,

Tsc.hno/o_.

technology on today's

technologies

systems

Canadian

panel

spacecraft

in operational

Russian

personal

C,ommun/cadorm

applications reviewed

Focus. extent,

process

etc.

is on experimental and advanced demonstration programs rather than launch

or industrial

now under development for commercial use All aspects of satellite communications

and

commercial

a

tremendous

development between

programs. the countries

efforts.

_UND Satellite

communications

innovation.

From

the

technology first

satellite

is telephone

call,

force

to the

moon

for

change

landing

and

in 1969,

today's global coverage of the Olympics have helped create a world community. electronic funds transfers to hundreds

with more than 3 billion viewers, satellites From $300 trillion annually in worldwide of millions of airline reservations, satellites

play

critical

roles

and

fiber

optic

cables,

Today,

more

domestic,

than

regional

in finance, some

business

60%

200

countries

and/or

global

of all

overseas

and linkages,

services, navigation, data collection, communications is the largest and enterprises billion

per

-- it is currently year

within

the

a $15 billion decade.

international

communications

territories defense

rely

year

on

business

Despite

growth

is satellite about

communications,

and mobile most successful per

trade.

200

direct

could

in

based.

satellites

for

broadcast

communications. of all commercial which

to

grow

Satellite space to $30

4

Executive S_

In the the

mid

United

1960s,

when

States

was

satellite

communications

not just the

launch vehicles to satellite International Telecommunications were

originally

dominant

role.

seriously

conditions

have

on

into

an

Japan

the

changed

and

a commercial

predominant

in every

basis

Europe

Today,

only,

giving

felt they would more

than

the

need

reality,

aspect

The agreements under Organization (INTELSAT) was

interim

field.

first became

but was

technology. Satellite

negotiated

leadership

to enter

leader,

which the established

United

States

a number

a quarter

from

a

of years

of a century

later,

dramatically.

FINDINGS The

global

satellite

expansion. mobile

communications

While

growth

communications

Services It is thus

industry

in fixed

satellite

will experience

and revenues could triple a matter of great concern

communications,

the

U.S.

is now services

explosive

has growth

or even quadruple that, on the eve

technology

entering

base

in this

field

in U.S. R&D policy, the United States will soon in a contest with Europe for second place.

Several

countries

communications

introduced

systems

or are introducing

ahead

of the

mobile systems, and have taken the lead are not readily apparent in today's orders United

States

research derive In the

and in the course

respect of

satellites specialized production, one-of-a-kind technologies

However,

technology next

many technologies

the

panel

and

akin to making products. are emerging

The detailed results general observations

States

from

encountered around

applications system

in low earth orbit, satellite designs.

broadcast next

the

is now

which

Without

Japan

and

operational

particularly

in many

be

satellite

broadcast

and

The effects in which the

areas

commercial

and years.

next century. in satellite

at risk.

fall behind

lags

ten

of

of advanced

applications

will

shifting

environment

with

market

is expanding

years.

communications new

slowed,

advanced

States,

phase

over

in critical areas of technology. for communications satellites,

the United

development

five to fifteen

of its work,

to satellite

diversifying; types

still leads.

United

new

by early in the of this renaissance

changes locked

have

a

are

a rapidly

the world: under

architectures

the

development; are

and

emerging,

multi-purpose orbiting megastructures, Concepts in satellite manufacturing

many including

small

and based

and

different highly on mass

VCRs, exist alongside traditional methods for building European and Japanese satellite communications rapidly.

of this study are presented are presented below:

in-depth

in the

full report,

but some

NASA/NSF

Panel

on Satellite

Communications

Systems

and

Technology

5

Major Disparities in the Allocation of Resources The

European

Space

Agency

(ESA)

and

the Japanese

National

Space

Development

Agency (NASDA) both devote about 10% of their total budgets communications and related activities. NASA, on the other hand, allocates 1% to

R&D

in this

area.

Figure

allocation, particularly over Communications Technology

1 shows

the last five years. Satellite (ACTS)

"bump" in the graph of U.S. expenditures, in relative funding levels. This disparity total than

budgets for the Japanese that of the United States.

The

difference

is striking. for the States ten

had

only

and Japan

years,

and

one

each

temporarily is even more

truly

programs

major

have

had

will continue

space

experimental into

research

several

programs

Advanced itself as a

are

disparity that the

significantly

less

Pro2rams

United

the

program,

satellite

States,

future.

flight-based

in this direction

in resource

this strong considering

communications in the

as a decade

differences

diminishes significant

and Developmental

such

as well

dramatic

Only the funding for the program, which manifests

European

flight-based

2 depicts

decade

has

Europe

in major Figure

past

and

in Rese_h

Major Di_rencee

the

to space less than

in the

Europe

It shows namely

research next

programs and

that

Japan

the

ACTS.

United

In contrast,

programs

in the

past

decade.

Service Trends Of the three general satellite communications service broadcast -- only the fixed satellite service (FSS) may providing

global

to a rate

of about

terminals)

are

coverage

expanding

greatest potential communications HDTV, interest

restoral

United

Mobile

and

advantages amounts Significant Japan,

rapidly,

service.

States

to cooperate

the

the

broadcast

1960s. the

but their

demand

European

United

States

in developing

over growing

than

satellite

commercial in the United

satellite

communications

(MSS

far more

has

(very

on satellite

and Japanese

in HDR

services

and

growth

systems

activity States.

in this Satellite

BSS)

area

most

services

The (HDR) and

cables. service,

Little except

are looking and

would

to like

links.

clearly

is underway

broadcast

is light.

HDR

terrestrial means, very rapidly (over

slowed aperture

data rate networking,

operators via ACTS,

trans-oceanic and

now

small

capacity

of fixed services is in high or higher) for data transfer,

of satellite communications of satellite capacity, and are R&D

FSS traffic

FSS, VSAT

growing global network of fiber optic by terrestrial carriers in HDR satellite

for leadership

with

late

Within

area for expansion (i.e., 155 Mbits/sec

to complement the has been expressed

for cable the

since

10% per year.

categories -- fixed, mobile and be said to be a mature service,

exploit

consume 20% per in Europe are

the large year). and

extending

6

Executive

Summary

300 NASA 250

--

NASDA ESA NASA NON-ACTS

.... ---........

l\ I

\

!

"

\

./'

0

_

2oo

-

./!

.._.-'."

z _

150

_

loo

a

5o

,

.-_'.'/ \

I

1960

1970

.)... ............ I

1980

1995

YEAR

Figure

1. Annual

Funding

Jot Satellite

Communications

Programs

6

09 FO Itl "3

5 PSDE 4

O rr n

ARCHIMEDES

3

11

0 ¢r m m D Z

OICETS

ARTEMIS/

COMETS

SILEX

2

ITALSAT

ETS Vl

OLYMPUS

ETS V

EUROPE

JAPAN

1

ACTS

_

0 U.S. Figuze

2.

A Comparative

View:

in the United

Experimental States,

Communications

Japan, and

Europe

Satellite

Projects

N_SA/NSF

Panel on Satellite

rapidly to third world countries. (INMARSAT), which has been recently

extended

exciting,

and

(PCS)

its service

certainly

via satellite

U.S. industry

the

using

_ic_ious

to aircraft

systems

applications

systems, emerging.

and both very large Under these changing

the

future

applications

and

applications overseas, initiative today ten

there

are

thousand

to test

strategic

is no

and

diversifying

even

Clear

more

in the European

/ Industry found

subscribers

in the

full report, all have

and

areas

is the

for

of space

to these

of new of new

aggressively For example, the

LEO

designs are of research

Promotion

pursued Japan's

United

States,

but

system

and

DBS satellites.

lack

of planning

to pursue

broadcasting

and

and

done

United systems

systematically

subsequent need to accomplish program

a clear

in the

long-range

is the designed

COMETS

reflect

ARTEMIS,

same

and

understanding

as is being

The Japanese

OLYMPUS,

and

commitment mobile

possible

to long

satellite

ARCHIMEDES

to or term

services.

programs

reflect

areas.

Roles more

European

industrial

interest

The

that

program European

and

support

for satellite

the governments States. As indicated

Space

policies

planning

are engaged.

earth

Studies

no mechanism

consideration

MEO

in an operational

communications,

goals.

under

considerably

the

radio.

medium

satellite targeting

after

via

problem

and a stronger relationship between Japan, and Russia than in the United Japan

most

services

development

GEO,

important.

began

broadcasting

a serious

system

the

a comprehensive

service

Technology

in satellite

now

goals

the

in cellular

earth,

and/or

into

fairly well in Europe. Equally important follow detailed technology road maps

programs

Govonu_nt

industry

study

important.

Japanese HDTV

commitment

studies

commitments

panel

used

(low

small, lower cost the need for clear

(DBS)

and Advanced

difference

and and

satellite

six million

the identified

Likewise,

The

some

There

systems

scale and conditions,

increasingly

broadcast

technology

follow-on

GEO

all under

are

is strategically

receivers

A noticeable

execute

technologies

become

Systems,

in Japan develop

and

markets

in direct

States.

are

to those

and

Perhaps

communications

and stimulation of markets seem to be more especially in Japan, than in the United States.

Planning,

and

has

MEO

7

M_mts

Markets,

for

vehicles.

is personal similar

LEO,

and Technology

Maritime Satellite Organization service for over a decade, has

land-mobile

field

transceivers

this area. orbit)

and

moving,

handheld

and

Systems

The International providing maritime

fastest

is pioneering

and geostationary earth personal communications. New

Communications

Agency, support

in which planning

and industries in Europe, in Table 2, and detailed

individual satellite both

European

countries,

communications.

government

effort,

communications

although

agencies not as well

and

Japan and

has

private

organized,

8

is

Execut/ve

still

quite

ambitious.

The

Summary

United

States

development of satellite communications, into the national information in_astmcture. Europe

and Japan

direct

support

have

advanced

to industry,

capabilities. Perhaps Japanese governments national

interests

support advanced

given by ESA technology

no

recognized

plan

nor even for fitting satellite

technology

in most

most and

has

development

cases

aimed

programs

at developing

systems

-- a good

example

and Japanese government for the INMARSAT mobile

the

communications

which

provide

specific

significant of all is the extent to which industry work hand-in-hand to promote

in international

for

national

European regional

of which

is the

and and heavy

agencies to the development and personal communications

of

program. Tbrem This panel's revealed base

year-long

many

review

potential

in advanced

of overseas

threats

satellite

capabilities

in satellite

to U.S. industry.

communications

These

communications

threats

technologies

include

across

a slipping

a wide

range

disciplines, rapidly changing markets and applications, and a lack of effective term systems planning and related technology road maps to the future. Most there

is a dearth

of mechanisms

technologies in which ongoing role.

The

United

market result

measured of large

decades. the

States

an industrial

in spacecraft investments

industry

The United States certainly good but aging infrastructure noted herein, counteracted. maintain advanced

its industrial technology

In summary, growing for future

there If the

the

risks

to the

initiatives

of this

U.S. satellite allow

R&D directed

in today's and

flight

of space

technology

believe are

and

recover

panel

have

satellite

of

long of all,

at advanced

play

an effective

communications

hardware

sales. over

is being

depleted

considerably

in the

practices Given these

This

the

last

rapidly. last

is a three Also,

five years.

and a reasonably and other factors

that today's threats could be realized, the United States could from

the

identified

communications the United

can

technology

base

eroded

reason to opportunities

leadership base.

that could

areas has

term

has competitive industrial for test and integration.

is good available

members

lead

construction

in many

the U.S. space

of its launcher

long

and universities

industry,government

still holds

However,

position

for effective

has

industry, States

effects

a number but

to maintain

of

its

slipping

of serious

and

opportunities

exist

its leadership

role.

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Report

Panel

Japan

($32.00/12.50)

JTECH

Panel

E14/E01

in Japan

E06/E01

JTEC

JTEC Panel

on Biotechnology

PB95-249241

Panel

Technology

These

5295

postage

($52.00/12.50)

E10/E01

($28.50/12.50)

JTECH

is not prepaid.

Add

]TEC Panel Report on Space Robotics in Japan (I/91) PB 91 -100040

(3/91)

PB85-249019

Panel

of Comrrmrce,

to change.

321-8547.

JTEC

on Mechatronics

($20.50/12.50)

JTECH

for billing if order

U.S. Department and subject

Japan (2/91) PB91-100032 E14/E01 ($52.00/12.50)

($38.00/12.50)

JTECH

Service,

are as of 12/92

EI4/E01

PB85-242402

E10/E01

Information

Prices

on Advanced

Sensors

In Japan

JTEC

on

Machine

Translation

on

Datal0azw

in Japan

($38.00/15.50)

Panel

in Japan E10/E02

Report

Use

and

Technology

(4/92) PB92-100221 ($38.00/15.50)

JTEC Panel Report on Bioprocess Japan (5/92) PB92-100213 E 14/E04 ($52.00/20.50)

En_3ineering

in

($41.00/9.00) JTEC Panel Report (6/92) PB92-100247

JTEC Panel Report on High Temperature Superconductivity in Japan (11/99)

E 14/E04

on Display

Technologies

in Japan

($52.00/20.50)

PB90-123126 E 10/A02

JTEC

($39.00/12.50)

Panel

Technologies JTEC

Panel

(8/90)

Report

on Space

Propulsion

Panel

(10/90)

Report

on

Nuclear

Power

in Japan

PB90-215724

A14/A02

JTEC

Panel

Japan

(3/93)

JTEC

Panel

Japan

(5/93)

Panel

(10/90) A10/AD2

(2/93)

Handling PB93-129197

Report

on Separation

Technology

in

PB93-159954 Report

on Knowledge-Based

Systems

PB93-170124

($52.00/12.50) NASA/NSF

JTEC

on Material

in Japan

in Japan

PB90-215732

E10/A02 ($39.00/12.50) ]TEC

Report

Report

on Advanced

Computing

in Japan

Systems

Panel

Report

and Technology

on Satellite (7/93)

Communications

PB93-209815

PB90-215765 ($36.50/12.50)

*The rrat code and Ixice are for hardcopy; the ucond for microfiche.

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